Environmental Ethics

1970 to 2002

Red Winged Black Bird

These books are in chronological order. The original listing was not intended to be comprehensive. It illustrates how the history of environmental ethics began in terms of anthologies and single-author books. To recommend important additions to this listing, send an e-mail to Please include author, title, place of publication, publisher, and year.

Aldo Leopold. A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservationfrom Round River. New York: Ballantine Books, 1970 [1949].

John B. Cobb, Jr. Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology. BeverleyHills: Bruce, 1972.

William T. Blackstone, ed. Philosophy and Environmental Crisis.Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1972.

John Passmore. Man's Responsibility for Nature: EcologicalProblems and Western Traditions. New York: Scribner's, 1974; 2d ed., London: Duckworth, 1980.

Christopher Stone. Should Trees Have Standing? Toward LegalRights for Natural Objects. Los Altos, Calif.: William Kaufmann,1974.

Peter Singer. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatmentof Animals. New York: New York Review/Random House, 1975.

Tom Regan and Peter Singer, eds. Animal Rights and Human Obligations.Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1976; 2d ed., 1989.

R. I. Sikora and Brian Berry, eds. Obligations to Future Generations.Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.

Max Oelschlaeger. The Environmental Imperative: A Socio-EconomicPerspective. Washington: University Press of America, 1977.

Susan L. Flader. Thinking Like A Mountain: Aldo Leopold andthe Evolution of an Ecological Attitude Toward Deer, Wolves, andForests. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978 (Columbia: Universityof Missouri Press, 1974).

K. E. Goodpaster and K. M. Sayer, eds. Ethics and Problemsof the 21st Century. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press,1979.

K. S. Shrader-Frechette. Nuclear Power and Public Policy. Dordrecht/Boston:D. Reidel, 1980.

Don Mannison, Michael McRobbie, and Richard Routley, eds. EnvironmentalPhilosophy. Canberra: Australian National University, 1980.

Ian G. Barbour. Technology, Environment, and Human Values.New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980.

Ernest Partridge, ed. Responsibilities to Future Generations.Buffalo: Prometheus, 1981.

Stephen Kelman. What Price Incentives?ãEconomists andthe Environment. Boston: Auburn House, 1981.

Henryk Skolimowski. Eco-Philosophy: Designing New Tactics forLiving. London and New Hampshire: Marion Boyars, 1981.

Charles Birch and John B. Cobb, Jr. The Liberation of Life:From the Cell to the Community. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1981; 2d ed., Denton, Tex.: Environmental Ethics Books,1990.

K. S. Shrader-Frechette. Environmental Ethics. Pacific Grove,Calif.: Boxwood Press, 1981.

Robert C. Schultz and J. Donald Hughes, eds. Ecological Consciousness.Washington, D.C.: University of America Press, 1981.

C. Dyke. Philosophy of Economics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,1981.

John A. Livingston. The Fallacy of Wildlife Conservation. Toronto:McClelland and Stewart, 1981.

Donald Scherer and Thomas Attig, eds. Ethics and the Environment.Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

Robin Attfield. The Ethics of Environmental Concern. New York:Columbia University Press, 1983.

Mary Midgley. Animals and Why They Matter. Athens: Universityof Georgia Press, 1983.

Tom Regan. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 1983.

Tom Regan. Earthbound: New Introductory Essays in EnvironmentalEthics. New York: Random House, 1984.

Robert Elliott and Arran Gare, eds. Environmental Philosophy.University Park and London: Pennsylvania State University Press,1983.

Michael Tobias, ed. Deep Ecology. San Diego: Avant Books, 1985.Bill Devall and George Sessions. Deep Ecology: Living as if NatureMattered. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1985.

Michael Allen Fox and Leo Groarke, eds. Nuclear War: PhilosophicalPerspectives.New York: Peter Lang, 1985.

Neil Evernden. The Natural Alien. Toronto: University of TorontoPress, 1985.

Holmes Rolston, III. Philosophy Gone Wild: Essays in EnvironmentalEthics. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1986.

John Howell, ed. Environment and EthicsãA New ZealandContribution. Lincoln College and University of Canterbury, Centrefor Resource Management Special Publication No. 3, 1986.

Tom Regan, ed. Matters of Life and Death: New IntroductoryEssays in Moral Philosophy. 2d ed. New York: Random House, 1980,1986.

Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds. People, Penguins,and Plastic Trees: Basic Issues in Environmental Ethics. Belmont,Calif.: Wadsworth, 1986.

Paul W. Taylor. Respect for Nature: A Theory of EnvironmentalEthics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Philip P. Hanson, ed. Environmental Ethics: Philosophical andPolicy Perspectives. Burnaby, B.C.: Institute for the Humanities,Simon Fraser University, 1986.

