Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1998

General Announcements

Intrinsic and intangible values in forests. The Western Newfoundland Model Forests in Canada has a research project on intrinsic and intangible values of forest ecosystems, with a discussion group at Website:


To join the group send the command SUBSCRIBE NATURA firstname lastname to:


A particular focus is to become clearer about the nature and significance of the intrinsic and intangible values of forest ecosystems and the relevance of these values to sustainable forest management. Sandra Tomsons, Associate Professor of Philosophy at Sir Wilfred Grenfell College coordinates the project.

"Constructions, Destructions, Deconstructions of Nature" is a year-long project at Vanderbilt University, in the 1999-2000 academic year. The sponsoring unit is the Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities. Eight Vanderbilt faculty from various disciplines will form the core scholars, and the Center invites applications for Visiting Fellow. A particular focus is the concept of nature, how cultural appropriations of nature have evolved and shifted over time, how the idea of nature operates simultaneously on many levels of human activity, both primal and elusive. There is a website at:


Contact David Wood, Professor of Philosophy, dcwood@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu

Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (ISEE Vice-President/President-Elect) is moving this summer from the University of South Florida to the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana. More details will be in the next Newsletter. Prof. Shrader-Frechette can be contacted at the Philosophy Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556; Tel 219-631-5000 (Campus), 219-631-7579 (Philosophy Dept.); Fax 219-631-8209 (Dept. Fax).

A short course will be offered at the University of Surrey, UK, from 23-27 November 1998 on the topic "Values, Ethics and the Environment: Theory and practice of putting values on the environment." The focus will be on environmental ethics, economic values and the environment, and normative principles for environmental policy. Case studies and role plays will be used to explore and debate different approaches. Cost is £595. Contact: Mrs P A Savill, Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH United Kingdom; Tel: +44 (0)143 259047; Fax +44 (0)143 259394; email: p.savill@surrey.ac.uk

Conference on "The Simulation of Physiological Processes in Animals as an Alternative Method in Academic Education." Professor Kazimierz Ziemnicki (Dean of Faculty of Biology UAM) and Dr. Jan Wawrzyniak (Institute of Philosophy UAM, Foundation for Animals and Us) with cooperation of Mrs. Wanda Blake (Humane Society of California, Foundation Animals), PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), and PCRM (the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine) are organizing an international workshop conference to be held at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, September 7-8, 1998. A registration fee is $30. Dr. Nedim Buyukmihci (University of California at Davis) and Dr. Jerry Vlasak (Loma Linda University Medical Center) are the key speakers and instructors. The issues conference is devoted to promotion of software alternatives to animal experiments in teaching physiology at the academic level in Poland and Eastern Europe. The participation of some guests from Ukrainian universities is expected as well as sponsored by the organizers. Contact: Jan Wawrzyniak (ISEE contact for Eastern Europe, see end of Newsletter for address.)

Ecological Economics, Values and Policy (EEVP) is a new program at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, with collaboration between the Department of Science and Technology Studies (STS) and the Department of Economics. EEVP offers both graduate and undergraduate degrees. The Professional Masters program was designed for early and mid-career professionals, secondary school teachers, government employees, business people, recent graduates, and leaders of non-profit groups interested in enhancing their skills and expanding their environmental knowledge. Contact the Director of the Ecological Economics, Values and Policy Program, Professor Steve Breyman, phone 518/276-8515, fax 518/276 2659, or email breyms@rpi.edu. Web site: www.rpi.edu/dept/sts/eevp

Call for Papers. The Society for Philosophy and Geography seeks papers for the fourth volume of Philosophy and Geography, with the theme, "Aesthetics of Everyday Life." Particularly of interest are those papers which look at aesthetic components of space, place, and everyday environments, including particular kinds of spaces and places. Contact: Andrew Light, Co-Editor, Dept. of Philosophy, State University of New York, Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. Philosophy and Geography, Volume 2, "The Production of Public Space, is now available. Paper, $22.95, ISBN 0-8476-8810-0. To order call Rowman & Littlefield, 1-800-462-6420. Volume III: "Philosophies of Place," is forthcoming, December 1998.

Professor Edgar Lin is a new Regional Contact Person for Taiwan. Prof. Lin is Professor of Ecology in the Biology Department, Tunghai University in Taiwan. During the past 20 years, he has worked hard as an environmentalist, and has felt frustrated due to the environmental devastation of Taiwan. Prof. Lin writes: "Knowing ultimately that environmental issues and their solutions lie in the debates about environmental philosophy, I have taught Philosophy of Biology for many years, hoping to train a few students in this unphilosophical place. And I decided to teach Environmental Ethics, from this Fall semester on. I would like to take the environmental issue in Taiwan internationally. Therefore I would like to be a representative of your Society for Taiwan." Prof. Lin can be contacted via Email at: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net

The World Congress of Philosophy. The World Congress of Philosophy meets at Copley Place in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 10-16 August 1998. Numerous philosophical societies from throughout the world will be meeting before, during, and after the main Congress sessions. The ISEE program is as follows. ISEE members and others may have submitted papers on environmental ethics, and on many other topics of interest to ISEE members, to the main Congress sections and sessions, as well as to other societies meeting before, during, or after the Congress. Contributed papers submitted to the Congress, but not through ISEE, are not listed below.

World Congress, Main Program, Congress-Invited Speakers. Topic: "Philosophy and the Environment." Chair, Robin Attfield. Speakers: John Passmore (Australian National University), Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff), Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University).

Subsection Organized by Robin Attfield. Azizan Baharuddin (University of Malaya, and Institute for Policy Research), Heta and Matti Häyry (University of Helsinki), Gunnar Skirbekk (University of Bergen).

Sections Organized by ISEE:

Section I. Tuesday, August 11, 6.00 - 7. 50 p.m. Organized by Jack Weir (Morehead State University), invited addresses. Chair, Jack Weir. Theme: Approaches to Environmental Ethics (intended to be introductory to current issues, for philosophers not otherwise acquainted with environmental ethics). Speakers: J. Baird Callicott (University of North Texas, President ISEE), "Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental Ethic?" Richard Sylvan (at the 15th World Congress, 1973, Varna, Bulgaria): Quarter Century Retrospective"; Ronnie Zoe Hawkins (University of Central Florida); Alan Holland (University of Lancaster, U.K., Editor, Environmental Values); Val Plumwood (Australia).

Section II. Wednesday, August 12, 6.00 - 7. 50 p.m. Organized by Mark Sagoff (Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland at College Park), invited papers. Part One: Chair, Mariachiara Tallacchini (University of Milan, University of Firenze); Speakers: Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology); Eugene Hargrove (University of North Texas, Editor, Environmental Ethics), "Traditional Environmental Ethics." Part Two: Chair, Eugene Hargrove; Speakers: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida); Laura Westra (University of Windsor, Canada), Freya Matthews (Australia).

Section III. Thursday, August 13, 2.00 - 3.50 p.m. Organized by Holmes Rolston from contributed papers. Chair, Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University). Speakers: Andrew Light (University of Montana), "Economic Goods, Human Needs, and Environmental Values"; Ricardo Rozzi (Universidad de Chile and Institute of Ecological Research, Chile), "Ecological-Evolutionary Concepts of Nature and their Relationship to Environmental Ethics"; Jan Wawrzyniak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland), "Where Do All the Flowers Stand? An Attempt at Evolutionary Axiology"; Andrew McLaughlin (Lehman College, City University of New York), "Globalization and the Environment"; Teresa Kwiatkowska - Szatzscheider (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico), "Environmental Ethics in Tropical Rainforests."

Contributed papers on the main Congress program (not ISEE-organized) in the sessions entitled "Philosophy and the Environment" are:

--David R. Keller, "Ecological Hermeneutics"

--Roger J. H. King, "Educational Literacy in the Context of Environmental Ethics"

--Erazim Kohak, "Truth of the Myths of Nature"

--Ricardo Rozzi, "The Dialectical Links Between Environmental Ethics and Sciences"

--Dieudonne Zognong, "Philosophie de la nature et sauvage ecologique de la terre chez Teilhard de Chardin"

--Susan Feldman, "Some Problems with Ecofeminism"

--Catherine Gardner, "Ecofeminism and the Urban Environment"

--Chelsea H. Snelgrove, "Relation and Responsibility: Drawing the Boundaries of the Ethical Self"

--Karen J. Warren, "Environmental Justice: Some Ecofeminist Worries About A Distributive Model"

--Philip Cafaro, "Thoreau on Science and System"

--Jozef Dolega, "Sociology and Ecophilosophy: Sciences of the 20th Century"

--Jason Kawall, "Environmental Diversity and the Value of the Unusual"

--Yury Levin, "Philosophy and Environment"

--Jack Weir, "Case-Based Environmental Ethics"

--Verena Andermatt Conley, "The Environment in Postructuralist Philosophy: Guattari's New Ecological Territories"

--Valeriy Lebedev, "Thoughts Caused by Blizzards: Whose Frost is Stronger?" --Igor K. Liseyev, "Ecological Thinking as a New Paradigm of Democratic Culture"

--Kent Peacock, The Ethics of Symbiosis"

--Wieslaw Sztumski, "Philosophie als Erzieherin der Menschheit"

--David Waller, "From Necessity to Authenticity: An Argument for Environmental Angst"

For the presentation schedule (day and time) of the above contributed papers, see the Congress program at the Congress Website.

The Website address for the World Congress is: www.bu.edu/WCP

The International Association for Environmental Philosophy offers a forum for philosophical discussion of nature and the human relation to the natural environment, including not only environmental ethics, but environmental aesthetics, ontology, theology, the philosophy of science, political philosophy, ecofeminism, the philosophy of technology, and other areas. A particular emphasis will be Continental philosophy and phenomenology and the contribution this can make to environmental philosophy. A first program meeting will be held 11 October 1998 in Denver. A Website address is:


The president is Bruce Foltz, Eckerd College, 4200 5th Ave, South, St. Petersburg, FL 33733. Email: bfoltz@aol.com

Dues are $15 US, payable to Kenneth Maly, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601.

A workshop for environmental scientists and environmental professionals will be held Sept. 18-20, 1998, at the University of North Texas. Speakers will include Eugene Hargrove, Bryan Norton (School of Public Policy at Georgia Tech) and John Lemons (University of New England). For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove, Center for Environmental Philosophy, PO Box 310980, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel 940-565-2727, Fax 940-565-4439; Emai: cep@unt.edu


CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Philosophy and Geography is pleased to announce the fourth volume of their peer reviewed annual, Aesthetics of Everyday Life. This volume will collect papers that investigate aesthetic dimensions of everyday life (broadly construed). Particularly of interest are those papers which look at aesthetic components of space, place, and everyday environments, including particular kinds of spaces and places. Deadline, October 15, 1998. 10,000 words. Send three copies of submissions to: Andrew Light, Co-Editor, Philosophy and Geography, State University of New York, Binghamton, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000, Email: alight@binghamton.edu. A full style guide is available via e-mail upon request.

The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its 1999 annual meeting at the University of Maryland, College Park, probably during the first week of June. More information will be in the next Newsletter. The program chair is David Inouye, Tel. 301-405-6946, Fax 301-314-9358, Email di5@umail.umd.edu. The meeting's website is: http://www.inform.umd.edu/scb/

WORKSHOP. "The Ethics of Human Health and Ecosystem Health: Towards An Inclusive Understanding." 2-4 October 1998. McMaster University. Hosted by the McMaster Institute of Environment and Health and the Department of Philosophy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Keynote addresses by Val Plumwood, David Rapport, James Sterba, and Laura Westra. Papers will be circulated in advance of the workshop, so that participants will have the opportunity to prepare for intensive discussion. For more information, contact: Dr Elisabeth Boetzkes, Program Committee Chair, Department of Philosophy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street West, University Hall 209, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 Canada, Fax: 905 577 0385, E-mail: boetzkes@mcmaster.ca

Conference on John Ray. 18-21 March 1999. "John Ray and His Successors: The Clergyman as Biologist." Braintree, Essex, UK. Organised by the John Ray Trust, the Institute of Biology's History Committee, and the Society for the History of Natural History. Keynote speakers: John Brooke "Wise Men Nowadays Think Otherwise", Michael Reiss "On Being a Biologist and a Cleric", plus others, including Profs. Paul Foster, Chris Smith, Sandy Baker, David Knight, Mark Seaward, Edward Larson, Peter Bowler. Registration: before Jan1, £90 (fulltime students, £30); accommodations, etc., are extra. Bookings and details from Janet Turner, John Ray Trust, Town Hall Centre, BRAINTREE, Essex, CM7 3YG United Kingdom. Tel (+44) 1376-557776; Fax -344345.

CALL FOR PAPERS (Revised). European Congress on Agricultural and Food Ethics. 4-6 March 1999. Wageningen, the Netherlands. Sponsored by the prospective European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics (EUR-SAFE), to be established in 1999.

In most highly industrialised European countries, the relationship between society and agriculture is changing radically. The reason is that in most of the old members of the EU the societal need for food security is met. Traditional trade barriers and the vigorous stimulation of agricultural technology no longer seem legitimate. This creates a challenge for European agriculture to grow to sustainability, to harmony with multi-functional land- use, to integrated rural development and a need to cope with rapid changes in global markets: markets which will be fully demand-driven, strongly consumer-oriented and with the tendencies of openness and loss of trade barriers.

During the European Congress on Agricultural and Food Ethics we want to bring together philosophers, ethicists, scientists and policy-makers in government, industry and NGO's who work in the field of agriculture and who are keen to cooperate in non-dogmatic and open academic discussion on value-questions in agricultural praxis, science and policy. Invited speakers and commentators from several European countries will identify and analyze the important ethical questions in agricultural praxis, science and policy.

Another important part of the programme will consist of workshop-sessions, in which the following three topics will be discussed in more detail:

* Ethical limits in the use of natural resources and the use of animals;

* Ethical questions concerning the use of (bio)technology for solving world's food dilemmas;

* Professional ethics in agricultural science and industries.

YOU are cordially invited to submit a paper for oral presentation in these workshop-sessions. The programme-committee will select papers on the basis of abstracts. Abstract of 300 to 400 words can be submitted to the Congress Office before October 1, 1998. By October 15, authors will be informed about acceptance. Guidelines for full papers (oral presentations) will be given. After being refereed, accepted papers will be published in a special isssue of the `Journal for Agricultural and Environmental Ethics'.

For queries on the scientific programme: Centre for Bio-ethics and Health Law, Utrecht University, Frans W.A. Brom, Heidelberglaan 2, NL-3584 CS Utrecht, Telephone: +31 30 2534399, Telefax: +31 30 2539410, E-mail: fbrom@theo.uu.nl

For further queries and all correspondence: Congres Office, Wageningen Agricultural University, Will Bodde, Costerweg 50, NL-6701 BH Wageningen, Telephone: + 31 317 484008, Telefax: + 31 317 485309, E-mail: will.bodde@alg.vl.wau.nl, , Internet-site: www.theo.uu.nl/eur-safe

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Applied Philosophy, Annual Conference, in Conjunction with ISEE. 27-29 June 1999. Mansfield College, Oxford University, UK. Theme: "Moral and Political Reasoning in Environmental Practice."

The aim of the conference is to explore ethical and political issues raised by environmental practices ranging from activism to government regulation. It will include discussion of the values implicit in environmental practices, and of the ethical justifications for and criticisms of schemes of justice and rights in relation to environmental issues.

The conference will be organized around three main themes, and contributions are invited on any of the following topics: 1. Politics vs. Philosophy: Environmental philosophy and environmental practice. The political framework of environmental theory. Political Ecology and Political Philosophy. Community values and environmental problems. 2. Justice, Non-Humans & Future Generations: Environmental Justice. Schemes of Justice and Future Generations. Overlapping concerns between humans and non-humans. Environmental Racism. 3. Arguing From Cases: Generalizing from examples. Top-down vs. Bottom-up theorizing. Theorizing for/with grassroots activism. Motivating green morality. Problems with meta-ethics in environmental philosophy. Specific case studies of any of the topics mentioned above.

