Volume 2, No. 1, Spring 1991

General Announcements

Your 1991 membership dues are now payable. Continuing members should use the membership renewal notice and form on the back page of the Newsletter, Fall 1990, or adapt the membership form at the end of this Newsletter. Membership is on a calendar year basis; members who first join in October, November, or December of any year by their initial dues payment are paid through the following calendar year. Your prompt cooperation reduces bookkeeping and secretarial time and expense.

At the Pacific Division of the APA, meeting March 28-30, 1991 in San Francisco Donald C. Lee, University of New Mexico, gave a paper, "Toward a Unified Environmental Ethics," with commentary by J. Baird Callicott, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. A second paper featured Glen J. Parton, "Radical Dualism: Toward a Critique of Deep Ecology," with commentary by George Sessions, Sierra College. A third presentation, "Environmental Ethics in the Soviet Union," was by Anton Struchkov, Moscow State University.

J. Baird Callicott addressed the Pacific Division APA in regular session presenting an invited address on environmental ethics, March 30, 1991. There were commentators, including Ernest Partridge, as well as audience discussion in the two-hour session.

The Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals had a session at the Pacific APA. The session featured Maxine Sheets-Johnstone, University of Oregon, "Taking Evolution Seriously," with commentary by Michael Bishop, Iowa State University; Roger Paden, George Mason University, "Autonomy and the Idea of Nature," with commentary by Peter Miller, University of Winnipeg; Katherine Grier, University of Utah, "Welcoming Animals into the Domestic Circle: The Changing Ethics of Animal Treatment, 1820-1860," with commentary by Mark W. Barber, St. Mary's College of Minnesota.

At the APA Central Meeting in Chicago, on Friday, April 26, in the evening, there will be a panel discussion on "The Integrity of Creation: Perspectives on Integrity." The panelists will be: William Desmond, Philosophy, Loyola College, Baltimore, Maryland; J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Peter Miller, Philosophy, University of Winnipeg. Laura Westra, Philosophy, University of Windsor will be a commentator and Jack Weir, Philosophy, Morehead State University, Kentucky will chair. This meeting will be held jointly with the Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals.

There will be ISEE sessions at the Canadian Philosophical Association meeting in May at Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, on May 29. In an afternoon session, Tom Regan, Philosophy, North Carolina State University, will give an address, "Intrinsic Values in Nature?", with commentary by Peter Miller, Laura Westra, and Eric Katz. Presiding, Bruce Morito, Philosophy, University of Guelph. An all-morning session, held jointly with the Canadian Society for Aesthetics, is entitled "Art and the Environment." In the first half of this session, Yrjo Sepanmaa, Comparative Literature, Aesthetics, and Theatre Research, University of Helsinki, will speak on "Towards Synthetic Beauty: The Environment as a Total Work of Art," followed by Karen Baltgailis, Visual Arts, York University, on the theme, "Towards an Art of Environmental Activism: Five Case Studies." The commentator is Allen Carlson, University of Alberta. In the second half of the morning session, Merry-Ellen Scully-Mosna, Arts Cultural Officer, City of Windsor, will speak on "Working in a Material World--Artists and the Environment: Some Ontarian Projects," followed by Jeffrey Childs, Director, The Millennium Project, Kingston, on "Kingston's Millennium Project: Art in a Nature Conservation Area." Tom Heyd, Faculty of General Studies, University of Calgary, will moderate the morning session. Contact Peter Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Phones 204/786-9395 (office), 204/786-9340 (philosophy office), 204/452-9017 (home).

In a second session, also on May 29, ISEE will join with the Canadian Society for Aesthetics on the theme of aesthetic values in nature. Allen Carlson, Philosophy, University of Edmonton, Alberta, will moderate the session.

Andrew Brennan is organizing an ISEE session at the Joint Session of the Mind and Aristotelian Societies, Saturday, July 13, Durham, England. Contact him by June 1. Address below.

At the World Congress of Philosophy, meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, with the theme "Man and the Environment," July 21-25, 1991, participants at an ISEE session will include: Frederick FerrÇ, University of Georgia, session moderator; Anna Lazou, Philosophy Department, Athens University; Paul Niebanck, Environmental Planning, University of California, Santa Cruz, and David Rothenberg, Cambridge, MA. Robin Attfield, Cardiff College, University of Wales, will present a major conference address, "Development and Environmentalism," as well as present a paper addressing some of the issues in Eugene Hargrove's book, FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Professor Evandro Agazzi, Fribourg University and President of the Federation International Des Societies de Philosophie, will participate informally. Because of uncertainties in the Middle East this spring, planning for events at the Nairobi conference has been delayed, but the Conference is now slated to occur as originally planned. Contact Frederick FerrÇ, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Phone 404/542-2823. Fax 404/613/0137.

The proposed ISEE Program for AAAS, Chicago, February 6-11, 1992 is "International Law and Environmental Ethics. The principal organizer for the day-long panel is John E. Carroll, Department of Natural Resources, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH and the co-organizer is Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario. Additional speakers are: Lynton K. Caldwell, Indiana University; Edith Brown-Weiss, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency; Mark Sagoff, University of Maryland; Holmes Rolston, III, Colorado State University; Henry Regier, University of Toronto, and Margaret Mellon, National Wildlife Federation. More details on each of the speakers topics in a later ISEE NEWSLETTER.

The overall intent of the AAAS session is to analyze prospects for the conservation of biodiversity through the use of international law and ethical imperatives, anticipating the forthcoming United Nations World Conference on Environmental and Development in Brazil, June 1992. Various scientific indices of diversity will be examined with inquiry whether international laws, conventions, protocols are adequate for the protection of such diversity. These issues include endangered species of transnational interest, transnational ecosystems, global climate change, marine species, migratory species, species of importance in international commerce, effects of military operations on biodiversity, the mixture of political with ecosystemic boundaries, and the effects of transnational corporations on environmental degradation, etc. Since, at the international level, there is no sovereign state, persuasion must involve voluntary compliance in perceived national self-interests as these may be coupled with ethical considerations for human and nonhuman values at stake in such conservation. Endangered fauna and flora form an environmental commons of multinational concern, and any adequate conservation program must involve an unprecedented mix of science, international law, and environmental conscience.

The Eastern Division APA, in December in New York, will feature three ISEE sessions. Session I will be of contributed papers. Session II will be held jointly with the Society for the Philosophic Study of Genocide and Holocaust and the Radical Philosophy Association on the theme, "Holocaust, Genocide, Ecocide." Session III will be held jointly with the American Society for Value Inquiry on the theme, "Value and Advocacy."
This last session will be chaired jointly by John M. Abbarno, D'Youville College, Buffalo, NY and Laura Westra, and the speakers are: Tom Regan, North Carolina State University; Kristin Shrader- Frechette, University of South Florida, Tampa; and Mark Sagoff, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland.

Eric Katz has recently completed his second annotated bibliography of recent work in environmental ethics, covering the years 1987- 1990. There are 27 books, 13 anthologies, and over 100 articles, all annotated. This bibliography will appear in RESEARCH IN PHILOSOPHY AND TECHNOLOGY 12 (1992). To facilitate preparation of a third bibliography, covering the years 1990-1993, Katz would appreciate authors sending him reprints of articles in environmental ethics and environmental philosophy. Contact: Eric Katz, Center for Technology Studies, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102.

The March 1993 issue of TOPOI will be devoted to issues in environmental ethics. Submissions on any theme in environmental ethics are welcome, but papers dealing with moral holism are especially encouraged. Deadline: December 1. Contact Kent Baldner, Department of Philosophy, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5022.

Ann Causey, Instructor in Biology at Auburn University and a Ph.D. Candidate in Environmental Ethics at the University of Georgia, will assume a position on the faculty of Prescott College, Arizona, fall 1991.

The 5th Australian Ecopolitics Conference will be held at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, April 4-7, 1991. Contact The Secretary, Ecopolitics V, Centre for Liberal and General Studies, University of New South Wales, P. O. Box 1, Kensington, N.S.W., 2033, Australia.

The topic of the 1991 Mountain-Plains Philosophy Conference will be "Nature and Value." The conference will be held at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, October 10-12, 1991. The invited speaker will be Margaret Wilson, Princeton University, who will speak on "Pascal and Spinoza on Salvation: Two Views of the `Thinking Reed'." Paper submissions are invited. Submit papers to Deborah Soles, Philosophy Department, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67208. Phone 316/689-3125. For local arrangements contact: Michael Losonsky, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 303/491-6734 or 6315.

Professor Andrew Brennan is the contact person in the United Kingdom. Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland. Telephone (0786) 73171. Dues can be sent to Brennan, with checks made to the Society in amount ú6.50.

Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, N.S. W. 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122.

Persons elsewhere in Europe, Asia, and South America may remit to any of the above persons, as seems convenient in any of the four currencies.

Persons interested in an ISEE association on the continent are invited to contact Professor Achim Kîddermann, Philosophisches Seminar (Department of Philosophy), Johannes Guttenberg University, Saarstrasse 21, 6500 Mainz, Germany. He has been incorporating the teaching of some environmental ethics into both philosophy courses and the general curriculum at the University of Mainz.

Environmental ethics in Hungary. Dr. Staller Tam_s has sent a letter desiring contacts abroad. He is an adjunct professor in philosophy in the Agricultural University of Gîdîllît), not far from Budapest, author of about sixty publications including a thesis in environmental ethics. He plans to introduce a two semester course on human ecology there. Address: Dr. Staller Tam_s, GôD-ALS, Szt. Istv_n ut 6, Hungary 2131.

The Eco-Philosophy Center, Henryk Skolimowski, Director, seeks to further ecological awareness, ecological values, and other means to heal the Earth and find meaningful and sustainable lifestyles. As well as conferences and seminars, the Center offers retreats in Thassos, Greece. Contact the Eco-Philosophy Center, 1002 Granger, Ann Arbor, MI 48104. Phone 313/665-7279.

"Recovering Creation" was the inaugural address by George H. Kehm, installed at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary on March 20, 1991, in the James Henry Snowden Chair of Systematic Theology. Kehm was active with the recent Presbyterian Eco-Justice Task Force, whose report was passed by the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) last year.

Also on at Pittsburgh, on March 14, Gerald Alonza Smith, of Mankato State University, gave an address, "E5: Economics, Ethics, Environment, Ecology, Energy," as part of a series sponsored by the Center for Business, Religion, and the Professions, a division of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.

At the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, David Rhoades, Professor of New Testament, and Thomas Gilbert, of the Chicago Center for Religion and Science, are teaching this spring a course on "The Care of the Earth in Theological and Scientific Perspectives." The course draws upon the work of numerous experts in the area to clarify the dimensions of the environmental crisis, to reflect theologically upon creation, and to discuss practical options for change.

The Marsh Institute for Research in Ecology invites inquiries. The Institute, named for George Perkins Marsh, was founded on the first Earth Day in 1970 and coordinates a large number of research projects intended to promote biological conservation and make nature a fit home for humanity. The corporation office is at 100 Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19801-0101. A research center is located on twenty acres of land between Potlatch and Moscow, Idaho. Correspondence should be directed to P. O. Box 566, Cambridge, MA 02238-0566.

The 1991 Environmental Ethics Curricula Development Workshop will be held at the Holiday Inn in Denton, Texas July 12-14, 1991. The workshop will be conducted by Eugene C. Hargrove, editor of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Speakers include Max Oelschlaeger, author of a forthcoming book, THE IDEA OF WILDERNESS (details below) and Pete Gunter, an environmental philosopher known for his work in preserving the Big Thicket in Texas. For more information write Eugene C. Hargrove, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 12396, Denton, TX 76203-3496. Phone 817/565- 2727.

Environmental Ethics and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. A three-week field course with college credit through the University of Wyoming, sponsored by the Teton Science School, August 9-30, 1991. Faculty are Nancy Shea, Ph.D. in philosophy and Bruce Thompson, MST in environmental studies. Cost $ 995, all costs from Jackson, Wyoming. Interviews with management persons in six national forests and two national parks applying environmental ethics to the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Contact Bobbi Keck, Registrar, Teton Science School, Box 68, Kelly, WY 83011. Phone 307/733-4765.

