Volume 7, No. 4, Winter 1996

General Announcements

The Man and Nature Research Center, located at Odense University, Denmark, ends its five-year life in June 1997. The Center has been prominent on the European scene in environmental ethics and policy issues, producing some 100 working papers and many dozens of conferences and seminars in the field, hosting also many scholars from Europe and abroad. Many of these working papers remain available, as are some video productions. Information on the website is at http://www.hum.ou.dk/Center/Hollufgaard/index.html. A philosopher involved with the project is Finn Arler. Mailing address: Man and Nature: Humanities Research Center, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, 5220 Odense SO, Denmark. Phone 45 6595 9493. Fax 45 6595 7766.

The Syllabus Project, the most comprehensive and up-to-date source of information concerning course offerings in environmental philosophy and environmental ethics, is being supported by the International Society for Environmental Ethics, the Center for Environmental Philosophy, the Philosophy Documentation Center, and the Philosophy Department at Bowling Green State University. The materials can be accessed on the World Wide Web at:


The project's goal is to collect information from throughout the world about what courses are taught, by whom, in which colleges and universities, and to make this available on website for teachers, administrators, students, prospective grad students, and so on. All teachers of such courses are requested to send copies of their syllabuses, course materials, Resumé, etc., preferrably by Email (disks should be text/ASCII only). As a last resort, send a paper-mail copy. If your syllabuses are accessible electronically, please send the location (URL) so they can be linked to the Project website. Send the information and materials to: Robert Hood, Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0222; Email: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu. Another contact is: J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-6496; E-mail: callicot@terrill.unt.edu. The project was proposed by Callicott and is being implimented by Hood. The materials can also be accessed, along with the ISEE Newsletter, at the ISEE website homepage:


A simulation called "Balance of the Planet" is available. To play the game, you have to imagine you are the High Commissioner of the Environment at the United Nations, and that you have until the year 2035 to enact your policies for improvement. At your control are the rates of tax on beef, CFCs, coal, fertilizers, heavy metals, logging, natural gas, oil, pesticides and the nuclear industry. These produce your income which you can then spend on research into coal, dam use, oil, nuclear power, solar power or basic research; or you can subsidize debt for nature swaps, family planning, recycling centers, solar energy or the use of wood stoves. The game allows the player to change the underlying biases, to pro-nuclear, pro-environmentalist, pro-industrialist or pro-third world. This lets the player come backstage in the simulation and take control of many of the critical factors. Not only does this empower the player, but it also challenges him to examine closely his own beliefs. Information at: http://www.newciv.org/GIB/BOV/BV-276.HTML

The Committee for the National Institute for the Environment has a web site at http://www.cnie.org. There is a prototype National Library for the Environment, an online source of environmental information, at: http://www.cnie.org/nle. Online are about 200 full-text U.S. Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports on environmental issues. This Research Service is part of the United States Library of Congress and provides nonpartisan information on any subject of interest to Congress. Research reports undergo careful review for accuracy, thoroughness, technical soundness, balance, nonpartisanship and objectivity. A contact is: Juge Gregg, Director, Academic Relations, Committee for the National Institute for the Environment, 1725 K Street, NW, Suite 212, Washington, DC 20006. Phone: 202-628-4303. Fax: 202-628-4311. E-mail: juge@cnie.org

The Third Annual Environmental Ethics Symposium at the University of Georgia featured Donald Worster, "Are We Losing Ground? Environmentalism at the End of the Century," and Max Oelschlaeger, "Valuing the Environment: The Necessity of Strong Evaluation." The symposium was held November 7, with a dialogue, moderated by Frank Golley, on the ways Western values have defined human society's relationship with the environment.

Heta Häyry and Robin Attfield presented papers at a Seminar on "Generations and Welfare" held in Helsinki on October 17 and 18, 1996, organized by the Prime Minister's Office of Finland. Häyry's paper concerned "Generations, Rights and Responsibilities," and Attfield's "Intergenerational Equity and Environmental Ethics". The hostess was the Finance Minister of Finland. Other participants represented Estonia, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Ireland, and the European Community.

SECOND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ESSAY CONTEST. Open to undergraduate college students around the world. 1500-2000 words in English. Topic: describe the most critical environmental issues in your country, in terms which will influence public opinion, and articulate how those issues will impact international understanding and the global economy in the next decade. Awards: First Place, US $500.00 and publication; Second Place, US $300.00 and publication; Third Place, US $200.00 and publication; Honorable Mentions, publication. Students must "register" by 15 March 1997 and submit the paper (either by paper-mail or E-mail in ASCII) by 31 March 1997. For detailed information, to register, or to submit an essay: ESSAY@FMARION.EDU, Dr. Lucia Huang, Francis Marion University, P. O. Box 100547, Florence, SC 29501 USA.

Call for applications: Bioethics Institute, Michigan State University, 13-17 May 1997. $250 stipend. For nonmedical (especially environmental and agricultural) life science faculty members wishing to integrate discussions of ethics into their classes. Speakers include Will Aiken, Lilly Russow, Gary Comstock and Paul Thompson. Deadline: 1 March 1997. For application, contact Fred Gifford, Philosophy Dept., 503 S. Kedzie Hall, Michigan State U., East Lansing, MI 48824. 517/355-4490; Email: gifford@pilot.msu.edu

Robin Attfield gave two presentations on 8 November 1996 at the Senter ofr Vitskapsteori, University of Bergen, Norway. The papers were"Saving Nature Versus Feeding People?" and "Discounting Jamieson's Trilemma and Representing the Future." The following day in the snow, Professor Gunnar Skirbekk and Attfield climbed Floyen, a nearby mountain.

Holmes Rolston will give the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in November 1997. The Gifford Lectures in the four classical Scottish universities date from 1885 by endowment of Lord Gifford. Lecturers have included philosophers, theologians, physicists, astronomers, biologists, chemists, neurologists, historians, anthropologists, psychologists, and those from other disciplines. The original endowment was for lectures in natural theology, broadly conceived, which over the century has been expanded to include the broad spectrum of modern philosophical trends, as these bear on metaphysics, ethics, cosmology, and theology. Past Gifford lecturers have included, among others: William James, John Dewey, Henri Bergson, Arnold Toynbee, Karl Barth, Reinhold Niebuhr, Herbert Butterfield, Hans Driesch, J. S. Haldane, Werner Heisenberg, Arthur Eddington, Richard Dawkins, Carl Sagan, Hilary Putnam, Niels Bohr, Michael Polanyi, Alfred North Whitehead, Albert Schweitzer, and Paul Tillich.

Rolston plans a series, "Genes, Genesis, and God," which deals with the question of genetic creativity over evolutionary history and its relationship to human cultural creativity, especially in science, ethics, and religion. Evolutionary history is interpreted as the genesis of natural value, which is conserved, enriched, and distributed over time. Such values in nature can and ought to be conserved, enriched, and appreciated by humans using their capacities for science, ethics, and religion.

Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Rolston will travel during the summer 1997 to Siberia and Lake Baikal to look conservation issues. Not to neglect his home in the Rocky Mountains, he also plans a horse packing trip in the Bob Marshall Wilderness complex in Montana.

Paul Shepard, the noted human ecologist, passed away 16 July 1996. He taught at Dartmouth University and more recently at Pitzer College (Claremont, CA), where he held the Avery Chair in Human Ecology. Because of the radical, even revolutionary nature of his writing, the greater part of Shepard's reputation likely lies ahead--in the next century, when evolutionary thinkers are taken seriously--rather than behind. Which is to say, then, that future generations will come to appreciate his work more fully than the one intellectually dominant now.

Shepard's books include: The Others: How Animals Made Us Human (Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1996); The Only World We've Got (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995); Man in the Landscape: An Historic View of the Esthetics of Nature (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1991; orig. pub. Knopf, 1967); The Sacred Paw: The Bear in Nature, Myth, and Literature (with Barry Sanders) (New York: Viking Press, 1985); Nature and Madness (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1982); Thinking Animals: Animals and the Development of Human Intelligence (New York: Viking Press,  N.Y., 1978); The Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game (New York: Scribners, 1973); Environ/Mental: Essays on the Planet as a Home (with Daniel McKinley) (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971); and, The Subversive Science: Essays Toward an Ecology of Man (with Daniel McKinley) (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969).

Shepard has influenced a number of environmental philosophers as well as intellectuals in other fields. A recent critical assessment of his work, The Company of Others: Essays in Celebration of Paul Shepard (Durango, CO: Kivaki Press, 1995), includes contributions by Gary Snyder, J. Baird Callicott, John B. Cobb, Jr., George Sessions, Dolores LaChapelle, Jim Cheney, Laura Westra, and Elizabeth Lawrence. (Submitted by Max Oelschlaeger, Corrales, NM. E-mail: xcmk80a@prodigy.com)


Call for Papers: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:

--Eastern Division: March 1st

--Central Division: September 1st

--Pacific Division: September 1st

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 USA, E-mail: katze@admin.njit.edu

--Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; E-mail: westra@uwindsor.ca

--Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; E-mail: gadfly@igc.apc.org

APA: Central Division Program, 23-26 April 1997, Pittsburg, PA:

Session One: Panel on "Nature vs. Development?"  Organized by Will Aiken; chaired by Laura Westra. Speakers: Holmes Rolston III, Colorado State University; David Crocker, University of Maryland; Will Aiken, Chatham College. Followed by brief business meeting. Session Two: "Recent Work in Environmental Ethics." Chaired by Laura Westra. Speakers: Sheri Collins-Shobanian, Arizona State University West, "A Proposal for Environmental Consumer Labelling: From Nutrition Facts and Fat Grams to Environmental Facts and Pesticide PPMs"; William McKinney, Southeast Missouri State University, "On the Seemingly Paradoxical Nature of the Phrase `American Environmental Regulations'"; Andrew J. Kerr, Divinity School, University of Chicago, "The Necessity of Metaphysics: Environmental Ethics and the Naturalistic Fallacy"; Teresa Kwiatkowska, University of Autonoma, Mexico City, "Beyond Uncertainty: Toward the Ethics of Belonging."

CALL FOR PAPERS: Ethics and Natural Environmental Change: Recognizing the Autonomy of Nature. A two-day interdisciplinary symposium to be held during the Learned Societies Congress, St. John's, Newfoundland, June 4 and 5, 1997, followed by a three-day seminar and excursion in Corner Brook to discuss with local residents, scientists and environmental managers the effects of environmental change on a traditional resource-based society.

The Symposium will explore perspectives in contemporary environmental philosophy that deal with natural processes of environmental change.

The Seminar and Excursion will be based at Sir Wilfred Grenfell College in Corner Brook and in the Gros Morne National Park nearby. It will provide environmental scholars with an opportunity to meet an interdisciplinary group of scientists and environmental managers concerned with practical ethical issues of importance to Newfoundland. For more information, contact: Dr. Thom. Heyd, Department of Philosophy, University of Victoria,  Victoria BC V8W 3P4. Phone: (250) 381-2239, Fax: (604) 721-7511. E-mail: theyd@uvvm.uvic.ca

Papers will sent out for assessment. Individuals will be notified regarding their participation as presenters by May 1st, 1997. Papers should be submitted as soon as possible and up to April 1st (even though papers submitted before February 1st will have first chance at being selected for reading at the Symposium.

CALL FOR PAPERS: Conference on Global Ecological Integrity: The Relation Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics. 21-26 June 1997, Cortona and Firenze, ITALY. Funded by SSHRC Grant (Canada) 96-99, PI, Laura Westra, co-sponsored by the "Integrity Project" and Brunetto Chiarelli, Istituto di Antropologia, Universita' di Firenze. For information, for proposals, abstract or papers, contact: Laura Westra, Philosophy Dept. University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, CANADA; Fax (905) 7384421; TEL (416) 494-2495. Or: c/o Chair of Anthropology, Instituto di Antropolcia, Universita di Firenze, via del Proconsolo 12-501022, Firenze, ITALY; Fax +39-55-2398065; Tel +39-55-283358; E-mail: UNIFIAT@MAILSERVER.IDG.FI.CNR.IT

Risk Assessment and Policy Association (RAPA), annual meeting, Washington, DC, 6-7 March 1997. The society focuses on ethical and policy questions on environmental risk. Commentators are still needed:  Write to Kristen Shrader-Frechette, Philosophy Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33620-5550. Many famous speakers will be present, including George Brown of California and Theo Colborn of the World Wildlife Fund. Thirty topics will be presented; some are: "Burdens and Levels of Proof," "Informed Consent," "Risk and Public Participation," "Uncertainty and Risk," "Public Health and Risk Assessment.". A session entitled "Environmental Justice and Equality" will be chaired by Laura Westra and will focus on "Environmental Racism"; speakers are: Robert Bullard, Clark University of Atlanta; Clarice Gaylord, Office of Environmental Justice, EPA; Owens Wiwa, Nigeria; Laura Westra, University of Windsor.

The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its annual meeting at the University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA, from 6-9 June 1997. Ned Hettinger and Phil Pister will attend. For more information, contact Ned Hettinger (address below) or Phil Pister phildesfish@telis.org

CALL FOR PAPERS. "Global Ecological Integrity: The Relation Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics," 24-28 June 1997, Firenze and Cortona, ITALY. Plenary Speakers will include: Allan Holland, John Lemmons, David Pimentel, Mark Sagoff, Dale Jamieson, James Sterba, Ernest Partridge, and Robert Goodland. Conference fee of $100 includes breaks and a trip to Assisi. Contact: Laura Westra, Philosophy Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4, CANADA. Fax 905-738-4421.

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World will hold its annual conference from 10-15 August 1997 at the YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, CO. The general theme is "Authenticity, Autonomy and Authority: Problems of Meaning in the Contemporary World," although papers are welcome on any topic related to contemporary philosophy. For more information or to submit a proposal, contact: Prof. Craig Hanks, Program Co-chair, Philosophy Department, 332MH, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA, E-mail: HANKSJ@E-MAIL.UAH.EDU, PH 205-890-6555; or Prof. Sharon Hartline, Program Co-chair, Department of Philosophy, Radford University, Radford, VA 24142 USA, PH 703-831-5213.

"Global Ethics for the Twenty-First Century." 1-3 Oct. 1997. Melborne, AUSTRALIA. Arne Naess, Elmar Altavar, Robert Bullard, John Dryzek, David Harvey, Val Plumwood, Oran Young, Vandana Shiva, and others. Contact: Nicholas Low, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, AUSTRALIA.

CALL FOR PAPERS: The interdisciplinary journal, Population and Environment, is soliciting contributions for a forthcoming special issue on "Roots of Environmental Neglect." Reviews of prevailing viewpoints (e.g., the comparative importance of population, affluence, depletion of natural resources, new technologies, ideology, ethics, social domination, anthropocentrism, biocentrism) are welcome. Equally welcome are contributions which seek to integrate and reconcile these viewpoints, or which seek to enrich this debate by grounding it in such disciplines as history, philosophy, political science, psychology, anthropology, economics, biology, literature, and archeology. Please send papers, in duplicate, to Dr. Moti Nissani, Guest Co-Editor, Interdisciplinary, Studies Program, 5700 Cass Ave., Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA; E-mail: mnissani@juno.com; Fax: (313) 577-8585; Tel.: (810) 543-0536 (home & message).

Midwest Political Science Association, 10-12 April 1997, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL. A panel on "Political Theory and Environmentalism" will be chaired by John M. Meyer, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Presenters will be: Jane Bennett (Goucher College), "Bruno Latour, Henry Thoreau, and the Finesse of Nature/Culture," Langdon Winner (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), "Technology, Globalism and Environmental Conflict: The Worldview of `Third World Resurgence,'" Kerry H. Whiteside (Franklin and Marshall College), "Systems Theory and Humanism in Continental Ecologism."  Harlan Wilson (Oberlin College) and John M. Meyer (UW-Madison) will serve as discussants.  For more information contact: John Meyer, Dept. of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1050 Bascom Mall, Madison, WI 53706.  E-mail: JMEYER@polisci.wisc.edu


Earth a target of space rocks. The earth gets hit on average once a year with a space rock large enough to set off an explosion equal in force to the nuclear bomb that leveled Hiroshima. Such 15-kiloton explosions in the upper atmosphere come from rocks only 20 feet wide. The earth gets hit monthly by rocks about six feet wide that produce a one kiloton explosion. Shooting stars and meteor showers are produced by grain-of-sand-sized particles. In 1908 over Siberia, a rock exploded in the atmosphere with a force of about 20 hydrogen bombs resulting in hundreds of square miles of flattened forests. "Doomsday rocks" a few miles wide are predicted to hit once every 10 million years, "causing mayhem and death on a planetary scale." Such phenomena provide trouble for an uncritical acceptance of the "nature knows best" idea. See William Broad, "Earth Is Target for Space Rocks At Higher Rate Than Thought," New York Times (1/7/97): B9.