Keynote speakers for the conference will be Michael Freeden (Oxford University) and Henry Shue (Hutchinson Professor, Program on Ethics & Public Life, Cornell University).

Conference Program Advisors are Avner de-Shalit (Department of Political Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and Andrew Light (Departments of Philosophy and Environmental Studies, State University of New York, Binghamton).

Offers of papers (not exceeding 30 minutes presentation time) are invited under the above headings. Abstracts should be sent to: Prof. Andrew Light, SAP/ISEE Conference, Department of Philosophy, SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. FAX: 607-777-2734. E-mail: alight@binghamton.edu. The deadline for proposals is 29 November 1998.

The conference fee, inclusive of meals and accommodation, will be in the region of £130, with some subsidised places for the unwaged (including students). Places can be reserved by sending a deposit of £10 (cheques payable to the Society for Applied Philosophy) to the Conference, payable to the Society for Applied Philosophy) to the Conference, Co-ordinator, Adam Hedgecoe, Dept. of Science and Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (tel: 0171 387705 ext.2094).

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Bucknell Review, a biannual, multidisciplinary journal, invites critical or creative essays for a special issue on feminist literary ecocriticism (contracted to appear in the year 2000). Deadline: 15 January 1999. Earlier submissions are encouraged. For suggestions of topics, style guidelines, and so on, contact: Glynis Carr, Department of English, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837, Tel: 717-524-3118, Email: gcarr@bucknell.edu

The Hastings Center and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) will hold a conference on "Restoring Wolves to the Adirondacks: Civic Democracy and Obligations to Future Generations," October 21-23 at the AMNH in New York City (79th and Central Park West). The conference will feature invited speakers and panelists discussing biological, political, and ethical dimensions of wolf reintroduction to Adirondack Park. Details will be available in the next Newsletter. Invited papers only. For information, contact the project co-director: Virginia Ashby Sharpe, PhD, Associate for Biomedical and Environmental Ethics, The Hastings Center, Garrison, NY 10524-5555, Tel: 914-424-4040, Fax: 914-424-4545, Email: sharpeva@thehastingscenter.org

CALL FOR PAPERS: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:

--Eastern Division: February 1st

--Central Division: September 1st

--Pacific Division: September 1st

For specific dates and locations, see "Events" (below).

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Kristin Shrader-Frechette (ISEE Vice President-President Elect), Department of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556; Tel 219-631-5000 (Campus), 219-631-7579 (Philosophy Dept.); Fax 219-631-8209 (Philosophy Dept. Fax).

--Submit Central Division proposals to Laura Westra (ISEE Secretary), Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050.

--Submit Pacific Division proposals to Ernest Partridge (ISEE Treasurer), P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: gadfly@igc.org

CALL FOR PAPERS. "Wilderness Science in a Time of Change." University of Montana, Missoula, 23-27 May 1999. Possible topics include wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science, changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. Contact: Natural Resource Management Division, Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. 406/243-4623. 888/254-2544 Email: ckelly@selway.umt.edu. www.wilderness.net

A conference on "Philosophy and Ecology: Greek Philosophy and the Environment" will be held in Samos, Greece, 23-28 August 1998. Organized by Prof. K. Boudouris, University of Athens, International Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy (IAGP and SAGP-USA). Contacts: Prof. Tom Robinson, Philosophy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, CANADA; Tel: 416-978-2824; Fax: 416-978-8703; Email: tmrobins@epas.utoronto.ca; and Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, address below.


Wilderness experience in the mall. Yes, its's here. At the Ontario Megamall, 40 miles east of that other land of enchantment, Hollywood, you can (for an admission price of $ 9.95) "Step Inside the Great Outdoors," for the "American Wilderness Experience." "Go Wild in the Mall! Now Open," proclaims a billboard. There is a real sparrow hawk, and you can do a "half-million mile hike," though pregnant women and children are advised not to do too much. There is a "Wild Ride Theater," with simulator, like a roller coaster, with the wilderness passing by. There is a Redwood Forest Ecosystem (simulated), then real bobcats sleeping under a make-believe pine tree. And more. Story: Bergman, B. J., "The Great Indoors," Sierra 83 (no. 2, March/April 1988): 82-83, 106-109.

Bicknell's thrush in New England has been declared a new bird species in a taxonomic revision by ornithologists. The bird, known since 1881, was previously classified a subspecies of the more widespread gray-cheeked thrush. Henri Ouellet, a researcher at the Canadian Museum of Nature (the thrush is also found in parts of Canada) discovered that the breeding and wintering ranges of the two thrushes do not overlap, the songs are decidedly different, and no interbreeding occurs. The decision has brought the bird into intense study, with conservation versus development implications. Story: Thurston, Harry, "When It Became a New Species, a Tiny Songbird Was Thrust into the Limelight," National Wildlife 36, no. 4, June/July 1998, pp. 18-19.

Jaguars are back in the United States. Jaguars were once present in southern Arizona and New Mexico, occasionally found throughout the U.S. Southwest, but were shot out and have been gone about half a century. But now they are returning, on their own, moving north from Mexico. Environmentalists, including some ranchers, welcome them, but not everyone is rolling out the welcome mat. The jaguar is not on the U.S. Endangered Species list, because it was judged extinct in the U.S. See Friederici, Peter, "Return of the Jaguar," National Wildlife 36, no. 4, June/July 1998, pp. 48-51.

The so-called Terminator Gene was granted a US patent, no. 5,723,765, in March 1998. Owners of the patent are the US Department of Agriculture, and Delta and Pine Land, the cottonseed company. This has created a furor in developing countries, although the new technology is not so different from the double-crossed hybrids that also are infertile. Reported in The Guardian (UK), 15 April 1998. Further information: P.O. Box 640, Pittsboro, NC 27312 USA; or http://www.rafi.ca (Thanks to Keekok Lee.)

The 1997 Threatened Plants Report, compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre based in Cambridge (UK), puts more than 34,000 plants out of a global total of about 270,000 on the Red List of plants facing extinction, with a further 6,522 species likely to join these in the near future. Drawing on data from more than 200 countries, this report is said to be the first comprehensive international study of the world's threatened plants. The highest number of species per country known to be facing extinction are: 4,669 in the US; 2,245 in Australia; 2,215 in Africa; 1,876 in Turkey; and 1,593 in Mexico. Reported in The Guardian (UK), 9 April 1998. (Thanks to Keekok Lee.)

Bruce Babbitt Says Fighting Weeds Unites People. Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbitt believes fighting "invasive alien species" can bring people together. According to Babbitt, weeds cause environmental havoc on a scale only matched by floods, earthquakes, mud slides, hurricanes, and fire. They infest 100 million acres in the U.S. (an area equivalent in size to a square with 400-mile sides) and are spreading at a rate of 14 percent per year. Weeds "homogenize the diversity of creation," threaten native plants and animals with extinction, erode soil, spread wildfire, ignore borders and property lines, and damage property values. Speaking before the Science in Wildland Weed Management Symposium, Babbitt said, "Weeds slowly, silently, almost invisibly, but steadily, spread all around us until, literally encircled, we can no longer turn our backs. The invasion is now our problem. Our battle. Our enemy. . . . The invasion and spread of noxious alien weeds unites us. It unites across political, economic and property boundaries. It brings solidarity among opposing groups. It compels us to share strategic responses. It calls on us to rise above our sometimes petty day-to-day concerns." Babbitt urges everyone to "act now and act as one" in order to "beat this silent enemy." See Bruce Babbitt, "Kudzu, Kudzu, Kill! Kill! Kill!" Harper's Magazine (July 1998): 17-18. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger.)

Weddings and Butterfly Pollution. According to a social life columnist for the Washington Post, the latest trend in "environmentally correct marriage" is the live butterfly display. Instead of throwing rice (which she says is bad for birds), guests release monarch or painted lady butterflies. For four dollars apiece, companies provided butterflies individually in small boxes with air holes. Each guest is given a box with instructions to open it at a specific time. The result is a "romantic, picture-perfect moment," unless of course the butterflies are dead, which sometimes happens. Some hire "butterfly handlers" to ensure success. The columnist suggests that throwing bird-seed was popular until people started slipping and it became a liability issue, and that balloons are out because their remains are not good for the environment. A letter to the editor responds that "experts in the field of butterflying consider this practice a form of environmental pollution, spreading diseases and parasites to wild butterfly populations." See Roxanne Roberts, "Wedding Day Butterflies," Washington Post (5/20/98): D2. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger for this and the following items from the Washington Post and the New York Times.)

Immigration's affect on U.S. population provokes Sierra Club debate. The official Sierra Club policy is to take no position on U.S. immigration levels. This has caused a faction in the Club to launch a referendum attempting to force club leadership to adopt a policy calling for ending U.S. population growth by means of birth control and a reduction in net immigration. Club director Carl Pope believes that although "overpopulation is, without question, a fundamental cause of the world's ills," he also believes that "these are fundamentally global problems; immigration is merely a local symptom." Furthermore, Pope argues that adopting such a policy would lead to the perception that the Club is assisting people with racist motivations. Supporters of the position favoring immigration reduction included Lester Brown and E.O. Wilson. One activist claims the issue is "a question of being environmentally correct versus being politically correct." U.S. population now stands at 269 million, and legal and illegal immigration add about 1.2 million people a year. When U.S.-born children of recent immigrants are included in the equation, immigration accounts for more than half of today's population growth. Mainly because of high fertility rates of immigrant women, the Census Bureau has sharply revised its projections of U.S. population by the middle of the next century. Instead of leveling off at 300 million, the estimate is now that the population will reach 400 million by 2050 and keep growing. Immigration-control activists assert that this estimate is too low because it is based on levels of immigration significantly lower than current numbers. They believe that 500 million is a more likely projection. The immigration reduction referendum was defeated by Club membership. See William Branigin, "Immigration Policy Dispute Rocks Sierra Club," Washington Post (3/7/98): A2.

Genetically-engineered mice to have human diseases. A major new trend in biomedical research is to genetically alter mice to have biological defects that cause disease in humans. Breeds of mice, never before existing in nature, are created with inherent propensities to develop diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis, cystic fibrosis, arthritis, obesity, etc.. These mice serve as models that allow researchers to study disease processes and possibly to develop treatments for them. For example, mice created to possess Huntington's disease have allowed researchers to identify small protein deposits in the brain never before noticed in human patients with Huntington's. Critics charge that creating defective animals treats animals as mere tools and fosters an attitude that undermines a recent trend toward more judicious and compassionate use of lab animals. Barbara Orlans of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown, who supports some animal research, worries that "It's sort of carte blanche where we're going: Knock out a gene and see what happens." Mice with deformed genitals, without legs, with a single, Cyclops-like eye, and massive head deformities have all been produced. Rebecca Dresser, a bioethicist at Case Western Reserve, suggests we are creating animals "genetically programmed to suffer." Bernard Rollins, a philosopher at Colorado State University, says "there really is something primordially horrible about replicating animals that will suffer endlessly." Another philosopher, Paul Thompson of Purdue University, says: "I can rationalize some harm to an individual animal in exchange for a valuable research result. But when we are in such a dramatic position of control that we are designing these animals from scratch, this is a different issue. . . . This notion that we can own, buy, sell and exchange fundamental life processes can lead to a fundamental transformation of how we understand life as sacred." Andrew Rowan, a senior VP of the Humane Society of the U.S., along with a coalition of other groups, has recently petitioned the government to reverse its policy under which mice and rats are specifically exempted from the Animal Welfare Act, the primary federal statute that protects lab animals. Many European countries have shown greater concern about these issues. In Holland, lab animals--including mice and rats--were recently deemed to have "inherent value," a status that requires a higher level of physical and psychological care. The citizens of Switzerland are voting on a constitutional referendum that would ban the creation of--or research on--engineered animals. The referendum would also ban the release of genetically engineered microbes and plants into the environment and would limit the patenting of life forms. All of these are common practice in the U.S.. See Rich Weiss, "Mice Made Defective to Decode Human Ills," Washington Post (6/7/98): A1. For letters to the editor about the article, including one in which Frankie Trull, President of the Foundation for Biomedical Research, asserts that "Unless one is willing to take the morally offensive view that the lives of mice are equal to the lives of people, it would be unethical not to use such a tool," see "Of Mice and Medicine," Washington Post (6/22/98): A20.

Worldwide phaseout of some toxic chemicals? In early July, 120 countries met in Montreal to work on a U.N. treaty to phase out 12 chemicals including DDT, dioxins, and PCBs. These "persistent organic pollutants" travel long distances and concentrate in animal tissues. They are found in the bodies of marine creatures and humans thousands of miles from industrial centers. Levels of the toxins have remained constant for more than a decade, even though production of most have been banned in Western Countries for a quarter-century. At high levels, the chemicals damage the central nervous system, suppress immune responses, and disrupt reproductive systems. The World Wildlife Fund recently published a study suggesting a possible link between these chemicals and the recent die-offs of marine mammals. In developing countries, DDT remains the pesticide of choice in the fight against malaria, a major public health threat that kills almost three million people a year. The World Health Organization continues to endorse DDT as a "most valuable tool" for controlling malaria. See Joby Warrick, "120 Countries to Try to Reach Pact On Phaseout of Toxic Compounds," Washington Post (6/28/98): A3.

Who owns the waterways? With millions turning to nature for recreation and as developers move deeper into the woods to build second homes, conflicts between private property rights and river access and use are increasing. In Arkansas, a farmer has strung barbed wire across a creek known for its excellent smallmouth-bass fishery. In Colorado, a landowner's plan to build a low bridge across the Taylor river seems an attempt to force travelers to trespass on shore. A New York State Court of Appeals has ruled that a private landowner holds the exclusive fishery rights on the Salmon River near Syracuse, even though the fish were stocked by the state. Laws vary from state to state and may depend on the stream. In some states, you can float a "privately owned" stream but trespass if you push off the bottom or anchor your boat. Some landowners' titles contain "kings grants" to exclusive rights to the flowing water. River users point to the Magna Carta as a basis for the public's right to use rivers. In the 13th Century, the exclusion of the public from England's forests and streams helped prompt the Magna Carta, which includes the right to a free fishery and the liberty of navigation. See Allen Breed, "Blocking of waterways prompts ownership debate," The Charleston Post and Courier (5/31/98): B7.

Green GOP group forms. The Coalition of Republican Environmental Advocates has formed to promote free-market solutions to environmental problems. The group aims to show that the GOP is not opposed to environmental protection, but prefers approaches to achieving conservation other than traditional, governmental command and control. The group hopes to counter the barrage of negative publicity Republicans have encountered on environmental issues and to prevent surrendering the issue to Al Gore in 2000. House speaker Newt Gingrich hopes the group can redefine what it means to be an environmentalist: "The Al Gore, left-wing environmental model is a centralized, bureaucratized, litigious, adversarial, anti-technology model. . . Let's create a conservationist, common-sense, practical, high tech environmental model." Members of the group included vocal property rights advocate and Colorado Attorney General Gale Norton (a protegé of Reagan Interior Secretary James Watt), Endangered Species Act foe Rep. Richard Pombo of California, and Rep. Helen Chenoweth of Idaho, who once joked she wasn't concerned about salmon being endangered because "you can buy a can in Albertson's," a local supermarket. Two-thirds of the Senators who have joined the group have ratings of zero from the League of Conservation Voters, including Majority Leader Trent Lott of Mississippi. Republicans known to be pro-environment, such as Rep. Sherwood Bohlert of New York, have decided not to join. See Juliet Eilperin, "GOP Group Forms to Promote Free-Market Environmentalism," Washington Post (6/15/98): A6.