Bryan G. Norton, ed. The Preservation of Species: The Valueof Biological Diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press,1986.

Eugene C. Hargrove, ed. Religion and Environmental Crisis.Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986.

Eugene C. Hargrove, ed. Beyond Spaceship Earth: EnvironmentalEthics and the Solar System. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books,1986.

Yrjo Sepanmaa. The Beauty of Environment: A General Model forEnvironmental Aesthetics. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia,1986; Denton, Tex.: Environmental Ethics Books, 1993.

J. Baird Callicott, ed. Companion to the Sand County Almanac.Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

Christopher D. Stone. Earth and Other Ethics: The Case for Moral Pluralism. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

Bryan G. Norton. Why Preserve Natural Diversity? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Holmes Rolston, III. Environmental Ethics. Philadelphia: TempleUniversity Press, 1988.

Mark Sagoff. The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law,and the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

J. Baird Callicott. In Defense of the Land Ethic. Albany: SUNYPress, 1989.

Eugene C. Hargrove. Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1989.

Peter Wenz. Environmental Justice. Albany: SUNY Press, 1988.

Andrew Brennan. Thinking about Nature: An Investigation ofNature, Value and Ecology. Athens: University of Georgia Press,1989.

Curt Meine. Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work. Madison: Universityof Wisconsin Press, 1989.

J. Baird Callicott and Roger T. Ames, eds. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany:SUNY Press, 1989.

David Western and Mary Pearl, eds. Conservation for the 21stCentury. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Roderick Frazier Nash. The Rights of Nature: A History of EnvironmentalEthics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Donald Edward Davis. Ecophilosophy: A Field Guide to the Literature.San Pedro, Calif.: R. and E. Miles, 1989.

Arne Naess. Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of anEcosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Robert C. Paehlke. Environmentalism and the Future of ProgressivePolitics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Jay B. McDaniel. Of Gods and Pelicans: A Theology of Reverencefor Life. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989.

Robin Attfield and Katharine Dell, eds. Values, Conflict andthe Environment. Oxford: Ian Ramsey Centre, and Cardiff: Centrefor Applied Ethics, 1989

Jay B. McDaniel. Earth, Sky, Gods & Mortals. Mystic, Conn.:Twenty-Third Publications, 1990.

Donald Scherer, ed. Upstream/Downstream: Issues in EnvironmentalEthics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Warwick Fox. Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing NewFoundations for Environmentalism. Boston & London: Shambhala,1990.

Max Oelschlaeger. The Idea of Wilderness from Prehistory tothe Present. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Lawrence E. Johnston. A Morally Deep World: An Essay on MoralSignificance and Environmental Ethics. New York: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1991.

Bryan G. Norton. Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Robin Attfield. The Ethics of Environmental Concern. rev. ed.Athens, Georgia, and London: University of Georgia Press, 1991.

Susan L. Flader and J. Baird Callicott, eds. The River of theMother of God and Other Essays by Aldo Leopold. Madison: Universityof Wisconsin Press, 1991.

Max Oelschlaeger, ed. The Wilderness Condition: Essays on Wildernessand Civilization. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1992.

Robyn Eskersley. Environmentalism and Political Theory: Towardan Ecocentric Approach. Albany: SUNY Press, 1992.

Max Oelschlaeger, ed. After Earthday: Continuing the Conservation Effort. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1992.

Susan Power Bratton. Six Billion and More: Human Population Regulationand Christian Ethics. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press,1992.

Eugene C. Hargrove, ed. The Animal Rights/Environmental EthicsDebate: The Environmental Perspective. Albany: SUNY Press, 1992.

Will Wright. Wild Knowledge: Science, Language, and Social Life in a Fragile Environment. Minneaplolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Robert Costanza, Bryan G. Norton, and Benjamin D. Haskell,eds. Ecosystemic Health: New Goals for Environmental ManagementCovelo, Calif.: Island Press, 1992

Peter List, ed. Radical Environmentalism: Philosophy and Tactics.Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing, 1993.

Joseph R. Des Jardins. Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. Bemont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing,1993.

Andrew McLaughlin. Regarding Nature: Industrialism and DeepEcology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993.

Michael Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, KarenJ. Warren, and John Clark, eds. Environmental Philosophy: FromAnimal Rights to Radical Ecology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,1993.

Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds. EnvironmentalEthics: Divergence and Convergence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Pete A. Y. Gunter. The Big Thicket: An Ecological Evaluation.Denton: University of North Texas, 1993.

Rene von Schomberg, ed. Science, Politics and Morality, ScientificUncertainty and Decison Making. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993.

