Volume 5, No. 2, Summer 1994
In the recent runoff mail ballot, J. Baird Callicott has been elected vice-president of the International Society of Environmental Ethics, to serve a three year term. The complete set of officers is:
President: Mark Sagoff
term to expire end of academic year, 1997
Vice-President: J. Baird Callicott, 1997
Secretary: Laura Westra, 1995
Treasurer: Ned Hettinger, 1996
Jack Weir will become Co-Editor of the ISEE Newsletter beginning with the next issue (vol. 5, no. 3, Fall 1994, issued in mid- October). Holmes Rolston will continue to be co-editor as well, but Weir will be the producing editor, and items should preferentially be sent to him. Send information for the newsletter to Jack Weir via Email where possible: Address: <email@example.com> Note the hyphen! You can also send Email to Weir's box: <firstname.lastname@example.org- st.edu>. Postal address: Jack Weir, Dept. of Philosophy, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606/784-0046 (Home Office); 606/783-2785 (Campus Office); 606/783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606/783-2678 -- include Weir's name on the FAX).
We are still working on an environmental ethics database, which will combine ISEE Newsletter bibliographic notices over the years with all the articles from ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS volumes 1-15, with abstracts, and ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES volumes 1-2, with abstracts. This is be further combined with Eric Katz's two annotated bibliographies on environmental ethics, 1983-1987 and 1987-1990. What we need is the most suitable freeware or shareware software program, one that can be used by anybody, not just computer literate types. Suggestions and volunteers for help from computer literate environmentalists are welcome. Contact: Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, Phone: 303/491-6315 philosophy office, leave word with secretary, answering machine 24 hours. Fax: 303/491-4900. E-mail: email@example.com.
Meanwhile, ISEE has now completed on disk all the bibliographic entries of volumes 1-4 of this Newsletter (1990-1993) and is making this available at cost to those who wish it. The text is currently in WordPerfect format, alphabetized by names at the head of paragraphs. It is easily convertible to ASCII, DOS and MacIntosh. It prints out at about 125 single spaced pages. Inquiries about obtaining the database, now available, should be directed to Dr. Douglas J. Buege, 2902 S. 101st St., West Allis, WI 53227. The bibliographic entries alphabetized, as well as volumes 1-4 of the complete newsletter, four annual issues, total sixteen issues, are available, at cost, in a price range of $ 10 or so, depending on what you need. The database, either the alphabetized version or the newsletter single issues, can be word- searched for author or title, and, to some extent for keywords, although keywords have not been systematically designated.
Important news. Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter can now be accessed by Internet. Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky is putting the back issues on Gopher. You can access the issues from all over the world twenty-four hours a day via computer. Depending on the capabilities of your local software (mainframe), you likely will be able to search, find, download, etc. This should prove a valuable resource to members and others. THE CURRENT ISSUE WILL NOT BE ACCESSIBLE VIA INTERNET. We need you to continue to pay your dues!
To access the Newsletter, follow these instructions: Get into Gopher and enter the address listed below. A Morehead State University menu list will come up. Find the newsletter in the list and follow the on-screen directions. Here's the address: <gopher msuacad.morehead-st.edu> (Please note the space after "gopher" and the hyphen--it's not a dash and not an underline key). Thanks to David Frazier, Morehead State University, for much help in these arrangements.
Mark Sagoff, the incoming president of the International Society of Environmental Ethics, is touring Australia in August, speaking on environmental ethics. He speaks at the University of Western Australia, at Perth, at the Australian National University, Canberra, at the University of Melbourne, at LaTrobe University, at Monash University, and at the University of Sydney.
The International Society for Environmental Ethics should soon be legally incorporated as a non-profit public benefit corporation. It will be incorporated in the state of Montana. Jack Tuholske, Attorney at Law, is working out the arrangements. Thanks also to Eugene Hargrove and funds from Environmental Philosophy, Inc., for making this possible.
In general the annual deadlines for paper submissions for the three ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:
Eastern Division, March 1
Central Division, January 1, proposals by October 15
Pacific Division, January 1, proposals by October 15
The December American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, Boston (Marriott Copeley Place, December 27-30) will include two sessions: Session I: New Directions in Environmental Ethics. Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston) and Bill Throop (St. Andrews College, NC), "Can Ecocentric Ethics Withstand Chaos in Ecology?"; Amy Lee Knisley (University of Colorado, Boulder), "Talking Trash." Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology) moderates. Session II. Sustainable Development and Spirituality. Jack Weir (Morehead State University, KY), "Sustainable Development, Flourishing, and Poverty"; Dieter T. Hessel (Program on Ecology, Justice, and Faith), "Naturalist and Covenantal Aspects of Spirited Earth Ethics." Chair: Eric Katz, who is program organizer for Eastern APA. Probably on December 28 and 29.
Also at the in Boston, Jack Weir (Morehead State University) will present a paper on "Gandhi, Deep Ecology, and the Environmental Crisis" in the joint meeting of the Gandhi-King Society and the Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World. Tolstoy influenced Gandhi, who influenced Arne Naess. Tolstoy's later works are rich resources for ideas and arguments regarding the morality of grassroots labor and lifestyle, anti-consumerism, anti-militarism, non-violence, vegetarianism, class corruption, corruption and the arts, and the failures of institutionalized Christianity (Russian Orthodoxy).
The American Philosophical Association, Central Division section is still in the planning states, but will include Konrad Ott, from Germany, author of (in German) ECOLOGY AND ETHICS, see bibliographic entry below), and Jan Wawrzyniak, from Poland, a case study on utilitarianism and environment in Poland. There is still room for submissions, preferably by September 15.
The Third International Conference on Environmental Ethics. The University of Georgia is hosting an International Conference on Environmental Ethics and the Global Marketplace, on April 27-30, 1995, at Athens. The global marketplace is the largest social institution on the planet, and responsible environmental policy makers must take seriously the economic constraints imposed by environmental legislation. This conference will focus on the apparent divergence of interest and opinion concerning environmental and economic goals. Invited speakers include representatives from the business and policy communities as well as leading scholars in economics, environmental law, international development, and environmental policy. Other sessions will feature solicited papers from younger scholars in the fields of ethics and commerce. Participants are invited to submit competitive papers in the fields of ethics and commerce. Submit a one-page abstract by October 1, 1994 to Dr. Albert F. Ike, Chair of the Environmental Ethics Certificate Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1691. Phone: 706/542-6167. Fax: 706/542-6278. E-mail: ALIKE@uga.cc.uga.edu.
The Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World (SPCW) was organized on 14 August 1993 in Estes Park, CO. SPCW's purpose is to examine contemporary issues and problems using diverse philosophical modes of inquiry. Submission of articles on environmental philosophy and ethics are most welcome. An annual conference will be held in August at the YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, with an annual theme and some open sessions. The Society is fully democratic, and a Non-Profit Organization under IRS 501(c)3. Its refereed journal, PHILOSOPHY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD (PCW), is indexed in the PHILOSOPHER'S INDEX. Membership including the journal is $40 annually ($20 students and limited income). Send articles for review to: Jack Weir, PCW Editor, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351. To join, contact: Prof. Joe Jones, SPCW Treasurer, Barton College, Wilson, NC 27893. See below for details on the conference in Estes Park, August 15-21.
Save America's Forests is a nationwide campaign to protect and restore America's wild and natural forests. The activist network publishes DC UPDATE, which monitors legislation, Congressional committee agenda, governmental agencies, etc. Currently the network is vigorously supporting Rep. John Bryant's (D-TX) amendment (prohibiting clearcutting) to the Montana Wilderness Act. For information on membership, the group's platform, publications, fax network, etc., contact: Save America's Forests, 4 Library Court SE, Washington, DC 20003; phone: 202-544-9219.
Multimedia Simulation on Environmental Decision Making. Craig Summers has a multimedia simulation program for educational presentations and data collection on sustainable development. The program is interactive, looking at how a participant weighs his or her own income needs (real or imaginary) against the need to protect environmental resources. The program simulates decision strategies for up to 30,500 actors. The basic theoretical framework is based on "social dilemmas" in which self-interest conflicts with the interests of others. The case study simulated is the systematic depletion of Atlantic fish stocks, over 30 years, resulting in the loss of jobs for 45,000 people. The program is available free, for anyone who wants to try it out. It comes compressed on 3 high density disks, and will run on any Macintosh (although it will run best with macs having the quicktime extension and 8 MB of RAM). Send three high density disks to Craig Summers, Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6, Canada. Fax: (705) 675-4889. E-mail: CSummers@Nickel.Laurentian.Ca
In July of 1995 the Australian Association of Philosophy (Australian Division) will hold its annual conference at University of New England, Armidale, NSW. The exact dates are yet to be finalized but it is likely to be the first week of July. There will be an ISEE section and papers are invited. They should be sent to Dr. F. D'Agostino, Department of Philosophy, University of New England, NSW, 2351, Australia by March 1, 1995. Fax: 61 (country code) 67 733317. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstracts will be due two months later. Anyone wishing to attend but not to give a paper should also contact Dr. D'Agostino for information about registration and accommodation.
The secretary reports a good response to the recent plea for more prompt dues payments, also a good number of donations to the society. The Governing Board is considering raising the dues to $ US 15, as of 1995 (leaving dues adjustments with the international contacts to their discretion, especially where exchange rates are unfavorable). Comments on whether dues increase, and of what amount, will favor or inhibit membership are invited and encouraged. Send to Dr. Mark Sagoff, President, ISEE, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Phone 301/454-6604.
Glenn McGee completed a Ph.D. at Vanderbilt University, PRAGMATISM AND HUMAN GENETIC ENGINEERING, in the Department of Philosophy, August 1994. McGee uses John Dewey to resituate questions of genetic intervention, redefining the environment/heredity debate concerning genetic causation and setting genetic choices in the context of parenthood and the larger sociocultural matrix. He critiques the contemporary theory of biological causation, as well as social and political positions on genetic choices. The dissertation maps out a pragmatic approach to applied ethics. McGee received dissertation writing fellowships from the Program in Social and Political Thought and from Harvard University. John Lachs was director. Richard Zaner, of Vanderbilt School of Medicine, was clinical director. Richard Lewontin joined the committee from Harvard University's molecular biology labs. McGee is now Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, The University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth.
Glenn McGee delivered "Pragmatism and Genetics" to the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy at Rice University, March 1994. He was Distinguished Visiting Professor of Ethics at California State University Chico during February 1994, delivering lectures on the environmental and cultural impact of genetic technologies.
Vanderbilt University Department of Philosophy will begin offering a Ph.D. emphasis in Ethics and Genetics. For more information, contact Richard M. Zaner, Professor of Medicine, Center for Clinical and Research Ethics, CCC-5319 Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37232. Telephone 615-322-2252. Email MCGEEGE@ctrvax.Vanderbilt.edu
Continuing the entry on Environmental Ethics in Israel from the Newsletter, 5, 1 (Spring 1994), a further conservation group is Adam Tevah V'Din: The Israel Union for Environmental Defense. Their emphasis is to identify and assess environmental hazards, to stop pollution, to initiate and support improved environmental legislation in Israel, and public education to this end. Address: IUED, 317 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv 63503, Israel. Phone 972 3 546-8099. Fax: 972 3 449-941. Eilon Schwartz is chair of the Board of Directors.
The Abraham Joshua Heschel Center for Nature Studies operates a number of nature programs in Israel, from one to three days, field seminars on geology, plants, animals, culture on the landscape, ecology and Jewish law, and also courses that meet weekly, such as Judaism and Nature, or Nature Education as Value Education. Eilon Schwartz is Director. Abraham Joshua Heschel Center for Nature Studies, Bar Giora 9/6, Tel Aviv 64336, Israel. Phone 972 3 528- 9522.
Shromrei Adaman: Keepers of the Earth is a group that develops programs and publications that inspire environmental awareness and practice among Jews. One publication is Marc Swertlitz, ed., JUDAISM AND ECOLOGY, 1970-1986: A SOURCEBOOK OF READINGS, which reprints fourteen of the principal scholarly articles in the field, also with further bibliography. Ellen Bernstein is a founder of the group. Shomrei Adamah, 550 Wissahickon Avenue, # 804C, Philadelphia, PA 19144. 215/844-8150.
Aleph: Alliance for Jewish Renewal has an emphasis on Judaism and environment, including an Eco-Kosher project, making environmental conservation consistent with kosher practice. Aleph/Shalom Center, 7318 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19119. 215/247- 9700. Fax 215/247-9703.
There are two relevant issues of THE MELTON JOURNAL (Melton Research Center for Jewish Education, The Jewish Theological Seminary of America). Spring 1991, no. 24, is JUDAISM AND ECOLOGY: OUR EARTH AND OUR TRADITION, with nine feature articles. Spring 1992, no. 25, is TOWARDS A JEWISH ECOLOGICAL PARADIGM: ESSAYS AND EXPLORATIONS, with ten articles. Melton Research Center, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. See also the additional references by Avner de- Shalit below.
Per Ariansen and Jon Wetlesen, philosophers at the University of Oslo, have been asked to address the Norwegian Research Council on WISSENSCHAFTSPHILOSOPHISCHE aspects of the study of environmentally related quality of life. Ariansen also recently spoke at the University of Reykjavik in Iceland in the philosophy department there, which has an interest in development and environmental ethics, working with the Center for Philosophy, Technology and Society at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, headed by Nigel Dower. Ariansen is also participating in a research program in biodiversity at the Norwegian Institute for Forestry.
The Pew Scholars Program in Conservation and the Environment has announced ten new winners of the $ 150,000 award. For example: Marcus Colchester, Director of the Forest Peoples Programme at the World Rainforest Movement in England, to work on policy change at national and international levels that would secure indigenous peoples' rights to their lands and livelihoods. Richard Cowling, Institute for Plant Conservation, University of Cape Town, for work on conservation of plant biodiversity in the species-rich Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Alexey Yablokov, at the Koltzoff Institute of Developmental Biology in Russia, and a top environmental policy advisor in both the Gorbachev and Yeltsin administrations, for work on quick, cheap, non-invasive methods for early detection of pollution problems in natural animal populations. And eight others. Mark Sagoff, president of ISEE, is a winner in earlier years. The award is housed at the University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment.
Articles are requested on the future generations issue for THE FUTURE GENERATIONS JOURNAL, a quarterly published by the Future Generations Programme of the Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta. The journal is distributed free to a network of concerned persons in 50 countries; subscription is free. The Programme is conducted in cooperation with UNESCO and UNEP. To join the network, subscribe, or submit an article, contact: Emmanuel Agius, Editor; Future Generations Journal; Foundation for International Studies, University Buildings, St. Paul's Street, Valletta, Malta; FAX 356-230551.