Oil industry executives begin to acknowledge global warming. A growing number of major oil company executives are admitting that fossil fuels may be changing the world's climate and they are suggesting their companies are beginning to focus on the problem of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. A managing director of Royal Dutch Shell said: "I find myself increasingly persuaded that a climate effect may be occurring." A British Petroleum spokesperson said at Stanford University that oil industry executives are beginning to move beyond denial and acknowledge the role of fossil fuels in the buildup of greenhouse gases. Part of the motivation may be that this shift in attitude will make it easier for these companies to influence critical details about how to accomplish the reduction in greenhouse gases agreed to in the Kyoto climate treaty. The oil companies were part of the Global Climate Coalition which fought the Kyoto treaty by trying to debunk the science behind it and by warning of economic ruin. On a related note, the Clinton Administration has released its predictions of costs for American consumers of U.S. implementation of the Kyoto treaty. The projections are for a 4-cents to 6-cents per gallon increase in the price of gasoline and a 3 to 5 percent increase in the cost of electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas. See Martha Hamilton, "Global Warming Gets a 2nd Look," Washington Post (3/3/98): C1; and Joby Warrick, "White House Predicts Low Cost for Pact on Warming," Washington Post (3/4/98): A1.

Wasteful fishing practices. Because of indiscriminate commercial fishing practices, more than 20 million tons of fish, a quarter of all fish caught worldwide, are wastefully killed and discarded each year. Conservation and sports groups are pushing the National Marine Fisheries Service to reduce the "bycatch" in the American fishing industry by 75% by 2005. Recent changes in fisheries law requires the Federal Government to rebuild all depleted fish populations within 10 years (if biologically feasible), and this includes minimizing by-catch. The groups are calling for severe restrictions on the use of drifting long lines, as well as additional gear for Gulf of Mexico shrimpers, who kill an estimated four pounds of finfish for every pound of shrimp they take in. See John Cushman, "Cuts Sought in Wasteful Fish Kills," New York Times (1/13/98): B12.

World Trade Organization rules against law protecting sea turtles. The WTO has ruled that a U.S. law prohibiting shrimp imports from countries that fail to use turtle-excluder devices violates international trade agreements. The law was designed to protect the competitiveness of U.S. shrimpers who must use these devices in their nets to prevent drowning endangered sea turtles. If an appeal fails, the U.S. will have either to open its markets to turtle-destroying shrimpers, to pay a fine, or to suffer retaliatory restrictions on U.S. exports. The ruling could be a prelude to a broader assault on U.S. environmental laws that authorize economic sanctions to protect endangered species and to prevent overfishing. When the U.S. joined the WTO in 1994, the Clinton Administration assured skeptics that measures to protect the environment were in place. The WTO is required by its charter to consider environmental values, but its central mission to promote free and fair trade appears to win when there is a conflict. See the editorial, "The Sea Turtle's Warning," New York Times (4/10/98): A18.

Challenges to the EPA Policy Against Environmental Racism. State governments and major industrial groups are challenging the EPA-Clinton administration policy against placing an unfair share of incinerators, dumps, and other sources of pollution in poor and minority neighborhoods. The opponents to the policy claim it will hamstring state and local governments, encourage frivolous lawsuits, and discourage companies from locating in depressed areas. (Story by John H. Cushman, Jr. [New York Times News Service], Lexington [KY] Herald-Leader, 10 May 1998, A6.)

Agriculture the Biggest Polluter. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), agriculture is the biggest polluter of American rivers and streams. Runoff of chemicals, erosion, and animal-waste from farms and agricultural operations has fouled more than 173,000 miles of waterways. Farming is responsible for 70 percent of waterway pollution--more than sewage treatment plants, urban storm sewers, and pollution deposited from the air. About 20 percent of waterway pollution has been traced to livestock waste in 22 states, and most of this stems from using the waste as fertilizer. Since 1978, the average number of animals per farm (cattle, hogs, chickens, and turkeys) has doubled and sometimes tripled. EPA waste management director Michael Cook has urged the House Agriculture Committee to impose stricter regulations on small farms. Although the largest confinement operations are subject to EPA regulations, over 450,000 smaller livestock operations and farms answer to state and local regulations, not the EPA. At issue are the longtime Federal policies of voluntary compliance by farmers and enforcement by local and state agencies. (Associated Press, "Agriculture Biggest Polluter of Waterways, EPA Says," Lexington [KY] Herald-Leader, 14 May 1998, A16.]

Nuclear Waste Dump in New Mexico Licensed by EPA. On May 13, 1998, the EPA licensed the $2 billion Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles from Carlsbad, NM. The site was proposed 24 years ago, and will contain waste produced by the US nuclear weapons programs of the Cold War. The repository rooms are located 2,150 feet deep, in salt formations that have been geologically stable for 220 million years. After the rooms are filled with waste, the roof and walls will collapse in seven to nine years, covering the waste. From sources throughout the US, large trucks on public highways will haul the nuclear waste to the site in protective canisters. Despite the government's safety precautions, environmental groups have promised to continue litigation against using the site, arguing that transporting the waste and storing it in the salt beds are unsafe. The Federal officials say they've done everything possible to insure safety. (Associated Press, "Nuclear Waste Dump to Open in N. Mexico," Lexington [KY] Herald-Leader, 14 May 1998, A16.)

Everglades Restoration Plan (Draft) to Cost $7.5 Billion. In June 1998, the US Army Corps of Engineers completed its draft plan for undoing the damage it did to the Everglades in the late 1960s. That was when the Corps finished the 1600-mile long network of levees and canals that drain the swamps and marshes, creating space for urban development and 750,00 acres of farmland. The canals deprive the Everglades of 20% of its natural waterflow. Now wading birds are gone from many regions, and some species are down to about one-twentieth their pre-canal numbers. The canal project cost $252 million. The restoration is estimated to cost $7.5 billion. South of Lake Okeechobee, the Corps will dig 100 wells, each a thousand feet deep, that will store water during the rainy season. Then during the dry season, the water will be pumped into dry areas, restoring an estimated 40-60,000 acres of wetlands. The technology has never been tested on this grand a scale. Another alternative, costing far less but politically unacceptable, would be to rip out the levees and allow the natural flow of water across the region. Originally more than 1.5 million acreas in size, the Everglades has been reduced by more than half. Ecologist John Ogden of the South Florida Water Management District, a member of the team drafting the proposal, laments that the remnant cannot function naturally without human assistance and intrusive high-technology. Restoring the Glades will give the Corps something to do for at least fifteen years. The draft proposal will be officially presented for public comment in October 1998 and then will go to Congress for funding in July 1999. The draft plan is being supported by the Audubon Society. (Story by Heather Dewar, "Everglades to Be Restored, Sort of," Lexington Herald-Leader, 18 June 1998, B9.)

Distributive Justice and Wealth Disparities. In July 1998, consumer advocate Ralph Nader wrote Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates a two-page letter about "about a problem of distributive justice." Nader described Gates as "the world's number one working rich person," and urged him to join fellow billionaire Warren Buffet in sponsoring and planning a conference of billionaires on the subject of "National and Global Wealth Disparities and What to Do About It." Nader cited "an astonishing calculation" by New York University economics professor Edward Wolff: Gates' net worth is more than the combined net worth of the poorest 40 percent of Americans, including their home equities, pensions, mutual funds, and 401(k) plans. In the past, Nader has been outspokenly critical of Microsoft's monoply on computer operating systems. ("Billionaires Asked to Spread Wealth," Lexington Herald-Leader, 28 July 1998, C1.)


Reminder: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not indexed here, but are included in the annual update on disk and on the website.

--Botzler, Richard, and Armstrong, Susan, eds. Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, l998. This second edition of a widely-used anthology expands the first edition (l993) with 26 new essays in a multi-disciplinary format with teaching aids. New topics are genetic engineering, ecological restoration, free market environmentalism, environmental justice, creation spirituality, and conflict resolution.

--Bekoff, Marc, with Meaney, Carron A. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Foreward by Jane Goodall. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. 446 pages. $ 60.00 hardcover. Useful and relatively compact handbook. Each article ends with a brief selected bibliography. A chronology (1822-1995) related to animals of events in the USA, UK, and other countries (pp.xvii-xxi). A long appendix entitled "Resources on Animal Welfare and Humane Education." Bekoff teaches biology at the University of Colorado, and Meaney is at the Denver Museum of Natural History. The Encyclopedia sold 1500 copies in its first month!

Here'a a sampling of articles:

--Hettinger, Ned, "Environmental Ethics," pages 159-61.

--Sapontzis, Steve F., "Environmental Ethics versus Animal Rights," pages 161-62.

--Pacelle, Wayne, "Hunting," pages 196-97.

--Cartmill, Matt, "History of Ideas Surrounding Hunting," pages197-99.

--Varner, Gary, "Environmental Ethics and Hunting," pages 200-201.

--Varner, Gary, "Vegetarian Diets: Ethics and Health," pages 351-52.

--Bissell, Steven J., "Hunting in the United States," pages 201-2

--Causey, Ann S., "Fair Chase," pages 202-3.

--Sapontzis, Steve F., "Predation," pages 275-76.

--Landsell Herbert, "Nonrightist's View [of Hunting]," pages 277-78.

--Linzey, Andrew, "Animal Theology," pages 283-84, and several other articles on Religion and Animals.

--Fox, Michael Allen, "Vegetarianism," pages 349-51," and other artiicles.

--Rolston, Holmes, "Wild Animals, Duties to," pages 262-64.

--Rolston, Holmes, "Endangered Species," pages 154-56.

--Weir, Jack, "Virtue Ethics," pages 357-58.

--Rollin, Bernard E., "Veterinary Ethics," pages 354-56, and other articles.

--Jamieson, Dale, "Zoos and Animal Welfare," pages 376-77, and other articles.

--Clark, Stephen R. L., "Anthropocentrism: Humanism," pages 68-69.

--Clark, Stephen R. L., "Species-Essentialism," pages 319-20.

--DeGrazia, David D., "Autonomy of Animals," pages 83-85.

--DeGrazia. David D., "Well-Being of Animals," pages 359-60, and other articles.

--Kreger, Michael D., "History of Zoos," pages 369-70, and several other articles on zoos.

--Regan, Tom, "Animal Rights," pages 42-43.

--Gruen, Lori, and Birke, Lynda, "Animal Rights: Ecofeminists' Perspectives," pages 48-49.

--Beauchamp, Tom L., "Moral Standing of Animals," pages 248-50.

--Peter Singer, "Utilitarianism," pages 343-44.

--Frey, R. G., "Content, Value, and Richness of Animal Life," pages 116-18.

--Clayton, Patti H., Connection on the Ice: Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. 328 pages. $25 paper. $70 cloth. With photographs by Charles Mason. An extraordinary whale rescue that reveals a great deal about values and decision making and about how we think of ourselves as human beings. The 1988 rescue of gray whales near Barrow, Alaska, said to be "the most extraordinary animal rescue effort ever undertaken," serves as a touchstone for critical comparisons in an introductory overview of three major traditions of environmental philosophy: extensionism, ecofeminism's "care" ethic, and Heideggerian phenomenology. The unifying narrative of the rescue story is both an engaging vehicle for the study of environmental ethics and a "real world" testament to the multifaceted nature of human-nonhuman relationships. Clayton is affiliated with North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina.

--Bekoff, Marc. "Deep Ethology." The AV Magazine, Winter 1998, pp. 10-19. Based on years of research and personal experience, Bekoff presents a straightforward and inspiring account of his scientific beliefs and moral convictions regarding nonhuman animals. He defines "deep ethology" as "naming and bonding with animals and expanding the Community of Equals." The article summarizes Bekoff's views on the nature of animal minds and well-bing, and on how animals should be treated by humans. Bekoff is a biologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

--Rasmussen, Larry L. Earth Community Earth Ethics. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books. 1996. 366 pp. Paper $20. Probably the most insightful analysis yet produced from a theological perspective of social justice and ecological concerns, though Michael Northcott's The Environment and Christian Ethics still excels in his dialogue with philosophers. "An attempt to lean into the world in a way that receives earth, with its distress, graciously" (p. 319). A green critique of history, of the human desires for dominion over earth that have driven Western science, development, technology, industry, politics, and religion since the Enlightenment. An underlying theme is "justice, peace, and the integrity of creation" (World Council of Churches), where Rasmussen was influential.

To conceive of humans as apart from nature, rather than a part of nature is "nature/humanity apartheid" (pp. 32-33, 328). "The essence of sin in this perspective is to try to rise above nature" (p. 274), seeking arrogant dominion over nature, denying the wholeness of creation. But, Rasmussen, as an ethicist, in the end has to notice some apartness. "Humans, as a part of nature, cannot escape their distinctive work as moral creatures" (p. 347). We intervene in "a nature too casual about pain, suffering, and death" (p. 347).

"For all their power as articulations of faith amidst several historical crises, canonical Protestant theologies from the 1930's to the 1970's were miserably deficient as cosmologies. They located human beings in the cosmos in ways that alienated us from the rest of nature and set the living substance of nature's infinite variety over against us. Nature was submissive objects at the disposal of creative subjects, human beings. ... A cosmic community of a million living subjects became little more than a collection of user-friendly objects. ... The need now is for those symbols that effect a `reenchantment of the world' that edges out the deadly cosmology of mindless and valueless nature ... in which the Spirit is the energy and power of God present in all creation as its very animation. ... The Spirit's presence is not amidst, nor its work for, one species only."

Rasmussen is Reinhold Niebuhr Professor of Social Ethics at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

--Zimmerman, Michael, Callicott, J. Baird, Sessions, George, Warren, Karen J., and Clark, John, eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998. 463 pages. The second edition of what has been a very popular anthology in environmental ethics. Baird Callicott adds an article, "Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic?" Harold Glasser adds "Demystifying the Critiques of Deep Ecology." Karen Warren revises the introduction to ecofeminism. A section on political ecology includes new essays on free market environmentalism, sustainable development, liberal environmentalism, socialist environmentalism, and ecotage.

--Smith, Pamela, What Are They Saying About Environmental Ethics? Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1997. 122 pages. $ 10.00 paper. Chapters: 1. Deep Ecology and Its Radical Vision. 2. The Ethics of Ecofeminism. 3. Animal "Rights" and Questions of Human Behavior. 4. The "Naturalists" and Leopoldian Ethics. 5. Liberation Ecotheology. 6. Eco-Ethics and the World's Religions. 7. Eco-Ethics and the Catholic Magisterium. "An ethic of respect, if not of widespread `rights,' seems to be arising from a conviction that some sort of `intrinsic value' can be posited for all sorts of lifeforms and their support systems. The basis for claiming such `intrinsic value' may be a religious one--a sense that creation, in all its diversity, is revelatory, bearing a `trace of the Trinity' (St. Thomas Aquinas) or God's `insignia,' the `marks of his glory' (John Calvin). Or it may be an intuition of a kind of `spirit' or sacrality present in living creatures beyond the human. In a more philosophical vein, `intrinsic value' can be claimed on the basis of the directionality, the impetus to survival and continuation and proliferation which is observed among a wide array of living beings. Perception of `kinship' among the diversity of beings and of `interrelatedness' implicit in ecosystemic processes lend support to more evolutionary and cosmogenetic theories of `intrinsic value' (p. 98). Smith teaches systematic theology at SS. Cyril and Methodius Seminary in Orchard Lake, Michigan.