The Snake River Institute, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, holds 16 workshops and seminars in art, literature, photography, natural history, all held over the summer of 1991 in an outdoor setting and featuring appreciation of the natural world. Contact Snake River Institute, P. O. Box 7724, Jackson, WY 83001.

Deadline for contributed papers for the 1992 Central APA, in April, is September 15. Send papers and proposals to Laura Westra, address below.

Deadline for contributed papers for the 1992 Pacific APA, in March, is also September 15. Send papers and proposals to Ernest Partridge, address above.

The United Nations plans an "Earth Summit" in June 1992. Various heads of state and other officials are expected to attend a Conference on Environment and Development to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 1-12, 1992. The acronym is UNCED. Maurice Strong is Secretary-General of the Conference. NGO's that fit certain criteria of relevance and competence will be able to address meetings of the UNCED preparatory committees and to participate in the discussions of its working groups, though they will not take part in negotiations nor vote in decisions. UNCED is expected to continue the work of the 1972 Conference held at Stockholm and also that of the Bruntland Report in 1987. A Preparatory Committee has been meeting in Geneva, March 18-April 12, 1991. The UNCED New York office is Room S-3060, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Phone 212/963-5959. Fax: 212/963- 1019.

On March 7-9, the Philosophy Department and Environmental Studies Program at California State University, Fullerton, held a symposium, "Environmental Ethics: Now and into the 21st Century."
The symposium included: Eugene Hargrove, University of North Texas, "Environmental Ethics Today"; Anton Struchkov, Moscow State University, "Environmental Ethics in the Soviet Union"; Susan Finsen, California State University, San Bernardino, "The Animal Rights Approach to Environmental Ethics"; Norman Care, Oberlin College, "The Duty to Posterity and the Motivation Problem"; Bryan Norton, Georgia Institute of Technology, "Species Integrity and Ecosystem Integrity"; J. Baird Callicott, University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, "The Land Ethic Today"; Stephen Schneider, National Center for Atmospheric Research, "The State of the World: Now and into the 21st Century"; Bill Devall, "Deep Ecology"; Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University, "Disvalues in Nature"; Tibor Machan, Auburn University, "Anthropocentrism: Mankind as the Measure"; John Holdren, University of California Berkeley, "Population, Resources and the Future Environment." For a report contact Ernest Partridge, Department of Philosophy, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634. Phones 714/773-3611 (office) and 714/441-2353 (home).

Holmes Rolston was J. K. Russell Distinguished Fellow in Religion and Science at the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA, February 8-16, 1991. Among his lectures there was the Fellowship Lecture: "Respect for Life: Christians, Creation, and Environmental Ethics."

In 1989, Peter Singer was invited to give a speech at the University of Bochum, Germany, on animal liberation. The invitation was extended by Professor Meggele, then at Bochum, since moved to the University of Saarbr£cken. Due to opposition from the philosophy department there and from the German association of philosophers the invitation was withdrawn and he was forbidden to speak. An important factor was religious interests. Protestants and Catholics were in the middle of a debate on abortion. Singer's PRACTICAL ETHICS (Cambridge University Press, 1979) had been translated into an inexpensive German edition receiving wide circulation, PRAKTISCHE ETHIK (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1984). In it Singer claims that solidarity with sentient animals can be of greater value than solidarity with unborn and unconscious life. Details from Professor Achim Kîddermann, Philosophisches Seminar (Department of Philosophy), Johannes Guttenberg University, Saarstrasse 21, 6500 Mainz, Germany.

THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL OF INDIA is interested in publishing articles on environmental ethics. For more information or to submit, write to Dr. Rana P. B. Singh, Associate Editor, NGJI, No. B29.12A (II) Lanka, Varanasi 221005, U. P. India.

A new academic journal in Britain, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, is planned. The journal will be interdisciplinary, with particular reference to philosophy, economics, and law. Papers are invited, to be sent to the editor designate: Alan Holland, Department of Philosophy, Bowland College, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YT, United Kingdom. Another contact is Andrew Johnson, The White Horse Press, 10 High Street, Knapwell, Cambridge CB3 8NR, United Kingdom. Phone 095 47 527.

The University of Strathclyde announces that it will host a conference on "International Arrangements for Reaching Environmental Goals, September 10-12, at the University. Papers are invited on international environmental negotiation, especially from specialists in law, economics, political science, international relations, and ethics. Contact: Anthony Clunies Ross, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0LN, Scotland, United Kingdom.

The University of Nevada, Las Vegas is establishing an environmental studies program that will include a significant component in environmental ethics. This will include an environmental ethics class at the lower level, PHI 112, Philosophy and Ecology, currently taught by Paul Schollmeier, Department of Philosophy, a new upper level class taught by Craig Walton, Department of Philosophy, environmental policy issues at the graduate level in various seminars in their Institute for Ethics and Policy Studies, and a component in an introductory biology class, "Environment and Man." The latter is taken by many hundreds of students each year. Contact: Craig Walton, Department of Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154. Phone 702/739-3433.

The WOMEN'S STUDIES QUARTERLY will have a special issue on "Women and Nature." It will focus on the relationship of women and nature in all disciplines: humanities, social science, science, and technology. Of special interest is material for classroom use. Completed manuscripts in MLA style should be submitted by September 1, 1991. Contact Margery Cornwell, Department of English (A-324), College of Staten Island, 715 Ocean Terrace, Staten Island, NY 10301.

Robert E. Rhoades has become professor and chair of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Georgia, Athens, part of the University's plan to build a major anthropology program oriented toward ecology, agriculture, and environment. Rhoades was until recently in Manilla, Philippines.

Membership in ISEE now stands at about 350 members in 25 different nations. About 250 are academics, the others students, business persons, civil servants, clergy, and assorted environmentalists. About 275 are male, about 60 female; the others are groups, institutions, and so forth. About 250 are located in the United States; about 40 Canadian, about 35 in Europe. Members are encouraged to share their NEWSLETTER with internationals as they have opportunity and to seek an enlarged international membership.

Another environmentalist organization with the acronym ISEE is the International Society for Ecological Economics, who invite inquiries. They publish a journal, ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS. Contact Robert Costanza, Coastal and Environmental Policy Program, Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies, University of Maryland, Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688-0038.

Members are invited and encouraged, in consultation with the officers and governing board, to arrange programs and presentations at appropriate learned societies and other suitable forums.

Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing the newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-0528, 24 hours. E-mail: philo@csugreen.colostate.edu. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed.

Jobs in Environmental Conservation

"Western Environmental Jobs" is a regular section of AZTLN JOURNAL: ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS FOR THE AZTLN BIOREGIONAL PROVINCE (the Southwest). This continues the former WESTERN ENVIRONMENTAL JOBLETTER, and typically lists several dozen employment opportunities. Contact Jill J. Smith, Editor, AZTLN JOURNAL, P. O. Box 178, Crestone, CO 81131.

Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials

Articles in ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS are not reported here, on the assumption that readers of ISEE are also readers of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Other journals that readers will wish to consult regularly are BETWEEN THE SPECIES, JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ETHICS, EARTH ETHICS, AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN VALUES, and THE TRUMPETER.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION is an international journal devoted to maintaining global viability through exposing and countering environmental deterioration resulting from human population pressure and unwise technology. Now in its eighteenth year, it is published quarterly for the Foundation for Environmental Conservation, in Lausanne, Switzerland, with the collaboration of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the International Association for Ecology (INTECOL), the International Society of Naturalists (INSONA), the International Conferences on Environmental Future (IECFs), the World Council for the Biosphere-International Society for Environmental Education (WCB-ISEE) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY is another journal that ISEE members should consult regularly. Some representative articles from the September 1990 issue:

--David W. Orr, "The Virtue of Conservation Education."
--Aldo Leopold, "Standards of Conservation," a previously unpublished manuscript with comment by J. Baird Callicott.
--Reed F. Moss, "Can We Maintain Biological and Ecological Integrity?"
--James R. Karr, "Biological Integrity and the Goal of Environmental Legislation: Lessons for Conservation Biology."
--Michael E. SoulÇ, "The Onslaught of Alien Species, and Other Challenges in the Coming Decades."

THE REPORT FROM THE INSTITUTE FOR PHILOSOPHY AND PUBLIC POLICY, vol. 10, nos. 3 and 4, a double issue, summer/fall 1990, contains the following short articles:
--Mark Sagoff, "The Greening of the Blue Collars."
--H. P. Young, "Sharing the Burden of Global Warming."
--Peter G. Brown, "Greenhouse Economics: Think Before You Count."
--Leo Marx, "Post-Modernism and the Environmental Crisis."

--UNDERCURRENTS: A JOURNAL OF CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES is produced annually by the Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Ontario. The 1991 theme is "The Representation and Domination of Nature." $5.00. Contact: Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4600 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada.

--Lynn Ross-Bryant, "The Land in American Religious Experience," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF RELIGION 58(1990):333-355. The images Americans have used for the land as they have attempted to define themselves have shaped their conceptions and experience of the land. Conversely, the land has shaped the American imagination. Concentrates on literary naturalists, with particular focus on Gretel Ehrlich, with attention to Annie Dillard and Barry Lopez, all related to historical background. Ross-Bryant is in the Department of Religious Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder.

--EARTH is a newly launched magazine, by the editors of ASTRONOMY, devoted to the geology and evolution of the Earth. "Our magazine focuses on the magnificence of our world as a planet ... the Earth. We will explore this ever-changing, vital, awesome body of great force and beauty." -- Robert Burnham, Editor. Address: 21027 Crossroads Circle, P. O. Box 1612, Waukesha, WI 53187-1612.

--GOOD HOUSEKEEPING, April 1991, contains a considerable section on saving the Earth, including a message from President Bush, articles by Michael Oppenheimer, Gregg Easterbrook, Norman Myers, Stephen H. Schneider, Amory Lovins, Bill McKibben, and others on global warming, acid rain, landfills, pollution, diapers, wildlife, wetlands, energy, and other topics.

--POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING (Washington: National Academy Press, 1991). A report by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the National Academies of Science and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. The United States could cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 10% to 40% for little or no cost. Meanwhile ozone destruction worsens. New satellite data show that the ozone shield over the United States is eroding twice as fast as had been assumed. See SCIENCE, April 12, 1991.

--Karl F. Norstrom, "The Concept of Intrinsic Value and Depositional Coastal Landforms," GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW 80(1990):68- 81. Norstrom is a research professor at the Center for Coastal and Environmental Studies at Rutgers University.

--Charles F. Wilkinson, CROSSING THE NEXT MERIDIAN: SUSTAINING THE LANDS, WATERS, AND HUMAN SPIRIT IN THE WEST, ENVIRONMENT 32 (no. 10, December 1990):14-20, 32. Federal subsidies and laissez-faire policies have left a legacy of widespread environmental degradation in the western United States. Heretofore, most discussions of the changes needed to reverse the trend have been purely technical and neglected the humanistic issues involved. But to achieve any kind of sustainability, the West must find an approach that is humanistically, as well as scientifically and economically, correct. Wilkinson is professor of law at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

--Barbara Noske, HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS: BEYOND THE BOUNDARIES OF ANTHROPOLOGY (London: Pluto Press, 1989). Available in the U. S. from Paul and Company Publishers Consortium, Inc., P. O. Box 442, Concord, MA 01742. Noske is a free lance writer in the Netherlands.

--ANIMAL RIGHTS HANDBOOK: EVERYDAY WAYS TO SAVE ANIMAL LIVES (Los Angeles: Living Planet Press, 1990). $4.95. 113 pages.

--Ingrid Newkirk, SAVE THE ANIMALS: 101 EASY THINGS YOU CAN DO (New York: Warner Books, 1990). 192 pages.

--Bruce N. Anderson, eds, ECOLOGUE: THE ENVIRONMENTAL CATALOGUE AND CONSUMER'S GUIDE FOR A SAFE EARTH (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990). $18.95. 256 pages.