The Society for Conservation Biology will meet in June 1995 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins. In the past, ISEE has had modest joint sessions with SCB, and we would like a good showing in Fort Collins. In past meetings, SCB members have expressed genuine interest in sessions on animal rights and the ethics of zoos. SCB is the largest organization of research conservation biologists and environmentalists in the world (over 5,000 members). Virtually all of these scientists are convinced that ethics and advocacy are central to what they do, and they openly welcome and encourage help from philosophers and ethicists. The SCB program deadline will be March 1995, and papers or well- formulated abstracts will be needed by then. If interested in reading a paper or organizing a panel or session, get in touch with ISEE's contact persons for SCB: Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351 USA, phone: 606/784-0046, E-mail: <email@example.com>; or Phil Pister, Desert Fishes Council, P. O. Box 337, Bishop, CA 93514, phone: 619/872-8751.
Doug Daigle presented a paper, "Global Impacts of the Pacific Rim Timber Trade" at a conference, "The Pacific Rim: Past, Present, Future," sponsored by the John Muir Center of the University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, April 28-May 1, 1994. He also presented a paper, "Critiquing the `Myth' of Free Trade" at the Peace Studies Association Conference on "Redefining Security: The Bomb, the Debt, and the Rainforest," held at the University of San Francisco, CA, April 7-9, 1994. Copies from: Doug Daigle, Pacific Environment and Resources Center, Fort Cronkhite, Building 1055, Sausalito, CA 94965.
ISEE member Lois Lorentzen is coediting (with Jennifer Turpin) a volume, GENDER, JUSTICE AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER. Papers to be considered for submission should be sent to Lois Lorentzen, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St., San Francisco, CA 94117, by November 1, 1994. Articles should relate to women in development or women and the environment.
Paul Wood recently defended a thesis at the University of British Columbia, "The Priority of Biological Diversity Conservation in Forest Land-Use Decision Making." The outside examiner was Donald VanDeVeer, North Carolina State University.
Nancy Nash, an ISEE member, and President of Buddhist Perception of Nature, has recently been nominated to the UNEP Global 500 Role of Honor, and we congratulate her on it.
ISEE section in Korea? Professor Kim Young Jong, Associate Dean (and in the Department of Public Administration), Soong-Sil University, 1-1 Sang Do 5 Dong, Seoul, Korea 156-743, asks if there are those interested in a section of ISEE in that area. Contact him, though, at least for the present, any dues should be sent to Laura Westra, address at the end of the newsletter.
The Third International Conference on Ethics in the Public Service, with the theme, "Politics, Ethics, and the Professions," will be held in Jerusalem, June 25-30, 1995. An ISEE section has been requested; contact Laura Westra, address below. For information on the conference: Dr. Uzy Berlinsky, c/o International Ltd., Congress Secretariat, P. O. Box 29313, Tel Aviv 61292, Israel. Phone 972-3-5102538. Fax 972-3-660604.
A conference, "Global Bioethics," is being planned at a center near Firenze, Italy, tentatively August 15-18, 1995, immediately proceeding a Philosophy of Science conference also to be held there. Professor Guiseppe Catture, Dean, Faculty of Economics, University of Siena is involved. Interested persons contact Laura Westra, address below.
Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67 732657 (direct line). (0)67 732896 (Dept. office). Fax 61 (country code) (0)67 733317. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Note changes from previous notices.)
Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below.) Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (the equivalent of $ 10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.
Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48/61/417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.
Azizan Baharuddin, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, is the contact person for ISEE for South-East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). Dr. Azizan teaches history and philosophy in the Science Faculty. Contact her with regard to membership and dues payable (the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power). Her address is The Dean's Office, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax 60 (Country code) 3 (City code) 756-6343.
Professor Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa, is the Africa contact for the ISEE. Contact him with regard to membership and dues payable, again the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. E-mail email@example.com.
Items for the NEWSLETTER are invited and encouraged. This can be a network of information and exchange only if you participate. Items should be sent to Holmes Rolston, III, Editor, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Fax: 303/491-4900. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. If you send it e-mail, the editor does not have to keyboard it again. Items may also be sent to the various regional contacts, listed above, and to Laura Westra, secretary, address below. The NEWSLETTER goes out within the month after April 1, July 1, October 1, and January 1. Starting with the October issue, Jack Weir will also become an editor. Address: Department of Philosophy, Morehead State University Morehead, KY 40351. Phone: 606/783-2785, office; 606/783-2185, philosophy office; Fax: 606/783-2678. E-mail: email@example.com.
Environmental Ethics in Finland
Finland is one of the most northerly countries in the world and one of the largest countries in Europe, about one third of it lying north of the arctic circle, and with the population mostly in the southern one third. The southern parts are less cold than geography might indicate, due to North Atlantic currents and the Baltic Sea. The landscape is largely glaciated; Finland was under ice 9,000 years ago. It is now typically rather flat, full of glacial lakes, with frequent esker ridges and moraines. The Finish natural landscape is often said to consist of three elements: forest, mire, and water. Forests cover nearly 70% of the country and over 10% of the landscape is water, 188,000 lakes. Finnish forests cover more area than the entire United Kingdom. Extensive mires in the north (30% of the landscape) can look the same, but some thirty types are taught to Finnish forestry students, and the official mire classification scheme contains a hundred site types. The Finnish name for their own nation, Suomi, has the root "suo," mire. The hills are commonly called fells, in the northern parts typically treeless on the summits with some forests in the lower areas.
Only 8% of the land is cultivated, largely barley and oats. Above the arctic circle, the sun does not set in the north for some seventy summer days, nor does it rise in the winter; in other parts of Finland the sun rises about 9.00 a.m. or so and sets about 3.00 p.m. in winter; in summer days the sun sets but it hardly gets darker than twilight. About 40% of all people living north of the arctic circle are Finns.
Finnish forests are pine, spruce, and birch in the north, forming taiga, with aspen and alder in the central parts and the south. The Forest industry is a mainstay in the economy, with timber and forest products accounting for about 38% of Finland's exports. One controversial area is the draining of peat mires to plant pines, the favored timber tree, which grows poorly in soils that are too wet. Some claim this is a success, others are not so sure. There is debate about the extent to which middle-aged forests versus old-growth forests function as a CO2 sink for the rest of Europe, also debate about how far peatlands serve as restrainers or promoters of the greenhouse effect. Peatlands produce methane, at the same time that they fix much carbon. Peatlands are said to contain 13% of the world's decomposable carbon. Peat is also burned for energy, filling about 5% of the Finnish energy demand. (Story in UNIVERSITAS HELSINGIENSIS, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI QUARTERLY, 2/1993)
Pentti Takala, Director-General of the National Board of Forestry and a board member of World Wide Fund for Nature, reports that the annual growth increment in Finnish forests is 80 million cubic meters, but only 50 million of that is used. Consumption of wood is declining and every year, in significant amount because of recycling elsewhere in Europe, especially in Germany. Europeans believe that Finnish forests are being destroyed and may be reluctant to buy Finnish wood products. By this account, Finland's forests produce some 30 million cubic meters of wood more than its industry can process. But environmentalists contest this as too timber-oriented an account of values in Finnish forests and see Takala as a champion of a now-outdated intensive forestry management. Intensive forestry, monocultural wood production, is said by many to be the main reason for the loss of biodiversity in Finnish forests. Finnish forests supply about 70% of what the domestic forestry uses, though Finnish forest industries also import logs from Russia, because they are cheaper.
Forestry in Finland is surprisingly private and small scale, an average holding being 80 acres, by perhaps 300,000 landowners. There is, and has been for a century and a half, a strong replanting program and legislation. One sees forests in all stages of growth as a mosaic on the landscape. Most state-owned forest land is in the north, where timber grows very slowly. Private forestry is often uninterested in this relatively nonproductive forest land. Private forests are increasingly held by inheritance by Finns who now live in cities, and inheritance laws tend to fragment the holdings further. Some maintain that this leads to poorer management of forests; others that Finns are more interested in non-timber values in their forests. The timber cycle is about 80 years.
Increasingly Finland has become industrialized in this century and now most Finns live in cities. There are lumber related industries, metal and engineering industries, electrical plants, shipping and shipbuilding, textiles, and furniture. Most of these Finns are some one generation away from the land, though most of them still own, through their families, some rural land.
Some leading environmental issues are forestry, including old growth forests, the preservation of rural, cultural landscapes, including meadows, as people abandon farming to move to the cities. Nature has been characteristically a dominant component of Finnish life and Finns are concerned about preserving what they call their representative national landscapes. One issue is the destruction of eskers, the sand and rock materials of which are required for fill for roads and urban building. Pollution is a major issue, both by air, including acid rain from domestic and foreign sources, the latter including Russia, Poland, Germany, Estonia, and others. There is water pollution from forest industries, and from fertilizers used in agriculture, which into both freshwater lakes and marine archipelagoes, where they flush out slowly. Some express concern about new roads and harbor developments, with an anxiety about Finland's becoming a transportation route into Russia.
Finland is the world's largest exporter of furs, especially mink and fox, raised on large breeding farms. Finnish animal welfare persons lament this, and worry that Finland both produces such furs willingly, but is also used by other nations for fur supply where fur farms have become increasingly unacceptable. One animal used on fur farms, the raccoon dog (NYCTEREUTES PROCYONOIDES), a small member of the dog family, and originally from the Far East, has escaped into the wild. The Russians released some, and they have spread rapidly into Finland and central Europe, over 40,000 animals in Finland. Its environmental impacts are not yet clear. (Story in UNIVERSITAS HELSINGIENSIS, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI QUARTERLY, 2/1993)
Moose hunting is a popular sport in Finland. This is the moose (ALCES ALCES) in the American sense, which is called an elk in most of Europe. The summer population is about 125,000, reduced to 80,000 in the fall hunt. Some claim that proper forest management is both good for timber and for moose, who may favor reforested lands, including drained peatlands. Moose favor wetlands when these are available, but they are frozen much of the year, when moose feed on saplings. This can result in much damage to new forests. Few seem opposed to this kind of hunting, since it is also seen as animal population control and necessary to maintain the forests. (Story in UNIVERSITAS HELSINGIENSIS, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI QUARTERLY, 2/1994)
Finland has about thirty national parks, and some twenty nature reserves, located in representative parts of the nation, though the larger parks tend to be further north and the acquisition of parkland has been reduced because it often has to be acquired by purchase from private interests. There are forests, eskers, peat mires, marshes, taiga, fells. About 5% of Finland can be classed as wilderness in something like the U.S. sense, though this includes areas used for reindeer herding (as against perhaps 2% wilderness in the continental United States, though there is de facto wilderness beyond that). About 7% of the Nordic countries is wilderness, which represents virtually all the wilderness in Europe.
There is a traditional right of everyman's access, which means, in effect, that any person has the right to walk across private land anywhere in the nation, also to camp for a night or two, though not build fires, and also to pick wild berries and mushrooms. Certain restrictions prohibit approaches to buildings. This means that there are, in effect, no "No trespassing" signs in Finland prohibiting access to natural lands privately held. This is also true in other Scandinavian countries.
Reindeer are herded largely by Sami (=Lapp) people in much of northern Finland, as they have been for many centuries. These reindeer live in a semi-wild status, sometimes attended only twice a year, once when calves are earmarked for identification and once when rounded up for slaughter, though in some winter situations owners may feed reindeer a supplemental diet. There are about 7,600 reindeer owners. Reindeer roundups gather some 230,000 reindeer, with about 130,000 to 150,000 slaughtered annually, about 70% of these are the season's calves. Highway accidents and trains kill about 4,00-5,000 each year.
Endangered species include bears, wolverines, wolves, golden eagles, otters, flying squirrels, and freshwater seals. There are 1,692 endangered species on an endangered species list in Finland.
SUOMEN LUONTO (NATURE IN FINLAND) is the magazine of Suomen Luonnonsuojeluliito (Finnish Association for Nature Conservation). The magazine has 80,000 subscriptions, one of the more widely circulating magazines in Finland. The society has 25,000 members.
Finnish universities are located at Helsinki, the largest by far, which contains all faculties, also other sizeable ones at Turku, Oulu, and Tampere. Smaller universities are at Joensuu, Rovaniemi, Kuopio, JyvÑskylÑ, and Vaasa. The University of Helsinki has no single campus but is scattered around the city. There are 30,000 students, one-fourth of all university students in the nation. There are faculties (= colleges) in theology, law, medicine, arts, science, education, social sciences, and agriculture and forestry. The faculty of forestry has long been a strong one. There are two closely connected departments of philosophy, one of Social and Moral Philosophy in the Faculty of Social Sciences and (Theoretical) Philosophy in the Faculty of Arts. Both departments were recently top-ranked in a Ministry of Education review. Environmental ethics has been regularly taught at Helsinki since 1989 by Leena Vilkka; it is also taught at Turku. Holmes Rolston was a speaker there summer 1994, and Robin Attfield in 1992. Helsinki also has many programs in environmental studies, both in natural and social sciences and in forestry. Recession has forced 10% cuts in the university budget each of the last two years. One concern is the relative lack of foreign students, often because few foreigners can speak Finnish. (Story in UNIVERSITAS HELSINGIENSIS, UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI QUARTERLY, 4/1993)
The First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics was held at Koli, a national park, in June 1994, directed by Yrjî SepÑnmaa, with about 200 persons present. In addition to numerous Finnish speakers, overseas speakers included: Allen Carlson, University of Alberta; Cheryl Foster, University of Rhode Island; Arnold Berleant, Long Island University; Ronald W. Hepburn, University of Edinburgh; Maria Golaszewska, Jagellonian University, Poland; Barbara Sandrisser, The Paul Partnership, USA; Arlene Kwasniak, Environmental Law Centre, Canada; Mara Miller, Drew University; Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University; Yuriko Saito, Rhode Island School of Design; and Moon-Hwan Kim, Seoul National University.
Pentti Linkola, a fisherman, is the best known Finnish deep ecologist. He defends the intrinsic value of nature, both in various life forms and in the biosphere, in many popular books. Eero Paloheimo, who has a doctorate in technology and is a member of the Finnish Parliament, defends the view that all sentient beings have intrinsic value and develops and account of values of nature and a vision of what kind of human society this entails. See the outline of his book below. Both persons are members of VihreÑ ElÑmÑnsuojelun Liitto (The Finnish Green Society of Life Preservation), of which Leena Vilkka is chair. This society arranges various meetings on philosophy and the environment in Finnish politics. Paloheimo is chair of a committee of Parliament doing a study on the future of Finland. His particular environmental concerns are to provide for a kind of environmental impact analysis of the annual budget allocations, and making provision for including non-economic values into planning decisions. He also hopes that conservation planning can come to give more attention to corridors between the national parks and nature reserves, not only in Finland but with other Scandinavian counties and elsewhere in Europe.
ElÑinsuojeluliitto Animalia (The Finnish Animal Rights Federation) celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1991 with a conference on animal rights at which Michael W. Fox was the keynote speaker. Animalia has translated Peter Singer's ANIMAL LIBERATION into Finnish, and he spoke there in 1992, at the Department of Philosophy in Helsinki.
There is an Institute of Bioethics at Turku, concerned mostly with medical ethics and biotechnology, but also producing some work on environmental philosophy, for example in BIOETIIKKA (BIOETHICS), ed. Veikko Launis, Reports from the Department of Practical Philosophy, vol. 2, University of Turku, 1990. Juhani Pietarinen is director of this project.