--Soromenho-Marques, Viriato, O Futuro Frágil: Os desafios da crise global do ambiente (The Fragile Future: The Challenges of the Global Environmental Crisis). Mira-Sintra (near Lisbon), Portugal: Publicaçoes Europa-América, Lda, 1998. (Apartado 8, 2726 Mem Martins Codex, Portugal). 226 pages. ISBN 972-1-04435-0. In Portuguese. The first systematic work on environmental ethics in Portugal. Part I. The State of the Environmental Problem. First Essay: The Environmental Cause: Toward an Overview. Second Essay: Politics of the Environment in Portugal: Balance and Perspectives. Part II. Environment, Citizenship, and Values. Third Essay: Environment, Culture, and Citizenship: Five Fundamental Questions. Fourth Essay: Environmental Crisis: Ethics and Values. Part III. United by the Threat: In Search of Common Solutions. Fifth Essay: War, Environment, and Forced Cooperation. Sixth Essay: Environmental Crisis and International Politics. Soromenho-Marques is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Letters, University of Lisbon, and chairs the sections Philosophy of the History of Culture, and Philosophy of Politics and Law. He coordinates the Faculty of Nature and the Environment, and is a founder of Quercus, a leading conservation movement in Portugal.

--Oksanen, Markku, Nature as Property: Environmental Ethics and the Institution of Ownership. Turku, Finland: Reports from the Department of Practical Philosophy, University of Turku, Volume 10, 1998. ISSN 0786-8111. ISBN 951-29-1191-4 This is Oksanen's Ph.D. thesis, done under the supervision of Juhani Pietarinen of the Department of Philosophy, University of Turku, Finland, Summer 1998. A study of the conceptual and practical implications of the institution of ownership, when ecological concerns are profoundly taken into account. The Western understanding of, and the attitude to, nature are changing and the change may extend to concern the institution of ownership. Particularly land ownership is in many cases directly related to the emergence of ecological problems. What is at stake in environmental ethics is primarily the same as what is at stake in the philosophy of ownership: the use of the physical environment, the goods and services nature provides.

We can identify in two complementary ways the points of contradiction between the advocates of the environment and those of private property. Firstly, the conflict centres upon the ideas of proper human attitudes to, and treatment of the natural world. Can natural things be owned? On what grounds are they ownable? Secondly, assuming that natural objects are ownable, we face the issue of how to apply these norms in practice and how to resolve a conflict between these two sets of norms. In sum, how is the natural world to be treated?

--Callicott, J. Baird, and Nelson, Michael P., eds. The Great New Wilderness Debate. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998. 696 pp. $30. A big anthology on wilderness, which will become a leading reference in the field. Contains the following:

Part One: The Received Wilderness Idea

--Edwards, Jonathan, "The Images or Shadows of Divine Things", "Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended," "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."

--Emerson, Ralph Waldo, Selections from Nature.

--Thoreau, Henry David, "Walking" and "Huckleberries."

--Muir, John, Selections from Our National Parks.

--Roosevelt, Theodore, "The American Wilderness: Wilderness Hunters and Wilderness Game."

--Leopold, Aldo, "Wilderness as a Form of Land Use.

--Marshall, Robert, "The Problem of the Wilderness."

--Olson, Sigurd, "Why Wilderness?"

--Leopold, A. Starker, et al., "Wildlife Management in the National Parks," --The Wilderness Act of 1964.

--Woods, Mark, "Federal Wilderness Preservation in the United States: The Preservation of Wilderness?"

--Nelson, Michael P. "An Amalgamation of Wilderness Preservation Arguments."

Part Two: Third and Fourth World Views of the Wilderness Idea

--Standing Bear, Chief Luther, "Indian Wisdom."

--Nash, Roderick, "The International Perspective."

--Harmon, David, "Cultural Diversity, Human Subsistence and the National Park Ideal"

--Guha, Ramachandra, "Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique."

--Johns, David M. "The Relevance of Deep Ecology to the Third World: Some Preliminary Comments."

--Guha, Ramachandra, "Deep Ecology Revisited."

--Naess, Arne, "The Third World, Wilderness, and Deep Ecology."

--Gomez-Pompa, Arturo, Kaus, Andrea, "Taming the Wilderness Myth."

--Bayet, Fabienne, "Overturning the Doctrine: Indigenous People and Wilderness--Being Aboriginal in the Environmental Movement."

--Talbot, Carl, "The Wilderness Narrative and the Cultural Logic of Capitalism."

Part Three: The Wilderness of Idea Roundly Criticized and Defended

--Callicott, J. Baird, "The Wilderness Idea Revisited: The Sustainable Development Alternative."

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "The Wilderness Idea Reaffirmed."

--Callicott, J. Baird, "That Good Old-Time Wilderness Religion."

--Foreman, Dave, "Wilderness Areas for Real."

--Noss, Reed F., "Sustainability and Wilderness."

--Denevan, William M., "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492."

--Birch, Thomas H., "The Incarceration of Wildness: Wilderness Areas as Prisons."

--Cronon, William, "The Trouble with Wilderness, or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature."

--Henberg, Marvin, "Wilderness, Myth, and American Character."

Part Four: Beyond the Wilderness Idea

--Leopold, Aldo, Selections from "Threatened Species" and "Wilderness."

--Noss, Reed F. "Wilderness Recovery: Thinking Big in Restoration Ecology."

--Waller, Donald M., "Getting Back to the Right Nature: A Reply to Cronon's `The Trouble With Wilderness'."

--Foreman, Dave, "Wilderness: From Scenery to Nature."

--Callicott, J. Baird, "Should Wilderness Areas Become Biodiversity Reserves?"

--Grumbine, R. Edward, "Using Biodiversity as a Justification for Nature Protection in the U.S."

--Turner, Jack "In Wildness Is the Preservation of the World."

--Nabhan, Gary Paul, "Cultural Parallax in Viewing North American Habitats."

--Snyder, Gary, "The Rediscovery of Turtle Island."

--Plumwood, Val, "Wilderness Skepticism and Wilderness Dualism."

--Trachtenberg, Zev, ed., Symposium: Environmental Protection and the Politics of Property Rights, a theme issue of the Oklahoma Law Review, vol. 50, Fall 1997, no. 3. Contains:

--Trachtenberg, Zev, "Introduction: How Can Property Be Political?" pages 303-310. Although the goal of protecting the natural environment has gained increasing importance over the last generation, in recent years there is the charge that this is inconsistent with respect for property rights. The conflict between environment and property has emerged as one of the thorniest political issues of the day, one which is national in scope but which has immediate meaning for every community.

--Sawyer, Andrew H., "Changing Landscapes and Evolving Law: Lessons from Mono Lake on Takings and the Public Trust," pages 311-349.

--Echeverria, John D., "The Politics of Property Rights," pages 351-375.

--Huffman, James L., "The Public Interest in Private Property Rights," pages 377-390.

--Kershen, Drew L., "An Oklahoma Slant to Environmental Protection and the Politics of Property Rights," pages 391-398, response to the preceding papers.

--Trachtenberg, Zev, "The Environment: Private or Common Property?", pages 399-403, response to the preceding papers. Trachtenberg teaches philosophy at the University of Oklahoma.

--Mitchell, John Hanson, Trespassing: An Inquiry into the Private Ownership of Land. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998. By what right do humans own land at all? Mitchell, a frequent trespasser, is especially interested in 500 acres in eastern Massachusetts, tracing its history of owners from the native Americans to the present, with tales of their attachments to the land, the differing ways they have owned it, and how this affects the boundary between what humans hold in common and what they hold privately. Common needs weighed against the private right.

--Vardy, Peter, and Grosch, Paul, The Puzzle of Ethics. Armonk, NY and London, UK: M. E. Sharpe, 1997. Earlier published in the UK in 1994 by Fount Paperbacks. A summary introduction to ethics. Chapter 16, "Animal Rights," is a short but competent introduction, featuring Peter Singer, and Bernard Williams in reply. Chapter 17 is "Environmental Ethics," the is/ought controversy, three categories of environmental ethics: (1) humanist theories, (2) biocentric theories, and (3) eco-holistic theories; Bernard Williams' account. Vardy and Grosch conclude: "Any talk of environmental ethics is bound, to a greater or lesser extent, to be anthropocentric, or human-centered, for the simple reason that philosophy in general and moral reasoning in particular are straightforward human activities. ... Therefore our concern for the environment is bound to be human-centered" (p. 224). Vardy is in philosophy at Heythrop College, London University. Grosch is in philosophy at the College of St. Mark and St. John, Plymouth, UK.

--Berglund, Eeva, Knowing Nature, Knowing Science: An Ethnography of Local Environmental Activism. Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press, 1997. Three different groups of civil activists protesting against infrastructure installations, and their understanding of science. The role of science is ambivalent. Post-Chernobyl Germany, cultures of protest, environmental conflict, and shifting boundaries of nature and culture. Berglund is in geography at the University of California, Berkeley.

--Holland, Alan, and Johnson, Andrew, eds., Animal Biotechnology and Ethics. London: Chapman and Hall, 1997. Sample essays: Seidel, George E., Jr., "Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture; Broom, D. M., "The Effects of Biotechnology on Animal Welfare"; D'Silva, J., "Campaigning against Transgenic Technology"; Holland, Alan, "Species Are Dead: Long Live Genes!"; Thompson, Paul, "Biotechnology Policy: Four Ethical Problems and Three Political Solutions. And more. Holland is in philosophy at Lancaster University, UK. Johnson is an environmental consultant and editor of The White Horse Press.

--Mintzer, Irving M., and Leonard, J.A., eds., Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 392 pages. The fate of the Framework Convention on Climate Change in the light of political and industrial pressures to avoid doing much about real change. Science, values, and politics in a complex treaty. Nevertheless, there has been some achievement. There is a formal, binding requirement, sound reporting of emissions and target-hitting, or missing, verification by an independent authority, and there are continued negotiations. Much of this achievement was spearheaded by contributors to this volume.

--Price, Colin, Time, Discounting and Value. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. 393 pages. Addresses the issue of valuing the future, discounting it, as economists commonly do. The claim here is that in many such applications this is a misleading procedure; moreover it is one which may be acting as a "scientific" cover to promoting the interests of the present generation at the expense of the future.

--Hedleston, Jo Ann, The Origins of the Animal Husbandry Ethic, M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, summer 1998. A historical account of the ethical idea of kindness to animals that is part of the animal husbandry ethic as found in British and American culture. Deals in particular with the philosophy of Thomas Jefferson as the author of the American agrarian dream, with attention to the influence on the Christian tradition of the utilitarian ethic of Frances Hutcheson. The modern ideas of kindness to animals, or refraining from cruelty to animals, comes from the social humanitarian movement in Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The idea is transformed from the ethics that we ought not to be cruel to animals because it might lead in turn to cruel treatment of animals into a new ethics that claims that we ought to be kind to animals because they are sensitive creatures with a value of their own beyond that of human use. Includes some relatively unknown literature of the animal welfare movement in Britain. Comparisons with contemporary theological defenders of animal rights.

Lamb, Kara Lee, From Philosophy to Policy: Is There a Missing Link in Environmental Ethics?, M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, summer 1998. Environmental ethics is often thought to restrict permissible environmental activities by introducing various duties, responsibilities, and prohibitions with which environmental policy and the public must comply. Rather, environmental ethics can and ought enlighten policy by providing a more adequate philosophical grounding in value for legislation. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), though it requires an Environmental Impact Statement, leaves deeper value questions untouched, and leaves agencies with conflicting goals often at cross purposes. Environmental ethics can clarify these value questions. Despite its many insights, however, environmental ethics itself contains conceptual conflicts which reduce its capacity effectively to link with environmental policy. Three proposals for making environmental ethics more effective are based on the work of Val Plumwood, Paul Taylor, and Holmes Rolston. Lamb has a position with the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation interpreting environmental policy to the public and overseeing the public participation process in evaluating that policy.

--Lang, Tim and Hines, Colin, The New Protectionism: Protecting the Future Against Free Trade. London: Earthscan, 1995. 184 pages. The authors challenge free trade, claiming that, far from its promised benefits, what free trade actually produces is an ever larger gulf between the world's rich and the world's poor, combined with a growing environmental crisis. A better approach is a New Protectionism, not in defense of elitist interests at the national level (as did old protectionism), but in pursuit of the three E's: social and global equity, a sane economy, and a sustainable environment.

--Gross, Paul R., Levitt, Norman, and Lewis, Martin W., eds., The Flight from Science and Reason. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1996. Distributed by Johns Hopkins University Press. 593 pages. A large volume with many contributors worried about the deconstruction, relativizing, contextualizing, or whatever, of science. One section is on the environment:

--Lewis, Martin, W., "Radical Environmental Philosophy and the Assault on Reason," pp. 209-230. The resentment of science embedded in fashionable ecomania must subvert or misdirect serious and necessary environmental initiatives. Lewis is the author of Green Delusions.

--Rothman, Stanley, and Lichter, S. Robert, "Is Environmental Cancer and Political Disease?, pp. 231-245. Scientists working in cancer epidemiology have a far different view of what constitutes a serious threat of environmental cancer than nonscientists who regard themselves as activists for environmental sanity. Rothman teaches government at Smith College. Lichter is the author of Keeping the News Media Honest.

--Denfeld, Rene, "Old Messages: Ecofeminism and the Alienation of Young People from Environmental Education," pp. 246-255. Contrasts the romantic eco-radicalism endemic among "difference" or "gender" feminists with the serious and committed environmentalism that it displaces or discourages. Young people, and young women especially, have had deflected their serious interest in environmental questions by the sectarianism, the wooly self-righteousness, and the disdain for science that have characterized ecofeminism. Fortunately, "the message of ecofeminism, and of the environmental movement that adopts it, is unlikely ever to gain widespread support among upcoming generations" (p. 253). Denfeld is the author of The New Victorians: A Young Woman's Challenge to the Old Feminist Order.

--Demeritt, David, "Ecology, Objectivity and Critique in Writings on Nature and Human Societies," Journal of Historical Geography 20(no. 1, 1994):20-37. A committed postmodern view of ecology, environmentalism, and environmental history. "Inspired by the Green Movement and invoking many of the analytical concepts of ecological science, environmental historians have offered trenchant criticisms of modern society and its relations with nature. Recently however, their position has been eroded on several fronts. Revisionists in ecological science have repudiated the idea of stable, holistic ecosystems used by many environmental historians and other Green critics to measure and assail the environmental damage wrought by society. Various assaults on the authority of science and history to represent nature and the past have also undercut the exclusive claims to knowledge that environmental historians rely upon to legitimate their critique. I review these various challenges and the responses to them in turn. In the final part of the essay, I advance the position that environmental historians and other Green critics should end their search for foundational authority, be it in science or elsewhere, and appeal instead to diverse moral, political and aesthetic criteria to arbitrate between particular representations of nature in particular situations. This situation does not rule out appropriations from ecological science or other fields of knowledge where they prove useful and convincing, because, ultimately, environmental narratives are not legitimated in the lofty heights of foundational epistemology but in the more approachable and more contested realm of public discourse." Demeritt is in geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

--Phelan, Shane, "Intimate Distance: The Dislocation of Nature in Modernity." Pages 44-62 in Bennett, Jane, and Chaloupka, William, eds., In the Nature of Things. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. "Nature" once meant "outside of culture," but, deconstructed, such meaning is no longer available. Nature should now be thought of as "intimate distance." "Recognition of nature as intimate distance reminds us simultaneously that nature is us and our lives, but that those lives are the greatest, most mundane mystery we will ever have" (p. 59). With attention to Rousseau and Nietzsche. Phelan teaches political science at the University of New Mexico.