Is predation glamorous? Much environmental thought glorifies predation. But author Joanna Greenfield's description of Hyenas and her account of a personal attack she suffered from a hyena bring out the ugliness in predation. Some samples: "Hyena--a dirty, matted creature, dripping with blood. . . .The prey must have been large enough for the hyena to thrust is whole head in, up to the blocklike shoulders. This must be why the hyena has such a snake of a neck--so it can delve deep into a dying animal and eat the best parts before thieves chase it away. . . . Spotted hyenas are the sharks of the savanna, superpredators and astounding recyclers of garbage. They hunt in large, giggling groups, running alongside their prey and eating chunks of its flesh until it slows down through loss of blood, or shock, or sheer hopelessness." Of her attack she says: "I don't remember him sinking his teeth into my arm, though I heard a little grating noise as his teeth chewed into the bone. Everything was black and slow and exploding in my stomach. . . . I think it was then that he took out the first piece from my arm and swallowed it without breathing . . . He moved up the arm, and all the time those black, blank eyes evaluated me, like a shark's, calm and almost friendly." See "Hyena," The New Yorker, Nov. 11, 1996, p. 74.

Deaths due to mudslides from clear-cuts. Four people died this fall in Oregon when mud sliding down clear-cut hillsides buried a home. Record rainfall has triggered hundreds of mudslides from clear-cut hills, causing an additional four deaths when mud slid into roads. Timber harvesting on private lands has intensified because of the decline in logging on state and federal land and some of this has been clear-cutting on steep hillsides above roads, homes, and future homesites. A 1975 U.S. Forest Service study concluded that landslides are three times more likely to occur in clear-cut areas as on forested slopes. Local residents and environmental groups are demanding a moratorium on clear-cutting and logging road construction on steep slopes where public safely may be endangered. Area forestry officials claims they don't have the power to prohibit clear-cut logging on privately owned timberland. Timber industry officials argue that mudslides are a natural phenomenon, not necessarily caused by clear-cutting and say that the real land use question is whether people should be allowed to build homes in forested areas below land earmarked for harvesting. If public officials prohibited timber companies from clear-cutting on steep slopes they own and thereby lower property values, would this be a "regulatory taking" requiring compensation? This seems to be good counterexample to the claim that any prohibition of traditional uses of land on private property that lowers the value of land ought to be compensated. It also seems a possible counterexample to the idea that in cases of conflicting private land uses, whoever was there first gets priority. See William Caliborne, "When a Verdant Forest Turns Ugly," Washington Post (12/18/96): A1.

Counties undermining wilderness preservation in Utah. Several counties in southern Utah near the newly designated 1.7 million acres Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument are fighting the attempt to increase wilderness designation in the area by turning backcountry trails on Federal land into roads. The counties have used road-graders on hundreds of miles of double track jeep trails that cross wilderness study areas. Mechanically build and maintained roads in an area preclude it from wilderness designation. The counties are angry at the Clinton administration for the Monument designation which blocked the development of a huge coal mine. They say that a 19th century statute gives them valid claims to thousands of rights-of-way across federal land. See Tom Kenworthy, "Blazing Utah Trails to Block a Washington Monument," Washington Post (11/30/96): A1.

American-style environmental preservation creates controversy in Chile. The founder of the Esprit clothing chain, Douglas Tompkin, has bought 741,000 acres of temperate coastal rain forest in Chile intending to donate the land as a national park to the Chilean people. But his attempt to set aside such a vast area as a permanent natural sanctuary has produced heated debate in Chile and resistance from business groups and their allies in government. That Tompkin's land extends from the Argentine boarder to the Pacific Ocean, thus in effect dividing the narrow country north to south, has provoked nationalist fears against the American and his plans. Exploiting natural resources is the principal industry in Chile and lumber, mining, energy and fishing interests see Chile's growing environmental movement--and Tompkin's plans in particular--as a serious threat to the nation's economy. Chile's sparse population is viewed as a national security issue and the environmental vision of depopulating land to preserve it in its natural state also challenges the military. Tompkin's espousal of Deep Ecology is being used against him by being characterized as an anti-Christian placement of man on the level of animals and trees. See Gabriel Escobar, "Rain Forest Gift Raises Suspicions," Washington Post (11/29/96): A1.

The Southern African Wildlife College, built on the edge of Kruger National Park in South Africa, will open early 1997 with fifty students. This one of the largest projects undertaken by World Wildlife Fund, South Africa, and was enabled by a DM 10 million grant from a German aid agency. The project has been exemplary in using environmentally-friendly design and using local resources and labor in building. It is intended for black African wildlife professional from the various sub-Saharan nations. Contact: WWF South Africa, P. O. Box 456, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa.

Leghold traps. In a November referendum, Colorado voters approved a ban on leghold traps (with certain exceptions) by a 52.4% to 47.5% margin. See ISEE Newsletter, Fall 1996.

World population keeps rising even as rate of population growth declines. The world population is projected to reach 6.1 billion at the turn of the century, with developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America accounting for 95 percent of overall growth, according to a new report, "World Population Profile: 1996," WP/96, issued today by the Commerce Department's Census Bureau. The United States is projected to account for 3.2 percent of world population growth. Even though the world's population is increasing, the rate of population growth around the globe will slow from its present level of 1.5 percent to below 1 percent by the year 2025.

"Problems exacerbated by a rapidly growing world population--including caring for a growing elderly population, the continuing worldwide AIDS epidemic, and unmet reproductive health needs of adolescent women--are among the issues that confront world leaders," says the report's author, Tom McDevitt.

The report also points out that the world is adding people, by the billions, at a far quicker pace than ever before. For example, it took thousands of years for world population to reach the level of 2.6 billion in 1950. But only 50 years later, another 3.5 billion will have been added. Other highlights from the report include:

--Africa's rate of growth is projected to be the highest of all major world regions during the next 25 years, in spite of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

--In the developing countries that have a substantial AIDS-related mortality, AIDS is expected to cause 50 million deaths by the year 2010.

--Persons 65 and over are projected to be the fastest growing segment of the population in both less developed and more developed countries.

A special section in this report focuses on adolescent fertility in developing countries. It estimates that in the next 25 years over 300 million births will occur to women 15 to 19 years old.

Bird brains. New Caledonia crows have recently been observed, over fifty times, to use twigs or barbed leaves to probe for bugs in wood or under leaves, according to Gavin R. Hunt of Massey University in New Zealand. On four occasions, he saw them making their tools, pulling a twig from a tree, stripping its leaves and shaping a point at the hooked end of the stick where it had been attached to a branch. Also, he observed that the crows are careful with their bug-finders, carrying the tools around with them or leaving them in a secure position on their perch. U.S. crows have been observed using cars as nutcrackers by putting walnuts where the nuts will be run over. Short story in National Wildlife, June/July 1996, p. 9.

Presbyterians for Restoring Creation, a grassroots group, have designated thirty-nine persons as Restoring Creation Enablers, resource persons for local churches and presbyteries (regional church associations), with a training conference in Estes Park, Colorado in May 1997. These persons are similar to Hunger Action Enablers, who have been especially effective in sensitizing Presbyterians to problems of world hunger for a number of years. Contact Bill Knox, Secretary, P. O. Box 2146, Boone, NC 28607. Phone 704/262-3881.

The 104th U.S. Congress, ending in 1996, did pass two pieces of environmental legislation: the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996, both with bipartisan support. The Food Quality Protection Act amends both the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the pesticides law to provide a standard for pesticide residues in both raw and processed foods. The standard is "reasonable certainty of no harm." The food legislation was propelled primarily by the need to replace the zero-risk Delaney Clause in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause, which required banning any food additive that caused cancer in laboratory animals, was evaded for many years. When a court decision required the government actually to enforce the Delaney provisions, replacing the clause became a high priority matter. The law also requires that the Environmental Protection Agency review all pesticide tolerances within ten years, that particular consideration be given to exposure of young children to pesticide residues, and that EPA consider "estrogenic effects"--the effects of a substance on hormones--when setting tolerances. The drinking water act requires EPA to evaluate for regulation at least five contaminants every five years. A cost-benefit analysis and a risk assessment are required before a standard can be set. The standards, called "maximum contaminant levels," are initially based on health protection and the availability of technology.

Yellowstone bison slaughtered. The National Park Service reluctantly plans again this year to slaughter any errant bison who wander off the Park boundaries in search of food, mainly on the north boundary of the park. Several hundred animals were slaughtered last year, of the six hundred in that area. About 3,500 bison inhabit the park. The fear is that wandering bison will carry brucellosis to cattle, although there is no evidence that such transmission has taken place, nor are the bison tested for brucellosis before they are slaughtered (although they are so tested on the west boundary of the park). Animals are rounded up and taken to a slaughter house; the meat is given to Indian tribes and charities. The much decried "hunt" of earlier years no longer takes place. Story in New York Times, December 29, 1996, p. 9.

Bird-friendly coffee? New methods of growing coffee, in the sun, rather than in shade-plantations, seem likely implicated as a contributing factor in the decline of some migrant birds, especially thrushes, orioles, and some warblers. The switch to sun plantations is more profitable, with sun tolerant varieties of the plant, cramming 3,000 to 7,000 plants on one hectare, rather than 1,000 to 2,000 under the other method, and giving a yield of 1600 kilograms per hectare against 550. But birds lose the habitat provided by the shade trees. Environmentalists have promoted "Eco-OK" coffee, although they disagree to some extent about how to figure the use of pesticides, worker conditions and salaries, and other values into the "Eco" approval. Laura Tangley, "The Case of the Missing Migrants," Science 274(1996):1299-1300.

The U. S. Sustainable Fisheries Act was signed by President Clinton in October 1996. The Act is designed to prevent overfishing and rebuild stocks of fish that have declined, with greater protection of marine habitats, reductions in the bycatch of fish and other marine species, such as whales and dolphins. Story in Marine Conservation News, Winter 1996.

The Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles has been opened for national signatures. The treated was concluded in Salvador, Brazil, last September. The treaty, the world's first dedicated solely to sea turtles, is to promote the protection, conservation, and recovery of sea turtle populations and of the habitats on which they depend. Major issues were the use of turtle excluding devices in fishing nets (TEDs) and the use of turtles and eggs for subsistance in traditional communities.

The Exxon Valdez was sold and renamed the Mediterranean and plies a route between Egypt and Europe, since the tanker has been banned from Alaskan waters. But the new owners complain that this route is less profitable than the old Alaskan one, and have taken action either to regain the original route or to be reimbursed for "takings," since governmental regulation is depriving them of profits.


Reminder: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not indexed here, but are included in the annual update on disk and on the website.

The second issue of the journal Ethics and the Environment has been

published (Vol. 1, no. 2, Fall 1996). Articles are: "The Dusty World: Wildness and Higher Laws in Thoreau's WALDEN" by Jim Cheney; "Anthropomorphism Without Anthropocentrism: A Wittgensteinian Eco- feminist Alternative to Deep Ecology" by Wendy Lee-Lampshire; "Holists and Fascists and Paper Tigers...Oh My!" by Michael P. Nelson; "Androcentrism and Anthrocentrism: Parallels and Politics" by Val Plumwood; "Markets, Justice, and the Interests of Future generations" by Clark Wolf; a Discussion Section with articles by Van Rensselaer Potter, "Real Bioethics: Bicentric or Anthropocentric?" and Arthur Zucker, "Ferre: Organicistic Connectedness--But Still Speciesistic" with a Response from Frederick Ferre, "Finding the Balance: A Reply to Potter and Zucker." The journal is published by JAI Press Inc., 55 Old Post Road, P.O. Box 1678, Greenwich, CT 06838-1678. Special subscription rate for ISEE members is $35.00 yearly. Subscriptions are available by e-mail at: 102062.2525@compuserv.com or by mail or Fax: (203)661-0792). Manuscripts for Volume 2 are now being accepted. Please send all materials or inquiries to the Editor: Prof. Victoria Davion, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1627.

--Palmer, Clare, "A Bibliographic Essay on Environmental Ethics," Studies in Christian Ethics (Edinburgh) 7(1994):68-97. An excellent introduction to environmental ethics. In its combination of a historical sketch with the principal conceptual issues, and literature noted, this introduction is unsurpassed in an article of this length. A historical sketch of the developing field, central questions in the current debate (subjective-objective, naturalistic fallacy, monism/pluralism, intrinsic value, etc.), key positions presented by various environmental ethicists, grouped as individual consequentialist (Singer, VanDeVeer, Attfield), individual deontological (Goodpaster, Schweitzer, Taylor), collective environmental ethics (Leopold, Callicott, Lovelock), mixed monistic (Rolston, Johnson, Sylvan), deep ecology (Naess, Fox), ethical positions reviving earlier philosophical positions (such as Whitehead's process philosophy, Spinoza, Heidegger), and pluralist approaches (Stone, Brennan, Wenz). The significant books and articles in each position are noted. Palmer is the University of Greenwich School of Environmental Sciences.

--Katz, Eric, Nature as Subject: Human Obligation and Natural Community. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997. The collected essays that Katz has written over twenty formative years of environmental philosophy. Sixteen essays. "My basic critical idea is that human-centered (or `anthropocentric') ethical systems fail to account for a moral justification for the central policies of environmentalism. From this negative account of anthropocentrism, I derive my fundamental position in environmental ethics: the direct moral consideration and respect for the evolutionary processes of nature. I believe that it is a basic ethical principle that we must respect Nature as an ongoing subject of a history, a life-process, a developmental system. ... I consider Nature as analogous to a human subject, entitled to moral respect and subject to traditional ethical categories. I do not anthropomorphize Nature; I do not ascribe human feelings and intentions to the operations of natural processes. I do not consider natural processes to be sentient or alive. I merely place Nature within the realm of ethical activity. The basis of a moral justification of environmental policy is that we have ethical obligations to the natural world, just as we have ethical obligations to our fellow human beings" (p. xvi). Includes the essays in which Katz has been especially provocative, such as "The Big Lie" (restoration biology), "Imperialism and Environmentalism" (Nature as an imperialist), and continues such stimulating metaphors in the theme of "nature as (analogous to a human) subject". Also notable for essays on Judaism and environmentalism. Katz is in philosophy at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.

--Vilkka, Leena, "Should We Preserve Intrinsic Values in Wilderness?" Pages 160-175 in Anna-Liisa Sippola, Pirjo Alaraudanjoki, Bruce Forbes and Ville Hallikainen, eds., Northern Wilderness Areas: Ecology, Sustainability, Values (Rovaniemi, Finland: University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, 1995). In a volume resulting from the International Conference on Northern Wilderness Areas held there in December 1994. According to anthropocentrism, humans can value wilderness for its own sake, but nature is valueless without human valuers. From the naturocentric point of view, the value of a wilderness area is discovered in the natural history of the area. Naturocentrism is the objective intrinsic value of wilderness, according to which wild animals and plants should at least sometimes win, their intrinsic values having priority over human instrumental values. Vilkka is with the Environmental Philosophy Project, P. O. Box 12, Fin-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland.

--deDuve (de Duve), Christian, Vital Dust: The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth. New York: Basic Books, 1995. de Duve is a Nobel Prizewinner for discoveries about the functional and structural organization of the cell. This is his philosophical overview: "Life is almost bound to arise in a molecular form not very different from its form on Earth. ... Those who claim that life is a highly improbable event, possibly unique, have not looked closely enough at the chemical realities underlying the origin of life." The stuff of the earth is "vital dust" (p. 292). Of interest to environmental philosopher is a concluding section on "The Future of Life." Life on Earth, a cosmic imperative over the millennia, has recently come under the most serious threat ever, human overpopulation and consumptive appetites degrading the Earth. Science needs more wisdom. "The last twenty years have witnessed a remarkable rise in global responsibility. The ecological movement, in spite of excesses, deserves to be praised" (p. 283).

Now emeritus, de Duve taught at the University of Louvain, Belgium, and Rockefeller University, New York.

--Sterba, James P., ed., Morality in Practice, 5th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1997. 585 pages. Continues the section from the 4th edition on "Animal Liberation and Environmental Justice," now including Karen Warren, "The Promise and Power of Ecological Feminism." Sterba is in philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.

--Cothern, C. R., ed., Handbook for Environmental Risk Decisionmaking. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1996.