An institute called MetsÑkartano (The Garden of Forests) arranges hiking trips in wilderness areas for European students, including trips with the theme "How We Can Perceive Intrinsic Values in Nature," seeking to expand environmental awareness during a week of hiking and canoeing.
Yhteiskuntatieteellisen ympÑristîntutkimuksen seura (The Society for Environmental Research in the Social Sciences) has been recently founded at Tampere University with a multi-disciplinary approach including environmental philosophy, history, politics, and economics.
Some representative bibliographic sources:
--Palmunen, Rainer, ed., FINLAND: LAND OF NATURAL BEAUTY. Helsinki: Oy Valitut Palat--Reader's Digest Ab, 1988. 304 pages. FM 331.-. ISBN 951-9079-88-2 (English edition), also in Finnish, ISBN 951-9079-36-X. 70 authors, a coffee-table type book, and also an excellent introduction to all aspects of nature and nature conservation in Finland. Includes regional introductions.
--AJATUS 49, Suomen Filosofisen Yhdistyksen vuosikirja (Annual, Finnish Philosophical Society) is a special issue, LUONTO (NATURE), Matti HÑyry, Ilkka Niiniluoto and Thomas Wallgren, editors. Helsinki, 1993. ISSN 0355-1725. ISBN 951-9264-17-5. 222 pages. Twenty articles by Finnish philosophers and scientists. Sample articles are Thomas Wallgren, "Ekologisk kris? (Ecological Crisis?)"; Simo Knuuttila, "Luonto aristoteelisessa luonnontieteessÑ (Nature in Aristotelian Science)"; Juha Kajander, "Renessanssin luontokÑsitys (Nature in the Renaissance)"; Leena Vilkka, "Luonnon itseisarvoista (Intrinsic Values in Nature)"; Markku Oksanen, "Taylorin teoria luonnon kunnioituksesta (Taylor's Theory of Respect for Nature)."
--Paloheimo, Eero, MAAN TIE (THE WAY OF THE EARTH) Helsinki: Werner Sîderstrîm Osakeyhtiî, 1989. ISBN 951-0-16075-X. 250 pages. Paper. Paloheimo analyzes three dimensions of the world: the material, the psychical, and the conceptual, the latter found only in humans. Developing a spectrum of consciousness, he considers non-living beings, non-sentient living organisms, sentient life, and human consciousness. There is, further, a collective consciousness of the biosphere and humankind. In the second half of the book, Paloheimo asks about possibilities for a different kind of future world, as these depend on different kinds of collective consciousness. There are different psychical and material outcomes of the different kinds of collective consciousness. Analyzing the value of the diversity of life, he considers materialistic uses of the world, esthetic values in nature, and ethical duties to nature. What would an ideal observer think the world should be like? In result what should we do? We ought to dismiss the idea that the future is unknown and gain power, use it responsibly, make adequate choices, and follow with appropriate deeds. In addition to continental and Finnish philosophers, Paloheimo has read extensively in English-speaking philosophers, including environmental philosophers. He is a member of the Finnish Parliament, with a doctorate in technology studies, the author of five other books.
--SepÑnmaa, Yrjî, ed., ALLIGAATTORIN HYMY: YMPéRISTôESTETIIKAN UUSI AALTO (THE ALLIGATOR'S SMILE: NEW WAVES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AESTHETICS). Lahti: The University of Helsinki at Lahti, 1994. 208 pages. ISBN 0784-0640-24. The book takes its title from Paul Ziff's consideration of an alligator as an aesthetic object in "Anything Viewed" (1977), an article included in the anthology. Contains R. W. Hepburn's, "Contemporary Aesthetics and the Neglect of Natural Beauty," Allen Carlson's "Environmental Aesthetics," Arnold Berleant, selections from THE AESTHETICS OF ENVIRONMENT, Cheryl Foster, "Aesthetic Disillusionment: Environment, Ethics, Art" (from ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES 1(1992):205-215, and others.
--SepÑnmaa, Yrjî, THE BEAUTY OF ENVIRONMENT: A GENERAL MODEL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AESTHETICS. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1986. ISBN 951-41-0523-0. 184 pages. Reprinted in a slightly modified second edition by Environmental Ethics Books, Denton, Texas, 1993. ISNB 0-9626807-2-9. $ 14.95. A first major section considers nature offered as a work of art. A second section considers nature as a whole, the environment as a system, and develops fourteen differences between works of art and aesthetic appreciation of nature. Ecology provides the norm for beauty in nature. A third section analyzes the language that criticizes, interprets, and appreciates natural beauty. SepÑnmaa was for a number of years a research fellow with the Academy of Finland and held docent positions at University of Helsinki, also at JyvÑskylÑ and Turku, and has recently taken a position at the University of Joensuu, Finland, in comparative literature and aesthetics. He was a Senior Fulbright Scholar at the University of Georgia and a Visiting Research Professor at the University of North Texas.
--Pakarinen, Terttu, "Sustainable Development: A New Call for Multidisciplinary Research," in LIFE AND EDUCATION IN FINLAND 2/1992. Pakarinen, an architect and planner, heads a multidisciplinary cooperative effort between Tampere University and the Tampere University of Technology, teaching at the latter. One of their projects is called "The Ecological City." New Finnish building legislation requires that the principle of sustainable development be taken account of in all building work, and the Finnish Academy and the Ministry for the Environment have funded a considerable research program to implement this.
--Pakarinen, Terttu, Leena Vilkka, and Eija Luukkanen, eds., NéKôKULMA YHTEISKUNTATIETEELLISEEN YMPéRISTôTUTKIMUKSEEN (A VIEWPOINT ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES). Tampere: Tampereen ylipisto (University of Tampere), 1991. Acta Universitatis Temperensis, Series B., vol. 37. Seven articles, including Britta Koskiaho, "The Philosophy of Science and New Environmental Research"; Juha Varto, "The Philosophy of Nature and the Philosophy of Technology"; and Leena Vilkka, "What Is It Like To Be a Yellow Ladyslipper Orchid?" (in Finnish).
--Niiniluoto, Ilkka, "Nature, Man, and Technology--Remarks on Sustainable Development," ARCTIC CENTRE PUBLICATIONS 6(1994):73- 87, in a theme issue on THE CHANGING CIRCUMPOLAR NORTH: OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT, Lassi Heininen, ed. Rovaniemi, Finland. The human responsibility for nature as related to sustainable development. The Brundtland Commission report does not make sufficiently explicit how its recommendations are based upon factual and value premises. Environmental research can give facts but the choice of environmental policy has to be derived from theories of justice and of environmental ethics. To save our planet for future generations, ethical concerns have to be extended beyond human-centered instrumental values toward communal and ecocentered intrinsic values. Niiniluoto is a faculty dean and philosopher at the University of Helsinki.
--Pietarinen, Juhani, "Principal Attitudes towards Nature," in Pekka Oja and Risto Telama, eds., SPORT FOR ALL (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1991), the Proceedings of the World Congress of Sport for All, Tampere, Finland, June 1990. There are four attitudes: (1) Utilism aims to use nature to achieve a high level of welfare for people, nature is a huge and valuable source of energy and raw materials, people have an unlimited right to use nature for their welfare, and technology makes this possible. (2) Humanism aims at the intellectual and moral development of humans, nature contains the possibilities for cultural development, and people have a right to use nature for promoting Socratic virtues, technology should be developed in accordance with these goals of humanism. (3) Mysticism aims at the experience of unity with nature, nature is essentially a spiritual and divine totality, a sanctity, the achievement of which is the highest end for human life, science and technology are rejected if they undermine this. (4) Naturism aims at the conservation of nature in as original and primordial condition as possible, nature is a uniform system acting in accord with the laws of ecology, and humans are part of the system, all parts of nature are of equal inherent value, which people should respect, all technology that endangers the life of other species and causes ecological disturbances should be rejected. Each of the four affects not only human work but the sports in which it is appropriate for humans to participate. Perhaps it is necessary to have proponents of all four attitudes; possibly no proper balance between people's interests and the tolerance of nature can be found. Pietarinen teaches philosophy at the University of Turku, Finland. He has developed this position in a series of papers in Finnish over twenty years and is the first philosopher systematically to develop environmental philosophy in Finland.
--Juhari Pietarinen, "Ihminen ja luonnon arvo (Humans and the Value of Nature), in TEOREETTISEN BIOLOGIAN SEMINAARI (PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEMINAR IN THEORETICAL BIOLOGY), December, 1977, published by the Academy of Finland, 1978. ISBN 951-715-073-3.
--Juhari Pietarinen, "Ihminen ja luonto: neljÑ perusasennetta (Humans and Nature: Four Basic Attitudes" in Matti Kamppinen, ed., ELéMéNKATSOMUSTIETO (STUDIES IN WORLDVIEWS ON LIFE), Helsinki: Gaudemus, 1987.
--Vilkka, Leena, YMPéRISTôETIIKKA (ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS): VASTUU LUONNOSTA, ELéIMISTé JA TULEVISTA SUKUPOLVISTA (RESPONSIBILITIES TO NATURE, ANIMALS, AND FUTURE GENERATIONS). Helsinki: Yliopistopaino (University Press of Helsinki), 1993. (Address: Vuorikatu 3 A, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland) ISBN 951-570-154-6. 238 pages, paper. The first book in Finnish in environmental ethics. Chapter titles: What is Environmental Ethics?; The Scope of Ethics; Main Trends in Environmental Philosophy; Attitudes to Nature; Values in Nature; The Rights of Nature, Animals, and Future Generations. Vilkka is a researcher at the Academy of Finland, Helsinki, and teaches at the Department of Philosophy, University of Helsinki. Her address is Department of Philosophy, P. O. Box 44 (JyrÑngîntie 2), SF-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
--Vilkka, Leena, ed., YMPéRISTôONGELMAT JA TIEDE: YMPéRISTôTUTKIMUKSEN FILOSOFIAA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND SCIENCE: THE PHILOSOPHY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES). Helsinki: Yliopistopaino (University Press), 1994. 201 pages. Nine articles by Finnish philosophers and scientists. Includes Leena Vilkka, "Can Applied Sciences Be Built on Ecological, Aesthetic, and Ethical Values?" (in Finnish); Markku Oksanen, "Nature and Moral Values" (in Finnish); and Stephen Condit, "Ecological Responsibility in Emerson's Transcendental Philosophy" (in Finnish). Phenomenological approaches, analytical approaches, transcendental approaches, represented by Kant and Emerson, and postmodern trends.
--Vilkka, Leena, et al, MATSéN TULEVAISUUSKUVIA (THE FUTURE OF FORESTS). Helsinki: Painatuskeskus and Opetusministeriî (Ministry of Environment), 1993. 68 pages. Puts together three different groups: the academic level, government professionals, and politicians, asking what Finnish forests might be in fifty years. Forests as related to Finnish social development. Short articles. Statistics. A section on the aesthetic value of forests, on the Finnish national identity and their forests, forests and economics, and the multiple values in forests.
--Vilkka, Leena, ANIMAL RIGHTS AND CONSCIOUSNESS (in Finnish), a M. A. thesis at the University of Helsinki, 1988. --Vilkka, Lena, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS (in Finnish), a licentiate at the University of Helsinki, 1991.
--Vilkka, Leena, "Respect for Animals: A Zoocentric Theory of Animals' Rights." Paper presented at the World Vegetarian Congress, August 8-13, 1994, in Holland. There are three basic attitudes to nature: technocentrism, anthropocentrism, and naturocentrism. There are three nature-centered positions: zoocentrism, stressing sentience, biocentrism, stressing respect for all life, and physiocentrism, stressing the well-being of the planet Earth. Zoocentrism requires respect for animals, and takes animal suffering into moral account, though one ought also morally to consider the well-being of nonsentient nature. Copy available from the author, address above.
--Oksanen, Markku, THE MORAL STATUS OF ANIMALS: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF TOM REGAN'S THEORY (in Finnish), a M. A. thesis at the University of Turku, 1989, under the direction of Juhani Pietarinen. Oksanen, who studied a year under Robin Attfield in Wales, is finishing a Ph.D. thesis in English under Pietarinen on environmental ethics and property rights.
--Oksanen, Markku, THE MORAL CONSIDERABILITY OF NATURE: AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT DISCUSSION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS (in Finnish), a licentiate at the University of Turku, 1992.
--Yrjî Haila and Richard Levins, HUMANITY AND NATURE: ECOLOGY, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY. London: Pluto Press, 1992. Paper. 270 pages. What program can ecology set for society? Ecological patterns, examples from the taiga. Practicing ecology, research, data, theory, hypothesis testing. Language and how theories refer to the world. Traditions and their influence on world views. Health as part of the ecosystem. Diseases. Coevolution of host and parasite. Noninfectious diseases. Agricultural ecology, sustainable agriculture. The social history of nature. How does nature change? Political ecology? Local versus general solutions. Nature: Appropriation versus appreciation? The general argument takes issue with the mistaken belief that earlier in history humans existed in harmony with nature and that this harmony has become recently "unbalanced." Human activity should be included as part of nature and the authors hope to establish the connection between ecological knowledge and radical politics. Haila is a research fellow at the Academy of Finland, based at the Department of Zoology in Helsinki. Levins is in the Department of Public Health at Harvard Medical School and a population biologist. He is an author, with Richard Lewontin, of THE DIALECTICAL BIOLOGIST.
--JÑrvinen, Olli, and Kaarina Miettinen, SAMMUUKO SUURI SUKU? LUONNON PUOLUSTAMISEN BIOLOGIAA (WILL NATURE DIE? BIOLOGY ON BEHALF OF NATURE). Helsinki: Suomen Luonnonsuojeluntuki Oy (Finnish Nature Conservation Council), 1987.
--HÑyry, Heta, Helena Tengvall, and Leena Vilkka, eds., ELéIN IHMISTEN MAAILMASSA (AN ANIMAL IN THE HUMAN WORLD). Helsinki: Gaudemus, 1989. 193 pages. An anthology of ten articles, pro and con. All by Finnish authors, mostly philosophers and some biologists.
--JokimÑki, Jukka, Anna-Liisa Sippola, and PÑivi Junttila, eds., ERéMAA-YHTEISOMAISUUSRESURSSIN BIOLOGINEN JA YHTEISKUNNALLINEN MERKITYS (WILDERNESS: THE BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL MEANING IN THE NORTHERN AREAS). Rovaniemi: Arctic Centre of Lapland, 1992. 152 pages. Eleven articles, some in Finnish, some in English.
The Environmental Careers Organization (ECO) is a U.S. national nonprofit organization with five regional offices (California, Florida, Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest) that seeks to place persons seeking employment, short-term and long-term, in environmental careers. They have placed more than 4,500 aspiring environmental professionals, about 300 persons each year. Contact: The Environmental Careers Organization, 286 Congress Street, Boston, MA 02210-1009.