--Sikorski, Wade, "Building Wilderness." Pages 24-34 in Bennett, Jane, and Chaloupka, William, eds., In the Nature of Things. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. "The wilderness ... is not the opposite of civilization, as it has long been characterized in the Western tradition, virginal, unhandled, inhuman, untouched, but rather a building that we dwell in, that we have built because of what we, as earthly and mortal beings, are. ... In going into the wilderness, which is as easily found in the city as in the vast rain forest, we are going home because wilderness is the place where we recover the things that are most ourselves" (p. 29). Sikorski lives in Montana and is the author of Modernity and Technology: Harnessing the Earth to the Slavery of Man (University of Alabama Press, 1993).

--Lutts, Ralph H., ed., The Wild Animal Story. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. 328 pages. $ 35. An exploration of the popular genre of wild animal stories, from turn-of-the century nature writings to contemporary films and television. Queries about the meaning of what animals do and our obligation to them. The stories are placed in the context of debate about animal intelligence and purposeful behavior, nature literature and films, popular culture, animals and society, and the changing attitudes toward wildlife. Lutts is in continuing education at the University of Virginia, and is the author of The Nature Fakers: Wildlife, Science, and Sentiment.

--Vincoli, Jeffrey W. A Basic Guide to Environmental Compliance. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. 258 pages. $ 45. A guide to the labyrinth of federal, state, and local requirements and controls (in the U.S). But the labyrinth must be decoded to do business, since the cost of noncompliance is steadily increasing. Further, the pressure is increased by the trend toward individual personal liability, both civil and criminal. The National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, and on and on.

--Rasputin, Valentin, Siberia on Fire. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989. Selected, translated, and introduced by Gerald Mikkelson and Margaret Winchell. 230 pages. Rasputin is one of the most influential leaders of his country's environmental protection movement, deeply concerned over the resources of Siberia, and their exploitation. He writes with skill and the translation is excellent. "Every now and then I recall the `philosophy' of one old man, Grandpa Yegor, from my own native village, which still stood on the banks of the Angara River back then (but was being moved to make way for a large dam, inundating much of the area). ... Illuminated by the sunset that caressed the Angara, we were sitting on some logs when Grandpa Yegor ... nodded vaguely toward the river--before us unfolded a scene of rare beauty ... `If you want to know, I never harmed my own land.' ... I cannot say that the Siberian's feeling for the land of his forefathers is more intense than that of a European Russian, but it is undoubtedly fresher and more self-engrossed, more tangible, it would seem, more personal. ... [But] Siberians today are ceasing to exist as the composite of their former stable features and are outliving their distinctiveness, wearing it out like old clothes" (pp. 174-175). Rasputin, a literary figure in Siberia, lives in Irkutsk and spends much of his time in a cottage on the Angara River near Lake Baikal. (Thanks to Phil Pister.)

--Cohen, Joel E., How May People Can the Earth Support? New York: Norton, 1995. 531 pages. An extensive study. Past human population growth. Human population history in numbers and graphs. The uniqueness of the present relative to the past. (Ninety percent of the increase in human numbers since the beginning of time has occurred since 1650, in fewer than 350 years.) Projection methods: The hazy crystal ball. How successful have past predictions been? Scenarios of future population. What do we know for sure about the future of global population. Eight estimates of human carrying capacity. Carrying capacity in an ecological age and applied ecology. Human choices; the distribution of material well-being. Water. Natural constraints and time. How to slow human population growth. Cohen is in the Laboratory of Populations, Rockefeller University.

--Allen, C. 1997. Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

--Pearce, J. M., 1997. Animal Learning and Cognition: An Introduction, second edition. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

--Stevens, Willliam K., "New Evidence Finds This Is Warmest Century in 600 Years," New York Times, April 28, 1998, page B13. Greenhouse gases now seem to be the major influence.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, and Westra, Laura, eds., Technology and Values. Lanham. MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997. Includes Pimentel, David, "Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Pesticide Use."

--Janzen, Daniel, "Gardenification of Wildland Nature and the Human Footprint," Science 279(1998):1312-1313. Wild species can no longer be left "out in the wild," but have to be brought into the human "wildland garden" (if that is not an oxymoron). Humans now have the power to domesticate nature, and their genes urge them to do so. "My genes also know that my inclusive fitness is maximized by supporting those tribal policies that give long-term survival and health to their tribe in the nearby environment. They know that my inclusive fitness is maximized by intensely studying that environment. And my genes' study of the nearby environment says that if we cannot figure out how to hide a package as large as 235,000 wild species in the human genome, my inclusive fitness--my tribe's future--will be severely impacted." (235,000 species is presumably a typical number in a nearby environment.) "The more quickly we can move the remaining large lumps of wild biodiversity into garden status, the greater the chance that they will still be with us in perpetuity." "Gardenification" is a softer word than "management," or "dominion," or "zoo," but the effect is the same. Janzen is well-intended, maybe right. But so much the worse for any species that the human tribe does not find genetically useful in our garden. Janzen is in biology at the University of Pennsylvania and a specialist in tropical ecology.

--Kramer, Steve, "Naturalness and Restoration Ecology," From the Center: A Newsletter, The Center for Values and Social Policy, University of Colorado, Boulder. Vol. 14, no. 1, spring 1998, pages 1-3. Replies to Patrick D. Hopkins, "Value, `Nature', and Copies of `Nature,'" earlier in the same newsletter. Hopkins's arguments that copies are as good as the originals in nature are unpersuasive. Natural objects and their accompanying values cannot be fully restored through human agency, even in principle, much less in practice, although restoration ecology is nevertheless a laudable goal. Nature is created through a process of evolution that is not intentional, deliberative, or teleological. Recognition that the diversity, complexity, and beauty we find in the natural world is not the result of intentional design supports and magnifies its intrinsic values. We stand in awe of a world that is beyond intentional design and construction. Kramer is in philosophy, University of Colorado, Boulder.

--Lorbiecki, Marybeth, Aldo Leopold, A Fierce Green Fire. Helena, MT: Falcon Press, 1996. $ 19.95. Good brief biography, with dozens of candid photos, and quotations from his work.

--Lear, Linda J., Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Holt, 1997. $ 35. Big, definitive biography, 634 pages.

--Backes, David, A Wilderness Within: The Life of Sigurd F. Olsen. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. 387 pages. $ 25.00. Also there is a new release of four volumes of Olsen work from the University of Minnesota Press: The Singing Wilderness, 1997; The Lonely Land, 1997; Listening Point, 1997; and Runes of the North, 1997.

--Muir, John, Nature Writings. Edited by Cronon, William. New York: The Library of America, 1997. $ 35. Over 800 pages of Muir's best.

--Ayers, Harvard; Hager, Jenny; and Little, Charles E., eds., An Appalachian Tragedy. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1998. $ 45.00. The splendor of Appalachia, from forest floor to treetops, is threatened by pollution. Text and 200 photographs reveal the beauty and document the harm.

--Spragg, Mark, ed., Thunder of the Mustangs: Legend and Lore of the Wild Horses. Photos and essays by mustang lovers. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1998.

--Karoliner, Joshua, The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in an Age of Globalization. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1998. How transnational corporations cause environmental ruin in the global economy.

--Ehrlich, Paul, Gaily, Gretchen, Daily, Scott, Myers, Norman, and Salzman, James, "No Middle Way on the Environment," The Atlantic Monthly, December 1997.

--Webster, D., "The Looting and Smuggling and Fencing and Hoarding of Impossibly Precious, Feathered and Scaly Wild Things," New York Times Magazine, 16 February 1997, pp. 26-33, 48-53, 61.

--Goerz, Catherine S., The Rhetoric of Earth First!: An Organic Systems Analysis. M.A. thesis, Speech Communication Department, Colorado State University, Fall 1996. An analysis of the independent and adaptive nature of the radical environmental organization Earth First!. Earth First! was founded on the principles of biocentrism and ecodefense for the purpose of protecting the wilderness. The organization responded to the perceived environmental crisis by aggressively confronting and resisting the political institutions and corporations responsible for the damage. Strengthened by diverse internal structures and human resources, the movement attempted to persuade the establishment to reevaluate current environmental policy and to make changes in favor of ecological preservation and regulation.

Earth First!'s rhetoric is examined with an organic systems analysis. This approach to social movements conceives the organization to be a collectivity that must interact and adapt with the external environment in order to evolve. By analyzing the internal relationships and resources, the communication channels, and rhetorical environment surrounding the movement, the revolutionary nature of Earth First! is revealed. The thesis advisor was James R. Irvine.

--Stevens, William K., "Red Foxes Thrive in Suburban Woods," New York Times, May 5, 1998, B13, B17. Red foxes are doing well and quite adaptable to rural and suburban living, fortunately, since the red fox is considered one of the most clever and beautiful animals in the world. One reason may be that they are rather cat-like canines.

--Kolata, Gina, "Tough tactics in One Battle over Animals in the Lab," New York Times, March 24, 1998, B13, B14. Ingrid Newkirk of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals charges that scientists at Huntington Life Sciences have broken beagles' legs and ripped organs from conscious, squirming animals while testing drugs for Colgate Palmolive. Alan Staple, Huntingdon's president, said PETA had engaged in baseless accusations, harassment, and threats. He sued the group under the Racketeering Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act.

--Kopytoff, Verne G., "In Spring, Birds Return to the Salton Sea and Die in Droves," New York Times, March 24, 1998, B 16. Contaminants could leave the Salton Sea worthless to some 380 species of birds. The Salton Sea, 150 miles from Las Angeles, was formed in 1905 and 1906 after the Colorado River burst through a levee and drained into what had been an ancient dry lake bed, 270 feet below sea level. It became a major stop on the Pacific flyway, second only to the Texas coastline in the number of bird species counted there. Now birds are dying in great numbers from epidemics and contaminants, though the links are still under study.

--Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue, Shanker, Stuart G., and Taylor, Talbot J., Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. A summary is Dreifus, Claudia, "She Talks to Apes and, According to Her, They Talk Back," New York Times, April 14, 1998, B10. At a research facility at Georgia State University, Decatur, bonobos (a kind of chimpanzee) point to printed symbols on a keyboard, and converse about dogs, television that they watch, and pretend gorillas in a game they play.

--Flores, Dan, "Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800-1850," Journal of American History 78(1991):465-485. Flores claims that the southern plains native Americans, after they got horses from the Spanish, and even before they got guns, within a century were exploiting the bison so effectively that the herds were seriously declining. Soon many Indians were starving; and, even without the Europeans, the bison would well have been driven to extinction before 1900. So much for the myth of the Indian as a good ecologist. In fact, the native American religion contributed to the crisis, since plains Indians believed that buffalo were produced supernaturally every spring in countless numbers in a country under the ground and swarmed like bees out of a hive from cave openings in unknown locations. Flores teaches environmental history at Texas Tech University.

--Goldsmith, Edward, The Way: An Ecological World View, revised and enlarged edition. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998. 541 pages. Sample chapter titles: Ecology is a unified organization of knowledge. Ecology seeks to establish the laws of nature. Ecology studies natural systems in their Gaian context. Ecology is holistic. Ecology is teleological. Ecology is qualitative. Ecology is subjective. Ecology is emotional. Ecology is a faith. Ecology reflects the values of the biosphere. Natural systems are homeostatic. Natural systems are homeorhetic. Life processes are dynamic. Life processes are creative. Gaia is the source of all benefits. Man is psychically maladjusted to the world as depicted by the paradigm of science. The great reinterpretation requires a conversion to the world-view of ecology. 66 short chapters. The first edition was published in 1992 in the UK. Goldsmith was long the editor of The Ecologist.

--Wade, Nicholas, "From Ants to Ethics: A Biologist Dreams of Unity of Knowledge," New York Times, May 12, B9, B10. A promotion piece for Edward O. Wilson's new book, Consilience. "The kind of unification he (Wilson) proposes is the outright intellectual annexation that occurs when one field of knowledge becomes explainable in terms of a more fundamental discipline." "Dr. Wilson has resurrected it (consilience) as the slogan for a program of unrivaled ambition: to unify all the major branches of knowledge--sociology, economics, the arts and religion (and ethics and philosophy) under the banner of science and in particular of the biology that has shaped the human mind."

--Robbins, Jim, "Engineers Plan to Send a River Flowing Back to Nature," New York Times, May 12, 1998, B9, B11. The Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming, was engineered for the better, to facilitate spring runoff and allow million dollar housing developments, only the results were worse instead. The river's ecology was dramatically altered, leaving longs stretches of riverbank nearly barren. Now the Corps of Engineers hopes to put the river, to some extent at least, back like it was.

--Olson, Elizabeth, "Target Practice in Geneva on the Global Trade Body," New York Times, May 16, B1, B2. The World Trade Organization has come under attack from critics who say it ignores environmental and social issues in settling trade disputes. At the center of the issue is a ruling against the United States favoring a challenge from developing countries to the United States Law that protects sea turtles from shrimper's nets. Interest groups are accusing the WTO of gutting environmental laws in the name of unfettered trade. In this case environmentalists and the U.S. are taking the same side in a turtle fight.

--Meiners, Roger E., and Yandle, Bruce, "The Common Law: How It Protects the Environment," PERC Policy Series, No. PS-13, May 1998. (PERC, 502 South 19th Avenue, Suite 211, Bozeman, MT 59718-6827). Common law cases, that preceded environmental regulation, were more successful than people usually think, and offer an alternative to still more government regulation. Meiners teaches economics and law at the University of Texas at Arlington. Yandle is in economics and legal studies, Clemson University.

--DeWitt, Calvin B., Caring for Creation: Responsible Stewardship of God's Handiwork. Grand Rapids: Mi: Baker Books, and Washington, CD: The Center for Public Justice, 1998. 105 pages. With responses by Richard A. Baer, Jr., Thomas Sieger Derr, and Vernon J. Ehlers. DeWitt is professor of environmental studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and perhaps the most prominent and insightful of conservative Christian defenders of the natural world.

--Margulis, Lynn, "Science Education, USA: Not Science, Not Yet Education, The Ecology Example," pp. 307-315 in Margulis, Lynn and Sagan, Dorion, Slanted Truths (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997). A commentary on science education, kindergarten through graduate school, especially in ecology. "The answers to nearly all the major philosophical questions are either found in or illuminated by the science of life, especially ecology, whose stated goal is the elucidation of the relationship of organisms to environment. ... Philosophical insights garnered from the life sciences are suppressed by the arbitrary pigeonholing of rigid academic traditions? What is our relation, as Homo sapiens mammals, with our environment? How much and what sort of land is required to ensure the health and growth of a person, a family? ... These enlightening questions, of intrinsic interest, cannot even be mused in the academic-environment that requires `covering the material'" (p. 311) Margulis teaches biology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

--Lovelock, James, "The Greening of Science," pages 39-63 in Wakeford, Tom, Walters, Martin eds., Science for the Earth: Can Science Make the World a Better Place? New York: Wiley, 1995. "I firmly believe that science is badly in need of greening and that everyone, including the greens, need science, but not the kind of science we now have. We want science to return to natural philosophy and be once again its old familiar and welcome part of our culture. Science must abandon its genteel posturing and come down to Earth again quite literally. This is not easy task, it requires scientists to recognize that science has grown fat, lazy and corrupt and, like an obese atherosclerotic man, imagines that more rich food will cure his condition. That science should be in this condition is disastrous at this time in history, when more than ever we need firm guidance and a clear understanding of the Earth" (p. 39). Lovelock is an independent scientist, author of Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth.

--McKibben, Bill, Maybe One: A Personal and Environmental Argument for Single-Child Families. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998. 240 pages. Summarized in "The Case for Single-Child Families," Christian Century, May 13, 1998, vol. 115, pp. 498-504. A sensitive study of the pros and cons of having one child instead of two, or three, with saving the environment in mind. In some senses this can seem concerned and selfless, though from other perspectives, one has to take seriously those who think having no children, or one, is selfish, since such parents often wish to do more self-fulfilling things with themselves than to bother with children. "My hope is not to settle this question for anyone else; it truly isn't my business what you chose to do. All I want to do is to open the debate, to remove `population' from the category of abstraction and make it the very real consideration of how many children you or I decide to bear. No single decision any of us will make will mean as much to our own lives or to the life of the planet."