--Paehlke, Robert, ed., Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1995. 771 pages. Nicely indexed. A quite useful volume for any college library. Entries are useful first introductions to the area, especially suitable for undergraduates. Contains the following entries, among some 500 others:

--Fox, Warwick, "Anthropocentrism"

--Fox, Warwick, "Deep Ecology: Emergence"

--Fox, Warwick, "Deep Ecology: Meaning"

--Fox, Warwick, "Ecophilosophy and Ecopsychology"

--Fox, Warwick, "Naess, Arne"

--Hargrove, Eugene C., "Animal Rights"

--Hargrove, Eugene C., "Environmental Ethics" (the field)

--Hargrove, Eugene C., "Environmental Ethics" (the journal)

--Orr, David, "Environmental Education"

--J. Baird Callicott, "Intrinsic Value"

--J. Baird Callicott, "Asian Environmental Thought"

--Steven C. Rockefeller, "Religion and Environmental Protection"

--Karen J. Warren, "Ecofeminism"

--Robyn Eckersley, "Ecoanarchism"

--Bron R. Taylor, "Eco-Spirituality"

--Bron R. Taylor, "Radical Environmentalism"

--Max Oelschlaeger, "Appropriate Technology"

--Max Oelschlaeger, "Postmodernism and the Environment"

--Max Oelschlaeger, "Wilderness"

--Robert D. Bullard, "Environmental Justice Movement"

--Yrjö Sepänmaa, "Environmental Aesthetics"

--Lester W. Milbraith, "Sustainability"

--Kenneth A. Dahlberg, "Sustainable Agriculture"

--Paehlke, Robert, "Sustainable Development"

--Rosenbaum, Walter A., "Risk Analysis"

--John E. Carroll, "Environmental Diplomacy"

Also entries on Thoreau, Abbey, Carson, Leopold, Muir, etc.

--Emblidge, David, The Appalachian Trail Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 382 pages. $ 27.50. An anthology of writings by those who have hiked the famous trail. Emblidge has also written a series of Companions to various sections of the AT, published by Stackpole Books.

--Cultural Survival Quarterly: World Report on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities is published by Cultural Survival, Inc., 46 Brattle St., Cambridge, MA 02138-3705. The Summer 1996 issue features: Genes, People, and Property. A furor erupts over genetic research on indigenous groups. Sample articles: Jean Christie, "Whose Property, Whose Rights?"; Ruth Liloqula, "Value of Life: Saving Genes versus Saving Endangered Peoples."

--Bates, Gerry M., Environmental Law in Australia, 4th ed. Sydney: Butterworths, 1995. 405 pages.

--Rose, Deborah Bird, Nourishing Terrains: Australian Aboriginal Views of Landscape and Wilderness. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission, 1996. 95 pages. ISBN 0 642 23561 9. Rose, an anthropologist, is with the North Australia Research Unit of the Australian National University, Canberra.

--Mathews, Freya, ed., Ecology and Democracy. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1996. Nine contributors. Originally published as volume 4, no. 4, of Environmental Politics.

--Ehrlich, Paul R., and Anne H. Ehrlich, Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-Environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future. Washington: Island Press, 1996. 352 pages. $ 24.95 hardcover. The anti-environmental backlash or "brownlash" is evidence of the success of the environmental movement, but it needs particular attention. Environmentalists must find the flaws in the brownlash movement and expose them. With much personal experience of the issues at points at hand. The Ehrlichs are at Stanford University.

--Beans, Bruce E., Eagle's Plume: Preserving the Life and Habitat of America's Bald Eagle. New York: Scribner, 1996. $ 25. Even among the millions of Americans who seem to care that the eagle survives, there is an almost total lack of information about its natural history and present status.

--Kohen, James L., Aboriginal Environmental Impacts. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 1995. ISBN 0 86840 301 6. Available in North America through International Specialized Book Services, Portland, Oregon 97213-3644. 503/287-3093. Fax 503/280-8832. $ 25.00. Kohen argues that the Aboriginal influence on many, but by no means all, of the ecosystems of Australia was profound and that any understanding of the Australian environment must take this into account. He cites many authorities who both agree and disagree with him. The latter typically see climatic change as the major determinant of the structure of the vegetation. He closes with the observation that, nevertheless, the Aboriginals had less impact on the landscape in 50,000 years than the Europeans have in the last 200 years. Kohen is a biologist at Macquarrie University, Sydney.

--Isaacs, Jennifer, Australian Dreaming: 40,000 Years of Aboriginal History. Sydney: Lansdown Publishing Co., 1992, 1996. ISBN 0 7254 0884 7. With a history of creation, including Uluru.

--Murphey, Nancy, and George F. R. Ellis, On the Moral Nature of the Universe. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1996. How theology, ethics, and the sciences relate to each other. A search for an integrated view in a time of unprecedented complexity and uncertainty. The methods of inquiry and the contributions of each discipline in understanding nature.

--Wuthnow, Robert, Poor Richard's Principle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. 448 pages. $ 24.95. Avarice and greed are destroying the American dream. "The quality of human relationships changes significantly when money becomes the underlying principle. Spouses become `wage earners' or `investments'; ... parents become `deep pockets'; friends become `business contacts.' More significant than these labels, however, are the norms that rise to prominence in fiduciary relations. Money's lack of memory replaces trust with transience. Bargaining becomes more important than sharing. People calculate what to do chiefly in terms of costs and payoffs. The consequences have been documented clearly in experimental psychological research involving children. Observing that young children generally perform acts of kindness and helping naturally, spontaneously, researchers have tried to discover what happens when efforts are made to reinforce this behavior with monetary rewards. Children consistently respond to such rewards by performing good deeds at higher (but only slightly higher) levels than they did before. But when the incentives are removed, the behavior also ceases. Money teaches them that good deeds should not be done spontaneously after all" (p. 197). Wuthnow directs the Center for the Study of American Religion, Princeton University.

--Doyle, David, Deeper Ecology: Essays on Ecological Spirituality. Eureka: CA: Wild Side Publishing Co., 1996 75 pages. $ 9.95 + $ 3 shipping. Restoration of wildlife populations and ecosystems, curbing human exploitation. A plan for a global ecology. Order from: Wild Side Publishing Co., P. O. Box 5241, Eureka, CA 95502. Doyle is a wildlife ecologist.

--Driver, Beverly, Dustin, Daniel, Baltic, Tony, Elsner, Gary, Peterson, George, eds. Nature and the Human Spirit: Toward an Expanded Land Management Ethic. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc., 1996. 467pp. Contains:

--Editors, "Nature and the Human Spirit: Overview".

--Elsner, Gary, Lewis, Darrell, Snell, Frank, Spitzer, William, "The Role of Public Lands in Maintaining and Rejuvenating the Human Spirit".

--Rolston, Holmes, III. "Nature, Spirit, and Landscape Management".

--Peterson, George. "Four Corners of Human Ecology: Different Paradigms of Human Relationships with the Earth".

--Kaza, Stephanie. "Comparative Perspectives of World Religions: Views of Nature and Implications for Land Management".

--Roberts, Elizabeth. "Place and Spirit in Public Land Management".

--Schroeder, Herbert. "Psyche, Nature, and Mystery: Some Psychological Perspectives on the Values of Natural Environments".

--Goodale, Thomas, Godbey, Geoffrey. "Hard-to-Define Values as Dimensions of Leisure".

--Montes, Sharon. "Uses of Natural Settings to Promote, Maintain, and Restore Human Health".

--Kopper, Philip. "Against Uniformity: Prehistoric Language Lessons for Modern Land Managers".

--Redmond, Louis. "Diverse Native American Perspectives on the Use of Sacred Areas on Public Lands".

--Bagby, Rachel. "African American Naturifocal Values".

--Garcia, Maria Teresa. "Hispanic Perspectives and Values".

--Henderson, Karla. "Feminist Perspectives, Female Ways of Being and Nature".

--Madson, Chris. "In the Open: Wild Places and the American Character".

--Budd, Bob. "Lessons for the Cinnamon Mare".

--Tims, Doug. "The Perspective of Outfitters and Guides".

--Driver, Susan. "Values of Nature for Artists and Artists' Interpretations of These Values for Society".

--Rey, Mark. "Private Forest Landowners and an Emerging Land Management Ethic".

--Birckhead, Jim. "`Dreaming' Down Under: The Cultural Politics of People and `Country'".

--Sidaway, Roger. "Current Environmental Issues in Urban Western Europe and their Relevance to a New Land Management Ethic".

--Reunala, Aarne. "Cultural and Spiritual Forest Values in Scandinavia".

--Grumbine, Ed. "Beyond Conservation and Preservation in American Environmental Values".

--Friesen, Jennifer. " Nature, the Human Spirit, and the First Amendment".

--Wondolleck, Julia. "Incorporating Hard-to-Define Values into Public Lands Decision Making: A Conflict Management Perspective".

--Baltic, Tony. "Technology and the Evolution of Land Ethics".

--Stynes, Daniel, Peterson, George. "Adapting Management Frameworks to Better Account for Hard-to-Define values of Public Lands".

--Magary, Frank. "A Few Observations on Design for Spiritual Values".

--Greene, Thomas. "Cognition and the Management of Place".

--Bacon, Warren. "Multisensory Landscape Aesthetics".

--Bruns, Don, Stokowshi, Patricia. "Sustaining Opportunities to Experience Early American Landscapes".

--Lee, Martha, Tainter, Joseph. "Managing for Diversity in Heritage Values".

--McAvoy, Leo, Lais, Greg. "Hard-to-Define Values and Persons with Disabilities".

--Hammond, Herb, Judy, Stephanie. "Belief, Wholeness, and Experience: Sensitizing, Professional Land Managers to Spiritual Values".

--Roggenbuck, Joseph, Driver, B.L. "Public Land Management Agencies, Environmental Education, and an Expanded Land Management Ethic".

--Mannell, Roger. "Approaches in the Social and Behavioral Sciences to the Systematic Study of Hard-to-Define Human Values and Experience".

--Davis, John. "An Integrated Approach to the Scientific Study of the Human Spirit".

--Driver, B. L., Ajzen, Icek. "Research Needed on Hard-to- Define Nature- Based Human Experiences".

--Stynes, Daniel, Stokowski, Patricia. "Alternative Research Approaches for Studying Hard-to-Define Nature-Based Human Values".

--List, Peter, Brown, Perry. "Moving Toward an Expanded Land Management Ethic".

--Keller, Kenneth H. "Unpackaging the Environment," World Policy Journal 13(no.3, 1996):11.

--Oelschlaeger, Max. "Religion and the Conservation of Biodiversity," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):12.

--Nabhan, Gary Paul. "The Pollinator and the Predator," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):24.

--Dudley, Joseph P. "Biodiversity in Southern Africa," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):26. (Africa)

--Jones, Clara B. "Saving Howler Monkeys in Mexico," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):31.

--Mahr, Marcy. "A Natural Diversity "Hot Spot" in Yellowstone Country," Wild Earth 6(no.3,1996):33.

--Jones, Robert Hunter. "NPS Prescribed Fire in the Post-Yellowstone Era," Wild Earth 6(no.3. 1996):37.

--Belsky, Joy. "Wild and Prescribed Fire in Forests of the Intermountain West," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):44.

--Bolgiano, Chris. "Why Are Cougars Killing People?" Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):46.

--Meiklejohn, Brad. "Alaska: The Wildlands Model?" Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):50.

--LaBastille, Anne. "Too Late for the Giant Grebe," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):63.

--Peepre, Juri. "The Yukon Wildlands Project," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):66.

--MacDougall, A. Kent. "Humans as Cancer," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):81-88. "A cancerous tumor continues to grow even as its expropriation of nutrients and disruption of vital functions causes its host to waste away. Similarly, human societies undermine their own long-term viability by depleting and fouling the environment. With civilization as with cancer, initial success begets self defeating-excess." Various interpreters argue over whether this is metaphor or more literal, and many find the idea offensive. Lovelock, with his Gaia hypothesis, initially found the idea absurd, but has changed his mind. Various physicians and epidemiologists have supported the idea. "Whether as metaphor or hypothesis, the proposition that humans have been acting like malignant cancer cells deserves to be taken seriously." MacDougall is an award-winning professor emeritus of journalism at the University of California.

--Rooney, Thomas P. "Wildlands Recovery in Pennsylvania," Wild Earth 6(no.3, 1996):89.

--Baker, Beth. "A Reverent Approach to the Natural World," Bioscience 46(no.7, 1996):475. Religious organizations are uniting with each other and with the scientific community to improve environmental protection.

--Brown, Kathryn S. "Do Disease Cycles Follow Changes in Weather?," Bioscience 46(no.7, 1996):479. Researchers ponder global warming's effect on the carriers of human illness.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin. "Policy Forum: Science Versus Educated Guessing: Risk Assessment, Nuclear Waste, and Public Policy," Bioscience 46(no.7, 1996):488.

--Maurer, Brian A. "Relating Human Population Growth to the Loss of Biodiversity," Biodiversity Letters 3(no.1, 1996):1.

--Powell, Paul D. "Can Principles of Evolution and Ecology Be Applied to the Problem of HIV Infection/AIDS," Biodiversity Letters 3(no.1, 1996):14.

--Greenberg, Michael, Schneider, Dona. Environmentally Devastated Neighborhoods: Perception, Policies, and Realities. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 300pp. $60 cloth. Beginning with a call for a definition of "environment" that fits the realities of neighborhoods, the authors argue for and propose policy initiatives that address all the desperate needs of these beleaguered places.

--Burger, Joanna. Oil Spills. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997. 208pp. $29.95 cloth. The first book to survey the history of oil spills, the problems they create, the types of clean-ups and their efficacy, the legal, social, economic, and ecological consequences of oil spills, their long-term impacts on the wildlife and people who survive them, and the alternatives to oil and its transport.

--Colborn, Theo, Dumanoski, Dianne, Myers, John Peterson. Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival?--A Scientific Detective Story. New York: Penguin Books USA, 1996.

--Lyman, Howard F. "Mad Cows or Mad World?" The Animals' Agenda 16(no.4, 1996):26. The latest outbreak of mad cow disease in Britain, and the likely link to a human brain disorder, is proving that the common practice of recycling diseased animals back into the food chain is utter madness. Lyman is a rancher and feedlot operator in Montana, and directs the Eating with a Conscience campaign of the Human Society of the United States.

--Simmons, Steven I., "Toward Kinship `Respect for All Life is the Real Cure'," The Animals' Agenda 16(no.4, 1996):42. Why animal activists and AIDS activists belong on the same side of the picket line against mutual foes. When experimentation and exploitation go hand in hand, there are more victims than victors. Simmons is with People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and an AIDS activist.

--Suagee, Dean B. "Clean Water and Human Rights in Indian Country," Natural Resources & Environment 11(no.2, 1996):46.

--Hughes, Harry R. "The Cleanup of the Chesapeake Bay: A Test of Political Will," Natural Resources & Environment 11(no.2, 1996):30.

--Vollman, Tim. "The Endangered Species Act and Indian Water Rights," Natural Resources & Environment 11(no.2, 1996):39.

--Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Theme issue on: "The Liberation of the Environment," 125(no.3, 1996). The authors seem remarkably unfamiliar with environmental philosophy, beginning with the title of the theme issue and continuing throughout, with the exception of Klaus Meyer-Abich. Contains:

--Ausubel, Jesse H. "The Liberation of the Environment" p.1.

--Grubler, Arnulf. "Time for a Change: On the Patterns of Diffusion of Innovation," p.19.

--Kates, Robert W. "Population, Technology, and the Human Environment: A Thread Through Time," p.43.

--Waggoner, Paul E. "How Much Land Can Ten billion People Spare for Nature?" p.73.

--Nakicenovic, Nebojsa. "Freeing Energy from Carbon," p.95.

--Schipper, Lee. "Life-Styles and the Environment: The Case of Energy," p.113.

--Ausubel, Jesse H., Marchetti, Cesare. "Elektron: Electrical Systems in Retrospect and Prospect," p.139.

--Wernick, Iddo K., Herman, Robert, Govind, Shekhar, Ausubel, Jesse H. "Materialization and Dematerialization: Measures and Trends," p.171.

--Frosch, Robert A. "Toward the End of Waste: Reflections on a New Ecology of Industry," p.199.

--Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael. "Humans in Nature: Toward a Physiocentric Philosophy," p.213.

--Starr, Chauncey. "Sustaining the Human Environment: The Next Two Hundred Years," p.235.

--Hampson, Fen Osler, Reppy, Judith, eds. Earthly Goods: Environmental Change and Social Justice. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1996. 272pp. $16.95 paper. The role of science and global change. Western science does not provide morally disinterested solutions to environmental problems. The authors discuss the role of state and substate actors in the international politics of the environment, and then use accounts of actual negotiations to argue for the centrality of social justice in reaching desirable and equitable agreements.