University of North Texas. The Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies advertised, in the APA JOBS FOR PHILOSOPHERS, May issue, a position in environmental ethics, also requiring a traditional specialty in philosophy or religion, tenure-track position, with level open. The deadline for applications was July 1, 1994.
Videotapes and media
CROSSING THE STONES: A PORTRAIT OF ARNE NAESS. 47 minutes. Produced by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 1992. Continuing the earlier notice (Newsletter 5, 1), John Hoskyns- Abrahall at Bullfrog Films writes that individuals may purchase the video for $ 34.95 plus $ 5 postage and handling, but that the institutional purchase price is, as previously reported, $ 250, rentals for $ 75. Restrictions on individual purchases state that you may not, without written permission, duplicate the program, transmit it by cable or broadcast television, or exhibit the program commercially. ISEE has now reviewed the videotape. The video voice is that of Arne Naess reflecting on his life and philosophy throughout, with many scenes at his above-timberline cabin in Norway, distant from Oslo by some three hours train ride, and then considerable walk, where he lived while professor at the University of Oslo, going into the university three days a week. Scenes in classrooms, reflections on his early attraction to logical positivism, rejection of it, skepticism, and his coming to love Spinoza. Reflections on nonviolence, with old black and white films of Gandhi, and the Nazi invasion of Norway. His climbing expedition in the Himalayas, with films from 1940. Reflections on "rich in life, simple in means." Good scenes of his defending the Mardola waterfall in 1970, chained before the bulldozers, and of defending the Alta River in 1981, arrested for disobedience. Prime minister Brundtland and her sustainable development, and Naess's commentary. Norway could serve as an example of rich life, simple in means outside the European Economic Community. An interesting biography for those who want to see a remarkable philosopher who practices his philosophy, including his deep ecology. Bullfrog Films, P. O. Box 149, Oley, PA 19547 (UPS Address: 372 Dautrich Rd., Reading, PA 19606). Phone 800/543-FROG, or 215/779-8226. Fax: 215/370-1978.
THE GREENING OF FAITH. Two part video. $ 29.95 individually, $ 54.95 for both. Part I, 30 minutes, theological and the Biblical foundations for ecological concern, nature as sacramental and the reconnection of faith and science. Part I, 27 minutes, ethics, environment and justice, and the extension of ethical obligation beyond the human species, and the unique contribution Christianity has to make in enabling change. Call Earth Ministry at 206/632- 2426 for a free brochure. Orders: 800/338-3456
Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials
Reminder: ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, and (for the most part) THE TRUMPETER, BETWEEN THE SPECIES, ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW, and CONSERVATION BIOLOGY are not catalogued here. ISEE members interested in keeping abreast of the literature in the field need to consult those journals directly. Members are also encouraged to send notice of articles (preferably copies) to the editor, especially of those articles and books published in places members at large are less likely to see.
--Meffe, Gary K., and C. Ronald Carroll, eds., PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1994. 600 pages. Hardcover. Twelve major chapter authors, in addition to the two editor authors, and over 50 authors of selected short essays. What is conservation biology, populations, genetics, ecosystems, reserve designs, biodiversity, restoration, political and social issues, sustainable development, risk assessment, the future. For the chapter on conservation ethics and values, see the Callicott entry below. This and Richard B. Primack, ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (also by Sinauer), see Newsletter, Fall 1993) are the two leading texts in the field.
--Callicott, J. Baird, "Conservation Values and Ethics" in Gary K. Meffe and C. Ronald Carroll, eds., PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1994), pp. 24- 49. A useful introduction to environmental ethics and value theories for conservation biology students, in a large text, see separate entry. Also useful for introductory philosophy students at freshmen and sophomore levels. Focuses on Norton, Taylor, Rolston, Sagoff, Singer, Regan, Goodpaster, all brought into the perspective of Aldo Leopold and a concentric circle theory of ethics. Excellent for condensing the main issues into a short article. With box essays by Holmes Rolston, III, "Our Duties to Endangered Species," by Susan P. Bratton, "Monks, Temples, and Trees: The Spirit of Diversity," and by Roderick F. Nash, "Discovering Radical Environmental in our Own Cultural Backyard: From Natural Rights to the Rights of Nature." Callicott is in philosophy at the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.
--Callicott, J. Baird, "Moral Monism in Environmental Ethics Defended," JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH 19(1994):51-60. In dealing with concern for human beings, sentient animals, and the environment, Christopher D. Stone suggests that a single agent adopt a different ethical theory--Kant's, Bentham's, Leopold's-- for each domain. But employing Kant's categorical imperative in this case, Bentham's hedonic calculus in that, and Leopold's land ethic in another, a single agent would have either simultaneously or cyclically to endorse contradictory moral principles. Instead, Callicott suggests that different and sometimes conflicting duties are generated by an agent's membership in multiple moral communities. Peter Wenz, Gary Varner, Andrew Brennan, Anthony Weston, and Eugene Hargrove variously misunderstand either what is at issue in the monism versus pluralism debate or Callicott's suggested communitarian alternative to the sort of pluralism that Stone recommends.
--Henberg, Marvin, "Wilderness, Myth, and American Character," The Phi Beta Kappa KEY REPORTER 59, no. 3 (Spring 1994). Wilderness designation is a political hot potato. It is also a philosophical hot potato, replete with paradox. Thanks to its endless variability, the best way of capturing the particularity of wilderness lands is through narrative. If we will let nature abide wildly in some few remaining portions of the earth, we will be immeasurably richer for it. An excellent summary of wilderness issues from a philosophical perspective. Originally a lecture at Washington and Lee University, in March 1993. Henberg teaches philosophy at the University of Idaho.
--Elliot, Robert, ed., ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS will be available early 1995 in the Oxford Readings in Philosophy Series, Oxford University Press. There are papers by John Passmore, Mary B. Williams, Richard Sylvan, Val Plumwood, Mary Midgley, Holmes Rolston, Robert Elliot, J. Baird Callicott, Freya Mathews, Andrew Brennan, Colleen D. Clements, Elliot Sober and Mark Sagoff. --Rolston, Holmes, III, CONSERVING NATURAL VALUE. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. 259 pages. Paper, $ 19.50. Cloth $ 49.50. Chapter titles and sections: Chapter 1. Natural and Cultural Values: Nature and Culture; Entwined Destinies, Nature Supporting Culture; Residence and Resource, Commodity and Community; Urban, Rural, and Wild; Environmental Values and Human Rights; Future Generations; Environmental Policy; Balancing Natural and Cultural Values. Chapter 2. Diversity and Complexity Values: Diversity; Complexity; The Evolution of Diversity and Complexity; Rarity; Biodiversity and the Commons; Richness; Balancing Biodiversity Values and Cultural Values. Chapter 3. Ecosystem Integrity and Health Values: Ecosystem Integrity and Health; Stability and Historical Change; Community; Sustainability; Restoration; Balancing Integrity and Health Values. Chapter 4. Wildlife Values: Lower and Higher Animals; Animal Rights?; Animal Welfare and Managed Wildlife; Feral and Exotic "Wildlife"; Aesthetic Appreciation of Wildlife; Using Wildlife: Animal Sports; Using Wildlife: Animal Commerce; Wildlife in Culture. Chapter 5. Anthropocentric Values: Human Values Carried by Nature; Winning or Losing in Environmental Ethics?; Rich and Poor, Population and Consumption; Human Rights to Development; Democracy, Economics, and Environment; Anthropocentric and Anthropogenic Values; Human Excellences and Natural Values; Chapter 6. Intrinsic Natural Values: Life as Conservation; Intrinsic, Instrumental, Systemic Values; Storied Achievement; Integrity of Place; Wilderness; Objective and Subjective Natural Value; The End of Nature? Chapter 7. The Home Planet: Land Ethics and Earth Ethics: National Resources and Common Natural Heritage; International Law and Environmental Ethics; Mother Earth?; Managing the Planet?; Balancing Global Natural and Human Cultural Values; Inheriting the Earth. The book is written for freshmen and sophomore level, for use in classes alike in biological and natural resource conservation and in environmental philosophy, ethics, and policy. Rolston is professor of philosophy at Colorado State University.
Pojman, Louis, ed. ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: READINGS IN THEORY AND APPLICATION. Foreword by Holmes Rolston, III. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1994. 503 pages. Paper. Part One (Theory) and Part Two (Applications) have 36 articles each; 20 topical subsections; the Rio Declaration is an Epilogue. Pojman strives to include articles on both sides of issues, not merely articles advocating environmentalist viewpoints. Included are Leopold, Rachel Carson, Callicott, Naess, Lovelock, Gould, Hardin, Ehrlich, Commoner, Singer, Regan. Also Albert Schweitzer and Al Gore. An analytic philosopher with several important articles, books and anthologies, Pojman is especially adept at selecting and editing readings for undergraduates. In addition to the usual topics, there are sections on non-Western perspectives (Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and African), future generations, and human population issues (three sections). (More detail from the previous listing in Newsletter vol 3, no. 3)
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Does Nature Need to Be Redeemed?" ZYGON: JOURNAL OF RELIGION AND SCIENCE 29(1994):205-229. In the light of evolutionary biology, the biblical idea that nature fell with the coming of human sin is incredible. Biblical writers, classical theologians, and contemporary biologists are ambivalent about nature, finding in natural history both a remarkable genesis of life and also much travail and suffering. Earth is a land of promise, and there is the conservation, or redemption, of life in the midst of its perpetual perishing. Life is perennially a struggling through to something higher. In that sense even natural history is cruciform, though human sinfulness introduces novel tragedy. Humans now threaten creation; nature is at more peril than ever before. Keywords: conservation of nature; creation; ecological crisis; evolution; natural evils; nature; redemption; sin; suffering, wildness.
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "God and Endangered Species," in K. C. Kim and R. D. Weaver, eds., BIODIVERSITY AND LANDSCAPES (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994, forthcoming) Also in Lawrence S. Hamilton, ed., ETHICS, RELIGION AND BIODIVERSITY (Cambridge, UK: White Horse Press, 1993), pp. 40-64 (see Newsletter, vol. 4, no. 4, Winter, 93). Endangered species have religious value for many Americans. Although religious value is not mentioned in the Endangered Species Act, it soon appears in the nickname for the "God Committee." Biologists and religious persons share a concern for conservation, respect for life passes over into reverence for life. Although Bible and theology are at times thought to be difficult to join, apart from the question of design (a somewhat archaic concept), creativity is evident in natural systems as Earth brings forth swarms of creatures. Biologists find struggle in nature, but such elements are fully recognized by Bible writers who lived closer to nature that often do we modern persons. The continual redemption of life over generations is a familiar theological idea. Biologists may not find a supernature, but they often find a nature that is superb, a nature that is the ground of our being. Life is a kind of gift; the plenitude of being in the myriads of species once so vast and now vanishing is of concern both to biologists and to religious persons.
--Soifer, Eldon, ed., ETHICAL ISSUES: PERSPECTIVES FOR CANADIANS. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1992. An anthology with a Canadian focus: the distribution of scarce resources, the animal rights debate, and the foundations of environmental law and social policy. The standard positions and counter-positions of Garret Hardin, Peter Singer, Joel Feinberg, and R. G. Frey appear on these topics, but other angles are presented as well. Roger Crispin argues that a utilitarian ethic favors a "humane" exploitation of animals over vegetarianism, provided that the animals are well-cared-for before the slaughter. J. Baker documents the anti-fur lobby and its impacts, which he argues are harmful to aboriginal cultures and the protection of natural ecosystems. Most interesting are the approaches to environmental law and policy. The Canadian Law Reform Commission rejects both deep ecology and property law in favor of defending the environmental commons for reasons of human welfare, with a priority of health over amenity values. Paul Emonds reflects on the legal and policy implications of a shift in world view from dominating nature to cooperation. Charles Taylor discusses both the necessity and extreme difficulty of making the shift to a steady state economy for a society in which issues of self- identity, welfare, and justice are resolved on the premise of growth. (Thanks to Peter Miller, University of Winnipeg.)
--Housman, Robert, RECONCILING TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LESSONS FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, 1994. Paper no. 3 in the Environment and Trade series. 65 pages. Paper. Contact: UNEP, Trade and Environment Unit, Palais de Nations, CH-1211, Geneva, Switzerland. "The NAFTA process shows that a trade agreement can integrate trade and environmental issues, however late in the process." Follows the environmentalist debate and tries to draw lessons for the future.
The American Plastics Council is promoting their policy of community-based decision-making; namely, "there is no nationwide, `one-size-fits-all' solution" to solid waste and recycling. Two articles are being distributed: --Poore, Patricia. "Is Garbage an Environmental Problem?" From
GARBAGE magazine, December 1993. Challenges the view that there is a garbage crisis.
--Boemer, Christopher and Kenneth Chilton. "False Economy: The Folly of Demand-Side Recycling." From ENVIRONMENT, January/February 1994. Examines the economics of recycling and what makes good public policy.
For copies of the articles, which are available free while quantities last, contact: American Plastics Council; 1275 K Street NW, Suite 400; Washington, DC 20005; FAX 202-371-5679.
--Fuggle, R. F. and M. A. Rabie, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA. Cape Town and Johannesburg: Juta and Co., Ltd (P. O. Box 14373, Kenwyn 7790), 1992. ISBN 0 7021 2847 3. 823 pages, a large volume with over fifty contributors, the Bible of environmental management in South Africa. Replaces the 1983 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN SOUTH AFRICA. (Thanks to Johan Hattingh, Stellenbosh.)
--Ramphele, Mamphela, ed., RESTORING THE LAND: ENVIRONMENT AND CHANGE IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA. London: Panos Publications, 1991. ISBN 1-870670-27-2. 216 pages, paper. By a study group of nearly two dozen persons, from all races, from law, media, philosophy, universities, unions. Sample chapter titles: A Land out of Balance; The Legacy of `Homeland' Policy; A Desert for the Deserted; Blighted Environment; Life in the Townships; Smoke over Soweto; People, Parks and Politics; Rural Democracy Revisited; A Fragile Land (Namibia).
Hattingh, Johan P., Willie L. van der Merwe, and Wilhelm J. Verwoerd, IS ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY A HUMAN RIGHT? A research paper compiled for Eskom (the leading South Africa Power Authority) by the Unit for Environmental Ethics, University of Stellenbosh. February 1993. Accepting that access to electricity is a human right in the sense of a basic need, there can be little disagreement about the importance of meeting this basic need within the context of a modern or modernizing society. The disagreement arises, however, over the feasibility of implementation, and here matters are more complex than appears. Four basic approaches are analyzed. Authors are philosophers at Stellenbosch. Copies from Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa.
--Hattingh, Ian Voges, Kobus Miller, Vilhelm Verwoerd, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHICS, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT: GUIDELINES FOR POLICY MAKING IN SOUTH AFRICA. A research report prepared for the Development Bank of South Africa by the Unit for Environmental Ethics, University of Stellenbosh, Stellenbosh. May 1994. 30 pages. At least the following values should inform policy making: Justice in the sense of fairness; development that expands people's functionings, capabilities, and freedoms; the environment has intrinsic value; an action is right if it preserves the beauty, integrity, and stability of the biotic community; it is right to exploit the environment for vital human purposes; it is wrong to over-exploit the environment because it has inherent worth and so doing will compromise the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs. Copies from Hattingh, address above.