"The beginning of Genesis contains the fateful command ... to `be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth.' That this was the first commandment gave it special priority. And it was biological, too, a command that echoed what our genes already shouted. But there is something else unique about it--it is the first commandment we have fulfilled. ... We can check this commandment off the list. ... But when you check something off a list, you don't throw the list away. You look further down the list and see what comes next. ... Feed the hungry, clothe the naked, comfort the oppressed, love your neighbor as yourself; heal the earth." McKibben, author of The End of Nature, is Sunday School superintendent at a Methodist Church in upstate New York. He and his wife have one child.

--Selcraig, Bruce, "Reading, `Riting, and Ravaging: The Three R's, Brought to You by Corporate America and the Far Right," Sierra, May-June 1998, pp. 6065, 86-92. A corporate backlash has developed against the U.S. National Environmental Education Act, which makes environmental education mandatory in public schools in about 30 states, and is up for reauthorization this year. In the culture war raging over environmental issues, the NEEA spends $65 million a year to educate students environmentally, but a coalition of corporations and the religious right complain that this is anti-business and pro-environment. Corporations are eager to offer materials (often to cash-starved schools) that set the matter straight, such as an Exxon video now in 10,000 classrooms that describes gasoline as "a form of solar power hidden in `decayed organic matter."

--Revesz, Richard L., Foundations of Environmental Law and Policy, Oxford Press

--Soden, Dennis L., ed., At the Nexus: Science Policy, Nova Science Publisher's, Inc.

--Greve, Michael S., The Demise of Environmentalism in America, The AEI Press

--Salter, Liora, Mandated Science: Science and Scientists in the Making of Standards, Kluer Academic Press.

--Line, Les, "Peru: Epicenter of El Nino, Fears for its Wildlife," New York Times, May 19, 1998, B12. Some lean years lie ahead for seals, sea lions, penguins, and other beach dwellers if ocean waters get warmer. A severe year-long food shortage has resulted from record high water temperatures, and many animals are dying, especially the young. Some scientists predict even stronger and more frequent El Ninos.

--Grizzle, Raymond E., and Barrett, Christopher B., "The One Body of Christian Environmentalism," Zygon 33(1998):233-253. Using a conceptual model consisting of three interacting spheres of concern--environmental protection, human needs provision, and economic welfare--central to most environmental issues, we map six major Christian traditions of thought. Our purpose is to highlight the complementarities among these diverse responses in order to inform a more holistic Christian environmentalism founded on one or more of the major tenets of each of the six core traditions. Our approach also incorporates major premises of at least the most moderate versions of biocentrism, ecocentrism, and anthropocentrism. We label this holistic approach "cosmocentrism" and use it as the basis for a preliminary description of the notion of "pluralistic stewardship." We argue that only such holistic environmental perspectives, where societal needs are more directly coupled with environmental protection, and a pluralism of worldviews are acknowledged as potentially contributing to such efforts are capable of successfully addressing the complex issues we face today. We note that, at the international level in particular, Christian thought and secular environmentalism already have been moving in such a direction. Grizzle teaches environmental studies at Taylor University, Upland, NY. Barrett is in economics, Utah State University.

--Soulé, Michael E., and Press, Daniel, "What Is Environmental Studies?" BioScience 48(1998):397-405. The origins and development of environmental studies. Emerging themes, problems, and conflicts. Ideological conflicts. Institutional problems. Multidisciplinary illiteracy and solutions. Recommendations for environmental studies to include: ecology and environmental policy analysis; literature and philosophy; social criticism and critical theory. But a major conclusion is that the increasing disciplinary diversity of faculty who are contributing to environmental studies is causing crises of vision and curricular development, leading to both a paralysis of program planning and hyper-diverse, shallow curricula--"the environmental studies problem". Worth reading. Soulé and Press are both in Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz.

--Eldredge, Niles, Life in the Balance: Humanity and the Biodiversity Crisis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998. Our failure to recognize our connection with the global ecosystem lies behind the biodiversity crisis facing our planet today. We must act now to avert an Earth-wide extinction crisis. A summary is "Life in the Balance, Natural History 107(no. 5, June 1998)42-55. Eldredge is in the Department of Invertebrates, American Museum of Natural History, New York, and a well-known paleontologist.

--Ackerman, D., "Earth-Healing in South Africa: Challenges to the Church," Ecotheology, No. 2, January, 1998, p. 48- .

--Gerle, E., "Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation," Ecotheology, No. 2, January, 1998, p. 59- .

--Reuther, Rosemary R., "Ecofeminism: First and Third World Women," Ecotheology, No. 2, January, 1998, p. 72- .

--Keller, C., "Eschatology, Ecology, and a Green Ecumancy," Ecotheology, No. 2, January, 1998, p. 84- .

--Kaul, D., "Ecofeminism in the Nordic Countries," Ecotheology, No. 2, January, 1998, p. 100- .

--Gore, Al, Ziemia na krawedzi (Earth in the Balance), ETHOS Press, 1996. Polish edition of U. S. Vice-President Gore's book.

--Tyburski, Wlodzimierz, Pojednac sie z Ziemia. W kregu zagadnien humanizmu ekologicznego (To Become Reconciled with Earth. Within the Scope of Ecological Humanism Issues), IPIR, 1993. In Polish.

--Tyburski, Wlodzimierz, Etyka i ekologia (Ethics and Ecology), PKE, 1995. In Polish.

--Tyburski, Wlodzimierz (ed.), Czlowiek i srodowisko. Dyscypliny humanistyczne i ekologia (The Human and the Environment. The Humanities and Ecology), UMK, 1995. In Polish.

--Tyburski, Wlodzimierz (ed.), Ekofilozofia i Bioetyka (Ecophilosophy and Bioethics - Proceedings of the 6th Polish Congress of Philosophy, Bioethics & Ecophilosophy Section), Torun, 1996. In Polish.

--Wawrzyniak, Jan, "Aksjologia ewolucyjna jako podstawa etyki srodowiskowej (Evolutionary Axiology as a Foundation of Environmental Ethics)." In: S. Dziamski, S. (ed.) Aksjologia, etyka, samookreslenie (Axiology, Ethics, Self-determination). Poznan: Humaniora Press, 1996. In Polish.

--Margul, Tadeusz, Zwierze w kulcie i micie (The Animal in Cult and Myth), UMCS, 1996. In Polish.

--Waloszczyk, Konrad, Kryzys ekologiczny w swietle ekofilozofii (The Ecological Crisis in the Light of Ecophilosophy), Wydawnictwo Politechniki Lodzkiej, 1996. In Polish.

--Waloszczyk, Konrad, Planeta nie tylko ludzi (Not Only Humans' Planet), PIW, 1997. In Polish.

--Ryszkiewicz, Marcin, Matka Ziemia w przyjaznym kosmosie. Gaja i zasada antropiczna w dziejach mysli przyrodniczej (Mother Earth in the Friendly Universe. Gaia and the Anthropic Principle in the History of Natural Sciences), PWN, 1994. In Polish.

--Ferry, Luc, Nowy lad ekologiczny (The New Ecological Order). Centrum Uniwersalizmu przy Uniwersytecie Warszawskim, 1995. In Polish. Originally in French: Le nouvel order écologique.

--Kozlowski, Stefan, W drodze do ekorozwoju (On the Way to Eco-Development), PWN, 1997.

--Fiut, Ignacy S., Filozofia ewolucyjna Konrada Zachariasza Lorenza. Studium problemowe i historyczne (Evolutionary Philosophy of Konrad Z. Lorenz. Systematic and Historical Analysis), Krakow, 1994.

--McGregor, Robert Kuhn, A Wider View of the Universe: Henry Thoreau's Study of Nature. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997. Using Thoreau's unabridged journals and field notes, McGregor analyzes Thoreau's efforts to understand and form a comprehensive view of nature as a spiritual whole in which all species are interdependent.

--Norton, Bryan, et al, "The Moral Case for Saving Species," Defenders: The Conservation Magazine of Defenders of Wildlife 73 (no. 3, Summer 1998):6-15. Thirteen philosophers, theologians, and ethicists explain why society should give high priority to the Endangered Species Act. Contributors are Joseph Bruchac, J. Baird Callicott, Calvin B. DeWitt, Dale Jamieson, Holmes Rolston, Lenn J. Goodman, Ernest Partridge, Lily-Marlene Russow, Max Oelschlaeger, Bernadine Grant McRipley, David Saperstein, Mark Sagoff, Don Swearer.

--Bouma-Prediger, Steven, "Creation Care and Character: The Nature and Necessity of the Ecological Virtues," Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 50 (no. 1, March 1998):6-21. Virtue theory is a neglected but significant area of research in ecological ethics. What exactly is a virtue? Are there particular virtues that arise from a biblically informed Christian ecological ethic? Are they merely nice to have or are they necessary? Certain virtues--like frugality, humility, and wisdom--are indispensable if Christians are responsibly to fulfill their calling to be earthkeepers. Certain character traits are central to creation care. Bouma-Prediger is in the Department of Religion, Hope College, Holland, MI.

--Bouma-Prediger, Steven, "Why Care for Creation?: From Prudence to Piety," Christian Scholar's Review 27(1998):277-297. "So why care for creation? For many reasons--many good reasons. Because our own existence is imperiled. Because we owe it to our children. Because an earth-friendly way of life is more joyful. Because various forms of oppression are of a piece. Because certain non-human creatures are entitled to our care. Because creation is valuable for its own sake. Because God says so. Because we are God's image-bearers. Because grace begets gratitude and gratitude care. Because, in sum, care for creation in integral to what it means to be a Christian--it is an important part of our piety, our spirituality, our collective way of being authentically Christian" (p. 296).

--Bouma-Prediger, Steven, "Is Christianity Responsible for the Ecological Crisis?" Christian Scholar's Review 25(1995):146-156.

--Gomes, Mary, editor, "Ecopsychology and Social Transformation," theme issue of ReVision: A Journal of Consciousness and Transformation, 20, No. 4, Spring 1998. With seven contributors, for example, Nelson, Melissa, "A Psychological Impact Report for the Environmental Movement," pp. 37-43.

--Buddhist Perspectives on the Earth Charter. No editor given. Cambridge, MA: Boston Research Center for the 21st Century, November 1977. 91 pages. $3. Contributions by Grace Burford, David W. Chappell, Susan Darlington, Rita M. Gross, Yoichi Kawada, Stephanie Kaza, Sallie B. King, Steven Rockefeller, and Donald K. Swearer. The Boston Research Center for the 21st Century is an international peace institute founded in 1993 by Daisaku Ikeda, a Buddhist peace activist and President of Soka Gakkai International, an association of Buddhist organizations in 128 countries. Address: 396 Harvard Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-3924. Phone 617/491-1090. Fax 617/491-1169.

--Crist, Eileen, Images of Animals: Anthropomorphism and Animal Mind. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Seeing a cat rubbing against a person, Charles Darwin described her as "in an affectionate frame of mind"; for Samuel Barnett, a behaviorist, the mental realm is beyond the grasp of scientists and behavior must be described technically, as a physical action only. What difference does this make? In Crist's analysis of the language used to portray animal behavior, the difference "is that in the reader's mind the very image of the cat's `body' is transfigured ... from an experiencing subject ... into a vacant object." Rejecting the notion that "a neutral language exists, or can be constructed, which yields incontestably objective accounts of animal behavior," Crist argues that "language is not a neutral instrument in the depiction of animals, and, in particular, it is never impartial with respect to the question of animal mind." Crist is at the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

--Gaus, Gerald F., "Respect for Persons and Environmental Values." Pages 239-264 in Kneller, Jane, and Axinn, Sidney, eds., Autonomy and Community: Readings in Contemporary Kantian Social Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998. When it comes to the treatment of animals and, especially the nonsentient environment, Kantian liberalism--like Kant's theory itself--strikes many as inadequate. Kant's theory is "person chauvinism." Is Kant hostile to including environmental values in the moral realm? Answering this question is surprisingly complex. It is true that a basic and widely embraced Kantian liberal argument puts supreme value on agency and project pursuit and this makes it well-nigh impossible to protect environmental values. But much contemporary Kantian liberalism goes astray because it misconstrues the nature of personhood and autonomy. Gaus defends an alternative understanding that is truer to Kant's own conception and provides a reformulated Kantian liberalism that can take environmental value seriously. Nevertheless, this revision will not satisfy the demands of many environmental philosophers. The fundamental commitments of Kantian liberalism preclude its being considered an environmental ethic. Gaus teaches philosophy and political science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth.

--Peterson, Courtney, A Comparison of the Environmental Rhetoric of Dave Foreman, Earth First!, and Lois Marie Gibbs, Love Canal. M.A. thesis in the Department of Speech Communication, Colorado State University, Spring 1998. A study in what makes rhetorical strategies work for environmental activists. Both figures are effective activists; their differences are found in philosophy and gender. The advisor was Professor Cindy L. Griffin.

--Ho, Mae-Wan, Genetic Engineering: Dream or Nightmare? Bath, UK: Gateway Books, 1998. Distributed in US by Access Publishers Network. ISBN 1858600510. 277 pages.

--Holdrege, Craig, A Question of Genes: Understanding Life in Context. Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1996. 190 pages.

--Prince, Hugh C., Wetlands of the American Midwest: A Historical Geography of Changing Attitudes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. 395 pages.

--Hayward, Tim, and O'Neill, John, eds., Justice, Property and the Environment: Social and Legal Perspectives. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK and Brookfield, VT, US: Avebury Series in Philosophy, in conjunction with the UK Association for Legal and Social Philosophy, Ashgate Publishing Co., 1997. Sample contributions: Soper, Kate, "Human Needs and Natural Relations: The Dilemmas of Ecology"; Cooper, David E., "Justice, Consistency and Non-Human Ethics"; Himsworth, C.M.G., "Unsustainable Developments in Lawmaking for Environmental Liability?"; Alier, Joan Martinez, "The Merchandising of Biodiversity." And many more.

--Silver, Lee M., Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World. New York: Avon Books, 1997. Will there be a "homo supergeneticus."

--Krimsky, Sheldon, and Wrubel, Roger, Agricultural Biotechnology and the Environment: Science, Policy and Social Issues. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1996. 294 pages.

--Berkes, Fikret, ed., Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development. London: Belhaven Press, 1992.

--Bromley, Daniel W., Environment and Economy: Property Rights and Public Policy. Oxford, UK, Blackwell, 1991.

--Brubaker, Elizabeth. Property Rights in the Defence of Nature. Toronto: Earthscan, 1995.

--Smail, J. Kenneth, "Beyond Population Stabilization: The Case for Dramatically Reducing Global Human Numbers," Politics and the Life Sciences 16(1997):183-192. There is a growing tension between two apparently irreconcilable trends: (1) demographic projections that world population size will reach 10 to 11 billion by the middle of the next century; and (2) scientific estimates that the Earth's long-term sustainable carrying capacity (at an "adequate to comfortable" standard of living) may not be much greater than 2 to 3 billion. It is past time to develop internationally coordinated sociopolitical initiatives that go beyond slowing the growth or stabilizing global human numbers. After "inescapable realities" that humans must soon confront, and notwithstanding the considerable difficulties involved in establishing "global population optimums," I conclude with several suggestions how best to bring about a very significant reduction in global population over the next two to three centuries (to perhaps 75 percent of the present population). Smail is an anthropologist at Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio. With commentaries by 16 critics, including Norman Myers, "The Population/Environment Problem: Even more Urgent than Supposed; Timothy F. Flannery, "Australia: Overpopulated or Last Frontier?"; Charles F. Westoff, "Population Growth: Large Problem, Low Visibility; and others.