--Van Andruss, Christopher Plant, Judith Plant, and Eleanor Wright, eds., HOME! A BIOREGIONAL READER (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1990). $14.95. 181 pages.

--Rupert Sheldrake, THE REBIRTH OF NATURE: THE GREENING OF SCIENCE AND GOD (New York: Bantam Books, 1991). $ 21.95. 260 pages. An iconoclastic scientist takes a look at the regenerative power of nature and offers his own controversial theory of a living Earth, Gaia, that is far from its end. Sheldrake also takes a religious turn. After several years in India, Sheldrake reports, "Much to my surprise, I found myself being drawn back to Christianity." Nor does he mind including many New Age ideas. Sheldrake is a maverick biochemist and cell biologist at Cambridge University and sometime philosophy student at Harvard University.

--Rik Scarce, ECO-WARRIORS: UNDERSTANDING THE RADICAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT (Chicago: Noble Press, 1990). $ 11.95. 291 pages.

--Dave Foreman, CONFESSIONS OF AN ECO-WARRIOR (New York: Harmony Books, 1991. $20.00. 229 pages. By the controversial founder of Earth First!

--Jessica Tuchman Mathews, ed., PRESERVING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT: THE CHALLENGE OF SHARED LEADERSHIP (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991). A collection from The American Assembly, Columbia University and The World Resources Institute, Washington. Twelve contributors. $22.95. 363 pages.

--Richard Elliot Benedick, OZONE DIPLOMACY: NEW DIRECTIONS IN SAFEGUARDING THE PLANET (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991). $10.95. 300 pages. By the chief negotiator of the Montreal Protocol.


--John J. Berger, ed., ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION: SCIENCE AND STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING THE EARTH (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1990). $19.95. 398 pages.

--John C. Freemuth, ISLANDS UNDER SIEGE: NATIONAL PARKS AND THE POLITICS OF EXTERNAL THREATS (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1991). Attacks on the national parks from outside their boundaries (pollution, acid rain, noise, fragmented habitats) and beyond the control of the Park Service. $25.00. 186 pages. Freemuth is a political scientist at Boise State University.

--Michael W. Fox, INHUMANE SOCIETY: THE AMERICAN WAY OF EXPLOITING ANIMALS (New York: St. Martins's Press, 1990). $18.95. 269 pages. By the vice-president of the Humane Society of the United States.

--Stephen L. Wasby, ed., "HE SHALL NOT PASS THIS WAY AGAIN": THE LEGACY OF JUSTICE WILLIAM O. DOUGLAS (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990). An assessment on the 50th anniversary of the appointment of Douglas to the U. S. Supreme Court, with a section on Douglas as an environmentalist.

--Cheryl Simon Silver and Ruth S. DeFries, ONE EARTH, ONE FUTURE: OUR CHANGING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990). $14.95. 196 pages. Features the basic science behind global environmental problems and the policy implications of this science. A report from the National Academy of Sciences.

--Norman Myers, THE GAIA ATLAS OF FUTURE WORLDS: CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY IN AN AGE OF CHANGE (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1990). $15.95. 191 pages. The present forces for change, likely outcomes with their multiple interplays, and the routes to a sustainable and viable future. Myers is an international consultant on environment, conservation, and development.

--George J. Mitchell, WORLD ON FIRE: SAVING AN ENDANGERED EARTH (New York: Scribners, 1990). $22.50. 247 pages. George Mitchell is Senate Majority Leader, Democrat from Maine, and a key person in most of the current environmental legislation.

--John G. Mitchell, THE MAN WHO WOULD DAM THE AMAZON AND OTHER ACCOUNTS FROM AFIELD (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990). $24.95. 368 pages. Twelve essays from AUDUBON and WILDERNESS demonstrating the systematic defilement of the environment and the bureaucratic neglect of natural resources. Stories from Kentucky, Utah, Alaska, Interstate highways, and elsewhere.

--Phil Brown and Edwin J. Mikkelsen, NO SAFE PLACE: TOXIC WASTE, LEUKEMIA, AND COMMUNITY ACTION (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990). $24.95. 260 pages. Focuses on Woburn, a community outside Boston, a bleak story of the dynamics of a citizens' struggle against corporate malfeasance. The authors are associated with Harvard Medical School.

--Anna Bramwell, ECOLOGY IN THE 20TH CENTURY: A HISTORY (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989). $16.95. 292 pages. An intellectual and political history of the ecology movement in this century.

--David Brower, FOR EARTH'S SAKE: THE LIFE AND TIMES OF DAVID BROWER (Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith, 1990). $ 24.95. 556 pages.

--Sergio Bartolommei, ETICA E AMBIENTE, Guerini e Associati s.r.l., Via A. Sciena 7, 20135 Milano, Italy, sec. ed., 1990. L. 25,000. 187 pages. An Italian work on environmental ethics.

--Antonio Tamburrino, EVOLUZIONE AMBIENTALE, Guiffre' Editore 1988, Libera Universita' Internazionale deli Studi Sociali, Roma, Italy. L. 36,000. 480 pages. Another Italian work bearing on environmental ethics.

--Harriet H. Christensen and Daniel L. Dustin, "Reaching Recreationists at Different Levels of Moral Development," JOURNAL OF PARK AND RECREATION ADMINISTRATION 7(no. 4, Winter 1989):72-80. Illustrations of interpretive signs and other appeals in environmental ethics directed toward persons at different levels of moral development. Differences between Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan on what these levels are and the consequent appeals. Especially at the higher levels, men are characterized by an ethic of justice, fairness, and self-respect, women by an ethic of reference and relation to self and others, with caring the highest value. Christensen is a social scientist with the U. S. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Seattle. Dustin is a professor in the Department of Recreation at San Diego State University.

--George N. Wallace, "Law Enforcement and the `Authority of the Resource,'" LEGACY: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR INTERPRETATION 1(no. 2, October/November, 1990):4-8. Moral and behavioral appeals based on the authority of law versus appeals based on respect for nature. "Wild nature can be said to have its own authority. Nature has her own rules, operates in certain ways; there are consequences when we violate that order. ... Desirable behavior is more likely to occur if people understand how their actions affect the way nature operates." "Once the person understands what is happening in nature, or in the wilderness experience of others, ... they will want to stop what is recognized as undesirable behavior." Wallace is in the Department of Recreation Resources at Colorado State University.

--W. Michael Hoffman, Robert Frederick, and Edward S. Petry, Jr., eds., BUSINESS, ETHICS, AND THE ENVIRONMENT (New York: Quorum Books, 1990).

--Eric Katz, "Defending the Use of Animals by Business: Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics," in Hoffman, Frederick, and Petry, above. Katz argues "that the adoption by business of a more conscious environmentalism can serve as a defense against the animal liberation movement. This strategy may seem paradoxical: how can business defend its use of animals by advocating the protection of the environment? But the paradox disappears once we see that animal liberation and environmentalism are incompatible practical moral doctrines." "Business must stress that the primary value to be promoted in the human interaction with the animal kingdom is the natural fit with the ecological processes. ... As long as animals are used in ways that respect their natural integrity or their natural functions in ecological systems, then they are being treated with the proper moral consideration. Human beings, as natural omnivores, are not acting directly against moral value when they raise and kill animals for food." Katz is professor of philosophy at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.

--Alan S. Miller, GAIA CONNECTIONS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY, ECOETHICS, AND ECONOMICS (Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1991). 288 pages, $17.95 paper; $52.25 hardcover. Whether or not the Gaia hypothesis holds up within the formal boundaries of the earth sciences, it is metaphysically correct. Until we come to think of the Earth as a complex, fecund, self-sustaining organism, we will have difficulty moving beyond the shallowest levels of ecology. Chapters on environmental ethics, the moral demand of the steady state, bioethics, economics as if nature mattered, the social sources of environmental values, ecoethics and modern war, and much more. Miller is at the University of California, Berkeley.

--R. Behro, "STS Perspective: Theology Not Ecology," BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY, vol 9, no. 5, 1989.
--Loren Wilkinson, ed., EARTHKEEPING IN THE NINETIES: STEWARDSHIP AND THE RENEWAL OF CREATION (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, October 1991). A much revised and enlarged edition of a preceding EARTHKEEPING twelve years ago. Four main sections: (1) "The State of the Planet," (2) "Historical Roots," and "Our Mind Today" (environmental movement and the search for religious meaning), (3) "The Earth is the Lord's" (Biblical teachings), (4) What Shall We Do?"

--Aldo Leopold, THE RIVER OF THE MOTHER OF GOD AND OTHER ESSAYS (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991). Now released (see ISEE NEWSLETTER Fall 1990, p. 13). Reviewed in THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, April 17, 1991, p. 13.

--John E. Young, DISCARDING THE THROWAWAY SOCIETY. Worldwatch Paper 101, January 1991. "Industrial economies eventually secrete as waste most of the raw materials they devour." "The United States alone consumed more minerals from 1940 to 1976 than did all of humanity up to 1940." Young is a co-author of STATE OF THE WORLD 1990.

--Reg Lang and Sue Hendler, "Environmental Ethics: Ethics and Professional Planners," in Don MacNiven, ed., MORAL EXPERTISE: STUDIES IN PRACTICAL AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS (London: Routledge, 1990). With attention to the conflicts between planners and developers, focused on the Ontario Professional Planners Institute. Lang is professor of environmental studies, York University, Toronto. Hendler is in the school of urban and regional planning, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario.

--Robert H. Haynes, "Ecce Ecopoiesis: Playing God on Mars," --Christopher P. McKay, "Does Mars Have Rights: An Approach to the Environmental Ethics of Planetary Engineering." Both in Don MacNiven, ed., MORAL EXPERTISE: STUDIES IN PRACTICAL AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS (London: Routledge, 1990) Haynes ask whether we ought to create new biospheres and ecosystems on planets like Mars and answers, tentatively, yes. But he thinks that the answer must be tentative because the ethical theories currently available cannot adequately deal with the moral problem here. McKay argues that current ethical systems are essentially earthbound, whether anthropocentric or biocentric. Only a cosmocentric ethics, currently unavailable, can provide us with the answers, and in such an ethic we might assign intrinsic value and rights to lifeless planets.

The Haynes article is also published in German translation as "Etablierung von Leben auf dem Mars durch gerichtete Panspermie: Technische und ethische Probleme der ôkopoese." In BIOLOGISCHES ZENTRALBLATT (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS, EVOLUTION, AND THEORETICAL BIOLOGY) (Leipzig) 109(1990):193-205.

--Theodore D. Goldfarb, eds., TAKING SIDES: CLASHING VIEWS ON CONTROVERSIAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, 4th edition (Guilford, CT: The Dushkin Publishing Group, 1991). $ 10.95 softcover. A new edition of an introductory reader that is being regularly updated. About half of the thirty-six selections are new. The book is cast in a yes/no debate format around 18 issues, e.g. "Does Wilderness Have Intrinsic Value?" "Is Brazil Serious about Preserving its Environment? "Does Global Warming Require Immediate Action?, and authors, who often originally wrote in somewhat different contexts, are chosen to say yes or no. All the readings are at popular level. This can be a good book to wake up sleepy freshmen; there is an instructor's manual with test questions. But it tends to be noisy and the debate formate is not always the best for serious analysis of these questions in more advanced courses. Goldfarb is an environmental chemist at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

--Holmes Rolston, III and James E. Coufal, "A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management," JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, April 1991. The Society of American Foresters currently has under active consideration adopting a professional statement including a land ethic, and the April issue of the JOURNAL OF FORESTRY addresses that issue. Rolston and Coufal call for a shift from a multiple use ethic to an ethic of multiple values, a shift to deepen a commodity orientation to a community orientation, and a joining of human and biotic values, recognizing that "the forest itself is value-laden." "A forest ethic will require an unprecedented use of science and conscience, applied science and applied ethics." "Deeper appreciation of forests could be forestry's greatest benefit to society." "The integrity of foresters and the integrity of forests are bound together." Rolston is professor of philosophy at Colorado State University. Coufal is professor of forestry, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse.