--Roberts, Christopher C., ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND WILDLIFE POLICY IN ZIMBABWE. A senior thesis for the B.S. degree, Department of Religious Studies and The Studies in the Environment Program, Yale University, April 1991. 104 pages. Author's address: 1204 St. Andrews Way, Baltimore, MD 21239.
--Berger, Joel and Carol Cunningham, "Active Intervention and Conservation: Africa's Pachyderm Problem," SCIENCE 263(1994):1241- 1242. Few conservation programs have succeeded where the animal has valuable body parts that can be poached. The ban on elephant ivory may be working, though causing dissension in Africa, where countries with abundant elephants want to sell legal ivory, to support conservation. Africa's most endangered pachyderms are the rhinoceroses, in 25 years reduced from 65,000 to 2,500, a loss of 97%. Only one unfenced population of over more than 100 animals exists, in Namibia. Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Swaziland are using a controversial dehorning, where the horn is sawed off and the animal returned to the wild. Does the dehorning deter poachers? Can hornless mothers defend calves from predators? Berger and Cunningham think that the answer may be no, on balance, in both cases, but both questions are hard to answer, partly because horned and dehorned animals mix; there is evidence on both sides. Predators may not turn to rhinoceros calves until there is extended drought and other prey are in shorter supply. It might be better to move the rhinos to fenced areas. On the science and advocacy issue, Berger and Cunningham, a husband and wife team, had returned to Namibia when this article was published and a month later found that their research permits were not renewed by U. S. agencies and their money frozen by the Namibian government, apparently because their research yielded results that cast doubts on the wisdom of an established official policy. Their research has been supported by what looks like a Who's Who in government and NGO conservation agencies. See editorial by Peter F. Brussard in SOCIETY FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY NEWSLETTER, vol. 1, issue 2, May 1994.
--Grizzle, Raymond E., "Environmentalism Should Include Human Ecological Needs," BIOSCIENCE 44(1994):263-268. In most environmentalism, "human ecological needs are not explicitly considered. Humans are viewed as protectors of the environment but not direct participants in ecosystem processes. I find this view incomplete because it does not address the full range of ecological relationships between humans as a species and their environment. ... This shortcoming seriously undermines the prospect for further consensus among environmentalists. ... [We need] a more holistic environmentalism ... Humans are part of nature and subject to the same broad principles as are other organisms. .... Clearly, humans are in some ways different from other species, but I see no compelling reason for excluding them from nature. ... We can be thought of as a potential predator, prey, competitor, and/or symbiont." Grizzle teaches biology at Campbell University, Buies Creek, N. C. (Thanks to Naomi Krogman, University of Southwestern Louisiana.)
--Skolnikoff, Eugene B. THE ELUSIVE TRANSFORMATION: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICS. Princeton University Press, 1993. 320 pages. $39.50. A professor of political science at MIT and White House advisor under several administrations, Skolnikoff argues that the most powerful and persistent forces in societal change are science and technology. Included are TV, nuclear weapons, global warming, and the green revolution. This book is the first comprehensive attempt to show the interrelationship of international political systems and science and technology. Based on extensive research and the author's accumulated experience. "... a tour de force" --Ted Greenwood, Sloan Foundation.
--Beatley, Timothy. ETHICAL LAND USE: PRINCIPLES OF POLICY AND USE. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. 352 pages, $55.00; $17.95 paper. All land-use decisions--from interstate highways to lawn chemicals--involve ethical choices. Analyzes and describes issues faced by individuals and policy makers. Sections include: ethical framework; market perspectives, harm, rights, distributive obligations, duties, future generations; individual liberties; community and politics; concluding principles.
--Broad, Robin and John Cavanagh. PLUNDERING PARADISE: PEOPLE, POWER AND THE STRUGGLE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. 197 pages. $25.00. Describes a social movement emerging in the Philippines involving mass-based organizations of the political left, church activists, environmentalists, and NGOs. A readable account of local activism and development in the post-Marcos, post-Cold-War nation.
--Szasz, Andrew. ECOPOPULISM: TOXIC WASTE AND THE MOVEMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. 232 pages. $39.95; $16.95 paper. A case study of how grass-roots movements reinvigorate politics. Traces the movement of toxic waste issues from "official" Washington policy to TV, popular consciousness, and then thousands of local, community-based groups.
--Bennett, Jane and William Chaloupka, eds. IN THE NATURE OF THINGS: LANGUAGE, POLITICS, AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. 296 pages. $44.95; $17.95 paper. Recent literary criticism and social theory are applied to the concept of "nature," which does not exist, according to the authors, independently of culture, particularly language. The contributors apply modern and post-modern theoretical approaches to such cultural items as the Bible, science fiction, hunting, and green consumerism. A wide-ranging complement to ecofeminist critiques.
--Wright, Will. WILD KNOWLEDGE: SCIENCE, LANGUAGE, AND SOCIAL LIFE IN A FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. 240 pages. $39.95; $14.95 paper.
--Meiners, Roger E. and Bruce Yandle, eds. TAKING THE ENVIRONMENT SERIOUSLY. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1993. 288 pages. $42.50. Essays argue that it is time to consider market-oriented solutions to environmental problems.
--Basney, Lionel. AN EARTH-CAREFUL WAY OF LIFE: CHRISTIAN STEWARDSHIP AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS. Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. 168 pages. $9.99 paper. Basney is professor of English at Calvin College. Narrative, story-like style.
--Buchanan, James M. ETHICS AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994. 168 pages. $19.95. From a lecture series at the University of Oklahoma. The Nobel Prize- winning economist and professor at George Mason University gives a non-technical examination of the ethics-economics nexus, and argues that moral constraints exert important economic effects, such as, the "Puritan" work and saving ethics, the relevance of moral values to economic well-being. Buchanan defends Adam Smith's widely dismissed distinction between productive and nonproductive labor.
--Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta. THE MASTERY OF NATURE: ASPECTS OF ART, SCIENCE, AND HUMANISM IN THE RENAISSANCE. Princeton University Press, 1993. 300 pages. $39.95. Kaufmann, who is Professor of Art and Archaeology at Princeton, discusses the depiction in Renaissance art of nature as it relates to science ("scientific revolution") and world imperialism.
--White, Thomas I., ed. BUSINESS ETHICS: A PHILOSOPHICAL READER. Riverside, NJ: Macmillan College Publishing, 1993. 867 pages, paper. In addition to the typical topics in business ethics texts, this one includes a section on "Business and the Environment" with essays by W. Michael Hoffman, David P. Hanson, Peter Singer, and Eric Katz.
--Gill, Sam D. MOTHER EARTH: AN AMERICAN STORY. University of Chicago Press, 1987. 196 pages. $11.95 paper. Gill challenges the view that Mother Earth is an ancient and central Native American deity.
--Reisner, Marc. CADILLAC DESERT. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin. $14.00.
--Corbett, Jim. GOATWALKING: A GUIDE TO WILDLAND LIVING, A QUEST FOR THE PEACEABLE KINGDOM. New York: Penguin, 1991. 237 pages. $11.00 paper. "Two milk goats can provide all the nutrients a human being needs, with the exception of vitamin C and a few trace minerals." So begins the romantic, Quixotic account of how to live as nomads in the Sonora desert. Corbett is co-founder of the Sanctuary Movement. Included is an appendix is the Saguaro- Juniper Covenant, an association for sustainable living on 130 acres of deeded land and six sections (square miles) of grazing lease. Non-technical, practical; what Thoreau might have written had he lived in the desert. "Cranky, brilliant, unlovable, and true"--Jim Harrison.
--Irwin, Kevin W. and Edmund D. Pellegrino, eds. PRESERVING CREATION: ENVIRONMENTAL THEOLOGY AND ETHICS. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1994. 224 pages. $40.00. An interdisciplinary Roman Catholic contribution by acknowledged experts in scripture, systematic theology, liturgical theology, and ethics. Articles by: Richard J. Clifford, Bernhard W. Anderson, Gabriel Daly, Elizabeth A. Johnson, Kevin W. Irwin, Daniel M. Cowdin, Drew Christiansen.
--Andow, David A., David A. Ragsdale, and Robert F. Nyvall, eds. ECOLOGICAL THEORY AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 350 pages. $69.50. Addresses issues of theory and practice in non-chemical methods of pest control.
--Bredahl, Maury, Philip C. Abbott, and Michael R. Reed, eds. COMPETITIVENESS IN INTERNATIONAL FOOD MARKETS. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. 343 pages. $45.00.
--Krahnen, Jan Pieter and Reinhard H. Schmidt. DEVELOPMENT FINANCE AS INSTITUTION BUILDING: A NEW APPROACH TO POVERTY- ORIENTED BANKING. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 148 pages. $45.00.
--Cromwell, Elizabeth and Steve Wiggins. SOWING BEYOND THE STATE: NGOS AND SEED SUPPLY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 143 pages. $19.95.
--Tisch, Sarah J. and Michael B. Wallace. DILEMMAS OF DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE: THE WHAT, WHY, AND WHO OF FOREIGN AID. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 182 pages. $49.95; $13.95 paper.
--THE WOMEN AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL, VOLUME 4. Edited by Rita Gallin, Anne Ferguson, and Janice Harper. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 256 pages. $38.00. Focuses on women's status and empowerment relative to economic deterioration, political democratization, nationalism, social conflict, grassroots groups, coalition-building, political parties, and quality of women's lives.
--Ewert, Alan W. THE HUMAN/ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION: HUMAN DIMENSIONS RESEARCH AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 320 pages. $38.95.
--AGENDA 21: EARTH'S ACTION PLAN. Edited by Nicholas A. Robinson. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1993. 683 pages. $30 paper. Full text, with annotations tracing its evolution.
--AGENDA 21AND THE UNCED PROCEEDINGS. 6 volumes. Edited by Nicholas A. Robinson et al. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1992-93. $450 hardbound; $75 per volume.
--Agenda 21 and the Rio Summit are the topics of all the articles in the COLORADO JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND POLICY, Volume 4, no. 1 (Winter 1993). In addition to analyzing and interpreting the documents and such key concepts as "biodiversity" and "sustainable development," the articles explain the diplomatic process behind the documents and the status of the documents as "soft-law" treaties. $15.00 for the single issue. University Press of Colorado, P. O. Box 849, Niwot, CO 80544.
--Ottinger, Richard and the Pace University Center for Environmental Legal Studies. ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OF ELECTRICITY: THE PACE STUDY. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1990. $75.00 hardbound. The "real costs" to society of the operation of electrical power plants.
--Lehman, Donna. WHAT ON EARTH CAN YOU DO? MAKING YOUR CHURCH A CREATION AWARENESS CENTER. Scottdale, PA; Waterloo, ON: Herald Press/Mennonite Publishing House, 1993. 192 pages. $9.95, $12.95 Canada; paper. Directed toward congregations, this book offers practical ways small groups or individuals can get involved and make a difference.
--Merrell, David J. THE ADAPTIVE SEASCAPE: THE MECHANISM OF EVOLUTION. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. 280 pages. $34.95. Hidden and often poorly founded assumptions of the synthetic theory of evolution are unraveled from the perspective of ecological genetics. Based on laboratory and field research. The metaphor of an "adaptive seascape" is proposed to replace Sewall Wright's well-known "adaptive landscape."
--Adams, Lowell W. URBAN WILDLIFE HABITATS: A LANDSCAPE PERSPECTIVE. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. 160 pages. $34.95; $16.95 paper.
--Weller, Milton W. FRESHWATER MARSHES: ECOLOGY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT. 3rd ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. 192 pages. $34.95, $16.95 paper.
--Wright, H. E., Jr., et al., eds. GLOBAL CLIMATES SINCE THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. 544 pages. $59.95. Based on a fifteen-year interdisciplinary study of geological, paleoecologic, and oceanographic evidence. Evidence for climatic changes during the past 18,000 years is summarized, and then the summarized data are compared to paleoclimatic simulations based on models of atmospheric circulation at 300-year intervals.
--RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE (ISSN 0048-7376), a quarterly publication of news and policy analysis, is sent free to individuals and institutions. The Spring 1994 issue contains the following articles: Winston Harrington and Margaret A. Walls, "Shifting Gears: New Directions for Cars and Clean Air"; Anna Alberini, David Edelstein, and Virginia D. McConnell, "Will Speeding the Retirement of Old Cars Improve Air Quality?"; Vicki Been, "Unpopular Neighbors: Are Dumps and Landfills Sited Equitably?"; and David Gardiner and Paul R. Portney, "Does Environmental Policy Conflict with Economic Growth?" To obtain a free subscription, write: Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036-1400.
--New NGO and quarterly: The Citizens Network for Sustainable Development, Working Group on Ethics, is publishing a quarterly entitled QUARTERLY REVIEW OF PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABILITY. The mission of the working group is to revive efforts to produce an Earth Charter. The April Quarterly included brief articles by or excerpts from: Donald Brown, Frances Spivy-Weber, John Lemons, Roger Paden, Herman Daly as summarized by Laurie Timmermann, Donald B. Conroy, Pope John Paul II's letter on ecology, and Safei El-Denn Hamed. Chair and Editor is: Angela Oliveira-Harkavy, 9422 Goshen Lane, Burke, VA 22015 USA, FAX 703-425-0741.
--Smil, Vaclav, CHINA'S ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS: AN INQUIRY INTO THE LIMITS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. London and Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993. ISBN 0-87332-819-0 cloth. 1-56324-041-6 paper. A fine analysis, and a good reality check for those who think that environmental ethics or environmental legislation is a priority in China. By a long-term China scholar. (Thanks to Eric Hol, Springfield, Oregon.)
--Miller, Mara, THE GARDEN AS AN ART. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. 273 pages. Paper, $ 18.95. Theoretical issues in aesthetics that gardens raise, with examples. Miller challenges contemporary aesthetic theory to include gardens in an expanded definition of art. Gardens mix art and nature in varying proportions. She challenges the idea that art should be studied within the context of a single culture and period, the idea that art should be conceived as a discrete object unrelated to our survival as persons, as cultural communities, and as a species. She challenges the idea that all signifying systems are like language use. The element of nature in gardens is part of this challenge. Miller is director of the Asian Studies Program and teaches philosophy at Drew University.
--Cohen, Michael J., "Integrated Ecology: The Process of Counseling with Nature," THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGIST 21(1993):277- 295. Most personal, social, and environmental stress results from estrangement from nature. A new ecology training program address this challenge. Counseling students in natural areas over thirty years has produced nearly a hundred unique nature-connecting activities that renew fifty inherent sensory fulfillments, for rejuvenation of biological and spiritual integrity. Cohen is with the World Peace University, San Juan Island, Washington. Michael Cohen, P. O. Box 4112, Roche Harbor, WA 98250.