--Kothari, A., Singh, N., and Suri, S., eds. People and Protected Areas: Towards Participatory Conservation in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996. 272 pages. $ 38.00. ISBN 0-8039-9333-1. Current thinking about the role of resident peoples in the management of protected areas, with the conviction that such areas do not (always, or often) have to be "peopleless." The authors generally want to keep resident peoples in protected areas and to engage them in some form of cooperative management, holding this to meet both social justice and environmental goals. The anthology results from a workshop sponsored by the India Institute of Public Administration in 1994. Contributions are uneven in their detail and analytical quality. Kothari is a political scientist who has worked in both academic and activist circles. In the introduction Kothari finds both local problems: how to balance the rights of local communities with the protection of wildlife, and an underlying global problem. Conservation takes place in the context of a global industrial economic system. Conservationists are now active in India. "However, the conservationists and officials who brought in these important measures were a part of the same elite classes which have led India headlong towards ecological ruin" (p. 21). Antagonism between villagers and conservationists misinterprets the problem of protected areas because it neglects the social and economic reasons for ecological degradation, namely the urban industrial economy. Conservationists and local peoples are mistakenly divided against each other instead of united with each other against a common enemy.

--Dallmeyer, Dorinda G., Ike, Albert F., eds. Environmental Ethics and the Global Marketplace. Athens, Ga.: The University of Georgia Press, 1998. 208 pp. $20. Contributors present arguments for creating sustainable global business practices that work in harmony with the environment.

--Kivell, Philip, Roberts, Peter, Walker, Gordon, P. eds. Environment, Planning and Land Use. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 185 pp. $59.95. Practical issues and policies relating to planning and managing both built and natural environments. Kivell is at the University of Keele, UK; Roberts at the University of Dundee, UK; and Walker at Staffordshire University, UK.

--Fernandes, Edesio, ed. Environmental Strategies for Sustainable Development in Urban Areas: Lessons from Africa and Latin America. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 200 pp. $63.95. Introduces some of the significant experiences of environmental administration in urban areas in several African and Latin American countries. Fernandes is at the University of London.

--Kozlowski, J., Peterson, A., eds. Towards Sustainable Ecosystem Management Through Buffer Zone Planning. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 150 pp. $67.95. he potential contribution of buffer zones in professional planning and ecosystem management in the process of reversing the continuing deterioration of the natural environment. Both authors are at the University of Queensland, Australia.

--Rose, Roger, Bellamy, Margot, and Tanner, Carolyn, eds. Issues in Agricultural Competitiveness: Markets and Policies. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 512 pp. $29.95. The 44 papers contributed to the twenty-second conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists in Zimbabwe, August 1994 with abstracts of poster papers.

--Sarpong, Daniel Bruce. Growth in Ghana: A Macroeconomic Model Simulation Integrating Agriculture. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. Why the Ghanian economy has failed to achieve sustained high economic growth, and changes needed for the future.

--Desouzafilho (de Souza Filho), Hildo Meirelles. The Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Technologies. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 190 pp. $55.95. This is a case study in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil.

--Damianos, Dimitri, Dimara, Efthalia, Hassapoyannes, Katharina, and Skuras, Dimitri. Greek Agriculture in a Changing International Environment. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998. 230 pp. $63.95.

--Flattau, Edward, Tracking the Charlatans: An Environmental Columnist's Refutational Handbook for the Propaganda Wars. Washington, DC: Global Horizons Press, 1998. Flattau, a U. S. national syndicated columnist since 1972 (the first journalist to specialize in environmental coverage), unmasks the purveyors of false "good news" about the environment. Renewable energy, wetlands, radon, secondhand smoke, recycling, ozone depletion, and land use planning. The environmental movement became mainstream twenty years ago, and most Americans support environmental protection, but now there is a backlash of anti-conservation voices and they are getting away with murder.

--Stevens, William K., "Lush Life: But as Species Vanish, What Will We Lose?" New York Times, June 2, 1998. Section D. Special section on endangered species. Also contains:

--Cushman, John H., Jr., "Evolutionary Law." The Endangered Species Act is changing rapidly as the Clinton Administration pushes agreements that give broader habitats limited protection.

--Revkin, Andrew C., and Passell, Peter, "So What?" Scientists and economists look at the reasons for caring about biodiversity and what we are willing to pay to preserve it.

--Egan, Timothy, "Trout Truths." As a devastating disease infects the pristine rivers of Montana, questions arise about whether human efforts to improve on nature are to blame.

--Collins, Glenn, "Hall of Hard Questions." Life, where to fit it all? The creation of the American Museum of Natural History's new biodiversity exhibit was an adventure in itself.

--Wilford John Noble, "Showing Why a Rainforest Matters," New York Times, May 29, 1998. B31, B39. In a new permanent exhibition, the American Museum of Natural History features the interdependence of living things, the wealth of biodiversity, and expresses concern about the future of life on Earth. This is the Museum's first issues-oriented hall, and puts the Museum forward as an advocate of saving biodiversity through saving ecosystems.

--Young, Richard, Healing the Earth: A Theocentric Perspective on Environmental Problems and Their Solutions. Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1994. Theocentrism, rather than either anthropocentrism or biocentrism, is the only proper stance for Christians to take in environmental ethics.

--Baden, John A., and Noonan, Douglas, eds., Managing the Commons, 2nd ed. Bloomington, ID: Indiana University Press, 1998. The first edition was twenty years ago. Much attention to Garrett Hardin and the problems he raises, and various efforts in economics and politics to manage the commons.

--Bowles, Ian A., Rice, R. E., Mittermeier, R. A., and da Foneca, G.A.B., "Logging and Tropical Forest Conservation," Science 280(1998):1899-1900. Environmental and development organizations have poured hundreds of millions of dollars into sustainable forestry, but these investments have produced few results. Outside plantations, less than 0.02 percent of the world's tropical forests are managed sustainably for timber. The major barrier to sustainable forestry's success is basic economics. Reaping a one-time harvest of ancient trees today is simply more profitable than managing for future harvests. The World Bank is the largest funder of forestry projects worldwide. In the face of a World Bank initiative to establish 500 million acres of sustainable forestry by 2005, scientific evidence is mounting that sustainable harvests may damage biodiversity more than standard logging practices. Summary and further details in Tangley, Laura, "Sustainable Logging Proves Unsupportable," U.S. News and World Report, June 29, 1998, pp. 63-64.

--Bryant, B., and Mohai, P., eds., Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.

--Peterson, Tarla-Rai, Sharing the Earth: The Rhetoric of Sustainable Development. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1997. 240 pages. $ 30.00.

--Beisner, E. Calvin, Where Garden Meets Wilderness: Evangelical Entry into the Environmental Debate. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997. 208 pages. $ 18.

--Thapar, Valmik, Land of the Tiger: A Natural History of the Indian Subcontinent. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. 287 pages. $ 30.

--Hodgson, Peter E., Energy and the Environment. London: Bowerdean, 1997.

--Hough, Adrian, God is Not "Green": A Re-Examination of Eco-Theology. Leominster, UK: Gracewing, 1997.

--Urbanska, Krystyna, Webb, Nigel, and Edwards, Peter, eds., Restoration Ecology and Sustainable Development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 414 pages. $ 75.

--Noss, Reed F., O'Connell, Michael A., Murphy, Dennis D. The Science of Conservation Planning. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 272 pp. $40 cloth, $25 paper. Three of the nation's leading conservation biologists explore the role of the scientist in the planning process and present a framework and guidelines for applying science to regional habitat-based conservation planning.

--Kellert, Stephen R. Kinship to Mastery. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 240 pp. $25. Kellert describes and explains the concept of biophilia, and demonstrates to a general audience the wide-ranging implications of environmental degradation.

--Vileisis, Ann. Discovering the Unknown Landscape: A History of America's Wetlands. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 440 pp. $27.50. A synthesis of social and environmental history and an examination of how cultural attitudes shape the physical world.

--Gillilan, David M., Brown, Thomas C. Instream Flow Protection: Seeking a Balance in Western Water Use. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 432 pp. $50 cloth, $30 paper. A comprehensive overview of U. S. Western water use and the issues that surround it.

--Meine, Curt, ed. Wallace Stegner and the Continental Vision: Essays on Literature, History, and Landscape. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 240 pp. $24.95. Contributors consider Stegner as writer, as historian, and as conservationist, discussing his place in the American literary tradition, his integral role in shaping how Americans relate to the land, and his impact on their own personal lives and careers.

--Maehr, David S. The Florida Panther: Life and Death of a Vanishing Carnivore. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 320 pp. $40 cloth, $19.95 paper. Maehr presents the first detailed portrait of the endangered panther--its biology, natural history, and current status--and a realistic assessment of its prospects for survival.

--Student Conservation Association. The Guide to Graduate Environmental Programs. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 384 pp. $29.95 cloth. $16.95 paper. More than 160 in-depth profiles provide information on enrollments, student-faculty ratios, tuition, areas of specializations, facilities, admission and degree requirements, career counseling and job placements, special program features and more.

--Beatley, Timothy, Manning, Kristy. The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 225 pp. $25. Policy and development issues that affect a community--from its economic base to its transit options, to the ways in which its streets and public spaces are managed--and examine the wide range of programs, policies, and creative ideas that can be used to turn the vision of sustainable places.

--Daniels, Tom, Bowers, Deborah. Holding Our Ground: Protecting America's Farms and Farmland. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 420 pp. $34.95. The many challenges involved in protecting farmland and how to create a package of techniques that can meet those challenges.

--Nantel, P., Bouchard, A., Hay, S. "Selection of Areas for Protecting Rare Plants with Integration of Land-Use Conflicts: A Case Study for the West Coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Biological Conservation 84(no.3, 1998):233- .

--Hacker, J.E., Cowlishiaw, G. Williams, P.H. "Patterns of African Primate Diversity and Their Evaluation for the Selection of Conservation Areas," Biological Conservation 84(no.3, 1998):251.

--Yahnke, C.J., De Fox, I. Gamarra, Colman, F. "Mammalian Species Richness in Paraguay: The Effectiveness of National Parks in Preserving Biodiversity," Biological Conservation 84(no.3, 1998):263- .

--Barber, Charles Victor. "Forest Resource Scarcity and Social Conflict in Indonesia," Environment 40(no. 4, May 1998):4- . As economic tensions escalate and unsustainable logging practices continue, the risk of civil violence in Indonesia is rising.

--Andersen, Mikael Skou. "Assessing the Effectiveness of Denmark's Waste Tax," Environment 40(no. 4, May 1998):10- . The waste tax that Denmark introduced in 1987 has contributed to an increase in the country's recycling rate, but further changes will be needed for it to realize its full potential.

--Lofstedt, Ragnar. "Sweden's Biomass Controversy: A Case Study of Communicating Policy Issues," Environment 40(no. 4, May 1998):16- . Sweden's efforts to shift to renewable sources of energy are being hampered by misunderstandings and distortions of the key issues involved.

--Ruttan, Lore M. "Closing the Commons: Cooperation for Gain or Restraint?" Human Ecology 26(no.1, Mar. 1998):43- .

--Casimir, Michael J., Rao, Aparna. "Sustainable Herd Management and the Tragedy of No Man's Land: An Analysis of West Himalayan Pastures Using Remote Sensing Techniques," Human Ecology 26(no.1, Mar. 1998):113- .

--Sierra, Rodrigo, and Stallings, Jody. "The Dynamics and Social Organization of Tropical Deforestation in Northwest Ecuador, 1983-1995," Human Ecology 26(no.1, Mar. 1998):135- .

--Gerrard, Michael B. "Territoriality, Risk Perception, and Counterproductive Legal Structures: The Case of Waste Facility Siting," Human Ecology 26(no.1, Mar. 1998):1017- . The placement of hazardous and nuclear waste facilities is an exercise fraught with difficulties. Local communities and states often object vehemently to any proposal that would place a new facility within their borders. One of the primary reasons for this difficulty is the failure of hazardous waste law to take into account the fundamental instinct of territoriality.

--Goldman, Patti A., Boyles, Kristen L. "Forsaking the Rule of Law: The 1995 Logging Without Laws Rider and Its Legacy," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1035- . Analysis of the litigation that occurred over the 1995 Logging Without Laws Rider. Abandoning the rule of law left federal agencies unfettered and unaccountable to the public, federal courts unwilling and unable to exert control, and the environment unprotected.

--Abernethy, Virginia Deane. "Allowing Fertility Decline: 200 Years After Malthus's Essay on Population," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1097- .

--Abrams, Paula. "Population Control and Sustainability: It's the Same Old Song but With a Different Meaning," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1111- .

--Boland, Reed. "The Environment, Population, and Women's Human Rights," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1137- .

--Coward, Harold. "Religious Responses to the Population Sustainability Problematic: Implications for Law," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1169- .

--Ehrlich, Paul R., and Ehrlich, Anne H. "The Population Explosion: Why We Should Care and What We Should Do About It," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1187- .

--Hardaway, Robert M. "Environmental Malthusianism: Integrating Population and Environmental Policy," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1209- .

--Salzman, James. "Sustainable Consumption and the Law," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1243- .

--Spahn, Elizabeth. "Feeling Grounded: A Gendered View of Population Control," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1295- .

--Lieben, Ivan J. "Political Influences on USFWS Listing Decisions Under the ESA: Time to Rethink Priorities," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1323- . How political and economic pressures have modified USFWS listing decisions under the ESA, in direct contradiction to the statute's plain language. Lieben recommends modifications to USFWS listing regulations, which would reduce the likelihood of the Service considering political factors in future decisions and place more emphasis on the ecosystem significance of a candidate species.

--Neumann, Christopher J. "Successor Liability and CERCLA: The Runaway Doctrine of Continuity of Enterprise," Environmental Law 27(no.4, 1997):1373- . The doctrine of successor liability and the corresponding continuity of enterprise exception in the context of CERCLA liability. Neumann criticizes the extensive use of the continuity of enterprise exception and argues that only the traditional successor liability doctrine should apply in CERCLA cases.

--Burnham, Neal. "More Damnation in Quebec," Alternatives 24(no. 2, spring 1998):5- . Hydro-Quebec plans to divert eight more rivers to generate additional electricity for the US.

--Taylor, Estelle. "Fishing for Control," Alternatives 24(no. 2, spring 1998):7- . Former enemies join forces as BC coastal communities seek to manage their own fisheries.

--Gordon, David F., and Wolpe, Howard. "The Other Africa: An End to Afro-Pessimism," World Policy Journal 15(no. 1, spring 1998):49- .

--Pausas, J. G., and Austin, M. P. "Potential Impact of Harvesting for the Long-Term Conservation of Arboreal Marsupials," Landscape Ecology 13(no. 2, Apr. 1998):103- .

--Aguiar, John. "Evanescent Diversity--The Palms of Madagascar," Bioscience 48(no.7, Jul. 1998):499- . The case of the triangle palm exemplifies issues facing threatened palms worldwide.

--Frank, Douglas A., McNaughton, Samuel J., Tracy, Benjamin F. "The Ecology of the Earth's Grazing Ecosystems," Bioscience 48(no.7, Jul. 1998):513- . Profound functional similarities exist between the Serengeti and Yellowstone.

--Walker, Laurence C. The North American Forests: The Geography, Ecology, and Silviculture. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998. $69.95. 464 pp. Thirteen chapters describe more than 100 forest cover types, involving several times that many species.

--Hammond, Allen. Which World? Scenarios for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $24.95. 320 pp.

--Ehrlich, Paul R., Ehrlich, Anne H. Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-Environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $27.50 cloth, $16.95 paper. 320 pp.

--Power, Thomas Michael. Lost Landscapes and Failed Economics: The Search for a Value of Place. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $32.50 cloth, $17.95 paper. 350 pp.