--Mander, Jerry, Goldsmith, Edward, eds. The Case Against the Global Economy. San Francisco: Sierra Club Press, 1996. 386pp. $28 cloth. Essays by more than forty economic, agricultural, and environment experts who argue for local production and social equity.

--Hayden, Tom. The Lost Gospel of the Earth. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996. The Bible, despite interpretations to the contrary, urges us to treat the Earth as sacred. Organized religion ought passionately to defend the environment, with as least as much energy as the clergy gave civil rights in the 1950's. Hayden is a California politician, in the California State Senate, and also teaches courses in ecotheology at Santa Monica City College and Cal State Sacramento.

--Hepworth, James R., McNamee, Gregory. Resist Much, Obey Little: Remembering Ed Abbey. San Francisco: Sierra Club Press, 1996. 272pp. $14 paper. Thirty seven students, friends, acquaintances and colleagues pay tribute to the satirist, curmudgeon, gadfly, radical and American original who was Edward Abbey.

--Rasmussen, Larry L. Earth Community, Earth Ethics. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1996. 384pp. $26.50 paper. Environmental ethics from a Christian perspective, although the author warns at the outset that the term "environment" is misleading if it is understood to refer only to that which surrounds us, a world separate from ourselves. The situation of the earth today shows that "the world around us is also within. We are an expression of it; it is an expression of us. We are made of it; we eat, drink and breathe it ... This is not so much `environment' as the holy mystery of creation."

--Ng, Yew-Kwang. "Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering," Biology and Philosophy 10(1995):255-285. Welfare biology is the study of living things and their environment and respect to their welfare, defined as net happiness minus suffering. Despite difficulties of ascertaining and measuring welfare and relevancy to normative issues, welfare biology is a positive science. Evolutionary economics and population dynamics are used to help answer basic questions in welfare biology. Ng is in economics at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

--Francione, Gary L. Rain Without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. 366pp. $59.95 cloth $22.95 paper. The modern animal rights movement has become indistinguishable from a century-old concern with the welfare of animals that in no way prevents them from being exploited. Francione is in law at Rutgers University.

--Hoffmann, Stanley. The Ethics and Politics of Humanitarian Intervention. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996. 168pp. $25 cloth $14.95 paper. The problems of humanitarian intervention in international relations. Includes responses by Robert C. Johansen and James Sterba, an introductory essay by Raimo Vayrynen.

--Butler, Steven, "Rod? Reel? Dynamite," U.S. News and World Report 121(no. 21, Nov. 25, 1996):56-57. Devastation of the coral reefs in the Philippines by local peoples fishing with dynamite and capturing aquarium fish by stunning them with cyanide.

--Budiansky, Stephen, "Killing with Kindness," U.S. News and World Report 121(no. 21, Nov. 25, 1996):48-49. Preserving wildlife has been a moral and practical disaster for the developing world. The paradoxical solution: Use it or lose it. Tourism is no answer. Elephants, for instance, are the darling of the West and enemy number 1 to Africans.

--Satchell, Michael, "Save the Elephants: Start Shooting Them," U.S. News and World Report 121(no. 21, Nov. 25, 1996):51-53. Animal lovers hail the ivory ban. Many African nations hate it, and say it hurts wildlife.

--Becker, Gerhold K., and James P. Buchanan, eds., Changing Nature's Course: The Ethical Challenge of Biotechnology. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1996. 220 pages. Paper, US $ 19.00 ISBN 962-209-403-1. Hong Kong University Press, 139 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Phone 852 2550 2703 Fax 852 2875 0734. Biotechnology marks a new scientific revolution. It holds the promise of generating resources to meet human needs in the fight against hunger, disease and environmental disasters. However, critics argue that biotechnology will jeopardize evolution and add incalculable, self-made risks to the fragile conditions of life on this plant.

--Zwinger, Ann, and Zwinger, Susan, eds., Women in Wilderness. San Antonio, TX: Tehabi Books/Harcourt Brace, 1995. 99 pp. $ 19.95. Vignettes from adventurous women who crave wild places. Susan Zwinger writes: I go into wilderness to bear the burden of too much beauty. ... There is nothing like the exquisiteness and strength of the natural world. ... it demands both attunement and atonement." Ann Zwinger is a Colorado naturalist, artist, and writer. Susan Zwinger is her daughter, an activist, poet, and environmental writer who lives in Washington State, author of Stalking the Ice Dragon, which chronicled her solitary Alaskan odyssey.

--Grigg, Gordon, Hale, Peter, and Lunney, Daniel, eds., Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Brisbane, Qld: Centre for Conservation Biology, 1996. 360 pages. $A 50. (Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Phone 07 3365 2527 Fax 07 3365 4828 E-mail P.Hale@mailbox.uq.edu.au) Traditional fishing by Torres Strait Islanders, the commercial use of kangaroos, and much more. From a conference held there in 1994.

--Capitalism, Nature, Socialism: A Journal of Socialist Ecology is now in its eighth volume, recently expanded in size. The journal claims still to be "the only serious theoretical and political left green journal in the English-speaking world." It seeks to link the traditional concerns of labor movements with ecological issues and the struggles of new social movements. Sample forthcoming articles: Joan Martinez, "Environmental Justice, Local and Global"; Andrew Light, "Interview with Arne Naess"; Alain Lipietz, "What Is Ecological Marxism?"; Timothy W. Luke, "Nature Protection or Nature Projection: A Cultural Critique of the Sierra Club." The editor is James O'Connor. Published by Guilford Publications, 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012. Phone 212/431-9800. Fax 212/966-6708.

--Tangley, Laura, "The Case of the Missing Migrants," Science 274(1996):1299-1300. Are new methods of cultivating coffee in Latin America bad for birds? Some researchers say that shift from shade to sun plantations is hastening the decline of songbirds.

--Brennan, Andrew, "Reconsidering Deep Ecology," in Witoszek, Nina, ed. Rethinking Deep Ecology. Oslo: Centre for Development and the Environment, 1996 ISBN 82-90391-31-5.

--Brennan, Andrew, "Ethics, Ecology and Economics," Biodiversity and Conservation 4:(1995)798-811. Also in Cooper, Nigel and Carling, R.C.J., eds., Ecologists and Ethical Judgments. London: Chapman and Hall, 1996.

--Brennan, Andrew, "Ethics, Welfare and Money," N. Johnston, ed., Animals in Science Conference Proceedings, Melbourne: Monash University, 1995.

--Brennan, Andrew, "Animal Ethics: Time for a New Approach?" in Baker R. M. et al., Animals and Science in the Twenty-first Century: New Technologies and Challenges, Melbourne: ANZCCART, 1995, pages 85-93.

--Ariansen, Per. "Sustainability, Morality and Future Generations." Future Generations Journal, No. 17 (1995/3) Valletta, Malta. A revision in Norwegian is Ariansen, Per, "Barekraftighet, moral og fremtidige generasjoner." Printed in W. Lafferty & O. Langhelle (red.), Berekraftig utvikling. Oslo: AdNotam, Gyldendal, 1995. An English translation of the revision will appear in 1997. In addition to bringing forward some aspects of Ariansen's brand of anthropocentrism, the article also adresses briefly the "Parfit paradox," suggesting that the hypothetical question posed to future generations, whether they would rather exchange their plight for never having been born, rests on the mistaken understanding that this question is analogous to other questions about the preference of one state over another. The question breaks an "existential syntax". The state of never having been born cannot be evaluated by those who actually were born. Ariansen is in philosophy at the University of Oslo.

--Ariansen, Per. "The Non-utility Value of Nature. A contribution to understanding the value of biological diversity." Research paper by grant from The Norwegian Research Council. Norwegian Forestry Institute, 1995. Published in August 1996 as Working Paper No. 99, Centre for Technology and Culture, Oslo, 1996. In addition to all possible instrumental value, biological diversity also holds a constitutional value, in that it marks the constitutional framework for forming human identity, a framework which is prima facie protected against human destruction.

--Ariansen, Per. "Spirituality in a Secular World." In Masahiku Yazaki, ed. Beyond Egoism. Kyoto: Future Generations Alliance, 1996. A discussion about the possibility of giving meaning to a concept of spirituality.

--Ariansen, Per. "Platforms, Nature and Obligational Values" in Nina Witoszek and Harold Glasser, eds., Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Ecophilosophy. Berkeley: University of California Press, forthcoming. An interpretation of the function of the deep ecology platform with an attempt to explain why the "doctrines" of deep ecology appear evasive. In the discussion about the concept of intrinsic value, a sketch of Ariansen's own brand of anthropocentrism is presented.

--Clemings, Russell, Mirage: The False Promise of Desert Agriculture. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1996. 256 pages. $ 28. Agricultural practices in the American West are unsustainable, especially in California and along the Colorado River. There has been enormous waste of water and money, with especially adverse effects in salinization and selenium, combined with poor drainage and adverse effects on wildlife. Irrigation cannot be eliminated, since one third of the world's food relies on it, but there are better ways to do it, for example Israel's drip irrigation system. "Water has no place in the desert; the soil cannot accommodate it. ... On those rare occasions when rain does fall on the desert, the ground rejects it as though allergic." Clemings is an environmental reporter.

--Fox, Michael W., The Boundless Circle: Caring for Creatures and Creation. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books (Theosophical Publishing House), 1996. $ 20.00. ISBN 0-8356-0725-9. Fox argues for a panentheism; God is both transcendent to and imminent in the world. "Fundamentally, there is but one crisis--and it is a spiritual one" (p. 87). Even though respect for animals and the natural environment is evident throughout history and in all the world's major religions, it has been lost over time. The world has been desacralized, the ugly effect of "the materialism of both state and private capitalism, along with its industrialism, scientific imperialism, and shallow priesthood of instrumented rationalists" (p. 150). Fox is the vice-president of the Humane Society of the United States.

--Biehl, Janet and Staudenmaier, Peter, Ecofascism: Lessons from the German Experience. San Francisco: AK Press, 1995. 73 pages. $ 7.00 paper. There are two essays: Staudenmaier, Fascist Ideology: The `Green Wing' of the Nazi Party and its Historical Antecedents"; Biehl, "`Ecology' and the Modernization of Fascism in the German Ultra-Right." The authors, as social ecologists in the tradition of Murray Bookchin, find ecological crises to be rooted in social injustice and oppression, rather than in anthropocentric attitudes as such. Ecological holisms emphasizing the oneness of human beings with nature have been and are being combined with reactionary "blood and soil" fascism, racism, xenophobia, and anti-immigrationism. We should appreciate how ecology can be misused, and to prevent such misuse we should understand ecological crises in political contexts, rather than trying to understand society as determined by scientific ecology.

--Bond, E. J., Ethics and Human Well-Being: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Co., 1996. Animals appear in an extended footnote. "Rights and justice, which are inseparable, and all the conceptual apparatus that goes with them--reparation, desert, earned merit, punishment, requirement to respect the rights of others--make sense only in connection with persons, and if they seem to make sense with such animals as dogs, cats, and horses that is because of these animals' long association and close relationships with human beings, who may think of them and treat them as if they were persons. ... This is not to say we do not have a moral responsibility toward many species of non-human animals; for their care if they are domestic animals ... or for wild animals in captivity. It is also our responsibility to preserve the habitat of animals in the wild and not to wantonly destroy species after species..." (pp. 247-248). Bond is in philosophy at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario.

--Gelernter, David, "In Rats We Trust: Making a Moral Case Against the Tryanny of Environmentalism." The Washington Post, November 17, 1996, p. C1, C5. "There is an anti-environmentalist position, with arguments and moral claims that are at least as compelling as the other side's." Gelernter cites the costs people have undergone to save the kangaroo rat; they were asked to create firebreaks by mowing rather than plowing up habitat, and, in a subsequent fire, some homes burned (although the General Accounting Office concluded no firebreaks would have worked). "Do we have a moral duty to ensure that every gene pool last forever? I can't see why we should." "We anti environmentalists hold to the Judeo-Christian view that man is emphatically not part of nature. We hold that human life has a different kind of value from animal life; that protecting and preserving human life is a mora duty that sweeps away all `duties' to nature, and the very idea of duty to nature. ... Environmentalism started as a noble cause, but a Jew or Christian today has a moral obligation not just to disapprove of it but to fight it." Gelerneter is a Yale University computer science professor. Good article to provoke class discussion. With reply: Schwartz, Daniel, "A Rabbi's Reply: In God's Green Earth We Trust." The Washington Post, December 1, 1996, p. C2.

--Schwartz, Daniel, "A Rabbi's Reply: In God's Green Earth We Trust." The Washington Post, December 1, 1996, p. C2. Reply to Gelernter, David, "In Rats We Trust: Making a Moral Case Against the Tryanny of Environmentalism." The Washington Post, November 17, 1996, p. C1, C5. "Religion and science alike agree that there is a profound integrity to the fabric of life--and when we tear at that fabric, we, in the end, endanger ourselves, especially, all too often, the poor and disenfranchised of the world. There is no escaping it--factually and morally, we are part of, not apart from nature." Schwartz is rabbi at Temple Shalom in Chevy Chase, Maryland, and associate director of the National Religious Partnership for the Environment.

--Callahan, Daniel, "Can Nature Serve as a Moral Guide?" Hastings Center Report 26 (no. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1996):21-27, a short essay, with short replies by Leon R. Kass, "The Troubled Dream of Nature as a Moral Guide," by Bryan G. Norton, "Moral Naturalism and Adaptive Management," and by Strachan Donnelley, "Nature as a Reality Check." Callahan: "I have never quite given up the hope that nature might put in a reappearance in ethics. ... The supposed naturalistic fallacy is, on closer inspection, an odd kind of fallacy since `is' is all the universe has to offer, to say that it cannot be the source of an `ought' is tantamount to saying a priori that an ought can have no course at all--and to say that is no less than to say there can be no oughts. ... Quite apart from these philosophical puzzles, it is useful to note that there is now a major field of inquiry and action right under our noses where nature is frequently held up--with little objection--as the standard for proper behavior." Kass: "Natural knowledge may be very useful in selecting our means, but not in discerning our ends, and it is utterly useless in deciding how to balance one good against another." Callahan is the retiring president of the Hastings Center. The whole collection of four pieces could be quite profitably read for discussion in a single class hour, in an introductory philosophy class, as well as in an environmental ethics class.

--Freyfogle, Eric T., "Ethics, Community, and Private Land." Ecology Law Quarterly 23(1996):631-661. Aldo Leopold advocated a land ethic. "Leopold was no lawyer and he gave little thought to how his land ethic, or any ecological informed land ethic, might fit together with the legal elements of private property rights. But as versions of his ethic have gained support, the issues has inevitably arisen. Is it possible, consistent with existing landed property rights, to push landowners to use their land more ethically? Is it possible to take the institution of private property, which has to do with private rights and economic freedoms, and somehow combine it with an ecologically sound land ethic? Implicit in all of this speculation is the assumption that private property and land ethics are different animals, and not all that closely related. One has to do with private rights, the other with public responsibilities. One deals with legal entitlements, the other with moral suasion. ... Is it right to assume, as a point of beginning, such a wide divergence between property and land ethics? Perhaps they are more alike than we realize. Perhaps a certain kinship between them is hidden somewhere in the continuing reality of the community and in the still-lively value that we attach to community well-being--a kinship that, once understood might help us to find our way toward a private property regime that is ecologically, as well as economically sound." Freyfogle is professor of law at the University of Illinois, and one of the most philosophically literate of those writing in environmental law.

--Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Religion and the Order of Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 320 pp. $18.95 paper. The historical process through which Western civilization moved away from the idea of nature as sacred and embraced a world view that sees humans as alienated from nature and nature itself as a machine to be dominated and manipulated by humans. Nasr's goal is to negate the totalitarian claims of modern science and its reductionist view of nature and to re-open the way to the religious view of the order of nature, developed over centuries in the cosmologies and sacred sciences of the great religious traditions. Each tradition has a wealth of knowledge and experience concerning the order of nature. They have in common the conviction that nature is sacred. The recovery of this knowledge would allow religions all over the globe to enrich each other and cooperate to heal the wounds inflicted upon the Earth in the current environmental crisis. Nasr is in Islamic studies at George Washington University.

--Estes, Carol, "Trading Park Futures," National Parks, September/October 1996. Reprinted in PERC Reports 14, no. 4, December 1996, with replies by PERC spokesman. A thoughtful critique of free market environmentalism, as advocated by PERC, the Political Economy Research Center, a conservation think tank that works out the economic theory behind the property rights movement and free market environmentalism. Essentially, free market environmentalism holds that markets are, in almost all cases, the best avenue through which to protect natural resources. Estes has many doubts, essentially that the profit motive is not sufficient to protect many environmental goods, which are commons. The whole exchange, as found in PERC Reports, is suitable for use in a single class discussion on this topic. But people who read PERC ought also read Freyfogle, Eric T., "Ethics, Community, and Private Land," Ecology Law Quarterly 23(1996):631-661; see that entry. Copies of the Estes article from PERC, 502 S. 19th Avenue, Suite 211, Bozeman, MT 59715. Phone 406/587-9591. Fax 406/586-7555. Estes is a free lance journalist who lives in Minnesota.