--Alan G. McQuillan, "Is National Forest Planning Incompatible with a Land Ethic?" JOURNAL OF FORESTRY 88 (no. 5, May 1990):31- 37. "Can forest planning adhere in principle to Leopold's land ethic and juggle multiple uses in practice?" "The question about which lands are suitable for timber production is NOT one that the professional is well-prepared to answer." "It is hardly surprising that the agency [U. S. Forest Service] tends toward schizophrenia." McQuillan is director of the Wilderness Institute and a professor at the University of Montana, Missoula.

--John Lemons, "The Need to Integrate Values into Environmental Curricula," ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 13(no. 2, 1989):133-147. Many environmental problems are controversial because of conflicting values and there is no consensus as to which values should have precedence. Environmental managers must have a full understanding of such values and the principles of ethics that can be used in decision making. Unfortunately, the integration of values into curricula has often not been explicit or comprehensive. University-trained environmental managers do not possess the knowledge, skills, and methods necessary for more ethically based decisions. Specific curricula are analyzed. Environmental programs should more fully include teaching about values and ethics. Lemons is in the Division of Life Sciences, University of New England and is editor of THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFESSIONAL.

--Jon Magnuson, "Reflections of an Oregon Bow Hunter," CHRISTIAN CENTURY, March 13, 1991. The Lutheran campus pastor at the University of Washington in Seattle goes bow hunting for elk with one of the Pacific Northwest's most respected trophy bow hunters, also a churchman. Magnuson fears that "as populations become increasingly urbanized and technologically sterile, natural cycles of decay, death and rebirth become dangerously romanticized and more remote from realities of daily life." He worries that antihunting protests have "triggered more guilt than I'd like to admit." His guide urges "the need to recognize the natural world for its own values and laws. He is a committed bow hunter because it draws him into a relationship and harmony with the natural world. You have to learn to respect the animal you hunt." After three days of immersion in the Oregon wilds, Magnuson gets a short. "I am poised with the decision whether or not to loose the arrow. A prayer now on my lips. My fingers release" "to identify myself with an ancient primordial ritual, the spilling of blood."

--William Anderson, GREEN MAN: THE ARCHTYPE OF OUR ONENESS WITH THE EARTH (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1990). A search for "green" in architecture and art of the past. Harper is selling this book with a wraparound that says: "To keep our Earth green, Harper, San Francisco, will plant two trees in the Rainforest for every one used in the publication of this book."

--Kathryn A. Kohm, BALANCING ON THE BRINK OF EXTINCTION: THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT AND LESSONS FOR THE FUTURE (Washington, D. C. and Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991). 318 pages. Twenty articles reflecting over a decade and a half of experience implementing the Endangered Species Act and anticipating what next. Some original articles; some published earlier. Some examples: Michael J. Bean, "Looking Back over the First Fifteen Years"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Life in Jeopardy on Private Property" (a shorter version of an article that appeared in the UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO LAW REVIEW, vol. 61, no. 2, 1990); Steven L. Yaffee, "Avoiding Endangered Species/Development Conflicts Through Interagency Consultation"; A. Dan Tarlock, "Western Water Rights and the Act"; Hal Salwasser, "In Search of an Ecosystem Approach to Endangered Species Conservation" and Anne H. Ehrlich and Paul R. Ehrlich, "Needed: An Endangered Humanity Act?" Readable by college-level students and a useful reference. Kathryn Kohm is an editor and writer specializing in biodiversity conservation and other natural resource issues, formerly with the Wilderness Society.

--Dieter Birnbacher, ed., ôKOLOGIE UND ETHIK (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1988). A reprint of an anthology first published in 1980. One of the few works on environmental philosophy available in Germany. Contains mostly translations of articles originally in English.

--Dieter Birnbacher, VERANTWORTUNG FöR ZUKöNFTIGE GENERATIONEN (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1988). Responsibilities to Future Generations.

--D. L. Eckberg and T. J. Blocker, "Varieties of Religious Involvement and Environmental Concerns: Testing the Lynn White Thesis," JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION vol. 28, no. 4, December 1989.

--Susan Armstrong-Buck, "What Process Philosophy Can Contribute to the Land Ethic and Deep Ecology," TRUMPETER 8(1991):29-34. An analysis of intrinsic and inherent value, with attention to Callicott, Rolston, Regan, and others, also analysis of the sense of self-identification in deep ecology in Naess, Fox, Fox, and others. Armstrong-Buck claims that process metaphysics can complement these attempts at forming an environmental ethic, although process metaphysics is not without its own difficulties. Armstrong-Buck is professor of philosophy at Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

--J. M. Curryrop, "Contemporary Christian Eschatologies and their Relation to Environmental Stewardship," PROFESSIONAL GEOGRAPHER, vol. 42, no. 2, May 1990.

--Michael J. Samways, "Bioempathy and Feng Shui Conservation," ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION 16(1989):357-60. With attention to the intrinsic value and conservation of insects, also the compatibility of land use with insect conservation. See also his "Insect Conservation and Landscape Ecology: A Case-history of Bush Crickets (Tettigoniidae) in Southern France," ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION 16(1989):217-226. Samways is professor of entomology at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

--Bret Wallach, AT ODDS WITH PROGRESS: AMERICANS AND CONSERVATION (Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 1991). Conservation in America is a distinctively American expression of an almost universal uneasiness about the character of the modern world. Environmental conservation strikes far deeper than the technical concerns of specialists. Those who care about the natural world should confess it, instead of hiding forever behind the masks of utility or compassion or even science. Wallach is a geographer.

--Rolf Edberg and Alexei Yablokov, TOMORROW WILL BE TOO LATE: EAST MEETS WEST ON GLOBAL ECOLOGY (Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 1991). Conversations between a Swedish statesman, delegate to the United Nations, and a Soviet biologist, Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the Supreme Soviet on Ecology, on population growth, pollution, biological extinction, nuclear hazards, and technical proliferation. "We have no respect anymore for oneness, wholeness, the unimpaired state of things. And respect is precisely what we need in order to live on Earth according to its laws. We've created a robot that orders us around ... and now the robot has subjected us to its will."

--Conrad Joseph Bahre, A LEGACY OF CHANGE: HISTORIC HUMAN IMPACT ON VEGETATION IN THE ARIZONA BORDERLANDS (Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 1991). 250 pages. $ 29.95. Most of the degradation of southeastern Arizona lands has occurred since the Anglo settlers began to arrive in the 1870's. Bahre is a geographer at the University of California, Davis.

--Robert Gottlieb and Margaret FitzSimmons, THIRST FOR GROWTH: WATER AGENCIES AS HIDDEN GOVERNMENT IN CALIFORNIA (Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 1991). 285 pages. $ 35.00 California water agencies have been a hidden government, driven by a mission of growth, and water development in California faces a quite problematic future. Both authors are in Urban Planning at UCLA.
--Patrick C. West and Steven R. Brechin, eds., RESIDENT PEOPLES AND NATIONAL PARKS: SOCIAL DILEMMAS AND STRATEGIES IN INTERNATIONAL CONSERVATION (Tempe: University of Arizona Press, 1991). 420 pages. $ 29.95. National Parks in the U.S. are protected from human exploitation and habitation but the American model may not always be relevant to other economic, social, and cultural contexts. Examples of parks from around the world to address the rights of third world peoples faced with relocation or blocked from access to essential resources. An examination of the moral issues associated with moving peoples, particularly disadvantaged ones, in the name of conserving representative ecosystems.

--C. Dean Freudenberger, GLOBAL DUST BOWL: CAN WE STOP THE DESTRUCTION OF THE LAND BEFORE IT'S TOO LATE? (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1990). Freundenberger claims that "agriculture is the responsibility of the entire society." He advocates more education regarding Earth ethics and regenerative "agroecology that preserves and enhances natural resources." Forests and grasslands, much more than being natural resources, are awesome relational environments that teach us creaturehood. Freudenberger is professor of international development, missions, and rural church at the Clarement School of Theology. He has written about agriculture in national and religious life for two decades.

--KwaZulu Conservation Trust, "An African Dilemma: Conservation Must Be Balanced by Human Needs," FINANCIAL MAIL (South Africa), November 23, 1990, pp. 57-75. A sensitive study of the tradeoffs between wildlife conservation and the needs of the poor, largely blacks, in South Africa. Focuses on KawZulu, the land of the Zulu, a self-governing yet non-independent state made up of fragmented chunks of the province of Natal, carved out by the vagaries of colonial and subsequent apartheid politics. This is also a region of spectacular wildlife, with some of the principal designated conservation areas in South Africa. The blacks, although often on their own original lands, have been marginalized from white society, have seriously overpopulated, and do not always make intelligent use of their own lands (for example their large numbers of cows used as status symbols). Many examples are given of how blacks can derive income and sustainable harvest from reserved lands, with continuing populations of wildlife. In this region, more than elsewhere in South Africa, blacks have been incorporated into the professional personnel of wildlife management. A good contact on these matters is Wayne Elliott, P. O. Box 145, Melmoth 3835, South Africa, who is a white South African employed as a professional wildlife manager by the black KwaZulu government.

--Marti Kheel, "From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge," in Greta Baard, ed. ECOFEMINISM: WOMEN'S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE EARTH.

--Carol S. Robb and Carl J. Casebolt, eds., COVENANT FOR A NEW CREATION: ETHICS, RELIGION, AND PUBLIC POLICY (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1991). 350 pages. Paper $17.95. Argues that degradation of the biosphere has evolved through the ownership mentality of a privileged few and that a covenant relationship with the Earth can restore and protect ecological integrity. Biblical economic principles, theologies of creation, exploitation of the Amazon in the light of liberation theology, speciesism, the creation-covenant-ethics relationship, the role of moral theology in environmental ethics, ecofeminism, and deep ecology. Robb and Casebolt are at the Center for Ethics and Social Policy, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley.

--Irene Diamond and Gloria Ornstein, eds., REWEAVING THE WORLD: THE EMERGENCE OF ECOFEMINISM (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1990). $14.95. 320 pages. Twenty-six contributors. The restoration of harmony in a global environment damaged by a devaluation of nature and women.

--Marti Kheel, "Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology: Reflections on Identity and Difference," in Robb and Casebolt, above. An abridged version is in Diamond and Ornstein, above. Ecofeminism and deep ecology share the view that ecological problems arise from a failure to feel connected to all life. Deep ecology transcends human self-consciousness. But Kheel warns that the tasks involved in reconnecting human sensibilities with the rest of nature are quite different for women than for men, because the self is different for the two genders. This is illustrated with sport hunting. The crucial spiritual problem in the environmental crisis is not anthropocentrism but androcentrism.

--Charles Birch, William Eakin, Jay McDaniel, CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL THEOLOGY (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1991). 325 pages. Paper $16.95. An emerging consensus among theologians and philosophers that an anthropocentric ethic must be replaced by an ethic of respect for life on Earth. Contributors include Sally McFague, Thomas Berry, John B. Cobb, Jr., Tom Regan.

--Linda Hasselstrom, "The Land Circle: Lessons," THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW 275, no. 4 (December 1990):4-11. Learning lessons from the land. THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW is a long established literary review published by the University of Northern Iowa.

--ENVIRONMENT 91/92, 10th edition (Sluice Dock, Guilford, CT 06437: Duskin Publishing Group, Inc.) 256 pages, softcover. $ 10.95. 35 articles, 27 of them new, drawn from magazines and popular academic sources Sections on the global environment, world population, energy, pollution, land, water, and air resources, endangered species. Articles are facsimile reproduced from their original sources. An instructor's resource guide is available.
--Margaret L. Knox, "The Wise Use Guys," BUZZWORM: THE ENVIRONMENTAL JOURNAL, November/December 1990, pp. 30-36. "They love the land and can't stand to see it locked up." Features wise use advocates, such as Grant Gerber, founder of the Wilderness Impact Research Foundation, Elko, Nevada, to help fight the preservationists, or Ron Arnold of the Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise, Bellevue, Washington, who vows "to destroy the environmental movement once and for all" with legislation like the Property Rights Protection Act. The 167-page wise use agenda includes opening all wilderness to energy and mineral production, massive expansions of concessions in the national parks, amending the Endangered Species Act, amending the Wilderness System to allow hostels and toilets, developed campsites, motorized travel, and commodity industry in times of high demand, using gasoline taxes to build more ATV roads, and the systematic conversion of decadent old growth forests into young oxygen-producing stands to help reverse global warming. See also videotape, THIS LAND THAT IS OURS, below.