--Altner, GÅnter, NATUREVERGESSENHEIT: GRUNDLAGEN EINER UMFASSENDEN BIOETHIK (NATURE FORGOTTEN: TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE BIOETHIC). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1991. 319 pages. Hardbound. ISBN 3-534-80043-5. DM 29,80. Altner argues that the prevailing attitude towards nature is disastrously inadequate, resulting in the destruction of nature. We need an all-embracing reverence for life. Altner works through Cartesian subject-object dualism, the bioethics of Singer, Birnbacher, and Schweitzer, bioethics and creation theology, bioethics and evolutionary science, bioethics and technology, and then presents his own comprehensive bioethics. Some of the issues he confronts include domestic animals, meat-eating, animal experimentation, landscapes, energy policy, climate change, gene technology, population control. One touchstone for a bioethic is "the obligation of solidarity with the unborn, the handicapped, and the dying. Whoever is unwilling to protect life of this sort will also be so in areas more remote from humanity. But a bioethic would be falsely and inadequately fulfilled if the all-embracing respect for life did not reach through humans to their deepest level of obligation. How could non-human nature have a value for us, if we are not aware of it in and through our own human selves" (from the Introduction). Altner holds doctorates in both theology and biology and is professor of theology at the University of Koblenz-Landau and a board member of the Ecological Institute of Freiburg.
--Ott, Konrad, ôKOLOGIE UND ETHIK: EIN VERSUCH PRAKTISCHER PHILOSOPHIE (ECOLOGY AND ETHICS: AN ATTEMPT AT PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY. TÅbingen: Attempto Verlag, 1993. 188 pages. DM 38,-- . ISBN 3-89308-162-3. Ott's book has three main parts: 1. The Concept of Ecology. 2. Critical Theory and Nature. 3. Ecoethical Arguments. In part one, he discusses the history of the discipline of philosophy and various ecological approaches to environmental philosophy, such as human ecology, speculative ecology, including Schorsch's mystical holism, Roszak's subversive ecology,, Hîsle's objective idealism, and Christian ecology. In part two, he finds that we can learn from Adorno's and Horkheimer's views on nature, the early Habermas' view in KNOWLEDGE AND HUMAN INTERESTS, and the later Habermas' view in his discourse ethical writings. Part three presents a taxonomy of ecoethical arguments: a) utilitarianism, b) aestheticism, c) the human right to nature, d) ethics of compassion and ecological pathognomics, e) objective and subjective theories of value in nature, and f) evolutionism. Ott is widely read and draws on both German and English sources. He himself opts for a teleologically grounded physiocentric position, which he calls "ecological pathognomics" (p. 144, pp. 153-155). He believes that we should further the good of teleological nature for its own sake. Ott did his dissertation with Habermas in Frankfurt and is about to finish his habilitation (teaching qualification) in TÅbingen. (Thanks to Angelika Krebs, University of Frankfurt.)
--Ariansen, Per and Jon Wetlesen, "Miljfilosofi (Environmental Philosophy)," in Kjell Eyvind Johansen, ed., ALLMEN INFRING I ETIKK (ETHICS: AN INTRODUCTION) (J.W. Cappelen Forlag, Oslo 1994). The anthropocentism/non-anthropocentrism debate with special focus on the possibility of a gradualist approach to the question of rights. The authors are in philosophy at the University of Oslo.
--Ariansen, Per, "Anthropocentrism with a Human Face" draft article, in English. Ariansen proposes an anthropocentric environmental ethic that gives due room for the moral intuitions that it is blameworthy to mistreat animals and even, in some cases, to destroy inanimate objects, though direct moral obligations are toward humans and human projects only. Ariansen holds that we could not act morally directly toward plants or animals, even if we very strongly wanted to. Still, a deep respect for the suffering of others imposes upon humans a limited PRIME FACIE commitment also to animal welfare, and even to the wanton destruction of the environment. Copies on request from the author: Filosofisk institutt, P. A. Munchs hus, Postboks 1020, Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway.
--McGee, Glenn, "Consumers, Land, and Food: In Search of Food Ethics" in Alessandro Bonanno, ed., THE AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SECTOR IN THE NEW GLOBAL ERA. New Delhi: Concept Publications, 1993.
--Spurway, Neil, ed., HUMANITY, ENVIRONMENT AND GOD. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell's, 1993. 240 pages. Hardcover. $ 49.95. What are the conditions in which humankind finds itself and what should our response to those conditions be? Answers by the physicist- cosmologist John Barrow, the evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, the historian John Roberts, the philosopher Anthony Kenny, and the theologians Don Cupitt and Archbishop John Habgood. A reexamination of the world we live in, and the impact of our physical, biological, social, and spiritual environment on modern thought. Spurway is at Glasgow University.
--Singh, Rana P. B., ed., THE SPIRIT AND POWER OF PLACE: HUMAN ENVIRONMENT AND SACRALITY. Varanasi, India: National Geographic Society of India, 1994. 352 pages. Indian Rs 500/-. US$ 70.00. ISBN 81-86187-41-3. Simultaneously published as the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC JOURNAL OF INDIA, vol. 40, 1994 (ISSN 0027-9374). Over two dozen articles. Examples: J. Donald Hughes, "The Integrity of Nature and Respect for Place"; Amos Rapopport, "A Critical Look at the Concept of `Place'"; O. F. G. Sitwell, "Sacred Space Reconsidered"; Amita Sinha, "Pilgrimage--Journey to the Sacred Landscape of Braj"; Alec Paul and Paul Simpson-Housley, "The Manitoba Landscape of Martha Ostenso's WILD GEESE"; and many others. Inquiries to Dr. Rana P. B. Singh, Executive Editor, NGJI, No. B 29 / 12 A Lanka, Varanasi, UP 221005, India.
--Rothenberg, David, "Nature to Art to Nature," EARTH ETHICS, current issue. Find it.
--Bradley, Ian, GOD IS GREEN: ECOLOGY FOR CHRISTIANS. New York: Doubleday Image Books, 1990. 118 pages. Paper. $ 8.00. Chapter titles: God's concern for all creation: "The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof." The dance of creation: "The trees of the field shall clap their hands." The fall of nature: "The whole creation has been groaning in travail." The cosmic Christ: "Who is this that even the winds and sea obey him?" The role of human beings: "Thou hast given him dominion over the works of thy hands." An analysis of the biblical understanding of the goodness of creation and of human stewardship, suitable for use in churches. A sacred world is at the heart of Christian belief. Of all the world religions, Christianity has the greatest claim to be environmentalist because it professes that God is incarnate in the very stuff of nature. With practical suggestions for greening the churches. Bradley is a minister in the Church of Scotland and a member of the Green Party.
--Swan, James A., SACRED PLACES: HOW THE LIVING EARTH SEEKS OUR FRIENDSHIP. Santa Fe, NM: Bear and Company Publishing, 1990. 237 pages. $ 12.95. Chapter titles: The dilemma of sacred places in a modern world. Varieties of native American sacred places. The right place at the right time. Sacred places on trial. Minding the spirit of place. The new Earth paradigm. Visiting a place of power. With an appendix: Sacred places of the United States. Bibliography. Foreword by James Lovelock. Swan is a psychologist, who specializes in environmental psychology with native Americans, a faculty member at the California Institute of Integral Studies. "Dr. Swan understands the American Indian mind better than any other white man I know" - Bill Fields, Cherokee, retired director of Indian Affairs, U. S. National Park Service.
--Loker, Cynthia A., Daniel J. Decker, R. Bruce Gill, Thomas D. I. Beck, and Len H. Carpenter, THE COLORADO BLACK BEAR HUNTING CONTROVERSY: A CASE STUDY OF HUMAN DIMENSIONS IN CONTEMPORARY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT. Ithaca, NY: Human Dimensions Research Unit, Cornell University, February 1994. HDRU Series No. 94-4. 56 pages. In November 1992, Colorado voters in public referendum by 2-1 banned black bear hunting in the spring, and the use of bait or dogs year round. There were four periods in the controversy, with the Colorado Wildlife Commission (a publicly appointed board) generally being inadequately sensitive to growing public concern, trying to conciliate by altering hunting season dates to reduce the kill of nursing females in the spring, while continuing to support the hunt. The Colorado Division of Wildlife made recommendations that the Wildlife Commission refused to hear. Biologists maintained that the bear population was not adversely affected by the hunt; hunters said they would not be bullied around by people who were really opposed to all hunting. The agency that was mandated to represent all citizens' interest in wildlife disproportionately represented hunter's interests, forcing citizens to take their concern to public referendum. There is also available an additional report that analyzes the views of differing segments of the voting public in this referendum. Copies from Human Dimensions Research Unit, Department of Natural Resources, Fernow Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Loker and Decker are with that unit, Gill, Beck, and Carpenter are with the Colorado Division of Wildlife.
--Arler, Finn, "Energy Policy, Greenhouse-effect and Global Justice." Surveys the position of Denmark on CO2 emissions, compares this with that of the United States and other countries, considers the rights of developing countries to energy use, recalls statements from the UNCED Rio de Janeiro conference, and asks what principles of justice might be used to set policy for energy in view of the greenhouse effect. Copies from Finn Arler, Department of Philosophy, University of Aarhus, Ndr. Ringgade Buildn. 327, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin and Earl D. McCoy, "Applied Ecology and the Logic of Case Studies," PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 61(1994)228- 249. Because of the problems associated with ecological concepts, generalizations, and proposed general theories, applied ecology may require a new "logic" of explanation characterized neither by the traditional concepts of confirmation nor by the logic of discovery. Building on the works of GrÅnbaum, Kuhn, and Wittgenstein, the authors use detailed descriptions from research on conserving the Northern Spotted Owl, a case typical of problem solving in applied ecology, to (1) characterize the method of case studies; (2) survey its strengths; (3) summarize and respond to its shortcomings; and (4) investigate and defend its underlying "logic." Ecology is too complex to have many, or any, exceptionless laws, and there is no strict logic here, but there is a method of case study that makes sense of a situation, intelligently finding out such things as habitat characteristics required for nesting, owl population sizes able to withstand environmental fluctuations and genetic depression, and so forth. We can understand a local situation even though we cannot make scientific generalizations. Shrader-Frechette is in philosophy, McCoy in biology at the University of South Florida at Tampa.
--de-Shalit, Avner, "Urban Preservation and the Judgment of Solomon," JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY 4(1994):3-13. "Facing heretofore unknown waves of new immigrants, the Israeli Government and the mayor of Jerusalem issued a comprehensive development program, including rapid and massive construction. Cities with historical and aesthetic uniqueness, particularly Jerusalem, are likely to lose their special features and beauty. How can an argument in favor of conservation of the special beauties of such cities be advanced in the light of the urgent need to supply shelter and jobs for their inhabitants? The paper has to aims: to analyze the reason for environmental ethics' failure to discuss urban preservation so far, and to put forward a rationale for urban preservation. The latter derives from the political wisdom of King Solomon and from the notion of anthropocentric intrinsic value. de-Shalit teaches political science and environmental policy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
--de-Shalit, Avner, "Community and the Rights of Future Generations: A Reply to Robert Elliot," JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHILOSOPHY 9(1992):105-115. de-Shalit accepts Elliot's arguments for obligations based on the rights of future people, but the main issue is whether balance can be found between these and the rights of present people. The question can be tackled only in terms of welfare rights, which requires a concept of "trans-generational" community, and the theory of justice between generations cannot be purely "rights-based."
--de-Shalit, Avner, "Environmental Policies and Justice Between Generations," EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL RESEARCH 21(1992):307- 316. In environmental policy, over and above the relations between humans and nature, there are relations between contemporaries and future generations. Many environmental policies can be seen as a matter of distribution of access to goods between contemporaries and future generations. A theory of justice between generations enables political theorists to evaluate environmental problems with a new approach.
--de-Shalit, Avner, "Bargaining with the Not-yet-born: Gauthier's Contractarian Theory of Inter-Generational Justice and its Limitations," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORAL AND SOCIAL STUDIES 5(1990):221-234. If one follows the contractarian premises and approach to environmental policies and inter-generational justice, one will not be able to derive obligations to future generations from these principles. Nor will one get help in arriving at any sense of balance between contemporaries and future people.
--Frederick, William C., "Anchoring Values in Nature: Toward a Theory of Business Values," BUSINESS ETHICS QUARTERLY 2(1992):283-303. The dominant values of the business system-- economizing and power-aggrandizing--are manifestations of natural evolutionary forces. Economizing tends to slow the life-negating entropic processes, while power-aggrandizing enhances them. Both economics and power-aggrandizing work against a third (non- business) value cluster--ecologizing--which sustains community integrity. The contradictory tensions generated among these three value clusters define the central normative issues for business operations. Both economizing and ecologizing are negentropic and therefore life-supporting, but power augmentation, which negates the other two value clusters, is entropic and therefore life- defeating. Business ethicists have tended to overlook the normative significance of nature-based value systems. Reconciling economizing and ecologizing values is the most important theoretical task for business ethicists. Frederick is in the graduate school of business at the University of Pittsburgh.
--Plumwood, Val, "Feminism and Ecofeminism: Beyond the Dualistic Assumptions of Women, Men and Nature," THE ECOLOGIST 22(no. 1, January/February 1992):8-13. The identification of men with culture and women with nature has been fiercely criticized by feminists who have shown how it is used to justify the domination of both women and nature. While liberal feminists have challenged the feminine ideal, and radical feminists have promoted the replacement of patriarchal values with feminine ones, a thoroughgoing ecofeminism should question the construction of both masculine and feminine identities. The article contains a box summary: "Current Trends in Ecofeminism. Among these current trends (a position not shared by Plumwood), "Cultural ecofeminism emphasizes the quest for a new spiritual relationship to nature, and stresses personal transformation and the (re)empowerment of women and women's values. Women are seen as having a superior relationship with nature which is sometimes taken to be biologically determined, so that only a society in which women can limit or control the number and influence of men will be free of aggressiveness and the destruction of nature." A good short article for sorting out the different kinds of ecofeminism. Plumwood lectures at the Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, Australia.
--Shiva, Vandana, "The Seed and the Earth: Women, Ecology, and Biotechnology," THE ECOLOGIST 22(no. 1, January/February 1992):4- 7. Western society gives a high value to scientific creation and a correspondingly low value to natural procreation. It thus legitimates the encroachment of technological development into both the female body and the seed. Shiva is director of the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy, Dehra Dun, India.
--Simmons, Pam, "`Women in Development': A Threat to Liberation," THE ECOLOGIST 22(no. 1, January/February 1992):16-21. The call to integrate women into development has been taken up by the international development institutions to suit their own purposes. Adopted, as it invariably has been, in a simplistic form, it is a dangerous slogan that threatens to reduce Third World Women to "resources" for the international economy. It also wrongly implies that women in industrialized countries are progressing to a position of equality. Simmons works with women's issues through NGO's in Australia and Thailand. Also Simmons in this issue reviews ten books on feminism, environment, development, and technology.