Dale Westphal and Fred Westphal, eds. Planet in Peril: Essaysin Environmental Ethics. Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt Brace & Co.,1993.

Arran Gare. Beyond European Civilization: Marxism, ProcessPhilosophy and the Environment. Sydney: Eco-Logical Press, 1993.

Lisa H. Newton and Catherine K. Dillingham. Watersheds: ClassicCases in Environmental Ethics. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1993.

Max Oelschlaeger. Caring for Creation: An Ecumenical Approachto the Environmental Crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press,1994.

Louis P. Pojman, ed. Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1994.

Lori Gruen and Dale Jamieson, eds. Reflections on Nature: Readings in Environmental Philosophy. New York and Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress, 1994.

Donald VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce, eds. Environmental Ethicsand Policy Book: Philosophy, Ecology, Economics. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1994.

Laura Westra. An Environmental Proposal for Ethics: The Principleof Integrity. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994.

Frederick Ferre and Peter Hartel, eds. Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994.

J. Baird Callicott. Earth's Insights: A Survey of EcologicalEthics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Holmes Rolston, III. Conserving Natural Value. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Anthony Weston. Back to Earth: Tomorrow's Environmentalism Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

R. Edward Grumbine, ed. Environmental Policy and Biodiversity.Washington, D.C.: Covelo, Calif.: Island Press, 1994.

Michael E. Zimmerman. Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecologyand Postmodernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Robin Attfield. Environmental Philosophy: Principles and Prospects.Aldershot: Avebury, and Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate, 1994.

Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds. Philosophy and the Natura lEnvironment. Cambridge, New York and Melbourne: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1994.

John B. Cobb, Jr. Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology. rev.ed. Denton, Tex.: Environmental Ethics Books, 1995.

Don E. Marietta, Jr. For People and the Planet: Holism and Humanism in Environmental Ethics. Philadelphia: Temple UniversityPress, 1995.

James P. Sterba. Earth Ethics: Environmental Ethics, Animal Rights, and Practical Ethics. Engelwood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, 1995.

George Sessions, ed. Deep Ecology for the 21st Century: Readingson the Philosophy and Practice of the New Environmentalism. Bostonand London: Shambhala, 1995.

David Kinsley. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spiritualityand Cross-Cultural Perspective Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,1995.

Bruce V. Foltz. Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaphysics of Nature. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1995.

Max Oelschlaeger, ed. Postmodern Environmental Ethics. Albany: SUNY, 1995.

Laura Westra and Peter S. Wenz, eds. Faces of Environmental Racism: Contronting Issues of Global Justice. Lanham, Md.: Rowman& Littlefield, 1995.

Don E. Marietta, Jr. and Lester Embree, eds. EnvironmentalPhilosophy and Environmental Activism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield,1995.

Holmes Rolston, III. Conserving Natural Value. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Laura Westra and John Lemons, eds. Perspectives on Ecological Integrity. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publications, 1995.

Derrick Jensen, ed. Listenting to the Land: Conversations about Nature, Culture, and Eros. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995.

Ramon M. Lemos. The Nature of Value: Axiological Investigations.Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1995.

David Rothenberg, ed. Wild Ideas. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota, 1995.

Rene von Schomberg. Der Rationale Umgang mit Unsicherheit:Die Bewaeltigung von Dissens und Gefahren in Wissenschaft, Wissenschaftspolitikund Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 1995.

Rene von Schomberg, ed. Contested Technology: Ethics, Riskand Public Debate. Tilburg: International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, 1995.

Robert Elliot, ed. Environmental Ethics. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress, 1995.

Carolyn Merchant. Earethcare: Women and the Environment. NewYork: Routledge, 1995.

Arran E. Gare. Postmodernism and the Environmental Crisis. London and New York: Routledge, 1995.

Karen J. Warren. Bringing Peace Home: Feminism, Violence, andNature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Karen J. Warren. Ecological Feminist Philosophy. Bloomington:Indiana University Press, 1996.

Andrew Light and Eric Katz, eds. Environmental Pragmatism.London: Routledge Press, 1996.

Kent Peacock. Living with the Earth: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1996.

Ad van Dommelen, ed. Coping with Deliberate Release. The Limitsof Risk Assessment, Tilburg: International Centre for Human andPublic Affairs, 1996.

J. Baird Callicott and Fernando J. R. da Rocha, eds. Earth Summit Ethics: Toward a Reconstructive Postmodern Philosophy ofEnvironmental Education. Albany: SUNY Press, 1996.