Barlow, Chuck D., "Why the Christian Right Must Protect the Environment: Theocentricity in the Political Workplace," The Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23 (no. 4, Summer, 1996):781- . Originally an LL.M. (Master of Laws) thesis, in the environmental law and natural resources program at the Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon, December 1995. The faculty advisor was Professor William Funk. Analyzes the rise of the Christian right as a force in American political policy, demanding adherence to traditional Biblical values. The Christian right has taken, at best, an indifferent, and at worst, a heavily anthropocentric attitude toward the use and conservation of the environment. Barlow rebuts the proposition, asserted by Lynn White, Jr., Aldo Leopold, and others, and implicitly accepted by the environmental inaction of the Christian right, that the scriptures of the Judeo-Christian tradition promote an anthropocentric environmental ethic. Rather, the Bible sets forth a "theocentric," or God-centered, approach to care of the environment. Those who claim to base their political agenda on Christianity ought to consider the Biblical mandate to use the earth's resources wisely. Address: Chuck D. Barlow, c/o Phelps Dunbar, L.L.P., P.O. Box 23066, Jackson, MS 39225-3066.

--Nissani, Moti "The Greenhouse Effect: An Interdisciplinary Perspective," Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 17 (1996): 459-489. For a shorter, updated version, see "The Greenhouse Effect Revisited," in Theodore Goldfarb, ed., Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Guilford, CT: Dushkin, 1997, 7th edition. A typical current argument is that even if the greenhouse threat is real, even if temperatures rise and low-lying lands must be protected forever by an enormous system of dikes, such unlikely occurrences do not justify imposing vast costs on the present generation. We rather have, so the argument runs, a stronger obligation to help developing countries overcome the environmental problems that they are facing today. The author argues that anyone willing to cross disciplinary boundaries can easily ascertain that this surprisingly popular viewpoint is mistaken.

A case study in environmental history: the CFC ozone link is instructive. The nature of, evidence for, and the largely uncertain consequences of, the enhanced greenhouse effect on Earth are considered. For argument's sake, a conservative and arbitrary estimate is adopted, assuming that the chances of adverse greenhouse consequences within the next century are 10%; those of a cataclysm, 1%. Such chances should not be taken, because there is no conceivable reason for taking them. The steps that will eliminate the greenhouse threat will also save money and cut pollution, accrue many other beneficial consequences, and only entail negligible negative consequences. Humanity is risking its future for less than nothing. Claims that the greenhouse threat involves hard choices, that it is value-laden, or that it cannot be resolved by disinterested analysis, are tragically mistaken. Given the stakes of the greenhouse debate--the future of humanity--concerned scholars and citizens ought to understand this issue.

--Sagoff, Mark. "On the Value of Endangered and Other Species." Environmental Management 26, no. 6 (1996): 897-91.

--Paehlke, Robert, "Environmental Harm and Corporate Crime," in Frank Pearce and Laureen Snider, eds., Corporate Crime: Contemporary Debates. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1995.

--Smith, C., "Revisiting Solar Power's Past." Technology Review 98 (no. 5, 1995): 38-47.

--Woodwell, G. M., "Biotic Feedbacks from the Warming of the Earth." Pages 3-21 in G. M. Woodwell and F. T. Mackenzie, Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

--Johnson, Huey D., Green Plans: Greenprint for Sustainability. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1995. 206 pages. Sustainable futures, sustainable development, environmental policy and conservation.

--Lamb, Kara L., "The Problem of Defining Nature First: A Philosophical Critique of Environmental Ethics," The Social Science Journal 33 (no. 4, 1996):475-486. Before we can decide about the proper ways to conserve nature, we need an accurate idea of what nature is. Subjectivists vs. objectivists, anthropocentrists vs. biocentrists, conservationists vs. preservationists are at odds over what they value in nature because they perceive and conceive nature differently. Some suggestions for solutions, based on the work of Val Plumwood and Holmes Rolston, involving an analysis of how to pass from what nature is to what ought to be in nature. Lamb is a graduate student at Colorado State University.

--Spencer, Daniel T., Gay and Gaia. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1996. 464 pages. $ 19.95 paper. The author claims we need to rethink our fundamental assumptions about the sacred, ecology, and sexuality. Ecological ethics must become the grounding for all ethics, and genuine justice requires right relations among all of creation, not simply among human beings. We ought to reject a human-centered worldview in favor of an ecocentric worldview. Only when we are able to integrate our sexuality with our spirituality will we fully experience the divine, and fully live out our ethical values.

--Naess, Arne, "Living a Life that Reflects Evolutionary Insights," Conservation Biology 10(1996):1557-1559. A brief tribute to Michael Soulé. "The postulation of the inherent value of living beings and their diversity is contested by people who say that all value assertions are subjective. ... At our latest meeting it was refreshing to listen to Michael Soulé claim that conservation biology evidently is both a science and an assertion that biodiversity--a central concern of the science--is not an instrumental value but has value in itself. ... Why can't conservation biology announce the noninstrumental inherent value of biodiversity?" Naess originated the deep ecology movement and is professor emeritus, University of Oslo.

--Newmark, William D., "Insularization of Tanzanian Parks and the Local Extinction of Large Mammals," Conservation Biology 10(1996):1549-1556. The pattern of local extinction of large mammals in Tanzanian Parks strongly suggests that the increasing insularization of the parks as a result of habitat alteration, human settlement, agricultural development, and the active elimination of wildlife on adjacent lands has been an important contributing factor. Newmark is at the Utah Museum of Natural History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

--Conservation Directory, 1997. [1997 Conservation Directory]. Winchester, VA: National Wildlife Federation, 1997. Order from National Wildlife Federation, P. O. Box 9004, Winchester, VA 22604-9004. 800/477-5560. $ 55. with discounts for members and students. The most comprehensive listing of organizations, agencies, and officials concerned with environmental conservation.

--Berry, R. J. "Sam," "Is a Global Environmental Ethic Attainable?" Science and Spirit 7 (no. 4, Winter 1996):6-7. Berry, a geneticist at University College, London, served on a committee to write a Code of Environmental Practice for the Economic Summit of Nations, a secular group, as well as on a Church of England group to prepare a statement of environmental stewardship. He found that the principles of both groups were almost the same. He also serves with an IUCN group, the Ethics Working Group, and finds their principles similar. This leads him to think that a world ethic for sustainable living may be possible.

--Armstrong, Adrian, "Is God Green? Christian Contributions to the Environmental Debate," Bulletin of the Society of Ordained Scientists, no. 13, 1995, p. 2.

--Prance, Ghilian, "Appropriate Technology and Christian Belief," Green Cross, Summer, 1996, p. 18.

--Fideler, David, "Ecologic: How Modern Cosmology Forces Us to Revision Our Relationship to the Living Universe," Kosmos: The Newsletter of Cosmology, Philosophy, Myth, and Culture, Issue 1, Autumn 1996.

--Scriven, Tal, Wrongness, Wisdom, and Wilderness. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. 352 pages. $ 20.95 paper. Defends a libertarian social ethic that can support welfare, reverse discrimination, and environmental preservation; biocentrism, Nietzschean utilitarianism, the social contract theory, and legal moralism--all at the same time. With analysis of figures as varied as Plato, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Mill, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Dewey. Part III deals with our relationship, as individuals and societies, to nature. Nothing logically prevents a well-constructed libertarianism from supporting environmental ethics positions at least as radical as biocentrism, though there are deep problems with going as far as ecocentrism and its postmodern variants. Scriven is in philosophy at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.

--Grange, Joseph. Nature: An Environmental Cosmology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. 352 pages. $ 19.95. Drawing on Whitehead, in contrast to both analytic philosophy and the continental tradition, Grange constructs a metaphysics to reflect what is true and right and fitting about how humans should act as participants in a finite and intrinsically interconnected world. Celebrates the very real glories of nature without sentimentalism and without any depreciation of human beings. Reviews and critiques the major positions in ecological ethics. Grange is in philosophy at the University of Southern Maine, Portland.

--Tiberghien, Gilles. Land Art. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1995. 311 pages. ISBN 1-56898-040-X. Originally published in French, Éditions Carré, 1993 under ISBN 2-908393-18-2. A coffee table size and style book detailing earthworks, photographs, sketches, with accompanying text, interpretation, criticism. "In seeking to find new parameters that allow a definition of what art is, the Land Art artists have produced new objects. Their move away from museums and galleries is also a desire to reinvent art, in a certain sense. But moving away from these spaces is also extending them. ... In using earth as a medium and material, they have not attempted to make nature into a new museum, ... Land Art is not primarily an art of landscape. ... The earth, dirt, on the other hand, with its power of provocation (simply from the troubling effect of its presence) ... is what gives Land Art acts their radicalism. ... The deserts, the quarries, the abandoned mines, the distant plains, and the mountainous summits give us the sense of a world where art takes on a new meaning, where museums disappear, and humanity is eclipsed." For philosophical commentary, see Peter Humphrey, "The Ethics of Earthworks," Environmental Ethics 7(1985):5-21; Allen Carlson, "Is Environmental Art an Aesthetic Affront to Nature?," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16(1986):635-50.

--Wrangham, Richard, and Dale Peterson. Demonic Males (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1996). Chimpanzees are much more violent than their smaller cousins, pygmy chimpanzees or bonobo apes, otherwise quite similar. Chimps live in patriarchal groups in which males regularly rape, beat, and kill, and sometimes drink the blood of, their own kind. But bonobos create peaceful societies in which males and females share power. In bonobo groups, female action works to suppress the excesses of male aggression. Females and males are equally important players in bonobo society. Following this model, human civilization would be more civilized if women seized more political power through elections and used it to counterbalance the male instinct to constantly define "enemies" and attack them. To make this advance, however, women must first abandon a tendency they share with female chimpanzees to reward and select aggressive males as their mates. Bonobo female bonds are often lesbian, butWrangham is reluctant, however, to recommend this for human society! Wrangham also claims to have discovered that warfare is not uniquely human, contrary to frequent claims by scientists that war does not occur in other animals. A summary story is in Harvard Magazine, January-February 1997, pp. 21-22. Wrangham is a Harvard anthropologist, and Peterson is a science writer.

--Barbour, Ian G., "The Churches and the Global Environment," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences) Bulletin 16 (No. 3, Summer 1996):1-9. A response to Al Gore's Earth in the Balance. We are not isolated individuals but are constituted by our relationship as persons-in-community, and we are part of a wider created order. Stewardship can easily be distorted into care for nature merely for the sake of the benefits it confers on us. Barbour taught religion and science at Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota.

--Norgaard, Richard B., "Environmentalism as the Salvation of Materialism," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences) Bulletin 16 (No. 3, Summer 1996):10-17. Environmental problems are typically framed as problems of spoiling or running out of the stuff needed for people's material sustenance in the future. Al Gore's Earth in the Balance offers a provocative illustration of how insidious materialism is, even for the best intentioned reflections on the environment. How will we move beyond materialism if we navigate from a map provided by a materialist science? By addressing the moral issues related to our material realities, the churches can heal important wounds. Additionally, the churches can help us recreate a sense of community, and thereby facilitate a collective revisioning of the future. Norgaard teaches in the Energy and Resources Program at the University of California, Berkeley, and is president of the International Society for Ecological Economics, of which he is a founder.

--Dasgupta, Partha, "Population, Poverty, and the Local Environment," Scientific American 272 (2 February, 1995):40-45.

--LaFollette, Hugh, ed., Ethics in Practice: An Anthology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997. 703 pages. Large anthology, many contributions written especially for this anthology; others previously published are revised with general readers in mind. Sections on euthanasia, abortion, family and friends, sexuality, virtues, drugs, free speech, sexual and racial discrimination, affirmative action, punishment, economic justice. One section is on animals: Peter Singer, "All Animals are Equal"; Michael Allen Fox, "The Moral Community"; R. G. Frey, "Moral Standing, the Value of Lives, and Speciesism"; Tom Regan, "The Case for Animal Rights"; and John P. Gluck, "Learning to See the Animals Again." One section is on "World Hunger and International Justice," and includes Holmes Rolston, III, "Feeding People versus Saving Nature?". The final section is on environment: Aldo Leopold, "The Land Ethic"; James P. Sterba, "Reconciling Anthropocentric and Nonanthropocentric Environmental Ethics"; Karen P. Warren, "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism"; J. Baird Callicott, "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair." LaFollette teaches philosophy at East Tennessee State University.

--Jackson, Peter and Kemf, Elizabeth. Tigers in the Wild. Gland, Switzerland: World Wildlife Fund, 1996. In this century, three subspecies of tiger have gone extinct. Struggling for living space in one of the most densely populated regions of the world, the remaining five subspecies are at risk of meeting the same fate. An overview of the situation, and steps that can be taken to prevent the extinction of the tiger in the wild, which otherwise will probably occur early in the next century.

--Dudley, Nigel, Gilmour, Don, and Jeanrenaud, Jean Paul. Forests for Life. Gland, Switzerland: World Wildlife Fund, 1996. Problems facing the world's forests. Often pessimistic, but the many possible positive steps being taken are also highlighted.

--Pearce, Fred, Explaining Climate Change. Gland, Switzerland: World Wildlife Fund, 1996. The United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Second Assessment Report (SAR), released in 1996, represents a milestone in the study of the greenhouse effect. For the first time scientific consensus has been reached that there is a discernible human influence on the climate. The main conclusions of this report.

--Sirmon, Jeff M. "Facing Tomorrow: Brazil's Difficult Forestry Choices," Journal of Forestry 94(no. 10, 1996):9.

--Martin, Brendan. "From the Many to the Few: Privatization and Globalization," The Ecologist 26(no. 4,1996):148. North and South, East and West, the public sector is under assault. In the name of greater "efficiency," public services have been "contracted out": development projects "franchised" to private companies; state spending slashed; user charges for basic services introduced or increased; and markets "deregulated". In the process, power and wealth have become increasingly concentrated and the ability of nation states to protect the public interest has been undermined. The chief beneficiaries have been transnational corporations which have used the auctioning-off of the state sector to integrate their operations further.

--Bello, Walden. "Neither Market Nor State: The Development Debate in South-East Asia," The Ecologist 26(no. 4,1996):167. Fast track capitalism has brought huge growth rates for the newly-industrialized countries of Asia. But the assertion that such rapid growth is due to free trade and free market policies is a myth. The explanation lies in a combination of protection, state intervention and a massive infusion of Japanese capital following the relocation of Japanese companies to South-East Asia in search of cheap labor. As a result, the region's economies are now subordinate to, and dependent on, Japan.

--Sklar, Holly. "Scapegoating and Slander: Blaming the Poor for Poverty," The Ecologist 26(no. 4,1996):187. To deflect blame from the economic policies which are creating poverty and unemployment, many local and national leaders are scapegoating those most impoverished by such policies: principally single mothers, ethnic minorities, and the poor themselves. Such scapegoating is being used to divide and rule opposition to globalization: instead of working together across racial lines and gender divides to transform society, people are being turned against each other.

--Hildyard, Nicholas, Hines, Colin, Lang, Tim. "Who Competes? Changing Landscapes of Corporate Control," The Ecologist 26(no. 4,1996):125. In the drive to become "competitive," companies are restructuring their operations on a global scale. It is not companies which are competing, however, but workers and communities. New technologies, new management techniques and a new freedom of capital to move across borders have drastically undermined the bargaining power of labor, while strengthening that of corporations. Workers are being pitted against workers and communities against communities as companies relocate from one country to another in search of new markets, the weakest unions, the most flexible rules on working conditions and the largest subsidies. The time has come to press for an economy that protects people, not corporations.

--Wood, Mary Christina. "Environmental Scholarship for a New Millennium," Environmental Law 26(no. 3):761. Urging students and scholars of environmental law to break the intellectual apathy in this important field, Wood suggests that scholars interested in preventing ecological disaster should take to "millennium scholarship," marked by revealing the environmental crisis, assessing the effectiveness of our legal system, and refocusing on the ethical question of human responsibility toward the earth. Wood is an Associate Professor of Law at University of Oregon School of Law.