--Pitcher, Alvin, LISTENING TO THE CRYING OF THE EARTH: CULTIVATING CREATION COMMUNITIES. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 1993. Paper. 157 pages. Chapter titles: What is happening to the Earth? Why our social institutions are not responding well to the ecological crisis. Theological foundations for responding. Being a part of a creation community. With appendices as case studies and summary position statements. Quite usable in local churches, for general readers. Does not deal with the major issues raised in philosophical environmental ethics. Pitcher is professor emeritus of ethics and society at the Divinity School, University of Chicago.
--Lipske, Mike, "Cutting Down Canada," INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE, March/April 1994. What's about to happen to vast northern forests will make tropical rain forest look like conservation zones. In Alberta, 23% of the province is under lease for eventual logging. In British Columbia, one year's cut on public lands is more than twice the harvest from all the national forests in the U.S. A new mill in Alberta, the Alberta-Pacific Mill, or Al-Pac, built for $ 1.3 billion, consumes 120 square kilometers (about 45 square miles) of forest per year. Lipske is a former senior editor of INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE.
--Diaz, Nancy and Dean Apostol, FOREST LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. R6 Eco- TP-043-92. USGPO 1993-583-588. A process for developing and implementing land management objectives for landscape patterns. Landscapes as ecological systems; landscape analysis/design and the management process. This book is getting considerable attention in the U.S. Forest Service. Diaz is an ecologist, Mt. Hood and Gifford Pinchot National Forests. Apostol is a landscape architect, Mt. Hood National Forest.
--Kolasa, Jurek and Steward T. A. Pickett, eds., ECOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991. 332 pages. Volume 86 in the series Ecological Studies. With nearly two dozen contributors. What is ecological heterogeneity (roughly the ecosystem level word for diversity)? Does it differ from complexity? What dimensions need to be considered to evaluate heterogeneity adequately? Can heterogeneity be measured at various scales? Is heterogeneity a part of the organization of ecological systems? How does it change in time and space? What are the causes of heterogeneity and of its change? Philosophers will want to add: What is the value of ecological heterogeneity? One conclusion: "Heterogeneity emerges and disappears with scale. Scale is the window; heterogeneity is a characteristic of the view in it" (p. vi). An introductory problem is "the heterogeneity of heterogeneity" (p. 1). Kolasa is in biology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. Pickett is in the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, New York Botanical Garden.
--Thoreau, Henry David. JOURNAL, VOLUME 4: 1851-1852. Edited by Leonard N. Neufeldt and Nancy Craig Simmons. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. 787 pages. $ 39.50. Daily records, observations, thoughts, showing how Thoreau rejoiced in particulars, turning over a stone in midwinter to find crickets and ants, feeling that a white pine tree (which loggers targeted) "seems the emblem of my life--it stands for the west--the wild" (p. 480), his botanical studies, his bird lists, his aesthetic recommendations to make a landscape picturesque, and much more. Appreciation of the natural world is encouraged by the spatial and temporal scale provided by the nearly lost pastime of walking with leisure to poke. Thanks to Jerome A. Stone, William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, IL.
--Grumbine, R. Edward, "What is Ecosystem Management?" CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 8(no. 1, March 1994):27-38. The evolving model of ecosystem management is analyzed for a working definition. There are five specific goals: maintaining viable populations, ecosystem representation, maintaining ecological processes, such as natural disturbance regimes, protecting evolutionary potential of species and ecosystems, and accommodating human use in the light of these goals. Short-term and long-term policy implications are reviewed, including evaluation success. Ecosystem management is not just about science nor is it simply an extension of traditional, resource management. It requires a fundamental reframing of how humans may work with nature. Grumbine directs the Sierra Institute, University of California Extension, Santa Cruz.
--Wright, Nancy C. and Donald Kill, ECOLOGICAL HEALING: A CHRISTIAN VISION. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993. 161 pages. Paper. Features the Coordination in Development Network (CODEL) of small-scale, environmentally sensitive development projects in developing nations, and how Christians have been and can be catalysts in these projects. Wright is a United Church of Christ minister, kill is a Columban priest.
--Worster, Donald, "Nature and the Disorder of History," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 18(1994)1-15. "Over the past two decades the field of ecology has pretty well demolished Eugene Odum's portrayal of a world of ecosystems tending toward equilibrium, leaving us with no model of development for human society to emulate. ... Nature, we are now told, should be regarded as a landscape of patches of all sizes, textures, and colors, changing continually through time and space, responding to an unceasing barage of perturbations. Now this is a nature that looks remarkably similar to the human community that Departments of History write about. ... Disturbance is history. And a disturbed nature is a nature that has a history very like the history that humans make. Worster teaches environmental history at the University of Kansas.
--Hughes, J. Donald, PAN'S TRAVAIL: ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND ROMANS. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. $ 39.95 hardcover. Many think an environmental crisis is a modern crisis. But an examination of the evidence shows that the Greeks and Romans not only suffered from some of the same predicaments that plague us, but in many cases they were aware of them and commented on them. Deforestation, overgrazing, erosion, depletion of wildlife and natural resources, pollution, urban problems such as water supply and sewage disposal. Hughes teaches environmental history at the University of Denver.
--Hendee, John C., and Vance G. Martin, eds., INTERNATIONAL WILDERNESS ALLOCATION, MANAGEMENT, AND RESEARCH. From the 5th World Wilderness Congress, Tromso, Norway, September 1993. Published by the International Wilderness Leadership (WILD) Foundation, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Wilderness Research Center. Paper. 334 pages. $ 19.50 + $ 3 shipping. 52 papers, typically short, by 104 authors and coauthors. Some samples: Harold Eidsvik, "Wilderness Values and World Heritage Sites"; John Dennis, "The Role of Wilderness in Maintaining Biological Diversity"; Jonathan Miller, "Evolution of Wilderness Concepts in Australia", Wesley Henry, Robert Chandler, Richard Ernenwein, "Protecting Natural Quiet: A Case Study of Grand Canyon National Park"; Steve Hollenhorst, Ernest Frank, III, and Alan Watson, "The Capacity to be Alone: Wilderness Solitude and Growth of the Self"; John Heywood, "Wilderness Civility: Cooperation and Coordination in the Wilderness"; Norman McIntyre, Jackie Kiewa, Josephine Burden, "Women's Involvement in Adventure Activities"; and many more. Lots of papers specific to local wilderness areas. Lots of papers deal with incorporating indigenous wisdom into wilderness conservation. To place orders: The WILD Foundation, 211 West Magnolia Street, Fort Collins, CO 80521. Or: The Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Hendee is Dean of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences at Idaho State University; Martin is president of the WILD Foundation.
--McClendon, Shannon K. and Martin V. Melosi, eds., COMPARATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE AMERICAS: SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVES. Houston, TX: Institute for Public History, 1993. Contains Max Oelschlaeger, "Managing Planet Earth: Questions Concerning Expert Management," pp. 100-128.
--Greater Yellowstone Coalition, BLUEPRINT FOR THE FUTURE: SUSTAINING GREATER YELLOWSTONE. Bozeman, MT: Greater Yellowstone Coalition, 1994. 230 pages. $ 20.00. A blueprint for a sustainable Yellowstone ecosystem. 41 case studies, a thorough analysis for anyone who believes, or doubts, that a sustainable Yellowstone area is feasible. Greater Yellowstone Coalition, P. O. Box 1874, Bozeman, MT 59771.
--Tyson, Ann Scott. "Budget Cuts Jeopardize Discovery of Better Seeds." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 29 June 1994, p. 8.
--Press, Robert M. "Borlaug: Sowing 'Green Revolution' Among African Leaders." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 29 June 1994, p. 9.
--Trumbull, Mark. "Conservationists Criticize Logging in Private Forests." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 1 July 1994, p. 9.
--Pendleton, Scott. "No Vampires, These Bats Are Friends." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 5 July 1994, pp. 10-11.
--Knickerbocker, Brad. "New Green Council Appeals to All Sides." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 5 July 1994, p. 11. First introduced in 1989, the US legislative proposal for the National Institute for the Environment, which would oversee grants for research, has won support from conservative Republicans, liberal Democrats, Greenpeace, and Dow Chemical.
--LaFranchi, Howard. "Tradition in Turmoil: Dutch Agriculture Evolves." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 6 July 1994, pp. 7, 14. Dutch farmers are among the world's most efficient. Tougher environmental rules are causing small farmers to quit. Only 4 percent of the population, farmers utilize two-thirds of the land and export $15 billion of their $21 billion production.
--Grier, Peter. "When Saving the Dolphins Clashes with Free Trade, New World Order in Doubt." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 6 July 1994, p. 7.
--Trumbull, Mark. "Fisheries Crisis Stretches Across the Globe." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 6 July 1994, p. 8.
--Pendleton, Scott. "Looking for Oil." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 20 June 1994, pp. 9-11. New computer technology is finding overlooked oil and reviving drilling in Texas.
--Trumbull, Mark. "Competition Is Watchword at Conference of Utilities." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 17 June 1994, p. 8. Deregulation is encouraging competition, especially from alternative technologies such as wind generators.
--Lemonick, Michael D. "Winged Victory." TIME, 11 July 1994, p. 53. One of several accounts of the removal of the bald eagle from the endangered list. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is up for renewal in Congress, and some conservation groups have argued that the proposed changes in the act would not have saved the bald eagle.
--Johnson, Marguerite. "The Backyard Besieged." TIME, 4 July 1994, p. 62. Environmentalists and regulators want to hush-up and clean-up lawnmowers.
--Knickerbocker, Brad. "Reclaiming the Ancient Lands of the `Old Ones.'" THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 14 June 1994, 10-11. Oregon native Americans vie for shared management of national forests.
--Horn, Patricia. "Tightwad Ways Gain Acceptance as Americans Adjust to Frugal 90s." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 31 May 1994, p. 8. Frugality is one of the top ten trends in the US in 1994.
--Pendleton, Scott. "Balancing Politics and Plutonium." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 27 May 1994, p. 12. Some scientists predict that nuclear waste from the Integral Fast Reactor, when its technology is fully engineered, will be more manageable than waste from conventional Light Water Reactors. At issue is continued government funding to complete the new technology.
--Gildart, Bert. "The Battle for Fish and Survival Along the Yukon." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 24 May 1994, pp. 10-11. The failure of chum salmon to run has pitted Athabascan Indians against the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, which closed the Yukon River to subsistence fishing.
--Mahler, Richard. "Political Strife Threatens Mexico's Pristine Jungles." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 17 May 1994, pp. 10-11. The Chiapas conflict has left the area vulnerable to development.
--Scott, David Clark. "Profiles of Mexicans: Life After NAFTA." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 17 May 1994, p. 11.
--Moore, Deborah. "Think Small to Solve the World Water Crisis." THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 12 May 1994, p. 19. Moore is a scientist with the Environmental Defense Fund's International Program, focusing on reform of the World Bank, UN agencies, and development. The World Bank tends to fund big costly projects like dams and hydro-electric projects, which often displace populations and cause long-term agricultural disasters. Alternatively, Moore argues that the World Bank should fund basic services, such as, water conservation and reuse programs, waste- water treatment, and pollution prevention. (Thanks especially to Jack Weir for monitoring the MONITOR, an excellent source of serious journalism about the environment.)
--Robert A. Sirico, "The False Gods of Earth Day," WALL STREET JOURNAL, April 22, 1994. Environmentalism has become a religion, infecting the churches, and it worships false gods, with many followers in mainstream churches, also including Albert Gore, Vice-president of the United States. One result is to undermine the positive result that economic growth has played in achieving the goals of religious ethics and concern for persons, and the role of religion in reforming persons in these economic and political systems and keeping them moral. "To make Earth Day a religious holiday forgets the primary purpose of traditional faith: to avoid personal sin and to attain salvation. To do this, man must obey God's law, as found in the 10 Commandments. There is no commandment against littering, but there is a very straightforward one about worshiping false gods." A good discussion editorial for classes in religion and environment. Paulist Father Sirico is with the Study of Religion and Liberty, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
--Koshland, Jr., Daniel E., "The Case for Biodiversity," SCIENCE 264(April 29, 1994):639. Tongue-in-cheek satirical editorial by the editor-in-chief of science, that could make a useful class discussion piece. Dr. Noitall has become a defender of all life forms. "And what species are you trying to save now?" "I am becoming the defender of the unpopular little species who have a poor media image--the MYCOBACTERIUM tuberculosis, the SALMONELLA TYPHI, the pneumococci, the syphilis spirochete, the AIDS virus, and the malaria parasite. ..." "But those are horrible pathogens that are out to kill humans. Why should you want to be on their side?" "That's typical `speciesism,' as despicable as racism. We biodiversity people do not limit ourselves to loveable species; all God's creatures deserve to live." "How can humans relate to bacteria and viruses that are basically stupid, without a cerebral cortex and devoid of higher moral concepts?" "Stupidity is in the eye of the beholder. Bacteria survive by swimming toward nutrients that are good for them and away from toxic substances that are bad for them--a simple strategy that HOMO SAPIENS could learn to advantage. Bacteria exchange DNA rapidly to pass drug resistance genes from one bacterium to another, a bacterial Marshall Plan. One DNA transfer provides more information than a modern high school education." They could even help us solve the overpopulation problem.
Fire and Gal_pagos Tortoises. Fire sweeping across an island in the Gal_pagos is raising the question whether to help slow tortoises escape the fire. The Ecuadorian army stands on the alert to help a group of about twenty threatened tortoises, if fire breaks out, with some persons who have also served in the Ecuadorian park service. The heavy tortoises will have to be carried out by hand in the rough terrain. Fires come about every seven years, in periods of drought, and could interfere with restoration efforts. Brief story in SCIENCE, April 29, 1994.
Cryogenic endangered species? Japan's Environment Agency is preparing to deep freeze the genes of the country's last pair of crested ibis in the hope that future biotechnology can restore the species. Both birds are quite old. (Kyodo News Service, Tokyo).
Taking habitat isn't taking endangered species? The Sweet Home decision (SWEET HOME CHAPTER OF COMMUNITIES FOR A GREATER OREGON V. BABBITT) on March 11 in a Washington, DC federal appeals count has reversed twenty years of interpreting the U.S. Endangered Species Act as prohibiting not only actually taking (killing, capturing) the endangered animal, but also understanding "taking" to include habitat destruction that "significantly impairs" essential activities such as breeding, feeding, or nesting. The Sweet Home case was filed by various timber companies and timber- dependent community groups from the Pacific Northwest and the Southeast U.S., though it was filed in the Washington court, thought to be most favorable to their case. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife has said that it will not follow the Sweet Home decision outside of Washington, DC, until an appeal is settled. Genetically altered tomato for better ripening and taste. Biotechnologists have taken a gene causing decay out of tomatoes, cloned it, reversed the genetic order to cancel the gene and retard decay, put the gene into bacteria and used the bacteria to get the gene back into tomatoes. (The gene originally causes decay to spread the seeds of the tomato.) The new tomato can be picked less green, since it decays more slowly, and therefore is riper and tastier. The Federal Food and Drug Administration has approved the new tomato, some say with too little testing, also with no required identification of such tomatoes to consumers. "Absolutely unconscionable," says Richard M. Kessel, director of the New York State Consumer Protection Board. Developers expect a financial bonanza in a $ 3 to $ 5 billion a year market in fresh tomatoes. Tomatoes have been selectively bred for millennia, since their origin in the wild in South America. Indigenous peoples had long been doing that before Europeans arrived, especially in Mexico, where Europeans first found the tomato. Stories in NEW YORK TIMES, May 19, 1994.