--Al-Hafiz B. A. Masri, ISLAMIC CONCERN FOR ANIMALS (Petersfield, Hants, England: The Athene Trust, 1987). The author was for many years the first Sunni Imam of the Shah Jehan mosque, Woking, United Kingdom. Includes 100 Quranic quotations and 50 from the Hadith. Dr. Masri has also produced a videotape in this field.

--Victor B. Scheffer, THE SHAPING OF ENVIRONMENTALISM IN AMERICA (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991), 240 pages. $ 19.95. A history of the formative years of recent American environmentalism, 1960-1980, with an epilogue highlighting events from 1981-1989. Scheffer has a career in biological research, university teaching, and natural science writing.

--W. T. Edmondson, THE USES OF ECOLOGY: LAKE WASHINGTON AND BEYOND (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991), 312 pages. $ 19.95. Begins with a case study of Lake Washington, on the eastern edge of the city of Seattle, a success story in conservation, and develops a broad perspective on environmental problems. Shows how basic research is critical for solving and preventing such problems, providing that it is coupled with effective public action. Basic long-term scientific research is the source of knowledge that will allow us to avoid environmental disaster. Edmondson is professor emeritus of zoology at the University of Washington.

--Stephen J. Gould, "The Golden Rule--A Proper Scale for Our Environmental Crisis," NATURAL HISTORY, September 1990. Gould's proposal for "an appropriate environmental ethic." The usual environmental ethics rests on two mistaken premises: "(1) That we live on a fragile planet now subject to permanent derailment and disruption by human intervention; (2) that humans must learn to act as stewards for this threatened world." Both premises reflect false pride. Concerning the latter premise: "We are one among millions of species, stewards of nothing. By what argument could we, arising just a geological microsecond ago, become responsible for the affairs of a world 4.5 billion years old, teeming with life that has been evolving and diversifying for at least three- quarters of that immense span? Nature does not exist for us, had no idea we were coming, and doesn't give a damn about us." Concerning the former premise: "We are virtually powerless over the earth at our planet's own geological time scale." "We can surely destroy ourselves, and take many other species with us, but we can barely dent microbial diversity and will surely not remove many millions of species of insects and mites. On geological scales, our planet will take good care of itself let time clear the impact of any human malfeasance."

Gould proposes a pact with our planet. The Golden Rule is widespread in human ethics; there is no "better principle based on enlightened self-interest." We should "execute such a pact with our planet ... while she is still willing to make a deal. If we treat her nicely, she will keep us going for a while. ... The earth is kinder than human agents in the art of the deal. She will uphold her end; we must now go and do likewise." So much for the planet that did not know we were coming and doesn't give a damn.

--Stephen J. O'Brien and Ernst Mayr, "Bureaucratic Mischief: Recognizing Endangered Species and Subspecies," SCIENCE, March 8, 1991. The Florida panther, the gray wolf, the red wolf, and the dusky seaside sparrow (now extinct) all involve hybrid populations and there is confusion about species, subspecies, and hybrids. O'Brien and Mayr claim that the biological species concept, species as "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" can be applied to subspecies to formulate a hybrid policy.
"Biological species do not form hybrids that disintegrate population genetic organization, but subspecies may. The Hybrid Policy of the Endangered Species Act should discourage hybridization between species, but should not be applied to subspecies because the latter retain the potential to freely interbreed as part of ongoing natural processes. Upon the discovery of coyote DNA in Midwest wolves last year, State Farm Bureaus in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming petitioned the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to remove the grey wolf from the endangered species list, since it was a hybrid species, not protected under the Endangered Species Act. The petition was turned down, and the Service is drafting a policy as to what is and what is not a hybrid. O'Brien is a geneticist with the National Cancer Institute and Mayr is professor of zoology at Harvard University. See entry below in "Issues" on Florida panthers.

--Arne Naess, "Should We Try To Relieve Clear Cases of Extreme Suffering in Nature? PAN ECOLOGY, vol. 6, no. 1, Winter 1991. Naess examines "the darker side of free nature." "Perseverance in the service of protecting nature, support of the deep ecology movement, does not imply any definite opinion on questions of unconditional goodness of nature as a set of ecosystems." "If adequate ecological knowledge were available, some of us would not hesitate to interfere on a large scale against intense and persistent pain." Naess would not interfere with most predation or parasitism, but thinks there are exceptions. He would, if he could, eliminate a reindeer parasite, CEPHENOMYIA TROMPE, an insect whose larvae grow in the noses of reindeer and slowly suffocate them. "What do humans do when witnessing animals in what they think is unnecessary and prolonged pain? Those who intensively identify with the victims try to rescue them--provided it is not too late and a practical way is seen. Generalized, and made into a policy, rescue attempts would not amount to an attempt to interfere and reform nature." "Respect for the dignity of free nature and proper humility do not rule out planned interference on a greater scale, as long as the aim is a moderation of conditions of extreme and prolonged pain, human or nonhuman. Such pain eliminates the experience of a joyful reality. The higher levels of self-realization of a mature being require assistance to other living beings to realize their potentialities, and this inevitably actualizes concern for the sufferers." Naess is professor emeritus of philosophy at the University of Oslo and the founder of deep ecology.

--Marshall Massey, "Where Are Our Churches Today? A Report on the Environmental Positions of the Thirty Largest Christian Denominations in the United States," FIRMAMENT, vol. 2, no. 4, Winter, 1991. "Over 70% of all U. S. Christians are now in denominations that either have active ecology ministries or are beginning to assemble ecological ministries." Programs are underway in the United Methodist Church (3rd largest), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (5th), Presbyterian Church (USA) (8th), United Church of Christ (14th), Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (20th), and programs are beginning in the Catholic Church (1st), the Southern Baptist Convention (2nd), the National Baptist Convention of America (9th), the Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod (10th), the Episcopal Church (12th), American Baptist Churches USA (13th), and the Seventh-day Adventist Church (24th). The larger denominations that have taken no action are the National Baptist Convention (4th), the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, TN) (7th), and the Church of Jesus Christ of the Later-day Saints has made a formal commitment to inaction (6th).

--Tim Cooper, "The Emergence of Christian Ecology in Britain," FIRMAMENT, vol. 2, no. 4, Winter 1991.

--Frederick W. Krueger, "Christian Ecology in the Soviet Union," FIRMAMENT, vol. 2, no. 4, Winter 1991.

--Victor Clube, ed., CATASTROPHES AND EVOLUTION (Cambridge University Press, 1990. $ 44.50. The physical evidence and scientific arguments favoring the view that catastrophic events in the geological past have had a major influence on the course of evolution. Papers are accessible to a general reader interested in natural extinctions.

--Kenneth J. McNamara, eds., EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS (Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1990). 368 pages, paper $ 24.95

--Kenneth Sherman, Lewis M. Alexander, and Barry D. Gold, eds., LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEMS (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990). 242 pages, $ 39.95. Concepts in marine ecology, with implications for conservation.

--Richard Shearman, "The Meaning and Ethics of Sustainability," ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 14(1990):1-8. Some have argued that the meaning of sustainability varies according to context. Shearman disputes this. It is not the meaning of sustainability that changes but our understanding of the context itself. Contradictions arise when conceiving each context in terms of sustainability. We should be concerned not with the meaning of sustainability but with the implications of sustainability as they affect the status quo. We must be prepared to answer the question: Why is sustainability desirable. This approach is applied to ecologically sustainable development. Shearman is in the program in Environmental Science, State University of New York, Syracuse.

--Gilbert F. LaFreniere, "Rousseau and the European Roots of Environmentalism,' ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(no 4, Winter 1990):41-72. "Jean-Jacques Rousseau particularly deserves recognition by environmentalists for a complex view of man's relation to nature which greatly influenced the Romantic viewpoint." LaFreniere teaches environmental studies at Willamette University, Salem, Oregon.

--Richard Nawa, "The Value of Wild Steelhead," FLY ROD AND REEL, April 1991, pages 29-31, 76-77. "Government agencies have a price for everything but know the value of nothing." "The complex and dynamic nature of stream habitat is ignored in favor of management by numbers."

--Harry Middleton, "A Sense of Place," SOUTHERN LIVING, March 1990, pages 106-113. The South's past depended on its land. Now, in a very different sense, so does its future. A plea for environmental conservation and sensitivity to the landscape in the rapidly growing U. S. South, faced with frequent environmental degradation.

--Martin B. Hocking, "Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice," SCIENCE 251(February 1, 1991):504-505. By some ways of reckoning, foam cups damage the environment less than paper cups. The chemicals and energy used in making paper for cups as well as the emissions from incinerating or burying paper cups, exceeds the impact of making and disposing of cups made of plastic foam. Hocking is a chemistry professor at the University of Victoria, British Columbia.

Andrew Brennan, "Environmental Awareness and Liberal Education," BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES, May 1991. There is "potential in environmental studies for the renewal of the educational process." Humans think and orient themselves in the world using "frameworks of ideas." "We can perhaps best break away from modes of thought that draw on only one or two frameworks by providing TRANS-DISCIPLINARY units and degree programmes which encourage multi-framework thinking. Examples of these include degree programmes in human ecology, drawing upon the disciplines of various sciences as well as philosophy, politics and international law."

--Andrew Brennan, "Steps Towards a Greener University: The First Report of the Green University Task Force," December 1990. A University of Stirling report on making that university's campus green in operational and academic terms. Brennan is the principal author. Copies from him, Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, address earlier.

The following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, Division of Philosophy and Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2600, Australia. Prices are in Australian dollars.



--Richard Sylvan, A CRITIQUE OF DEEP ECOLOGY. Free.

--Richard Sylvan, TOWARDS A COSMO-LOGICAL SYNTHESIS, 1985. Free.


--D. Mannison et al., eds., ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY, 1980. $10.00

--L. E. Johnson, A MORALLY DEEP WORLD, 1987. Free.

Videotapes and media

WORLD POPULATION. 6.5 minutes. A graphic simulation of the history of human population growth. An environmentally oriented plea for concern over escalating population. Population trends are simulated on a dark world map, on which lights indicate population. Time passes, indicated by a seconds counter and symbols (the Romans, the Pilgrims, Industry, etc.), with an explosion of population in the last few seconds. An effective discussion starter, though subsequent questions need to be addressed: whether modern industry, agriculture, medicine has increased the carrying capacity of the planet, etc. Produced by Zero Population Growth and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, a revised version of an earlier tape. $ 32.95. Zero Population Growth, Inc., 1400 16th Street, N. W., Suite 320, Washington, DC 20036. Phone 202/332-2200.

THIS LAND THAT IS OURS. Videotape by Blue Ribbon Coalition, dedicated to "Preserving our natural resources FOR the public instead of FROM the public." Argues for multiple use of public lands, a "win-win option" against the "negative management philosophy" of wilderness designation, in which everyone loses except single sector self-interest groups, like backpackers. Lots of all terrain vehicles and four wheel drives and emphasizes maximum access to the out-of-doors. Contains a considerable appeal that ORV's let the handicapped have access to the wildlands, denied by the prohibition of motors. Blue Ribbon Coalition is a consortium of interest groups of ATV users, timber, mining, construction, and manufacturing interests, claiming a total membership of 400,000 in the member organizations, "all negatively impacted by restrictive land policies that preclude the possibility of sharing our precious resources for multiple use." Wise use is contrasted with "lock-out" selfish use (dramatically shown by a padlocked wild scene). Useful as a discussion starter. Neglects to notice that some 98% of the U. S. has been designated for multiple use and only some 2% designated wilderness. Available for $ 19.95 from Blue Ribbon Coalition, Inc., P. O. Box 1427, Idaho Falls, ID 83403-1427. Phone 208/522-7339. or P. O. Box 5449, Pocatello, ID 83202. 208/237-3460. See also Knox, "The Wise Use Guys," entry above.