--Nolen, Kelly. "Residents at Risk: Wildlife and the Bureau of Land Management's Planning Process," Environmental Law 26(no. 3):771. Nolen evaluates the Bureau of Land Management's planning process under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). After concluding that wildlife does not receive adequate consideration, she offers several solutions.

--Wold, Chris. "Multilateral Environmental Agreements and the GATT: Conflict and Resolution," Environmental Law 26 (no. 3):841. Wold analyzes the underlying conflicts between international trade rules as declared in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the trade provisions of various multilateral environmental agreements. Wold teaches law at Northwestern School of Law, Lewis & Clark College.

--Pollock-Ellwand, Nancy. "The Need for Holism: A Landscape and Pluralist Perspective," Environments 24(no. 1, 1996):94.

--Hoffman, Doug. "Soils, Agriculture and Sustainable Development: Nationally, Provincially, Locally," Environments 24(no. 1, 1996):123.

--Regier, Henry. "Self Organization and the Ecosystem Approach: the New Science and the New Scholarship," Environments 24(no. 1, 1996):153.

--Baskin, Yvonne. "Curbing Undesirable Invaders," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):732. The Norway/United Nations Conference on Alien Species calls for global action to squelch the rising tide of unwanted species.

--Busch, Lisa. "Saving Whales Contentiously," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):737. Not everyone in Hawaii is happy about providing a sanctuary for humpbacks.

--Wagner, Frederic H. "Ethics, Science, and Public Policy," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):765.

--Mattson, David J. "Ethics and Science in Natural Resource Agencies," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):767.

--Bella, David A. "The Pressures of Organizations and the Responsibilities of University Professors," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):772.

--Zemansky, Gilbert M. "Ethical Tensions in Technical Consulting," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):779.

--Bird, Stephanie J. "The Role of Science Professionals in Teaching Responsible Research Conduct," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):783.

--Baker, Beth. "Washington Watch: Man in the Biosphere Under Bombardment," Bioscience 46(no.10, 1996):748.

--Aboud, Abdillahi, Sofranko, Andrew J., Ndiaye, Serigne. "The Effect of Gender on Adoption of Conservation Practices by Heads of Farm Households in Kenya," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.5, 1996):447.

--Crossley, James W. "Managing Ecosystems for Integrity: Theoretical Considerations for Resource and Environmental Managers," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.5, 1996):

--Williams, Daniel R., Patterson, Michael E. "Environmental Meaning and Ecosystem Management: Perspectives from Environmental Psychology and Human Geography," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.5, 1996):507.

--Litmanen, Tapio. "Environmental Conflict as a Social Construction: Nuclear Waste Conflicts in Finland," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.5, 1996):523.

--Fortmann, Louise. "Bonanza! The Unasked Questions: Domestic Land Tenure Through International Lenses," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.5, 1996):537.

--Samways, Michael J. "The Art of Unintelligent Tinkering," Conservation Biology 10(no.5,1996):1307. Will the new self-manipulating human genome slow the natural evolution of biodiversity? Samways is in zoology and invertebrate conservation at the University of Natal, South Africa.

--Uhl, Christopher, Kulakowski, Dominik, Cochrane, Mark. "Sustainability: A Touchstone Concept for University Operations, Education, and Research," Conservation Biology 10(no.5,1996):1308.

--Hedrick, Philip W., Lacy, Robert C., Soule, Michael E. "Directions in Conservation Biology: Comments on Caughley," (Caughley's claim that there are only two paradigms in conservation biology). Conservation Biology 10(no.5,1996):1312.

--Saberwal, Vasant K., Kothari, Ashish. "The Human Dimension in Conservation Biology Curricula in Developing Countries," Conservation Biology 10(no.5,1996):1328.

--Siegel, James J. "Subdivision versus Agriculture: From False Assumptions Come False Alternatives," Conservation Biology 10(no.5,1996):1473.

--Johnson, L., Padilla, D.K. "Geographic Spread of Exotic Species: Ecological Lessons and Opportunities from the Invasion of the Zebra Mussel Dreissena Polymorpha," Biological Conservation 78(no.1/2, 1996):23.

--Case, T. J. "Global Patterns in the Establishment and Distribution of Exotic Birds," Biological Conservation 78(no.1/2, 1996):69.

--Carlton, J.T. "Pattern, Process, and Prediction in Marine Invasion Ecology," Biological Conservation 78(no.1/2, 1996):97.

--Parker, I.M., Kareiva, P. "Assessing the Risks of Invasion for Genetically Engineered Plants: Acceptable Evidence and Reasonable Doubt," Biological Conservation 78(no.1/2, 1996):193.

--Lafferty, William M. "The Politics of Sustainable Development: Global Norms for National Implementation," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):185.

--Backstrand, Karin, Kronsell, Annica, Soderholm, Peter. "Organisational Challenges to Sustainable Development," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):209.

--Humphreys, David. "The Global Politics of Forest Conservation Since the UNCED," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):231.

--Salleh, Ariel. "Social Ecology and `The Man Question.'" Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):258.

--Harris, Paul G. "Considerations of Equity and International Environmental Institutions," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):274.

--Bomberg, Elizabeth. "Greens in the European Parliament," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):324.

--Burchell, Jon. "No to the European Union (EU): Miljopartiet's Success in the 1995 European Parliament Elections in Sweden," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):332.

--Andersen, Milael Skou. "The Impact of New Member States on EU Environmental Policy," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):339.

--Kutting, Gabriela, Gauci, Gotthard. "International Environmental Policy on Air Pollution from Ships," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):345.

--Srinivas, K. Ravi. "The Great Population Debate," Environmental Politics 5 (no.2, 1996):359.

--Wakeford, Tom, Meyer, Aubrey. "Valuing the Environment and Valuing Lives." Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):363.

--Crowley, Kate. "Nature: Reinvention, Restoration or Preservation?,"

Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):367. Crowley teaches political science at the University of Tasmania, Hobart.

--Herring, Horace. "Environmental History," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):372.

--Spash, Clive L. "Human-Induced Climate Change: The Limits of Models," Environmental Politics 5(no.2, 1996):376.

--Harris, Michael Ray. "Promoting Corporate Self-Compliance: An Examination of the Debate Over Legal Protection for Environmental Audits," Ecology Law Quarterly 23 (no.4, 1996):663.

--Kasperson, Jeanne X., Kasperson, Roger E. Turner II, B.L. "Regions at Risk: Exploring Environmental Criticality," Environment 38(No.10, 1996):4. Looks at nine critical zones and examines the social, political, and economic factors that place in question the future of key environments around the globe.

--Dunkiel, Brian S. "Should Tax Policy be Subject to NEPA?" Environment 38(No.10, 1996):16. Although tax policy has significant impacts on the environment, neither the U. S. Treasury nor the IRS routinely do environmental assessments.

--Plater, Zygmunt J.B. "Environmental Law as a Mirror of the Future: Civic Values Confronting Market Force Dynamics in a Time of Counter-Revolution," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23(no.4,1996):733.

--DeCosse, David E. "Beyond Law and Economics: Theological Ethics and the Regulatory Takings Debate," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23(no.4,1996):829.

--Spaling, Harry, Dekker, Annette. "Cultural Sustainable Development: Concepts and Principles," Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 48(no.4,1996):230

--Bube, Richard H. "Is `Man' Unique?," Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 48(no.4,1996):250.

--Burdge, Rabel J. "Introduction: Cultural Diversity in Natural Resource Use: Changing Definitions by Different Racial and Ethnic Categories," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):561.

--Jostad, Patricia M., McAvoy, Leo H., McDonald, Daniel. "Native American Land Ethics: Implications for Natural Resource Management," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):565.

--Rikoon, J. Sanford. "Imagined Culture and Cultural Imaging: Cultural Implications of the USDA-SCS `Harmony' Campaign," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):583. Soil "harmony" as promoted by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.

--Endter-Wada, Joanna, Levine, Douglas W. "Comparison of Subsistence Activities Among Natives and Non-Natives in Bristol Bay, Alaska," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):595.

--Hansis, Richard. "The Harvesting of Special Forest Products by Latinos and Southeast Asians in the Pacific Northwest: Preliminary Observations," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):611.

--Salazar, Debra J., Moulds, Lisa A. "Toward an Integrated Politics of Social Justice and Environment: African American Leaders in Seattle," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):617.

--Price, Martin F. "People in Biosphere Reserves: An Evolving Concept," Society & Natural Resources 9(no.6, 1996):645.

--Haight, Robert G. "Wildlife Models: Predicting the Effects of Habitat Restoration," Journal of Forestry 94(no.12, 1996):4.

--Teck, Richard, Moeur, Melinda, Eav, Bov. "Forecasting Ecosystems with the Forest Vegetation Simulator," Journal of Forestry 94(no.12, 1996):7.

--Liu, Rei, Herrington, Lee P. "The Expected Cost of Uncertainty in Geographic Data," Journal of Forestry 94(no.12, 1996):27.

--Dellapenna, Joseph W. "Rivers as Legal Structures: The Examples of the Jordan and the Nile," Natural Resources Journal 36(no.2, 1996):217.

--McCaffrey, Stephen C. "An Assessment of the Work of the International Law Commission," Natural Resources Journal 36(no.2, 1996):297.

--Moore, Michael R., Mulville, Aimee, Weinberg, Marcia. "Water Allocation in the American West: Endangered Fish Versus Irrigated Agriculture," Natural Resources Journal 36(no.2, 1996):319.

--Teclaff, Ludwik A. "Evolution of the River Basin Concept in National and International Water Law," Natural Resources Journal 36(no.2, 1996):359.

--Vinogradov, Sergei. "Transboundary Water Resources in the Former Soviet Union: Between Conflict and Cooperation," Natural Resources Journal 36(no.2, 1996):393.

--Veatch, Robert M., Gaylin, Willard, Steinbock, Bonnie. "Can the Moral Commons Survive Autonomy?," The Hastings Center Report 26(no.6, 1996):41.

--Martin, Vance, Tyler, Nicholas, eds. Arctic Wilderness--The 5th World Wilderness Congress. Ojai, California: The WILD Foundation, Nov. 1995. $32. The aim of the 5th WWC was to enhance awareness of the natural beauty, natural resources, and the aesthetic and scientific importance of the Arctic and Antarctica. Examples of discoveries and developments in both basic and applied science, of exploitation of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, and of new information discovered. There are clear warnings about the consequences of human activity at high latitudes.

--Braun, Elisabeth. Portraits in Conservation: Eastern and Southern Africa. Ojai, California: The WILD Foundation, Nov. 1995. $28. Studies of individual men and women who have dedicated themselves to conservation in Africa. Leading conservationists such as the Krauses, who began the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia, or Michael Werikhe, who has mobilized a grass-roots movement to save the rhino from poachers. Descriptions of village-based projects and the individuals involved in them reveal an evolving conservation philosophy.

--Boff, Leonardo. Ecology and Liberation: A New Paradigm. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995. 187 pp. $14.95. Boff calls for a new holistic and integrated theology, rooted in a global consciousness, and driven by a mystical experience of God. The catalyst for this new theology is the emerging ecological awareness in the wake of the environmental crisis and the challenge confronting liberation theology from the recent failures of the Marxist state.

--Gottlieb, Roger S., ed. The Ecological Community. New York: Routledge, 1997. 384 pp. Contents: Peter Wenz, "Environmentalism and Human Oppression"; John O'Neill, "Time, Narrative and Environmental Politics"; Wm. Throop, "The Rationale for Environmental Restoration"; Gus diZerega, "Empathy, Society, Nature, and the Relational Self: Deep Ecology and Liberal Modernity"; Avner de-Shalit, "Is Liberalism Environment-Friendly?"; David Macauley, "Be-wildering Order: On Finding a Home for Domestication and the Domesticated Other"; Roger Gottlieb, "A Sleepless Ethicist and Some of His Acquaintances, Including the Monoculturalist, the Poetic Naturalist, the Very Famous Biologist, the Happy Scientist, and a Few Heroic Antimodernists"; Eric Katz, "Imperialism, and Environmentalism"; Steven Vogel, "Habermas and the Ethics of Nature"; Robert Kirkman, "The Problem of Knowledge in Environmental Thought: A Counterchallenge"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Feeding People versus Saving Nature?"; Michael Zimmerman, "Ecofascism: A Threat to American Environmentalism?"; Andrew Light, "Materialists, Ontologists, and Environmental Pragmatists"; David Schlosberg, "Challenging Pluralism: Environmental Justice and the Evolution of Pluralist Practice"; Mark Wallace, "International Justice, Neopreservationism, and Sustainable Spirituality"; Mark Michael, "International Justice and Wilderness Preservation"; Brian Luke, "Solidarity Across Diversity: A Pluralistic Rapprochement of Environmentalism and Animal Liberation"; Carl Mitcham, "The Sustainability Question." Gottlieb teaches philosophy and humanities at Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

--Ogrin, Dusan, ed. Nature Conservation Outside Protected Areas/ Varstvo narave zunaj zavarovanih obmocij: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Occasion of the European Year of the Environment, 1995. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, Republic of Slovenia, and Institute for Landscape Architecture, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana 1996. 247pp. ISBN 961-90033-9-X. All articles are in both Slovenian and English. Contents: Pavle Gantar, "Introductory Speech"; Mario Pavan, on a political democracy of the environment for a better Europe (in French); Holmes Rolston, III, "Nature, Culture, and Environmental Ethics"; Ivan Marusic, "Towards a General Conservation Theory"; Peter Jacobs, "Environmental Parentheses and Design Metaphors"; Kazuhiko Takeuchi, "Planning for the Recovery of Nature in Rural and Urban Areas"; Harald Plachter, "A Central European Approach for the Protection of Biodiversity"; Hans Kiemstedt, "Landscape Planning and Impact Regulation as Instruments of Integrated Nature Conservation in Germany"; Olav Skage, "Nature Conservation Through Landscape Planning"; Carl Steinitz, "Landscape Planning and the Management of Biodiversity"; Shumel Burmil, "Protection of Nature Outside Protected Areas in Israel"; Martin Schneider-Jacoby, "Nature Conservation Efforts for Rivers in Central Europe"; Mladen Berginc, "The Nature Conservation System in Slovenia"; Margita Jancic, "The Role of Physical Planning Instruments in Guaranteeing Conservation Interests"; Jana Vidic, "Natural Values Outside Protected Areas"; Zivzn Veselic, Saso Golob, "Nature Conservation Represents an Integral Part of Forest Managing in Slovenia"; Dusan Ogrin, "Dilemmas in an Approach to Conservation Planning"; Ana Kucan, "The Green System of Ljubljana in the Social, Ecological and Morphological Role"; Davorin Gazvoda, "A Conservation of Urban Open Space in a Perspective of Persistent Urban Landscapes." Ogrin teaches landscape architecture at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. This conference was held under the auspices of the Council of Europe.

--Hanna, Susan, Folke, Carl, Mäler, Karl-Göran, eds. Rights to Nature: Ecological, Economic, Cultural, and Political Principles of Institutions for the Environment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 298. A nontechnical, interdisciplinary introduction to the systems of rights, rules, and responsibilities that guide and control human use of the environment. A synthesis of information on how property rights develop, why they develop in certain ways, and the ways in which they function. Integrates natural and social science to address the full range of ecological, economic, cultural, and political factors that affect natural resource management and use. The role of property-rights regimes in establishing societies that are equitable, efficient, and sustainable.

--Marshall, Peter. Nature's Web: Rethinking Our Place on Earth. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. 523 pp. $21.95 paper. Claims to be the first comprehensive overview of the intellectual roots of the worldwide environmental movement--from ancient religions and philosophies to modern science and ethics--and to synthesize these into a new philosophy of nature adequate for a contemporary grounding of moral values and social action.

--Wilson, Don E., Cole, F. Russell, Nichols, James D., Rudran, Rasanayagam, Foster, Mercedes S., eds. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996. 480pp.. $49 cloth. $22.50 paper. Over fifty scientists provide standardized methods for biodiversity sampling procedures for measuring and monitoring populations of any mammal group, from rodents to open-country grazers. Beginning with brief natural histories of the twenty-six orders of living mammals, the book describes in successive chapters field techniques--such as observation, capture, and sign interpretation--appropriate to different taxa. Guidelines for study design, survey planning, statistical techniques, and methods of translating field data into electronic formats.

--Stuart, Chris, Stuart, Tilde. Africa's Vanishing Wildlife. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996. 208 pp. $39.95 cloth. Drawing on data from IUCN publications, this work documents the perils of Africa's vulnerable, rare, and declining species. Pinpointing both keystone species --such as the African elephant--and those that are little known, the authors cover primates, carnivores, antelopes, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. Synthesizing the biology, natural history, and conservation status of Africa's vanishing species, this is an accessible review of the continent's wildlife.