Multi-million dollar microbes in Yellowstone! Suddenly the thermophile bacteria in Yellowstone National Park are hot property financially as well. A heat-stable enzyme derived from THERMUS AQUATICUS drives the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), key to a revolutionary gene-copying technique that since 1991 has earned hundreds of million dollars for patent-holder Hoffman-LaRoche, a Swiss pharmaceutical firm. THERMUS AQUATICUS, an obscure microbe, was discovered in an out-of-the-way hot spring in 1965 by Thomas Brock of the University of Wisconsin and placed in a national bacteria storehouse. Years later, it proved useful and in 1991 Hoffman-LaRoche paid Cetus Corporation $ 300 million for the still-contested patent rights. Brock earned nothing, as his research was in the public domain. Now many biotech giants want to prospect in Yellowstone, requesting typically free permits for research. Park managers are having a conference this fall to consider whether to charge up-front for prospecting or to ask for royalties, or to continue to consider species public property and charge nothing at all. One law suggests that all Yellowstone's fauna and flora remain government property forever. Story in SCIENCE, April 29, 1994.
The National Religious Partnership for the Environment has distributed environmental awareness kits to 53,000 churches, both Catholic and Protestant, and to 3,000 Reform groups and Conservative synagogues. Paul Gorman is executive director. Story in CHRISTIAN CENTURY, May 4, 1994.
Recent and Upcoming Events
--August 4-7. Eleventh International Social Philosophy Conference, University of Nevada at Las Vegas. Plenary lectures include Bernard Rollin (Colorado State University), Margaret Battin (University of Utah), Peter Wenz (Sangamon State University, and Karen Warren (Macalaster College). This conference is co-sponsored by ISEE.
--August 7-11. American Institute of Biological Sciences and Ecological Society of America. Knoxville, TN. ISEE is sponsoring a session, "Ecology and Environmental Ethics," with the following: Holmes Rolston (Philosophy, Colorado State University), "Environmental Science and Advocacy"; Reed Noss (The Wetlands Project, Corvalis, Oregon), "Making Decisions in Conservation Biology"; Bryan Norton (Public Policy and Philosophy, Georgia Institute of Technology)," Environmental Values: A Scalar Approach"; and Kristin Shrader-Frechette (Philosophy, University of South Florida), "Method in Ecology and the Future of Hypothesis Deduction: A Response to Peters"; Laura Westra, "The Wild and Ecosystem Integrity." For conference details contact: AIBS, 730 11th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001-4521.
--August 9-14. Sixth Annual Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration, Saving All the Pieces, Lansing, Michigan. Contact: Robert Welsh, Lansing Community College, 422 N. Washington Square, Dept. 31, Lansing, MI 48901. Phone 517/483- 9675
--August 15-21. Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World, at Estes Park, Colorado, Rocky Mountain National Park. Among the environmentalist papers: Eleanore Adams (Cuyahoga Community College, OH), "Environmental Practice in a Diverse Society"; Cheryl Cline (University of Toronto), "Liberalism and the Environment: Redrawing the Limits of Autonomy"; Joseph DesJardins (College of St. Benedict, MN), "Sustainability and Corporate Responsibility"; Peter List (Oregon State University), "Environmental Scientists as Advocates for Nature: Some Medical Models"; Erin McKenna (Pacific Lutheran University), "A Feminist Perspective on Vegetarianism: A Critique of Peter Singer"; Peter Singer (Monash University, Australia), "An Informal Discussion with Peter Singer" (Tuesday evening); William Stephens (Crieghton University), "Five Arguments for Vegetarianism"; Jack Weir (Morehead State University, KY), "Who Can Save the Earth: Agenda 21 and Professional Expertise." Holmes Rolston leads a hike to Chasm Lake at the foot of Long's Peak on August 18, Thursday (no, not all the way up). Contact: Conference Registrar, YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, CO 80511-2550. 303/586-3341, ext. 1021 Also Paul Churchill, Department of Philosophy, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052. 202/994-6265. Fax 202/994- 0458.
--August 14-21. Turtle Island Bioregional Gathering VI, Camp Piomingo, Otter Creek Park, Louisville, Kentucky (by the Ohio River). Contact Shepard and Tracy Hendrickson, 341 N. Hamilton, Indianapolis, IN 46201. Phone 317/636-3977.
--August 21-25, with on August 24 a symposium: Perceptions in Environmental Risk Decisions, at the American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, Convention Center. An all day symposium with over a dozen speakers and panelists from interdisciplinary fields, academic and industry. Philosophers include Bryan Norton and Douglas Maclean, Don Brown, also James Nash, an environmental theologian. Contact C. Richard Cothern, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Statistics and Information Division, 401 M Street, S. W., Washington, DC 20460. Phone 202/260-2734. Fax 202/260-4968.
--August 21-26. Sixth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL VI), Manchester, England. There are several symposia on ethics and ecology. Speakers include Andrew Brennan (Western Australia), "The Development of Interest in Ethics"; Robin Grove-White (University of Lancaster), "Who Shapes the Ethical Framework"; Calvin DeWitt (Au Sable Institute), "Religion: Help or Hindrance?" Darrell Posey (Oxford), "Ethnobiology and Commercial Ethics"; Susan Bratton (University of North Texas), "Human Demography and Christian Ethics"; D. Given, "Forging a Biodiversity Ethic in a Multicultural Context"; L. Laux and D. Erickson, "An Environmental Ethic: Does the Bible Tell Me So?"; G. L. Comstock, "An Extentionist Environmental Ethic"; A. Holland (University of Lancaster), "Structures in Nature and the Grounds of Ethical Significance"; Keekok Lee (Philosophy, Manchester), "Beauty for Ever?"; N. Siva Kumar, "Learning from the Past: Environmental Ethics from the Two Epics of India" and others. To register: J. Lee, Chair, VI International Congress of Ecology; The Manchester Conference Centre, U.M.I.S.T., P. O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK.
--August 22-Sept. 2. Preparatory Committee for World Summit for Social Development, in New York. See below, March 6-12, 1995, World Summit in Copenhagen.
--August 29-September 2. The Planetary Challenge: How Do We Change Attitudes, in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway. Andrew Brennan, University of Western Australia, is a speaker. A joint project of Tromso University Philosophy Department, the Office of the Governor of Svalbard, and the Norwegian Polar Institute.
--September 6-9. Ecology and Democracy: The Challenge of the 21st Century. Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. In English. Contact: Organizing Committee, Institute of Landscape Ecology AS CR, Nasadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Fax 42-38- 45719.
--September 9-14. International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. Contact ICPD Secretariat, c/o UNFPA. 220 E. 42nd St., New York, NY. Phone 212/297-5222. Fax 212/297-4915.
--September 12-13. Environmental Futures, Interdisciplinary Research Network on the Environment and Society Conference III, Warwick University, UK. Themes are intergenerational justice; European unity and the environment; North-South: conflict or consensus; the future of the environmental movement; science, technology and future environmental change, and others. Keynote speakers, Andrew Dobson (Keele University), Jacqueline McGlade (Warwick University) and Ted Benton (Essex University). Contact: Sue Elworthy, Department of Law, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK. Fax 0203 524105.
--September 18-20. "Ethics and Philosophy in Environmental Epidemiology," a preconference to the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology annual meeting, held at Research Triangle Park, near Raleigh, N.C. Also sponsored by the World Health Organization. Contact Colin L. Soskolne, Department of Health Services Administration and Community Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G3. Phone 403/492-6013.
--September 21-25. "Excellence in Wildlife Stewardship through Science and Education." Includes a symposium on "Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation and Management,"First Annual Conference of the Wildlife Society, Albuquerque, NM.
--September 30-October 2. Hegel Society of America, at the Catholic University of America, Washington, on the theme: "Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature." Contact: Stephen G. Houlgate, Philosophy, DePaul University, 2323 N. Seminary Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614.
--October 5-7, "Environmental Ethics and Legal Theory," in Gîttingen, Germany. Speakers include Christopher D. Stone, Dieter Birnbacher, Ottfried Hîffe, Klaus Michael Meyer-Abich, Wilhelm Vossenkuhl, Peter Koller, Ralf Dreier, Bettina Schîne-Seifert, Matthias Kettner, Beat Sitter-Liver, Angelika Krebs, Konrad Ott. Contact: Angelika Krebs, Fb Philosophie. UniversitÑt Frankfurt, Dantestr. 4-6, D-60054 Frankfurt. Fax 069-798-2862. E-mail: Krebs@em.uni-frankfurt.d400.de. Or: D. v. d. Pfordten / J. Nida- RÅmelin, Philosophisches Seminar, UniversitÑt Gîttingen, Humboldtalle 19, D-37073 Gîttingen. Fax 0551 39 96 07.
--October 6-8. Theology for Earth Community, Union Theological Seminary, New York City. Six plenary sessions and three sets of workshops. Some leaders: Gerald Barney, Global 200O Report; Tikva Frymer-Kensky, Jewish Reconstructionist College; Beverly Harrison, Union Seminary; Theodore Hiebert, Harvard University; Thomas Hoyt, Hartford Theological Seminary; Catherine Keller, Drew University Theological School; Kosuke Koyama, Union Seminary; Manning Marable, African-American Studies, Columbia University; Larry Rasmussen, Social Ethics, Union Seminary; George Tinker, native American, Iliff Theological Seminary; Mary Evelyn Tucker, Bucknell University. Contact Laura Wilhelm, Auburn Theological Seminary (which is combined with UTS), 3041 Broadway, NY, 10027. 212/662- 4315. Fax 212/663-5214
--October 10-12, Our Responsibilities toward Future Generations: Jewish Christian, Islamic, and Philosophical Perspectives, at Malta. Sponsored by the Foundation for International Studies and the Faculty of Theology, University of Malta, at Valletta, Malta. Speakers include Per Ariansen and Jon Wetlesen, University of Oslo, on "Future Generations and Discourse Ethics. "Contact: The Secretariat, Future Generations Programme, Foundation for International Studies, St. Paul Street, Valletta VLT07, Malta. Phone 356-224067/234121/2. Fax 356/230551.
--October 25-25, Designing with Nature, Conference on Ecosystem Management, Sacramento, CA. Contact: Mark Nechodom, 916/757-8952. Email firstname.lastname@example.org.
--October 26-29. Third Annual National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Burlington, Vermont. Contact: Mary Jeanne Packer, Coordinator, Green Mountain National Forest, 231 North Main Street, Rutland, VT 05701. Phone 802/747-6700. Fax 802/747-6766.
--November 3-4, The Science of Overabundance: The Ecology of Unmanaged Deep Populations, Front Royal, Virginia. Sponsored by National Park Service and Smithsonian Institution. Contact: Bill McShea, Conservation & Research Center, Front Royal, VA 22630. Phone: 703/635-6500.
--November 9-13. Forest Canopies: Ecology, Biodiversity, and Conservation, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida. Papers invited. Contact: M. Lowman, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 S. Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 34236. Phone 813/366-5731
--Nov 14-18. Sixth National Wilderness Conference, "The Spirit Lives: Reflections and Visions on the 30th Anniversary of the Wilderness Act," Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, National Biological Survey, National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Forest Service, and Society of American Forester's Wilderness Workgroup. Papers invited, especially on wilderness values. Proceedings will be published. Contact: Peter Keller, NPS--Park Planning and Protection, RM 3230, 1849 C St., N. W., Washington, DC 20240.
--December 12-14. Jerusalem. Our Shared Environment: An International Conference to Raise Public Awareness of the Environmental Challenges Facing Israelis and Palestinians. Sponsored by the Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information, IPCRI, Jerusalem, and the Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem, ARIJ, with offices in Bethlehem. The conference intends to give Israelis and Palestinians and others interested in the region the chance to think about their common environmental future. Contact IPCRI, P. O. Box 51358, Jerusalem 91513, Israel. Phone 02-274382. Fax 02-274383.
--March 6-12, World Summit for Social Development, in Copenhagen, Denmark. With a focus on sustainable development, consistent with environmental conservation. Contact: Jacques Baudot, Coordinator, WSSD, Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, United Nations, United Nations, NY 10017. Phone 212/963-5558. Fax 212/963-3062.
--March 8-11, 1995. Gambling with the Environment, Las Vegas, Nevada! Biannual meeting, American Society for Environmental History. Call for papers. Contact: Theodore Steinberg, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982.
--April 12-15, 1995. Hunting, Fishing, Conservation, and Ecology, at Philadelphia. Proposals by September 15, 1994 to Ralph H. Lutts, 1025 Jefferson Circle, Martinsville, VA 24112. Phone/fax 703/666-1295. E-mail: email@example.com
--April 17-21, 1995. Sustainable Society and Protected Areas, 8th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and Public Lands, Portland, Oregon. Sponsored by the George Wright Society. There is a call for papers. The George Wright Society, P. O. Box 65, Hancock, MI 49930-0065. 906/487-9722. Fax 906/487-9405.
--June 1995. Society for Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. See announcement above.
--June 21-25, 1995. Interdisciplinary Conference on the Environment, Park Plaza Hotel and Towers, Boston, Massachusetts. Call for papers. Contact Dr. Demetri Kantarelis, IEA, Economics/Foreign Affairs Dept., Assumption College, 500 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01615-0005. Phone 508/752-5615, ext. 557. Fax 508/799-4502.
--June 25-30, 1995. Third International Conference on Ethics in the Public Service, "Politics, Ethics, and the Professions," in Jerusalem, June 25-30, 1995, with an ISEE section. See more detailed announcement above.
--July, first week. Australian Association of Philosophy (Australian Division), annual conference at University of New England, Armidale, NSW. ISEE section and papers are invited, see more details above.
--July 16-21. Conference, International Association for Bear Research and Management, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. With a session on bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Papers invited. Contact: Harry Reynolds, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701-1599. Fax 907/452-6410
--August 1-5, 1995. XIII International Congress of Aesthetics, Lahti, Finland. Theme: Aesthetics in Practice: Connections between Academic Research in Aesthetics and Everyday Life, especially Concerning the Environment." This follows and continues a very successful First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics held at Koli National Park in Finland this past June. Papers on the aesthetics of nature are especially welcomed. Contact: Sonja Servomaa, University of Helsinki, Lahti Research and Training Centre, Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 Lahti, Finland. Phone 358-18-892 11. Fax: 358-18-892 219.