EARTH FIRST! THE POLITICS OF RADICAL ENVIRONMENTALISM, 63 minute videotape presenting the Earth First! position. Dave Foreman speaking at a rally, and various others are interviewed, pro, con, and mixed on radical environmentalism. Scenes of tree spiking, sand put into bulldozers, protests and arrest before bulldozers, pulling up survey stakes and other acts of civil disobedience. Interview with Bill Devall, co-author of DEEP ECOLOGY. Criticisms of Sierra Club and other "moderate" environmentalist organizations. Sierra Club expects to reform the system and is anthropocentric. Earth First is trying to subvert the system and is biocentric. An essentially appreciative reply by a Sierra Club spokesperson. Some philosophical defense of biocentrism. Executive Producer: John Burns. Producer/Director Christopher Manes. 1987 production. Christopher Manes is the recent author of GREEN RAGE: ENVIRONMENTALISM AND THE UNMAKING OF CIVILIZATION (see Newsletter, I, 1). He was a Fulbright scholar and early associate editor of EARTH FIRST!, later at law school at the University of California at Berkeley. Various copies are around, but it is not easy to get a copy. A recent distributor address is Green Rage Productions, 11741 Sterling Ave., Suite E, Riverside, CA 92503. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger, Department of Philosophy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424, Phone 803/792-5786, who has a copy. Holmes Rolston also has a copy.)

THE STATE OF THE WORLD WITH LESTER BROWN. 30 minutes. An interview with Bill Moyers, from the TV Series A World of Ideas with Bill Moyers. Lester Brown, founder of the Worldwatch Institute, says, "We have now reached a point where the principal threats to our security are no longer ideological differences or military aggression ... but the degradation of the planet." $ 39.95 from PBS Video (a Department of the Public Broadcasting Service), 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314-1698. Phone 800/424-7963. Fax 703/739-5269.

CHANGING AGENDAS WITH GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND. 30 minutes. An interview with Bill Moyers, from the TV Series A World of Ideas with Bill Moyers. Recounts how the Harvard-educated physician by training became Norwegian prime minister and an ardent environmentalist, coordinating the Brundtland Report, with its focus on sustainable development. $ 39.95 from PBS Video, address above.

The Audubon Schedule on PBS, Tuesday nights, this summer follows. Check local times and local stations may rebroadcast at other times.


SAFE PLANET: THE GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FILM AND VIDEO is available for $7.50 from Media Network, 121 Fulton Street, New York, NY 10038. Phone 212/619-3455. Evaluates over 80 selected films and videos for use in environmental ethics, conservation, and education.

"Pulse of the Planet" is a two-minute radio series, offered on many PBS stations. Sound portraits and commentary on the state of the Earth. The program is fed once a month to local stations via satellite, and the two-minute modules used according to local scheduling. Contact Murray Street Enterprises, 47 Murray Street, New York, NY 10007. Phone 212/619-1475. "Living on Earth" is a half hour program, weekly, on PBS, fed on Fridays but subject to rebroadcast. Contact Steve Curwood or Wendy Curwood at Jana West Communications, 151 Vasal Lane, Cambridge, MA. Phone 617/661-5736. A PBS contact is Lisa Florian, Phone 202/822-2621.

Reminder: Holmes Rolston has a list of videotapes for environmental ethics, available on request. Please also call to his attention for this Newsletter other relevant videotapes. Videotapes, sometimes only excerpts from them, can be effective discussion starters.


The Council of Biology Editors meeting in Denver May 4-7 will devote a session to the use of animals in biology teaching and experimentation, concerned about rising protests, also about relevant editorial criteria. Bernard Rollin will speak and lead a workshop. In other issues, the Council will hear Jack Ward Thomas, author of the (revised) official report finding a jeopardy opinion on the spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest. The Council of Biology Editors meeting draws between 400 and 500 editors of biological publications.

A September 1990 Japanese symposium on "Plants and Planet Earth: In Quest of a Harmonious Relationship Between Human Civilization and Natural Ecosystems" was held in Osaka. The philosophical premise of the meeting, supported particularly by the Japanese participants representing the humanities, was that nature is a harmonious system independently of humans but that humans have upset nature. This claim drew heavy criticism from a group of Japanese biologists who maintained that a static concept of harmony is mistaken. Story in BIOSCIENCE, January 1991.

Psychologists and the care and use of animals. The Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association has issued a revised statement of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists," printed in AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST 43, no. 3 (March 1990):390-395. The final section deals with the care and use of animals. "An investigator of animal behavior strives to advance understanding of basic behavioral principles and/or to contribute to the improvement of human health and welfare. In seeking these ends, the investigator ensures the welfare of animals and treats them humanely. Laws and regulations notwithstanding, an animal's immediate protection depends upon the scientist's own conscience." "A psychologist trained in research methods and experienced in the care of laboratory animals closely supervises all procedures involving animals and is responsible for ensuring appropriate consideration of their comfort, health, and humane treatment." "Psychologists make every effort to minimize discomfort, illness, and pain of animals. A procedure subjecting animals to pain, stress, or privation is used only when an alternative procedure is unavailable and the goal is justified by its prospective scientific, educational, or applied value. Surgical procedures are performed under appropriate anaesthesia: techniques to avoid infection and minimize pain are followed during and after surgery. When it is appropriate that the animal's life be terminated, it is done rapidly and painlessly." Do we still need animal welfare committees, with representatives from outside psychology?

"Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research," ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 41(1991):183-186. A joint statement by the Ethical and Animal Care committees, respectively, of the Association for the Study of Animal Behavior and the Animal Behavior Society. Manuscripts in ANIMAL BEHAVIOR may not be accepted for publication unless they meet these guidelines.

Handicapped access to wilderness areas. This has become a matter of some concern in the U. S. Forest Service, the Park Service, and other wilderness management agencies, given the national interest in accommodating the handicapped. It is also being used as an argument against designating further wilderness areas and an argument for relaxing the general prohibition of motorized access to wilderness, also an argument for road-building. Can the handicapped be given adequate access to the natural world in nonwilderness areas? Do horses provide sufficient handicapped access to wilderness areas? Are any and all persons unable to walk or ride in the wilderness, owing to physical failing, including aging, handicapped? How much access to wilderness is warranted to anyone? Access to the more remote areas and highest peaks? (A blind hiker recently completed the entire Appalachian Trail.) Are the rights of the handicapped to the experience of nature different in from elsewhere in public life? The field of environmental ethics needs some homework here. Does anyone want to write a paper for presentation at an ISEE session or for publication analyzing this issue?

The Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics (AFSEE) continues phenomenal growth, now numbering over 5000 members, started only a couple years ago. (The U.S. Forest Service has some 25,000 professional employees, depending on how some secretarial and other staff are counted; total employees 38,000.) An article on AFSEE appears in the NEW YORK TIMES, March 4, 1990. AFSEE offers a resource packet to forest service employees who wish to clarify their citizen's rights and duties as employees of the U. S. Forest Service, including a booklet on "General Free Speech Guidelines," with documents and statements by Forest Service Supervisors, by lawyers, officials of the National Federation of Federal Employees, and others, also with articles on science and advocacy. Contact AFSEE, P. O. Box 11615, Eugene, OR 97440. Phone 503/484-2692.

R. Max Peterson, formerly U. S. Forest Service Chief, who retired in 1987, says, "Anybody on the back on an envelope could have figured out that the rate of [timber] harvest cannot be sustained." He estimates that timber harvests should be reduced 25% from current levels. Peterson spoke to 200 Forest Service employees of the Wenatchee National Forest (Washington) in March 1989. Story in WENATCHEE (WASHINGTON) WORLD, March 22, 1989.

Retired Northwest regional forester James F. Torrence, who stepped down in August 1989, in his first interview after leaving the U. S. Forest Service, said, "I don't think there's anyone who knows these forests as well as I do, and I'm very concerned about what is happening." Torrence expressed "particular alarm" at recent proposed legislation, including that of Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Republican from Oregon and Senator Slade Gordon, Republican from Washington, that could let Congress and top Bush administration officials override professional forest management estimates of sustainable yield. Torrence estimates that cuts must be reduced 30% overall to reach a sustainable yield, independently of questions about protection for the spotted owl, which may reduce cuts 50%. Torrence claims that Congress, as well as Eastern forest officials, have refused to face up to changing environmental values in the West and been unwilling either to listen or to make tough decisions appropriately. He reports that the U.S. Forest service in the West had to balk at mandated cuts to protect wilderness areas while under review. Story in THE OREGONIAN (Seattle), July 22, 1990.

Mountain goats in Yellowstone? Mountain goats (OREAMNOS AMERICANUS) are indigenous to western North America but in the United States were historically limited to northern Idaho, northwestern Montana, and western Washington. They have been variously introduced into previously uninhabited areas, often by state wildlife agencies. Recently, mountain goats have begun to appear in both Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, probably from nearby introduced populations but possibly from indigenous populations in Montana and Idaho. The close juxtaposition of native and introduced populations puts the origin of the dispersing goats in doubt. Mountain goats are not thought to be historic natives in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, although they were probably prehistorically present. Park officials do not expect immediate problems, although introduced goats in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington have profoundly altered the native fauna and flora of Olympic National Park. The first question raised in the flow chart of possible actions by park officials is: "Are goats native?" If so, they recommend no action. If not, various alternatives are considered. They comment that the answer is as philosophical as it is scientific. On the scientific side, DNA fingerprinting may be used to determine the origin of the incoming goats. John W. LaundrÇ, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, has prepared a report at Park Service request, "The Status, Distribution, and Management of Mountain Goats in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem," September 1990. Contact John Varley, Division of Research, Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone Park, WY 83020.

Wildlife art and environmental ethics. Wildlife artists are increasingly turning to art as means for environmental protest and conservation. Famed wildlife artist Robert Bateman, a Canadian, has effectively juxtaposed pristine forests against the obliterated wastelands of timber clearcut--for example his "Carmanah Contrast," protesting logging in British Columbia. This has often antagonized the artists' supporters. Terry Isaac, an Oregon artist, painted "On the Precipice--Spotted Owl" and raised the hackles of the timber industry. At the prestigious Easton Waterfowl Festival, which attracts 20,000 viewers, Nolan Haan displayed "One Over the Limit," a blue-winged teal hen floating dead in the water, discarded by a hunter. Because of protests, he was asked to remove the painting from the festival, whereupon he removed his other paintings as well. British artists David Shepard and Simon Combes have defended African wildlife against poachers. A Bateman print for the World Wildlife Fund raised over $1.5 million. Other Bateman works include, "Injured Bald Eagle," an eagle injured by a shooter, "Fur Seal Tangled in Synthetic Netting," and "Oil Spill Washed upon the Beach."