--Miller, Brian, Reading, Richard, Forrest, Steve. Prairie Night. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996. 320pp. $34.95 cloth. The biology and natural history of the black-footed ferret with an account of the decisions on how to save it. A valuable case study for biologists and wildlife managers who must grapple with ecosystem survival and the future of endangered species policy.

--Forrester, Mary Gore. Persons, Animals, and Fetuses: An Essay in Practical Ethics. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. 312pp. $138 cloth. Forrester, both nurse practitioner and philosopher, discusses animal rights, obligations concerning future generations, abortion, limiting medical treatment, and euthanasia.

--Stuessy, Tod, Sohmer, S.H., eds. Sampling the Green World. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 384 pp. $49.50 cloth. Twenty-one leading experts in systematic botany outline an intelligent plan for mapping phytodiversity in the next half century. The authors look at the protocols and procedures for collecting, documenting, storing, and preserving specimens and consider methods of retaining images for plants that cannot be sampled, surveying advanced computerized video applications including virtual reality.

--May, Peter H., da Motta, Ronaldo Seroa, eds. Pricing the Planet: Economic Analysis for Sustainable Development. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 192 pp. $45. Environmental economists and ecologists explore possibilities for sustainable development on a global scale. In the process they shed light on some difficult questions about how much we can expect from economic development projects as they currently stand, given the finite resources of our Earth.

--Omar, Samira A. S. Range Management in Arid Zones: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Range Management in the Arabian Gulf. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 307 pp. $161.50 cloth. Twenty-eight papers by experts addressing the following topics: Rangeland Inventories and Evaluation; Range Plants and Forage Crops--Potential and Production; Animal Production and Conservation; and Technological Range Improvements.

--Gunderson, Lance H., Holling, C. S., Light, Stephen S., eds. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 593pp. $52.50 cloth. Continuing a series on adaptive environmental management, the authors review the management histories in the New Brunswick forests, the Everglades, the Chesapeake Bay, the Columbia River, the Great Lakes, and the Baltic Sea, demonstrating how people and ecosystems coevolve. In addition, contributors from the social sciences suggest broad critical strategies for surmounting barriers and renewing damaged ecosystems.

--Sponsel, Leslie E., Headland, Thomas N., Bailey, Robert C., eds. Tropical Deforestation: The Human Dimension. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 352pp. $49.50 cloth, $19.50 paper. Looks at the insights local people have into conservation of their ecosystems, the effects of habitation on those ecosystems, and the impact of development and natural resource depletion on their lives in Central and South America, Africa, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Indian subcontinent.

--Wilkie, David, and Finn, John T. Remote Sensing Imagery for Natural Resource Monitoring: A Guide for First-time Users. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 295 pp. $49.50 cloth, $27.50 paper. Some of the issues covered include "What Sorts of Information Can Be Remotely Sensed?," "Detecting and Monitoring Temporal Change in a Landscape," "Rapid Updating of Maps and GIS Data Layers".

--MacMillan, Gordon. At the End of the Rainbow?: Gold, Land, and People in the Brazilian Amazon. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 199 pp. $22 paper, $45 cloth. A vivid account of the violent clash between forty thousand miners and the Yanamami Indians in the state of Roraima, as well as arguments that explore the perspectives of the farmers, ranchers, natives and others involved in this historic moment.

--Jacobson, Susan K., and Balick, Michael J., eds Conserving Wildlife: International Education and Communication Approaches. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 301 pp. $22 paper, $45 cloth. Comprehensive case studies of fifteen exemplary education and communication programs that have contributed to the conservation of wildlife and natural resources around the world.

--Weeks, W. William. Beyond the Ark: Tools for an Ecosystem Approach to Conservation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 172 pp. $40 cloth, $20 paper. A detailed account of the conservation planning discipline that is at the heart of The Nature Conservancy's approach. A description and analysis of the planning process that TNC goes through for each project--a process designed to lead to a working understanding of the ecological system under consideration, threats to it and their causes, economically grounded strategies for addressing those threats, and a means of measuring success.

--Vitek, William, and Jackson, Wes, eds. Rooted in the Land: Essays on Community and Place. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 352 pp. $35 cloth, $17 paper. The editors contend that a deeper understanding of communities is critical for the health of the planet and the human spirit. Thirty-five contributors, new and classic writings, many in the form of personal narrative, extending E. F. Schumacher's ideas about the importance of human scale, and Aldo Leopold's concept of biotic citizenship. Vitek teaches philosophy at Clarkson University; Jackson is director of the Land Institute, Salina, Kansas.

--Primack, Richard B., Lovejoy, Thomas E., eds. Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Southeast Asian Rainforests. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 300 pp. $35 cloth, $28 paper. Essays on tropical forest by policy officials and scientists from the countries in the region, an overview of the timber industry in southeast Asia, a comparison of tropical rainforests with those in other parts of the world, and descriptions of plant and animal communities of the region and efforts to preserve them.

--Sloan, Phillip R., ed. Controlling Our Destinies. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997. 400pp. $28.95 cloth, $16 paper. Contributors have taken seriously the mandate, as expressed when the U.S. Congress approved funding for the Human Genome Project, to conduct an ongoing assessment of the ethical, legal and social implications of this scientific enterprise. Their essays include discussions of the historical background of the project, issues behind the concepts of "code" and "genes," the implicit reductionism in contemporary human genetics, and an examination of the nagging issues surrounding potential new forms of positive "eugenics".

--Rouner, Leroy S., ed. The Longing for Home. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997. 248 pp. $34 cloth. Explores the spiritual and emotional depths of our human sense of home, mixing intellectual engagement and personal reflection. Three autobiographical essays about the personal experience of home, followed by philosophical explorations of the meaning of home. The final section relates the theme of home to various problems of modern life.

--MacKenzie, Susan Hill. Integrated Resource Planning and Management. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 240pp. $47 cloth, $24.95 paper. Three indepth case studies are used to explore the institutional prerequisites to the creation and implementation of ecosystem-based management plans in the context of Great Lakes water resources.

--Falk, Donald; Millar, Constance; and Olwell, Margaret, eds. Restoring Diversity. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 400 pp. $39.95 cloth, $27.50 paper. Seeks both to unify concepts in the field of restoration biology, and also to fill significant technical and policy gaps, with the goal of providing operational tools for successful restorations.

--Davis, Mary Byrd, ed. Eastern Old-Growth Forests. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 420 pp. $50 cloth, $24.95 paper. Leading experts examine the ecology and characteristics of eastern old growth forests, explore such forests history and value, and make recommendations for forest preservation.

--Power, Thomas Michael. Lost Landscapes and Failed Economies. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 350 pp. $29.95 cloth. An economist argues that the quality of the natural landscape is an essential part of a community's permanent economic base and should not be sacrificed in short-term efforts to maintain employment levels in industries that are ultimately not sustainable. Power analyzes areas where environmental protection measures have been enacted to examine the impact of protected landscapes on local economies.

--Pilkey, Orrin, Dixon, Katharine. The Corps and the Shore. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 256 pp. $22.95 cloth. Pilkey is one of the most outspoken coastal geologists in the U.S., and Dixon is an educator and activist for national coastal policy reform. They provide a comprehensive examination of the impact of coastal processes on developed areas and the ways in which the U.S. Corps of Engineers has attempted to manage erosion along America's coastline.

--Dramstad, Wenche; Olson, James; and Forman, Richard. Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-Use Planning. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 80 pp. $17.95 paper. A concise handbook that lists and illustrates key principles in the field, and presents specific examples from around the world of how those principles can be applied across a range of scales and diverse types of landscapes.

--Johnson, Pierre Marc, Beaulieu, Andre. The Environment and NAFTA. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 432 pp. $50 cloth, $30 paper. How NAFTA and its interaction with NAAEC might take place and how that will affect trade policy and practices, environmental protection efforts, and the relationships between Canada, Mexico, and the United States.

--Hempel, Lamont. Environmental Governance. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1996. 260 pp. $45 cloth, $22.95 paper. The nature of global environmental change and the institutional responses needed to manage it. Though thoroughly grounded in political science, the book is multidisciplinary in design, drawing on concepts and tools from ecology, economics, law, business, sociology, philosophy, public health, and international relations theory.

--Kubasek, Nancy, and Silverman, Gary. Environmental Law, 2/E. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Business Publishing, 1997. 292 pp. This second edition continues to introduce students to the system through which the U. S. as a nation attempts to preserve and protect the different aspects of the natural environment. The legal system and process in general, specific environmental laws, and the scientific background necessary to understand each law. Both authors are at Bowling Green State University.

--Alexiades, M. N., Sheldon, J. Wood, eds. Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden, 1996. 306 pp. $22.95. A guide addressing the biological, ecological, and anthropological aspects of ethnobotanical research. Includes sections on development and implementation of ethnobotanical research, the collection of plant specimens and the methodologies for observing and recording interaction between people and plants, and examples of quantitative methods in ethnobotanical fieldwork.

--Colfer, C. J. Pierce, Peluso, N., and Chung, C. S. Beyond Slash and Burn: Building on Indigenous Management of Borneo's Tropical Rain Forests. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden, 1997. $25 cloth. What is the world giving up when tropical rain forests are destroyed? The author ponders this question from the view of the Uma Jalan Kenyah, an indigenous people of eastern Borneo, by taking a look at the complex management systems they have developed for tropical forests. The many uses the Kenyah make of the various states of forest regrowth, the under-recognized benefits gained from the forest, and the forest's value beyond that which is attached to it by outsiders.

--Sheldon, J. Wood; Balick, M.J.; and Laird, S. Medicinal Plants: Can Utilization and Conservation Coexist? Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden, 1997. $12.95 paper. Several medicinal plant species, their value to traditional and contemporary medicine, and how over-harvesting of these plants impacts natural and human forest communities. An account of how the herbal and pharmaceutical industries have discovered and used medicinal plants the impact of this on forest communities.

--Nepstad, D., Shwartzman, S., eds. Non-Timber Products from Tropical Forests: Evaluation of a Conservation and Development Strategy. Bronx, NY: The New York Botanical Garden, 1992. 176 pp. $18.95 paper. An interdisciplinary array of studies on extractive products and extractive economies. Discussions of the biological, cultural, political, and economic contexts of non-timber forest product extraction and trade. Case studies from Amazonia, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

--Simon, Julian L. Population Matters: People, Resources, Environment, and Immigration. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers, 1996. 591 pp. $28.95 paper. Fifty-eight essays, on population, raw materials, energy, food supply, and pollution, by perhaps the worlds most optimistic developmentalist.

--Cassen, Robert. The Population and Development Debate: Fictions, Factions, and Facts--U.S.-Third World Policy Perspectives Series, No. 19. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers, 1995. 304 pp. $32.95 cloth, $17.95 paper. The effect of population growth on economic development and other areas of concern, such as poverty, health, human resource development and the environment.

--Benton, Ted, ed. The Greening of Marxism. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc., 1996. 310 pp. $42.95 cloth, $17.95 paper. Tracing the history of the integration of ecological understanding with Marxist philosophy, this book explores the influence of green politics on Marxism, examines the new politics emerging from these movements, and shows how red-green alliances can transform the political landscape.

--Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life. Caring for the Future: Making the Next Decades Provide a Life Worth Living. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 384 pp. $14.95 paper. Examines the challenges that face all countries, both rich and poor, in the last years of the century. Goals to confront these crises. The report places women at the center of development, and caring at the center of public policy, arguing that there must be a new focus on sustainable quality of life in order to slow population growth and reduce human impact on the environment.

--Birnie, P. W., and Boyle, A.E., eds. Basic Documents on International Law and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 704 pp. $78.40 cloth, $30.40 paper. A collection that includes all the major treaties and other legal instruments relevant to the protection of the environment in international law. Topics covered include the codification and development of international environmental law, marine pollution, the protection of the atmosphere, nuclear risks, control of hazardous substances, and international watercourses.

--Hajer, Maartem A. The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 344 pp. $55. A new perspective, "ecological modernization," which stresses the opportunities of environmental policy for modernizing the economy and stimulating technological innovation, has come to replace the antagonistic debates of the 1970's.

--World Resources Institute, The United Nations Environment Programme, The United Nations Development Programme, and the World Bank. World Resources 1996-97. Seventh biennial issue of what is widely regarded as the most authoritative report on the global environment. Includes the latest ideas on a broad spectrum of urban environmental issues and suggests strategies for addressing them.

--Bergesen, Helge Ole, and Parmann, Georg, eds. Green Globe Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development 1996. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 358 pp. $59.95. This Yearbook's main objective is to demonstrate how far the international community has come in solving specific environment and development problems, what the main obstacles are to effective international solutions, and what needs to be done to overcome such barriers.

--Southwick, Charles H. Global Ecology in Human Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 416 pp. $39.95 cloth, $21.95 paper. The scope and meaning of global ecology and a brief review of ecological principles relevant to global concerns. How humans affect global ecosystems and how these changes impact human health, behavior, economics, and politics.

--Peterson, Kaja. Nature Conservation in Estonia. Tallin, Huma Press, 1994. 48 pp. National parks, nature reserves, landscape reserves, mire reserves, ornithological reserves, botanical reserves, botanical-zoological reserves, geological reserves, nature parks and program areas.

--Elmore, Roger W. "Our Relationship with the Ecosystem and Its Impact on Sustainable Agriculture," Journal of Production Agriculture 9 (no.1, 1996):42-45. A brief survey of geocentric, anthropocentric and theocentric approaches to environmental ethics.

--Van Dyke, Fred. Redeeming Creation: The Biblical Basis for Environmental Stewardship. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1996. A Christian approach to environmental ethics.

--Curtis, Mark. "Democratic Genocide," The Ecologist 26(no.5, 1996):202.

--Mayo, Ed. "The Potential of Eco-Taxes," The Ecologist 26(no.5, 1996):204.

--Carrere, Ricardo. "Pulping the South: Brazil's Pulp and Paper Plantations," The Ecologist 26(no.5, 1996):206. Demand for paper is soaring, particularly in the North. To supply cheap pulp, fast-growing tree plantations are being established on the forests, pastures and farmlands of the South, with severe environmental and social impacts. Anticipating opposition to their activities, the pulp and paper industry has become adept at "greenwashing" its activities. A case study of three of Brazil's leading pulp operations compares the companies' claims with their impacts on the ground.

--McNally, Ruth, Wheale, Peter. "Biopatenting and Biodiversity: Comparative Advantages in the New Global Order," The Ecologist 26(no.5, 1996):222. Genetic engineering has enabled novel species of plants, animals, and micro-organisms to be created as genes from totally unrelated species, which cannot breed with each other so are spliced together. To reap financial gain, the biotechnology industry has, over the past two decades, pushed for patent law to cover its "inventions". Patent rights over living organisms, combined with the industry's efforts to gain exclusive access to the world's biodiversity, are exacerbating the commodification and industrialized use of species. Opposition to this "biotechnological imperialism" is gaining momentum.

--Bregman, J. I. "Environmental Laws and Regulations As Project Stoppers," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 4(no.3, 1996):33. How to use environmental requirements to stop projects--or to prevent this from happening.

--Adams, Jonathan S., and Mcshane, Thomas O. The Myth of Wild Africa: Conservation Without Illusion. San Francisco: University of California Press, 1996. $14.95 paper. Seeks to redress the lack of understanding of the vital position of Africans in effective conservation.

--Anderson, Michael, ed. Human Rights Approaches to Environmental Protection. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 336 pages. $ 65.00. Linkages between the environment and human rights. The legal status of environmental rights in both international and domestic law.


--Keeping the Earth: Religious and Scientific Perspectives on the Environment, 27 minutes. Produced by the Union of Concerned Scientists and the National Religious Partnership for the Environment. Excellent video, sensitively done throughout and conveys a sense of reverence for creation and urgent need for conservation. Begins with the Genesis text and the diversity of creation. Follows a procession of the animals to the altar in the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in Washington, DC. Appeals from religious spokespersons and scientists: Calvin DeWitt, Ausable Institute and Biology, University of Michigan; Drew Christiansen, Roman Catholic; Michael Smart, Jewish; Paul Gorman, National Religious Partnership for the Environment; E. O. Wilson, Harvard University; Jane Lubchenco, Ecological Society of America and Oregon State University; Henry Kendall, Union of Concerned Scientists; Jean Sindab, National Council of Churches; Ismnar Schorsch, Jewish Theological Seminary. Noah and the covenant with creation. Escalating human demands on the Earth. Ends with "Both science and religion call on us to keep the Earth." Order from: Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 12238. 617/547-5552. Or: The Video Project, 200 Estates Drive, Ben Lomond, CA 95005. 800-4-PLANET.