--Pilkey, Orrin H., Dixon, Katharine L. The Corps and the Shore. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $24.95 cloth, $16.95 paper. 256 pp.

--Pinchot, Gifford. Breaking New Ground. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $25. 546 pp. The autobiography of the first chief of the U.S. Forest Service, here reprinted.

--Merchant, Carolyn, ed. Green Versus Gold. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $45 cloth, $25 paper. 416 pp.

--HcHarg, Ian L., and Steiner, Frederick R., eds. To Heal the Earth: Selected Writings of Ian L. McHarg. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $32. 310 pp. Selected writings of the famous landscape architect who pioneered design with nature.

--Kaplan, Rachel, Kaplan, Stephen. With People in Mind: Design and Management of Everyday Nature. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $29.95. 320 pp.

--Peck, Sheila. Planning for Biodiversity: Issues and Examples. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $25. 256 pp.

--Knight, Richard, and Landres, Peter B. eds. Stewardship Across Boundaries. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $60 cloth, $29.95 paper. 352 pp.

--Marzluff, John M., Sallabanks, Rex, eds. Avian Conservation: Research and Management. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $55. 512 pp.

--Margoluis, Richard, Salafsky, Nick. Measures of Success: Designing, Monitoring, and Managing Conservation and Development Projects. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $35. 363 pp.

--Brandon, Katrina, Redford, Kent H., Sanderson, Steven E., eds. Parks in Peril: People, Politics,and Protected Areas. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $50 cloth, $30 paper. 400 pp.

--Gleick, Peter H. The World's Water 1998-1999: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $29.95. 200 pp.

--Cicinsain (Cicin-Sain), Biliana, and Knecht, Robert W. Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices, Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $65 cloth, $32.50 paper. 416 pp.

--Buck, Susan J. The Global Commons: An Introduction. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $50 cloth, $25 paper. 240 pp.

--Freese, Curtis H. Wild Species as Commodities: Managing Markets and Ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $59.95 cloth, $29.95 paper. 256 pp.

--Roome, Nigel J., ed. Sustainability Strategies for Industry:The Future of Corporate Practice. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $60 cloth, $30 paper. 208 pp.

--Duchin, Faye. Structural Economics: Measuring Change in Technology, Lifestyles, and the Environment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998. $35. 208 pp.

--Marshall, Peter. Riding the Wind: A New Philosophy for a New Era. London and New York: Cassell, 1998, 263pp. In this account of his mature thinking, Peter Marshall develops a dynamic and organic philosophy for the third millennium which he calls liberation ecology. Deep, social, and libertarian, liberation ecology seeks to free nature, society and individuals from their existing burdens so that they can all realize together their full potential. Riding the Wind presents a fresh and inspired vision which combines ancient wisdom and modern insights, reason and intuition, science and myth. Chapters include: The Way of the Universe, Nature's Web, Creative Evolution, Playful Humanity, Reverence for Being, The Family of Life, After the Leviathan, The Common Treasury, Dwelling Lightly on Earth, Learning to Live, The Alchemy of Love. John Clark, Professor of Philosophy at Loyola University, New Orleans, says: "Riding the Wind is a well written and accessible work that makes a strong statement of Peter Marshall's important and distinctive position in contemporary ecological thought. The book deserves to be read and discussed widely." Marshall is a full-time writer, and his many books include the highly acclaimed Nature's Web: Rethinking our Place on Earth and Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism.



Women Make Movies is an nonprofit media arts organization dedicated to facilitating and distributing women's independent film and video. Their collection includes over 400 titles supported in the past by grants from such agencies as the National Endowment for the Arts, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the MacArthur Foundation. Some of the titles are on environmental topics, such as, Eternal Seed (interviews and rare footage of India's agricultural industry, depicting women's efforts to maintain traditional farming practices), Love Women and Flowers (the politics of pesticide use in the Columbian flower industry and its crippling effects on the environment and the health of workers), Troubled Harvest (women from Mexico and Central America who are migrant workers in the US), and Amazon Sisters (women working on the frontlines to save the rainforests). WMM desires contacts with academic professionals, especially regarding film reviews in scholarly journals and screenings at professional conferences. For a catalogue or more information, contact: Kate Kirtz, Educational Marketing and Sales Coordinator, Women Make Movies, 462 Broadway Suite 500, New York, NY 10013; tel 212-925-0606, Fax 212-925-2052.



Colorado State University: Assistant Professor of Philosophy; tenure-track. AOS: Environmental Ethics; AOC: Ethical Theory or Social and Political Philosophy. Ph.D., publications in AOS, and teaching experience required. Undergraduate and graduate teaching; teaching load is 5 courses/seminars per year, with course reductions poossible. Advising and committee work required. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. The position is effective August 15, 1999. Send complete dossier, including a statement of interest, complete curriculum vitae, and three current letters of recommendation by November 30, 1998 (postmark date) to Holmes Rolston, Chair of Search Committee, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Colorado State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and complies with all Federal and Colorado State laws, regulations and executive orders regarding affirmative action requirements in all programs. [Note: As of publication deadline, this position had not yet been formally approved by Dean and Provost, but approval is anticipated.]




--August 10-16, 1998. 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Copley Place, Boston, MA, USA. See Conferences above.

--August 23-28, 1998. "Philosophy and Ecology: Greek Philosophy and the Environment." Samos, Greece. Organized by Prof. K. Boudouris, University of Athens. Sponsored by the International Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy (IAGP) and its US affiliate (SAGP-USA). Contacts: Prof. K. Boudouris, 5 Simonidou St. 17456 Alimos, Greece, Email: kboud@atlas.uoa.gr; Prof. Tom Robinson, Philosophy Dept., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, CANADA; Tel: 416-978-2824; Fax: 416-978-8703; Email: tmrobins@epas.utoronto.ca; and Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, address below.

--September 7-8, 1998. Poznan, Poland. Conference on "The Simulation of Physiological Processes in Animals as an Alternative Method in Academic Education." See announcement earlier in this newsletter.

--September 8, 1998. "Theoretical and Practical Implications of Environmental Ethics." A meeting of Polish intelectuals about environmental philosophy, at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland. Contact: Prof. Wlodzimierz Tyburski, Instytut Filozofii UMK, Podmurna 74, 87-100 Torun, POLAND.

--September 18-20, 1998. Workshop for environmental scientists and professionals. University of North Texas in Denton. Speakers will include J. Baird Callicott, Eugene Hargrove, and John Lemons (University of New England). For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove at Dept. of Philosophy, UNT, P O Box 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel:940-565-2727; Fax:940-565-4448; Internet: ee@unt.edu and www.cep.unt.edu

--September 28-30, 1998, Austin, TX. International Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration. Making Connections. Call for papers. Rangeland restoration. Restoration Education. Cross-border Cooperation. Restoration using fire. Prairie Restoration. Wildlife Habitat Restoration. Urban Wetlands. And much more. David Mahler, SER International Conference, 4602 Placid Place, Austin, TX 78731. Tel: 512-458-8531. Fax: 512-458-1929.

--October 1998. Sixth World Wilderness Congress, Bangalore, India. (This conference has been rescheduled from October 1997. Contact Alan Watson, P. O. Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807. 406/542-4197. Fax 406/542-4196.

--October 2-4, 1998. Workshop on "The Ethics of Human Health and Ecosystem Health: Towards An Inclusive Understanding." McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Contact: Dr. Elisabeth Boetzkes, Program Committee Chair, Department of Philosophy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street West, University Hall 209, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 Canada, Fax: 905 577 0385, E-mail: boetzkes@mcmaster.ca

--October 4-7, 1998. Sustainability and the Liberal Arts. Hendrix College, Conway, AK. Center for Respect of Life and Environment and Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge. Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone: 202/778-6133. Fax: 202/778-6138. Email: CRLE@aol.com. Webpage: http://www.centerl.com/crle.html

--October 21-23, 1998. Restoring Wolves to the Adirondacks: Civic Democracy and Obligations to Future Generations. Conference sponsored by The Hastings Center and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). To be held at the AMNH in New York City (79th and Central Park West). Invited papers only. For information, contact the project co-director, Virginia Ashby Sharpe, PhD, Associate for Biomedical and Environmental Ethics, The Hastings Center, Garrison, NY 10524-5555, Tel: 914-424-4040, Fax: 914-424-4545, Email: sharpeva@thehastingscenter.org

--October 22-24, 1998. Harbin, China. First All-China Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development. Sponsored by the Center for the Environment and Society, Harbin Institute of Technology. The organizer is Ye Ping. Holmes Rolston is one of the international speakers. From October 22-November 6, Rolston will be giving a series of lectures in other universities in China and visiting conservation sites there.

--October 22-24, 1998. Ecumenical Earth: New Dimensions of Church and Community in Creation. Union Theological Seminary, New York, NY. Center for Respect of Life and Environment and Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge. Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone: 202/778-6133. Fax: 202/778-6138. E-mail: CRLE@aol.com. Webpage: http://www.centerl.com/crle.html

--November 23-27, 1998. Short course on the topic "Values, Ethics and the Environment: Theory and practice of putting values on the environment." Case studies and role plays. £595. Contact: Mrs P A Savill, Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH United Kingdom; Tel: +44 (0)143 259047; Fax: +44 (0)143 259394; Email: p.savill@surrey.ac.uk

--December 27-30, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division. Washington Hilton, Washington, DC.


--March 18-21, 1999. Conference on "John Ray and His Successors: The Clergyman as Biologist." Braintree, Essex, UK. Bookings and details from Janet Turner, John Ray Trust, Town Hall Centre, BRAINTREE, Essex, CM7 3YG United Kingdom. Tel (+44) 1376-557776; Fax -344345.

--March 31-April 3, 1999. American Philosophical Association: Pacific Division. Claremont Hotel, Berkeley, CA.

--April 19-22, 1999. In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation. The Fifth International Symposium, at San Diego California. Call for papers, to Carol Young, Battelle, 505 King Avenue/Room 10-123, Columbus, Ohio 43201. Information from The Conference Group, 1989 West Fifth Avenue, Suite 5, Columbus, Ohio 43212. Fax 624/488-5747.

--May 5-8, 1999. American Philosophical Association: Central Division. Hyatt Regency Hotel, New Orleans, LA.

--May 23-27, 1999. Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. University of Montana, Missoula. Includes wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science. Changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. Call for papers. Natural Resource Management Division, Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. 406/243-4623. 888/254-2544 Email: ckelly@selway.umt.edu. www.wilderness.net



Back issues of ISEE Newsletters have been moved to the University of North Texas website at:


Newsletters can be searched using the FIND feature on Windows or other software. Newsletters can be Emailed to your local address.



The ISEE Bibliography website bibliography has been updated to include all 1997 entries. Entries for 1998 are to be found in the quarterly newsletters and will be merged into the website bibliography in February of 1999. Access via Internet from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:


The site has a search engine, by name and keyword. Files and search results can be e-mailed to your local e-mail address. The preceding require only ordinary website and e-mail capacities. The bibliography has also been placed in PDF files at the same website. This requires an Adobe Acrobat Reader, with which the three files (A-F, G-O, and P-Z) can be downloaded to your local computer. With a PDF brower, the files can be read on line, though this requires a fast computer for convenience.

This bibliography is also available on disk in DOS WordPerfect 5.1 format (which can be easily converted to other formats), on three 3 1/2 disks. On disk, the bibliography is in three parts, A-F, G-O and P-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel: 970-491-6315 (office); Fax: 970-491-4900; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu Send $5 to Rolston.



Course offerings, syllabi, instructor's vitae, etc., from around the world are accessible at the following Website:


The project's goal is to collect information from throughout the world about what courses are taught, by whom, in which colleges and universities, and to make this available for teachers, administrators, students, prospective grad students, etc. Materials are submitted by the instructors. The site has many interactive links to environmental sites, home pages, universities, etc.

To submit materials, preferably via Email, contact the Project's founder and coordinator: Robert Hood, Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0222; Email: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu.

The materials can also be accessed, along with the ISEE Newsletter, at the ISEE Website homepage:


To keep contributors informed of new course information and additions to the Syllabus Project, all contributors of a syllabus will automatically receive an on-line serial (ISSN: 1098-5328) via quarterly emails (at the end of the months of March, June, September, and December). To unsubscribe, send email to: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu



Current Officers of ISEE (Executive Board):

President: Prof. J. Baird Callicott, Dept of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton Texas 76203 USA; Dept Tel: 817-565-2266; Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1999-2000.

Vice-President and President-Elect: Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Dept of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA; Tel: 219-631-5000 (University), 219-631-7579 (Philosophy Dept.); Fax: 219-631-8209 (Dept. Fax).; term to expire at the end of the academic year 1999-2000, when term as President begins.

Secretary: Prof. Laura Westra, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050; term to expire end of academic year 2000-01.

Treasurer: Ernest Partridge, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: gadfly@igc.org; Website: www.igc.org/gadfly; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Newsletter Editor: Prof. Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Tel: 606-783-2785, 606-784-0046; Fax: 606-783-5346; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Nominating Committee:

--Prof. Victoria Davion, Chair of the ISEE Nominating Committee, Dept of Philosophy, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA; Tel: 706-542-2827; Email: vdavion@uga.cc.uga.edu

--Prof. Alan Holland, Dept of Philosophy, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK; Fax: 44 (Country Code) (0) 524 (City Code) 846102; Email: A.Holland@lancaster.ac.uk

--Prof. Roger Paden, Dept of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 USA; Tel: 703-993-1265; Email: rpaden@gmu.edu

--Prof. Gary Varner, Dept of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4237 USA; Email: g-varner@tamu.edu




Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor, of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this results in duplicated efforts. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred):


The parcel post address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Scholarly articles are not published. Very brief reports of research and publications will be considered. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Calls for Papers and Conferences should be limited to 150 words.

Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.



U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA, Tel: 909-338-6173, Fax: 909-338-7072, Email: gadfly@igc.org; or Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA, Tel: 519-253-4232, Fax: 519-973-7050.

Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, renewals, new subscriptions, and address changes should be sent to these regional contact persons. The dues are used by the contact person to pay for duplication and mailing of the Newsletter.

If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them either to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, or to Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary (addresses above).





Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Tel. 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Australia and New Zealand

The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; Tel: 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax: 61 74 30 1111; Email: elliot@mail.scuc.edu.au


Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050.

China: Mainland China

Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

China: Taiwan

Professor Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taiwan. Email: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net

Europe: Eastern Europe

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Tel: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8471-555 (24h), +48 / 61 / 8477-079 (8 a.m. - 3. p.m. MET).. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl

Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean

The contact person is Martin Drenthen. Send the equivalent of $15 US to: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Tel: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751 (Office), Fax: 31-24-3615564. Email: mdrenthen@phil.kun.nl, Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html

Pakistan and South Asia

Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Tel: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk

United Kingdom

KeeKok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Tel & Fax: +44 (0)161 275 3196. Email: keekok.lee@man.ac.uk

Dues are £6.50 UK.

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston South Carolina 29424 USA. Tel: 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax: 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu; Tel: 970-491-6315 (Office); Fax: 970-491-4900.

Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bluilding, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).


The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.

Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.

Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email (preferred) or by disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:


Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Building, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).




Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.

Enclosed are dues: ______________________. Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15; Outside U.S., $20. Student dues are $10 inside U.S.; or $15 outside U.S. Members outside the U.S. should send the equivalent of U.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates, to the regional Contact Person (at the address listed above) or to the ISEE Treasurer (checks or drafts in U.S. dollars only).


Name: ____________________________________________


Tel: (______)________________


Position or Affiliation:



Address (Include Postal Code):









SEND with Payment to: Regional Contact Person (address above); or Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA; Tel: 909-338-6173; Fax: 909-338-7072; Email: gadfly@igc.org