Kent Ullberg, a native of Sweden now resident in Corpus Christi, Texas, sculpted "Requiem for Prince William Sound," a bald eagle struggling against a coating of debilitating oil, which enraged some viewers at a showing in Denver, but won the silver medal at the Allied Artists of America annual show in New York City. Heiner Hertling, a German-born artist now in Michigan, painted, "Second Thoughts," depicting a hunter contemplating a rare, dead canvasback held in his hands, which, in hindsight, he ought not to have shot. Carl Brenders' "The Survivors" depicts two Canada geese with two spent shotgun shells in the foreground and an empty beer bottle beyond. Several artists have favorably interpreted the Yellowstone fires. Story by Todd Wilkinson, "Finding Environmental Consciousness Through Wildlife Art," in WILDLIFE ART NEWS, March/April 1990. See also Bateman's address, "The Best Things in Life Are Not Free Anymore," and Nolan Haan's commentary in the same issue. Also Michael McIntosh, "A Question of Quality" in the November/December 1990 and January/February 1991 issues. (Thanks to Barbara Allen)

Bangkok, Thailand Conference on Environment and Development. On 10-16 October 1990 the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific hosted a Ministerial-level Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific in Bangkok. A Media/NGO Symposium held in conjunction with this was attended by 114 national, regional, and international NGO's representing 65 nations and territories. There were also present 25 members of the Asian Forum of Environmental Journalists and 40 other media professionals from Asia and the Pacific. The Symposium formulated and passed unanimously a "Universal Code of Environmental Conduct" (2 pages in length) and a set of 15 recommendations to the ministerial-level delegates. Two papers of interest were O. P. Dwivedi, University of Guelph, Ontario, "Environmental Ethics and Society," and Nancy Nash, "Faith and the Future." This was the first of regional conferences that the United Nations is hosting in preparation for the June 1991 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Brazil. Contact Nancy Nash, Buddhist Perception of Nature, 5 H Bowen Road, lst Floor, Hong Kong. Telephone 5-233464. Fax 852 869 1619.

The Wildlife Society in a Special Council Meeting October 12-13, 1990, approved unanimously the following as the first priority issues of the Society: 1990 Farm Bill regulations, federal budgets, nongame funding, old growth forests management, wetlands loss. Second priority issues: animal welfare, biological diversity, proposed Federal Aid in Pesticide Development and Reassurance Act, grazing on public lands, land management planning for U. S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, National Wildlife Refuge Management, North American Waterfowl Management Plan, oil development on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, trapping, and wolf restoration.

The Council also discussed the formation of a new national coalition to support hunting and fishing and oppose animal rights. More than 125 conservation, sportsmen, agriculture, biomedical industry, and outdoor media representatives are organizing a national coalition to support responsible resource management and campaign against animal rights extremism. The Council also considered a working draft of a new position statement on exotic species release and management in North America. The position statement on "Responsible Human Uses of Wildlife" was given final approval (see ISEE Newsletter, I, 2, Summer 1990, p. 29). The Wildlife Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814.

Ocean dumping to be banned in 1995. Forty-three treaty signatory nations meet in London in November to agree to the dumping ban. They also took steps to discourage sea burial of radioactive wastes, end international waste trading, and address serious problems of land-based sources of ocean pollution.

Gorillas at the center of a propaganda war. Radio Rwanda reported this spring that armed rebels crossed the Ugandan border into the Parc National des Volcans and threatened to kill the mountain gorillas living there. These are the gorillas made famous through the work of Diane Fosse and the film GORILLAS IN THE MIST. There are about 310 animals known to be living in the park. The threat to kill the gorillas was allegedly to cripple ecotourism, which accounts for the largest source of Rwanda's foreign exchange. But the Rwandan Patriotic Front (the rebels in question) in turn denied such a threat and claimed that not only were they not harming the gorillas but were in fact protecting them from the Rwandan governments reckless environmental properties. Charges of exploiting the primate population for propaganda purposes were hurled by both sides.

Beyond concern for the primates, the incident is unusual as a political struggle couched in terms of not destroying the environment. Each side has tried to score points by appearing to be the more responsible protector, the most environmentally conscious, alleging that the other is exploiting the environment for political purposes. Contact the Morris Animal Foundation/The Digit Fund at 303/790-2345 or 800/234-2345. Thanks to Mark C. E. Peterson, Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Washington County, 400 University Drive, West Bend, WI 53095. Phone 414/335-5200. Peterson is also a good contact.

Efforts are rising to reform the 1872 Mining Law, an incredibly archaic law, still in effect for hardrock minerals--gold, copper, lead, uranium and many other substances--on all federally-owned public lands, including wilderness areas, national parks, national forests, and wildlife refuges. The last Congress more movement on reform than in any prior year, and many regulating agencies want reform. The law was written when there were no gasoline engines and mining was done with pick and shovel. There are no royalties to the U. S. Treasury; there is no restoration required when miners leave, no bonds required to clean up old poisoned mine sites, no expiration date on miner's claims, and nothing to prevent the "miner" from selling the land to developers. This leaves, for example, 2,000 pre-existing claims inside national parks. But mining companies dislike the movement for reform. An editorial in MINING WORLD NEWS, September 1990, comments, "It is as if the nation has gone mad in a frenzy of pagan worship of nature. Federal agencies seem possessed by a demon force which is exacting nothing less than the ritualist sacrifice of the mining industry on the alter of gods of environmental extremism."

Ecological damage could be enormous in the Persian Gulf. Most of the mammals--several species of whales, bottle-nosed dolphins, and the dugong, an animal similar to Florida's manatees--were already threatened before being drenched with oil. Thousands of species of marine life, birds, shrimp, crabs, fish, sea turtles, are adversely affected, some already endangered. The Basra babbler, a bird endemic to the Gulf, is threatened. The tiny island of Karan, directly in the oil spill, is the breeding ground for 80% of the green sea turtles in the gulf, already an endangered species. The Gulf is a major bird flyway for Palearctic birds, migrating from Siberia to Africa, and the coastal wetlands a critical link in their food chain. The Gulf is essentially a closed body of water and it will not recover from its pollution for a long time. There may also be contamination from bombed chemical plants along the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and from bombed nuclear research reactors. Whether the burning oil wells affect the ecology worldwide will depend on how long they burn. The extent of various atmospheric effects is unknown. Global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, and effects on the Asian monsoon rains are other fears. The tracks of military vehicles and hundreds of miles of fortifications have disrupted the "desert pavement" that stabilizes sand and dust particles; the disruption is expected to release major dust storms and to accelerate the shifting of sand dunes in a way that is detrimental to desert ecosystems.

Florida panthers. Animal rights groups have sued U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to stop a captive breeding program that USFW maintains is the only hope of the cat's survival in the wild. FELIS CONCOLOR CORYI, a subspecies, darker, with longer legs, smaller feet, lighter in weight than the western cougars, survives in a population of about 30-50 in limited habitat in southern Florida. Biologists report genetic defects in the small population (inbreeding depression) and a computer model predicts that without captive breeding there is an 85% probability that the cat will die out in 25 years. With a captive breeding program, the model predicts at 95% probability that the cat will survive in the wild for 100 years retaining 90% of its current genetic diversity. The Florida cats already have been reduced to about half of the genetic diversity of the western cats. The Wilderness Society, Defenders of Wildlife, National Audubon Society, and the Sierra Club support the captive breeding program. The Fund for Animals, the Humane Society of the United States, the Animal Protection Institute of America, the Animal Rights Foundation of Florida, and In Defense of Animals oppose it, objecting to the disruption of the animals involved and to uncertainties in the breeding program. A temporary compromise is allowing the capture of some kittens this year in prospect of a future breeding program. See also the O'Brien and Mayr entry above.

Another wrinkle is that DNA analysis shows that some South American DNA is present in the Florida cats, presumably from a local menagerie that released captive cougars in the late 1950's and 1960's, possibly mistaking South American and Florida cats. By some accounts this makes the Florida cats a hybrid, not protected under the Endangered Species Act. The exotic DNA, though it makes the subspecies impure, may, nevertheless, be of benefit in increasing genetic vitality. Some of the animal rights groups advocate importing outside cats to improve the chances of the Florida cats' survival, but USFW wants to gamble on as pure a subspecies as possible. See story in SCIENCE, March 8, 1991.

Care of dogs and primates in research. The Department of Agriculture has issued its final rules, after six years of labor and much controversy, implementing the Animal Welfare Act Amendments of 1985. The rules are published, 79 pages, in the February 15 FEDERAL REGISTER. An earlier version in 1989 was rejected under a hail of negative public comments. Estimates of new facilities and personnel to implement the regulations have been reduced from $ 1.75 billion to about $ 537 million. Accounting for much of the decrease are relaxed requirements regarding exercise for dogs and psychological well-being of primates. One claim is that intervening research has shown that dog and monkey well-being is better promoted by socializing than by more space.

Costs of a clean environment. The United States spent $ 115 billion to clean up pollution in 1990--about 40% of the defense budget and just of 2% of the gross national product. The Environmental Protection Agency has released a report, ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTMENTS: THE COSTS OF A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT, which also projects that costs will rise to $ 171 - $ 185 billion by the year 2000, equal to about 60% of the defense budget and 2.6% to 2.8% of the GNP. EPA has analyzed private sector spending to comply with environmental regulations and the spending of various government agencies. The EPA budget was $ 5.5 billion. The figure is much larger than anticipated, counters some claims that pollution control is underfunded, indicates that industries have internalized these costs more than was realized, and may trigger more debate on the costs of a clean environment.

Jonathon DeLuca, a philosophy student at the University of Windsor, Ontario, as a part of a class project, began to inquire about the effects of pollutant emissions from Allied Chemical Canada Inc., and General Chemical Canada, Ltd., which has resulted in Ontario's Ministry of the Environment setting up four monitoring stations to determine the extent of damages. DeLuca has also formed an environmental advocacy group that has requested the companies to set up a $ 20-million endowment fund modeled after the fund that Allied was compelled by court decision to set up in Virginia, following the celebrated Kepone case there. Story in THE WINDSOR STAR, March 2, 1991.

Zebra mussels are invading the Great Lakes. Unknown in North America until 1988, the tiny mussel, the size of a fingernail, has become a pest whose exploding population has prompted alarming predictions of millions of dollars' worth of damage to water- supply systems and the ruination of the sport-fishing industry. Native to the Caspian Sea region of the Soviet Union, the zebra mussel spread into the canals, rivers, and lakes of Western Europe beginning more than 150 years ago. The mussel is virtually unchallenged by natural predators in U.S. waters and reproduces rapidly. Some predict that the zebra mussel will expand throughout the entire East Coast river system within a few decades. The mussel is a keystone species and has the power to restructure aquatic ecosystems. Story in TIME, January 21, 1991.

Recent and Upcoming Events --March 3-7. "Towards a Healthy Global Environmental: Preservation, Development, and Restoration," symposium at Davidson College. Speakers included Wyche Fowler, U. S. Senator from Georgia; Herman Daly, The World Bank; Kerry Smith, North Carolina State University; William S. Lee, Chairman and President, Duke Power Company; George M. Woodwell, Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory; Orrin Pilkey, Duke University; and Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University.

--March 7-9, "Environmental Ethics: Now and into the 21st Century," California State University, Fullerton. Details earlier in general announcements.

--March 12-15. Biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains. A Symposium at Colorado State University, sponsored by College of Forestry and Natural Resources, CSU, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. D. A. Forest Service, National Park Service, the Nature Conservancy, and the Audubon Society. Speakers included: Thomas Lovejoy, Smithsonian Institution; Holmes Rolston; Jerry F. Franklin, University of Washington; Phil Pister, Desert Fishes Council; and Joan Nassauer, University of Minnesota. Dozens of papers reporting details of on-the-ground conservation in the Rocky Mountain area. For a report, contact Rick Knight, Department of Fishery and Wildlife, Colorado Sate University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

--March 14-16. "Ecological Prospects: Theory and Practice," at Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA. Featured 21 prominent speakers; among them: Daniel B. Botkin, University of California; J. Baird Callicott, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Albert J. Fritsch, Director, Science in the Public Interest; Lynn Margulis, University of Massachusetts; Jay B. McDaniel, Hendrix College; Rosemary Radford Reuther, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary; Arthur H. Westing, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo. Contact: Christopher Chapple, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA 90045. Phone 213/338-2907.

--April 4-7. 5th Australian Ecopolitics Conference, University of New South Wales, Sydney. See details earlier.

--April 8-10. Issues and Technology in the Management of Impacted Wildlife, Snowmass Village, Aspen, Colorado. Contact Susan Q. Foster, Thorne Ecological Institute, 5398 Manhattan Circle, Boulder, CO 80303. Phone 303/499-3647.