Peter S. Wenz. Nature's Keeper. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

Arran Gare. Nihilism Inc.: Environmental Destruction and the Metaphysics of Sustainability. Sydney: Eco-Logical Press, 1996.

Eugene C. Hargrove. Foundations of Environmental Ethics. reprinted. Denton, Tex.: Environmental Ethics Books, 1996.

Robin Attfield and Katharine Dell, eds. Values, Conflict and the Environment. 2d ed. Aldershot: Avebury and Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate, 1996.

Bob McConnell. Gentle Expeditions: A Guide to Ethical Mountain Adventure. Golden, Colorado: AAC Press, 1996.

Lisa H. Newton and Catherine K. Dillingham. Watersheds 2: TenCases in Environmental Ethics. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1997.

Catherine Larrere. Les philosophies de l'environnement. Paris:Presses Universitaires de France, 1997.

Alex Wellington, Allan Greenbaum, and Wesley Cragg, eds. CanadianIssues in Environmental Ethics. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1997.

Daniel A. Dombrowski. Babies and Beasts: The Argument fromMarginal Cases. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Owen Goldin and Patricia Kilroe, eds. Human Life and the NaturalWorld: Reading in the History of Western Philosophy. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1997.

Ian Angus. A Border within: National Identity, Cultural Pluraity, and Wilderness. Montreal & Kingston, London, and Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997.

Pamela Smith. What are They Saying about Environmental Ethics? Mahway, J.J. Paulist Press, 1997.

Laura Westra and Thomas M. Robinson, eds. The Greeks and the Environment. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

John Patterson. Back to Nature: A Daoist Philosophy for theEnvironment. Aotearoa, New Zealand: Campus Press, 1997.

David A. Crocker and Toby Linden, eds. The Ethics of Consumption:The Good Life, Justice, and Global Stewardship. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Laura Westra and Patricia H. Werhane, eds. The Business ofConsumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy. Lanham,Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Andrew Light and Jonathan M. Smith, eds. Philosophy and GeographyI: Public Space. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Andrew Light and Jonathan M. Smith, eds. Philosophy and GeographyI: Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Kristin Shrader-Frechette and Laura Westra, eds. Technology and Values. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Eric Katz. Nature as Subject: Human Obligation and NaturalCommunity. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Laura Westra. Living in Integrity: A Global Ethic to Restorea Fragmented Earth. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

David Abram. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Languagein a More-than-Human World. New York: Vintage, 1997.

Robert Elliot. Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.

Christoph Stuckelberger. Umwelt und Entwicklung: Eine sozialethischeOrientierung. Stuttgart, Berlin, and Koln: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1997.

Jospeh Grange. Nature: An Environmental Cosmology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.

Peter C. van Wyck. Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecologyand the Missing Human Subject. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.

Catherine Larrere and Raphael Larrere. Du bon usgage de lanature: Pour une philosophie de l'environnement. Paris: Aubier, 1997.

Ariel Salleh. Ecofeminism as Politics: Nature, Marx, and thePostmodern. New York: Zed Books, 1997.

Leena Vilkka. The Intrinsic Value of Nature. Amsterdam andAltanta, Ga.: Rodolpi, 1997.

Pamela Smith. Environmental Ethics? New York and Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1997.

David Western. In the Dust of Kilimanjaro. Washington, D.C.and Covelo, Calif.: Island Press, 1997.

Roger S. Gottlieb, ed., The Ecological Community. New York:Routledge, 1997.

Jean Mercier. Downstream and Upstream Ecologists: The People,Organizations, and Ideas behind the Movement. Westport, Conn.and London: Praeger, 1997.

Alan Drengson and Duncan Taylor, eds. Ecoforestry: The Artand Science of Sustainable Forest Use. Gabriola Island, B.C. andStony Creek, Conn.: New Society Publishers, 1997.

Clare Palmer. Environmental Ethics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO,1997.

Clare Palmer. Environmental Ethics and Process Thinking. Oxford:Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, 1998.

Anthony Weston, ed. An Invitation to Environmental Philosophy.New York: Oxford University, 1999.

Mark J. Smith, ed. Thinking through the Environment: A Reader.London: Routledge, 1999.

Peter List, ed. Environmental Ethics and Forestry. Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 2000.

Louis P. Pojman, ed. Global Environmental Ethiics. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 2000.

Erazim Kohák. The Green Halo: A Bird's-Eye View of Ecological Ethics. Chicago: Open Court, 2000.

John Benson. Environmental Ethics: An Introductin with Readings. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Michael Boylan. Environmental Ethics. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

Peter S. Wenz. Environmental Ethics Today. New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 2001.

David Schmidtz and Elizabeth Willott, eds. Environmental Ethics:What Really Matters, What Really Works. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.


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