--Environmental Ethics: Constructive Approaches to Difficult Issues. 40 minutes, 1994. Four Corners School of Outdoor Education, Monticello, UT. Environmental Ethics, especially as faced by teachers in public schools. Chief participants: Janet Ross, Director; Paul Michaelec, a philosopher; Susi Ellison, lead teacher; Hardy Redd, rancher; Dottie Fox. Brief accounts of intrinsic value, extrinsic value, here identified with instrumental value; five kinds of environmental ethics: Theocentric, biocentric, ecocentric, anthropocentric, sociocentric. Role playing a timber cut. Janet Ross on experiential education, Hardy Redd on decisions whether to cut timber on his land. Anasazi culture and lessons from it. How teachers can help students form their own ethical convictions. Rather many talking heads. Available from: Four Corners School of Outdoor Education, P. O. Box 1092, Monticello, UT 84535, 800/525-4456. Or: The Video Project, 200 Estates Drive, Ben Lomond, CA 95005. 800-4-PLANET.

--El Dorado. Produced by GreenTV, San Francisco, 800/473-3643. Excellent video following logging controversies in the El Dorado National Forest, in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California. 56 mins. The Michigan-California Logging Company had operated there for several generations, but shut down following lawsuits and protests by environmentalists. The video follows four principals: Larry Lloyd, timber feller; Karen Schamback, environmentalist, founder of FAWN, local environmental group; Tim Louk, sawmill worker; Craig Thomas, and wife Maggie, environmentalists. Following new guidelines on forest health, the Forest Service rules that historic levels of logging can no longer continue, although Michigan-California had tripled its reliance on national forest cut. In May 1993, timber sales were completely stopped; protest meetings with intense feelings. FAWN member hung in effigy. FAWN member replies that FAWN said "the emperor has no clothes" and got blamed for stealing them. Shortly afterward, the mill reopened under different owner, SPI, with undisclosed terms of buyout and doubts about the deeper reasons that Michigan-California closed the mill. In summer 1994, a fire burns 800 acres, including Craig Thomas land. FAWN and loggers remove salvage wood. A Republican vote shifts back toward logging. The video closes with uncertainty about the future, and the pains of being an activist, although it is clear that the community will have to adapt or die. Available from: The Video Project, 200 Estates Drive, Ben Lomond, CA 95005. 800-4-PLANET.

--Okavango: Africa's Savage Oasis, National Geographic. About 50 minutes. Aired on PBS, November 1996. $19.95. The Okavanga Basin is a delta that floods annually in the desert of northern Botswana. The Okavanga River flows southwest from Angola; the basin is without external drainage, and is a wetland haven for part of the year, with wildlife continuing in the dry season, under more severe conditions. Wildfire in dry season, and struggle to escape the fire, which rejuvenates the system. Marvelous wildlife photography, excellent of wild dogs, including chases and kills of lechwe (an aquatic antelope). Cheetahs taking reedbuck. The wild dog is second only to the cheetah in speed. Rich diversity of life, struggling to survive, predators and prey, with each having its niche in the wetland ecosystem. Crocodiles taking prey from wild dogs. Life continuing in the midst of its perpetual perishing. Closes with a philosophical statement: each has its place in this savage oasis of life. National Geographic Home Video, Box 5073, Clinton, NJ 07015-5073, 800/732-4343.

--Sustainable Environments, Joe Clokey, director. Ben Lomend, California: The Video Project: Media for a Safe and Sustainable World, 1996. VHS $95. Analyzes the major changes that humans have produced in their environments during the past one hundred years affecting land, forest, water, and even the atmosphere. The necessity for reversing these effects and working toward sustainable solutions. Contributors include community planners, energy experts, architects, farmers, horticulturists, and biologists.


Jobs for Philosophers is a new website, offering a (hopefully) comprehensive list of jobs in philosophy world wide. The list is ordered geographically: Europe - America -Asia/Africa/Australia. Postings may be made in any language using the Roman alphabet. The address: http://www.sozialwiss.uni-hamburg.de/phil/ag/jobs/. This site operates out of Hamburg, Germany. A German version of the site can be reached by adding /main deutsch.html to the above address. For a job posting form, add /postingform/html to the above address. A contact is Vincent C. Mueller, PhilNet, Hamburg. vmueller@informatik.uni-hamburg.de



--February 13-18, 1997. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington. With a host of speakers, panels, presentations that consider environmental issues as these involve policy and ethics. Examples: a session on "Is Sustainable Tropical Forestry Possible or Desirable?," a session on "Priorities for Environment and Natural Resources Research," a session on "Global Change: Environment, Impacts, and Action," a session on "Culture and Nature: Married or Divorced? The Impact of Gender upon Sustainability." Jane Lubchenco gives the President's Lecture, "Entering the Century of the Environment." Lubchenco, an ecologist at Oregon State University, was instrumental in formulating the Ecological Society of America's mission priority statement for a sustainable biosphere and is one of the scientists featured in the video, Keeping the Earth: Religious and Scientific Perspectives on the Environment, see above.

--February 25-March 1, 1997. International Symposium on Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management in the Americas, Belize City, Belize. Held in Central America, this conference is hosted by the Colorado State University Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit of the College of Natural Resources, and also by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the University College of Belize. This conference is at the peak of the tourist season and you will have to plan early to attend. Contact: Jennifer Pate, Symposium Coordinator, Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; PH 970-491-7729; Fax 970-491-2255.

--March 6-7, 1997. Risk Assessment and Policy Association, Washington, DC. See above.

--March 13-17, 1997. Rio + 5 Assembly, in Rio de Janeiro. An assembly monitoring the implementation of the sustainable development and environmental conservation efforts launched at the UNCED Earth Summit.

--March 18-22, 1997. International Studies Association, Toronto,  Ontario, CANADA. On March 19th: session on Interdisciplinary Synergies for Confronting Global Environmnetal Problems: Ecology, Economics, and Ethics, with the following speakers: Orlie Loucks, Ohio, Eminent Scholar in Applied Ecosystem Studies; Robert Goodland, Environment Dept., World Bank; Laura Westra, U of Windsor; Rosalind Irwin, York U of Toronto. Contact: P. Saiwood, Saiwood Biology Resources, P. O. Box 24141, Montgomery, AL 36124 USA; Fax (334) 277-0105; Tel (334) 277-3433.

--April 4-6, 1997. Ruffin Lecture Series, "Environmental Challenges to Business," Darden School, University of Virginia. Organized by Patricia Werhane. Speakers include: Kristen Shrader-Frechette, U of South Florida; William McDonough, UVA; Carolyn Merchant, U of California, Berkeley; R. Edward Freeman, UVA; Paul Shrivastava, Bucknell U; Mark Sagoff, U of Maryland.  Commentators include: Andrea Larson, UVA; George Brenkert, U of Tennessee; I. Mitroff, U of Souther California; Bryan Norton, Georgia Tech; Derry Habir, Jakarta; Laura Westra, U of Windsor; and Sandra Rosenthal and Rogene Buchholz, Loyola U of New Orleans.

--April 17-18, 1997. Conference on New Directions for Environmental Values, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

--April 23-27, 1997. American Philosophical Association: Central Division, Pittsburgh, PA.

--May 5-7, 1997. Cross-Cultural Protection of Nature and the Environment. Seminar at Hollufgaard, Humanities Research Center, "Man and Nature," Odense, Denmark. Speakers: Avner de-Shalit, Political Science, Hebrew University; Darrell Posey, Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, Oxford; Paul Richards, University College, London; Bryan Norton, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, and Toni Huber, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Further papers are invited. Contact Finn Arler, Humanities Research Center, Man and Nature, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, DK-5220 Odense SO, Denmark. Phone 45 65 95 94 93. Fax 45 65 95 77 66. E-mail: arler@humcenter.ou.dk

--June 4-5, 1997. Learned Societies Congress, St. John's, Newfoundland, CANADA. See Call for Papers above.

--June 6-9, 1997. Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, CANADA.

--June 21-26, 1997. Conference on Global Ecological Integrity: The Relation Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics. Cortona and Firenze, ITALY. See Call for Papers above.

--June 24-28, 1997. Global Ecological Integrity: The Relation Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics. Firenze and Cortona, ITALY.

--July 11-18, 1997. Spirituality and Sustainability, in Assisi, Italy. With a focus on current efforts since the Rio Earth Summit, including the Earth Charter process, on emerging ecologically sensitive religions and sciences, and grassroots sustainable development initiatives. Contact Richard M. Clugston, Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone 202/778-6133.

--July 17-19, 1997. Second Biennial Conference of the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE), University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. "The Last Best Place." Featured writers and scholars: David Abram, Rick Bass, Shoko Itoh, Thomas J. Lyon, Joseph Meeker, David Robertson, Pattiann Rogers, Louise Westling, and Gary Snyder. Paper proposals, by January 15, 1997, to: John Tallmadge, President-Elect, ASLE, 6538, Teakwood Court, Cincinnati OH 45224. Phone: 513-681-0944; E-mail: jtall@interramp.com General information about the conference from ASLE Conference, Conferences and Institutes, Center for Continuing Education, Missoula MT 59812-1900. Phone: 406-243-4600; E-mail: cni@selway.umt.edu Conference Director: Hank Harrington. Further information about the conference is available on the ASLE World Wide Web Site: http://faraday.clas.virginia.edu/~djp2n/asle.html

--October 1- 3, 1997. Environmental Justice: Global Ethics for the 21st Century. An international academic conference at the University of Melbourne. Papers invited. Arne Naess (University of Oslo) will open the conference. Contact Nicholas Low, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Phone: (3) 9344 6429. Fax (3) 9344 7458. E-mail: nick_low@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au. The conference is now posted on the Internet at: http://www.arbld.unimelb.edu.au/events/enjust.htm

--October 18-25, 1997. 6th World Wilderness Congress, Bangalore, India. Papers invited. For a symposium on Wilderness Designation, Management, and Research, contact in the U.S.: Alan Watson, Leopold Institute, 790 East Beckwith Ave., University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59801. Phone 406/542-4197. For a symposium on Wilderness Inventory: Approaches and Progress, contact Jonathan Miller, Director, Wilderness and Wild Rivers Unit, Environment Australia, G.P.O. Box 1567 Canberra, Australia 2601. Fax 61-6 217-2095. For a symposium on The Use of Wilderness for Personal Growth, Therapy, and Education, contact Dr. John Hendee, Director, Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Fax 208/885-2268. For a seminar on The Tiger Dilemma--Status, Review, and Recommendations, contact M.A. Partha Sarathy, Hamsini, 1, 12th Cross, Rajmahal, Bangalore, 650 080, India. Fax 91-80 334-1674. Previous conferences have been in South Africa, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Norway.


--May 27-31, 1998. Society and Resource Management, Seventh International Symposium. University of Missouri-Columbia. Papers, symposia, etc., invited. Contact: Sandy Rikoon, Rural Sociology, 108 Sociology Bldg., University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. Phone 573/882-0861 Fax 573/882-1473.

--August 10-16, 1998. Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Paideia--Philosophy Educating Humanity. Boston, Massachusetts. The World Congresses of the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP) are normally held every five years. The previous conference was XIX, Moscow, 1993. The Program of this Congress will include a larger number of invited sessions than World Congresses in the past. Various sections invite contributed papers, among them sections in applied ethics, and in philosophy and the environment. September 1, 1997 is the deadline for contributed papers, though contributions received after this deadline but before January 1, 1998, may be accepted if space is still available. Send all proposals and papers to The American Organizing Committee, Inc., 745 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215; phone (617) 353-3904; fax (617) 353-5441; e-mail: paideia@bu.edu. WWW: http://web.bu.edu/WCP (Note that it is "web" and not "www" as typically found.)


Back issues of ISEE Newsletters have been moved to the University of North Texas website at:


(These were formerly at Morehead State University, Kentucky, although accessible through the University of North Texas ISEE homepage). Newsletters can be searched using the FIND feature on Windows or other software. Newsletters can be E-mailed to your local address.

Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics

Compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, including 1996 update, will be ready in February. This will cumulate the existing bibliography with all of the 1996 entries in the ISEE Newsletters. The Bibliography is available in WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) which is easily translated into a Macintosh format (also for WordPerfect in Macintosh, if desired). If you don't use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in three parts, A-G, H-Q and R-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. PH 970-491-6315 (office); Fax 970-491-4900; E-mail: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu Send $5 to Rolston. If for some reason you wish only the update part for a current or recent year, specify that, at the same price.

Access via World Wide Web: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:


The site has a search engine, by name and keyword. Files and search results can be e-mailed to your local e-mail address.


Current Officers of ISEE (Executive Board)

President: Professor Mark Sagoff, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-5141 USA, E-mail: msagoff@puafmail.umd.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97.

Vice-President and President-elect: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Dept. of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, E-mail: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97, when he becomes President.

Secretary: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; E-mail: westra@uwindsor.ca;term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.

Treasurer: Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; E-mail: gadfly@igc.apc.org; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Newsletter Editor: Professor Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg, Morehead, KY 40351-1689 USA; Ph 606-783-2785, 606-784-0046; Fax 606-783-2678; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Election of Vice-President and President Elect: Ballots have been mailed to members. Prof. Frederick Ferré (University of Georgia) and Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida) are the nominees. Results are not yet available. Chair of the Nominating Committee is Victoria Davion (University of Georgia).

ISEE Treasurer Ernest Partridge is at work on the Society's tax exempt status, which means that he knows more now about the IRS's 501(c)(3) regs than Newt Gingrich claims to know (which isn't saying much). When approved, ISEE will be eligible for foundation grants, and reduced postage rates.

Partridge's call for papers for his (much delayed) next edition of Responsibilities to Future Generations (II) has been "AOL-ed." That is to say, it has been so overwhelmingly successful that that the editor has been undone by the stack of manuscripts on his desk. Work continues, and will accelerate late next summer. Partridge urges contributors who have not heard from him to be patient. There will be a "Son of RFG"--eventually.

Partridge will be travelling to Florence, Italy, next June, to participate in Laura Westra's "Integrity Forum," after which he will move on to Russia to renew contacts with the environmental community there. He has established a new web site: www.northland.edu/phr. His e-mail address is still gadfly@igc.apc.org.



Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor, of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this often results in duplicated efforts and wasted time. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via E-mail (preferred):


The parcel post address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Scholarly articles are not published. Very brief reports of research and publications will be considered. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Calls for Papers and Conferences should be limited to 150 words.

Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.


U.S.: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; E-mail: gadfly@igc.apc.org

Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; E-mail: westra@uwindsor.ca

Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, renewals, new subscriptions, and address changes should be sent to these regional contact persons. The dues are used by the contact person to pay for duplication and mailing of the Newsletter.

If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Partridge (address above and below).





Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. E-mail: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Australia and New Zealand

The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; PH: 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax: 61 74 30 1111; E-mail elliot@mail.scuc.edu.au


Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; E-mail: westra@uwindsor.ca; Fax 519-973-7050.

China: Mainland China

Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Europe: Eastern Europe

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address and phone: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND; PH 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 476461, ext. 280 (8 am to 3 pm). Fax 48-61-477079 (8 am-3 pm), 48-61-471555 (24 hours). Home address and phone: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND, PH 48-61-417275 (24 hours). Checks sent to his home have more security. E-mail: filozof@plpuam11.amu.edu.pl

Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean

The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Pakistan and South Asia

Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. PH (92) (521) (841593). Fax (92) (521) (841594). E-mail: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk

United Kingdom

Dr. Clare Palmer, University of Greenwich School of Environmental Sciences, Rachel McMillan Building, Creek Road, Deptford; London SE8 3BW; UK; Phone 44 181 331 8223; Fax 44 181 331 8205; Email: C.A.Palmer@greenwich.ac.uk. Dues are £6.50 UK.

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept., College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA. PH 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax 803-953-6388. E-mail: HettingerN@CofC.edu

Peter List, Philosophy Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97332 USA. E-mail: listp@cla.orst.edu

Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; PH 715-682-1355 (Office), 715-373-5735 (Home); Fax 715-372-5736; E-mail: gadfly@igc.apc.org

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; E-mail: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu; PH 970-491-6315 (Office); Fax 970-491-4900.

Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351 USA; E-mail: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office); Fax 606-783-2678.

The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.

Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.

Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via E-mail (preferred) or by disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:


Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Building, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).



Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.

Enclosed are dues: ______________________. (Annual dues are: $15 U.S.; $20 Canadian; £6.50 UK and Europe. Student dues are: $10 U.S. or Canadian, $15 foreign. Please send comparable amounts based on current exchange rates.)


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SEND with Payment to: Regional Contact Person; or Prof. Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI 54806 USA.