--April 15-19, Management for Biotic Diversity Workshop, at Colorado State University, Fort Collins. A hands-on workshop on the resolution of apparently conflicting goals. Includes considerable introduction to and analysis of strengths and weaknesses of computer modeling. Registration $ 475.00. Contact Richard L. Knight, Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phones 303/491-6714 and 303/491-5020.

--April 18-21. "Environmental Rights in Conflict" at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Sponsored by the Philosophy and Religious Studies Department. Main Speakers: Eugene Hargrove, Philosophy, University of North Texas; Deal Hudson, Philosophy, Fordham University; Thomas Fleming, Editor, CHRONICLES, Rockford, Illinois; Jay McDaniel, Department of Religion, Hendrix College; Melvin Kranzberg, History of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology; Eugene Spitler, Chevron, USA, San Francisco; Norbert Schedler, Honors, University of Central Arkansas; Curtis Hancock, Philosophy, Rockhurst College; Eugene Bianchi, Department of Religion, Emory University; Laura Westra, University of Windsor, Ontario. Contact: Professor Joseph Pappin III, Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR 72204. Phone 501/569-3313.

--April 24-27. Western Social Science Association in Reno, Nevada, with a section on Resource and Public Land Use. Professionals from economics, political science, sociology, environmental psychology, human ecology, natural resources, and recreation will participate. Contact: Nina Burkhardt, National Ecology Research Center, 4512 McMurray Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400.

--April 25-27. ISEE session at the Central Division, APA, in Chicago. See details above.

--May 1-5. International Earth Education Conference, Potsdam, NY. The program includes sessions on creating Earth education programs, with a focus on outdoor education. Contact: The Institute for Earth Education, Box 288, Warrenville, IL 60555. Phone 708/393-3096.

--May 9-11. National Conference on Economic Value of Wilderness in Jackson, Wyoming. Papers are especially invited for a session on noneconomic methods of valuing wilderness. Contact: Claire Payne, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Lab, Carlton Street, Athens, GA 30602.

--May 10-12. "Earth Ethics Forum `91: Green Visions and Pathways for the 3rd Millennium" to be held at Saint Leo College, Saint Leo (North Tampa), Florida. Speakers: Thomas Berry, Kristin Shrader- Frechette, J. Ronald Engel, Hazel Henderson, Laura Westra, Virginia Abernethy. In all, 25 speakers from the U.S., Canada, Europe, Africa, and Asia will present in plenary and parallel sessions. Attendance fee is $ 95.00 which includes meals. Contact Saint Leo College, Department of Religious Studies, P. O. Box 2127, Saint Leo, FL 33574-2127. Phone 813/397-9042. Or: Earth Ethics Forum '91, Earth Ethics Research Group, Inc., 13938 85 Terrace North, Seminole, FL 34646. Phone 813/397-9042. --May 10-12. Varieties of Sustainability: Reflecting on Ethics, Environment, and Economic Equity. Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, CA. Sponsored by the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society and the Agroecology Program, University of California, Santa Cruz. Includes over 100 speakers from different disciplines. Contact: AFHV Conference, Agroecology Program, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064.

--May 14-19. International Conference on Science and the Management of Protected Areas. Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. A call for papers has been issued. Contact Neil Munro, Director, Policy Planning and Research, Canadian Parks Service, Atlantic Region, Environment Canada, Historic Properties, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 1S9.

--May 18-23. Society for Ecological Restoration, Third Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida. Keynote addresses: Ariel Lugo, director of the U. S. Forest Service Institute of Tropic Forestry, Puerto Rico; Marjorie H. Carr, Florida Defenders of the Environment, on the restoration of Florida's Oklawaha River; William R. Jordan, III, Arboretum, University of Wisconsin- Madison, on the philosophy of restoration. With numerous field trips. Contact SER Conference, 1207 Seminole Hwy, Madison, WI 53711. Phone: 608/262-9547. Fax 608/262-5209.

--May 24-27. Fifth Annual National Forest Reform Powwow, Angelfire, New Mexico. Hosted by Lighthawk, a group of conservation pilots, co-sponsored by several dozen environmentalist organizations. Held near an airstrip and at a Girl Scout Camp abutting Carson National Forest, with many field trips and many environmental activist leaders. Vicinity of Taos, northeast of Santa Fe. Contact Lighthawk, P. O. Box 8163, Santa Fe, NM 87504-8163.

--June 7-11. Technology and Environmental Responsibility: A New Age for Impact Assessment. Eleventh Annual Meeting of the International Association for Impact Assessment, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Plenary presentations by Joseph Coates, on impact assessment in the 21st century; Rabel J. Burdge, University of Illinois on future trends in environmental impact assessment; Henk A. Becker, University of Utrecht, on the future of impact assessment in the European community; Lynton Caldwell, Indiana University, on the larger significance of environmental impact assessment. Numerous other presentations and field trips. Contact Conferences and Institutes, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 302 East John St., Suite 202, Champaign, IL 61820. Pat Franzen, Phone 217/333-2883.

--June 9-14. "Human Responsibility and Global Change," International Conference on Human Ecology, at Goteborg, Sweden. Sponsored by the University of Goteborg, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and others. Contact Maj-Lis Foller, Department of Human Ecology, University of Goteborg, Viktoriagatan 13, S-411 25 Goteborg, Sweden. Phone +46 (31) 631310.

--June 15-20. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists annual meeting, devoted this year to conservation biology, with over 150 papers on the conservation of fish, reptiles, and amphibians, at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

--June 17-28, Colorado Mountain College, Environmental Leadership in Education Summer Institute. Held at Spring Valley Campus about five miles from Glenwood Springs, Colorado, in spectacular Colorado mountains. Graduate credit is available from Colorado School of Mines and undergraduate credit from Colorado Mountain College. Week one is People and the Environment; week two is environmental education. Participants may attend either or both weeks. Twenty-two leaders including Karen Warren, Philosophy, Macalaster College, and Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University. Contact Burke Miller Thayer, Program Director, Environmental Leadership in Education, Colorado Mountain College, 3000 Country Road 114, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601. Phone 303/945-7481 or 963- 0993.

--June 19-22, Symposium on the History of Agriculture and the Environment, National Archives Building, Washington, D. C. Contact Douglas Helms, National Historian, Soil Conservation Service, P. O. Box 2890, Washington, DC 20013. Phone 202/447- 3766.

--June 20-22, Symposium on National Forest History and Interpretation, Missoula, Montana. Contact the Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. Phones 406/243-4623 or 243-2900.

--June 23-29, Fourth Annual Wildbranch Workshop in Outdoor, Natural History, and Environmental Writing, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, Vermont. Contact: David Brown, Director, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT 05827. Phone 802/586-7711 or 800/648-3591. Sterling College is a small, private two-year liberal arts college whose programs focus on environmental studies and natural resources.

--July 12-14. Environmental Ethics Curricula Development Workshop, Denton, Texas. See details earlier.

--July 12-15. Joint Session of the Mind and Aristotelian Societies, Durham, England, with ISEE session on July 13. See details in general announcements.

--July 14 and following. World Congress of Landscape Ecology, the professional meeting of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, in Ottawa, Canada.

--July 21-25. World Conference of Philosophy, Nairobi, Kenya, on "Philosophy, Man and the Environment." See more detailed announcement earlier.

--July 29-31, Conference on the Discourse of Environmental Advocacy, Alta, Utah. Focuses on how persons communicate about and act toward the natural world and emergent environmental problems. Papers are invited. Contact: James G. Cantrill, Department of Speech, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855.

--August 12-26. World-wide Decline in Hunting Session at the 20th World Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists in Godollo, Hungary. Contact: Fern Filion, Session Chair, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, K1A OH3, Canada. Fox 819/953-6283.

--August 18-25. Wittgenstein and Environmental Ethics. The Fifteenth International Wittgenstein Symposium will be held at Kirchberg/Wechsel, Lower Austria. The main theme will be "Applied Ethics and its Foundations," and one of six sections is "Environmental Ethics and Bioethics"; another is "The Ethics of Science and Technology." Participants include, Brenda Almond (Hull), Robin Attfield (Cardiff), Dieter Birnbacher (Essen), Stephen Clark (Liverpool), R. M. Hare (Florida), Tom Regan (North Carolina State), Nicholas Rescher (Pittsburgh), Peter Singer (Clayton), Richard Sylvan (Canberra) and many others. Paper are invited, in English or German; deadline May 31. Contact the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society, A-2880 Kirchberg/Wechsel, Markt 2, Austria. Phone 02641 or 2557. A United States contact is Philip Hugly, Department of Philosophy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0321. Phone 402/472-2425. Up to six graduate or undergraduate credits may be earned in conjunction with attending this conference. Contact Ronald L. Burr, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5015. Phone 601-266- 4518.

--September 10-12. Conference on "International Arrangements for Reaching Environmental Goals, September 10-12, at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. Details in general announcements.

--September 27-29. Conference on "Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life," at Colorado State University. Contact Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 303/491-6315.

--October 4-6. Triangle Animal Awareness 1991 Festival, in the Raleigh-Chapel Hill-Durham, NC area. This will include an art exhibition, music, theatre, literature, and speakers. Speakers include Randy Hayes, Rainforest Action Network, and Marti Kheel, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley. Contact Tom Regan, Philosophy, North Carolina State University.

--October 15-17, 1991. "Stewardship: Managing Resources for a Common Future," at Duluth, Minnesota. A national conference sponsored by local, state, and federal agencies, recreation and conservation organizations, and agricultural and natural resources industries. Contact: National Stewardship Conference Information Center, 330 Canal Park Drive, Duluth, MN 55802. Phone 218/722- 6125. Fax: 218/722-2335.

--October 17-19. God, Earth and Human Community: The Post-Modern Religious Philosophy of John Macmurray, at Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. On the centenary of Macmurray's birth. Papers are invited on many topics, including ecology and environmental philosophy. Contact Stanley Harrison, Department of Philosophy, Charles S. Coughlin Hall, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233.

--October 1991. Henryk Skolimowski conference at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland. Includes addresses by the Dalai Lama, Gro Bruntland, Mother Teresa, Arne Naess, Thomas Berry, Murray Bookchin, and others. For further information contact Professor Henryk Skolimowski, 1002 Granger, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, who is also to occupy the first chair of ecological philosophy established in Poland. Phone 313/665-7279.

--October 10-12. Mountain-Plains Philosophy Conference, "Nature and Value," at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, details earlier.

--November 1991, Workshop on the Ethics of Ecological Sustainability, Simon Frazer University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Contact: Institute for the Humanities, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.

--November 3-7, session on "The Importance of Ethics in Environmental Research and Decision Making" at the annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Seattle. Papers are invited. Contact Brad Marden, c/o METI/USEPA, 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, OR 97333. Phone 503/757-4604. Fax 503/420-4799.

--November 4-8. Global Assembly of Women and the Environment-- Partners in Life, Miami, Florida. Success stories on women in environment are especially invited to the attention of the assembly. Contact Worldwide Network: World Women in the Environment, 1331 H Street, NW, Suite 903, Washington, DC 20005. 202/347-1514. Fax 202/347-1524. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah is the project director.

--November 23-26, American Academy of Religion at Kansas City, MO. One of the sections is "Religion and Ecology." Contact Eugene C. Bianchi, Department of Religion, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Phone 404/727-7598.

--April 5-7, 1992. "Theory Meets Practice," International Symposium on Environmental Ethics, at the University of Georgia, Athens. Sponsored by the University of Georgia and the Fondazione Lanza (Padua, Italy). Contact Frederick FerrÇ, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Phone: 404/542-2823. Fax 404/613-0137.

--May 17-20, 1992. Fourth North American Symposium on Social Science in Resource Management, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Contact: Donald R. Field, School of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, 1450 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706.

--June 1-12, 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to be held in Brazil. See announcement earlier.

--July 1992. "Global Ecology and Human Destiny," will be the theme of the Star Island Conference, the annual conference of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science (IRAS), held on Star Island, a Unitarian retreat center off the coast of Portsmouth, NH. Contact the conference chair, Karl Peters, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL 32789.