Volume 1, No. 1, Spring 1990

General Announcements

Paper proposals for the December 1990 program at the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association should be sent to Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, by July 1, 1990. Phone 201/596-3266 or 516/666-1815. Katz also invites papers for a special issue of ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW on environmental ethics.

ISEE will host a program May 26th in Victoria, BC, cosponsored with the Canadian Society for Practical Ethics. The theme is ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES AND VISIONS. The program will include: Robert Prescott-Allen, Senior Consultant for the Second World Conservation Strategy Project, giving an overview of the new "World Conservation Strategy for the 1990's" (now in draft); Laura Westra on contrasting Canadian and American visions for the environment; and Karen Warren on a feminist vision for the environment.

Members are invited and encouraged, in consultation with the officers and governing board, to arrange programs and presentations at appropriate learned societies and other suitable forums.

Professor Andrew Brennan is the contact person in the United Kingdom. Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland. Telephone (0786) 73171. Dues can be sent to Brennan, with checks made to the Society in amount 6.50 pounds sterling. Brennan is editing a series of monographs in environmental philosophy and policy for Routledge and Kegan Paul. Brennan is also interested in organizing a meeting of the society at the Joint Session in July at Essex. Contact him.

Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, N.S. W. 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122.

ISEE has been invited to join the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as to submit programs their their annual meetings. If interested, contact Laura Westra.

Laura Westra is the recipient of a grant from the Canadian Embassy, Washington, for summer 1990 to produce a manuscript comparing United States and Canadian national visions of the environment. A preliminary draft will be presented at the ISEE meeting at Victoria, BC (see above).

A graduating class at Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts, has donated funds to establish in the library there a collection of books on environmental ethics. Further information from Dr. Michael Hoffman, Director, Center for Business Ethics, Bentley College, Waltham, MA 02154.

Auburn University, Department of Philosophy, has recently added a class in environmental ethics to their undergraduate curriculum. A further class is to be offered at the graduate level, at the request of the Deans of Agriculture and Fisheries.

The Society for Business Ethics in the United States and its European counterpart (EBEN, the Netherlands) and THE TRUMPETER have all carried announcements of the founding of ISEE.

ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS will move from the University of Georgia to the University of North Texas, Denton, where Eugene Hargrove, editor, will become chairman of the department of philosophy, starting in September 1990.

Earth Day is April 22, the 20th anniversary of the first Earth Day, when an estimated 25 million Americans participated in events ranging from neighborhood cleanups to a mammoth march on Washington. As a result of Earth Day 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency was born, and the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts were signed. To learn what Earth Day activities are planned for your area, phone 415/321-1990. One goal is to plant one billion trees nationwide; others involve recycling, Styrofoam-free towns, and a worldwide ban on fluorocarbons (CFC's).

Barbara Streisand has endowed a $ 250,000 chair at the Environmental Defense Fund for the development of solutions to global warming. In an endowment ceremony, she said, "Each of us must do whatever we can to help repurify and reestablish our respect for the environment." Robert Redford has funded an Institute for Resource Management in Provo, Utah, to educate industrialists on environmental issues. Redford says, "Defense of our environment is as important as defense abroad. Otherwise, what is there to defend?"

Papers and materials available

The papers listed as available below are free to ISEE members on request (unless otherwise indicated); nonmembers please remit 50 cents per paper requested to the person supplying the paper, to defray costs of reproduction.

Andrew Brennan, University of Stirling, Scotland, has collaborated with Sean Smith of St. Andrews University, Scotland, to produce a comprehensive 45 page bibliography of the last twenty years of environmental ethics. Copies are available from Brennan, whose address is above. Three separate publications will also be published later this year. The are: Anthony Ellis, ETHICS FOR ENVIRONMENTALISTS; Andrew Brennan, ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY; and Andrew Brennan, BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT WORK IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. They will be available, at modest cost, from The Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9AL, Scotland.

Andrew Brennan took part autumn 1989 in a think tank in Cambridge aimed at devising a Code of Environmental Practice for the Economic Summit Nations (G7), and sponsored by the European Community. R. J. Berry, convener of the Cambridge meeting, has produced a draft of the code, available from Brennan, or from Professor R. J. Berry, Department of Biology, Medawar Building, University College, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT.

Holmes Rolston has available several bibliographies on
environmental ethics:
--Simmons, Deborah A., "Environmental Ethics: A Selected Bibliography for the Environmental Professional," Council of Planning Librarians, CLP Bibliography 213, March 1988.
--Current titles in Environmental Ethics
--Nash, Roderick F., "Selected Bibliography" (in Environmental Ethics) from THE RIGHTS OF NATURE.
--Bibliography on Valuing Wildlands
--Bibliography on Endangered Species, Philosophical Issues
--Bibliography on Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature

Holmes Rolston has available on request copies of "Environmental Ethics in the Undergraduate Philosophy Curriculum," a thirty page paper suggesting introductory units in philosophy courses and full semester undergraduate courses in environmental ethics.

Eric Katz has available on request copies of "Environmental Ethics: A Select Annotated Bibliography, 1983-1987," RESEARCH IN PHILOSOPHY AND TECHNOLOGY 9(1989):251-285. Address above.

Bruce Omundson has available on request copies of "Getting Started in Environmental Ethics," a six page introduction to the field. Professor Bruce Omundson, Humanities Department, Lansing Community College, P. O. Box 40010, Lansing MI 48901-7210.

Andrew Brennan has available on request an introduction, "Environmental Philosophy," prepared for the United Kingdom Nature Conservancy Council, written for lay readers. The paper surveys the main issues in environmental philosophy, recounting also how the field has historically developed in the last two decades. Thirty five double-spaced pages, with bibliography. Address above.

Peter Miller has written a study, "The Place of Recycling in Sustainable Development," A Manitoba New Democratic Party Environmental Task Force Report. The fifty page study examines the feasibility of recycling in the province of Manitoba, with attention to combining theory and practice. Copies available on request. Department of Philosophy, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E0, Canada.

Holmes Rolston has available on request a list of over fifty videotapes for teaching environmental ethics, with distribution sources and brief descriptions.

Television Trust for the Environment, 46 Charlotte Street, London W1P 1LX, is a British nonprofit organization founded in 1984 by Central Television (U.K) and the United Nations Environment Programme. They have produced a paperback book, SWITCHING ON TO THE ENVIRONMENT, that describes and evaluates one hundred films on environment and development, most of which are also available in VCR format. The films/videotapes are often European, mostly about development and environment in lesser developed countries, nearly all produced in the 1980's, nearly all originally shown on television in the country of origin. Most are available in English. The book has both a thematic and country index. Television Trust for the Environment also produces MOVING PICTURES BULLETIN, a quarterly guide to films on development and the environment.

The Environmental Media Association has been founded in Hollywood by producer-director Norman Lear and a cast of major television and movie industry players. Andy Spahn is director and the association tries to use the industry's communication skills to make people more aware of environmental issues. For information contact: Environmental Media Association, 10536 Culver Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90232. Phone 213/559-9334.

ROLSTON-ROLLIN DEBATE. 50 minutes. A debate before a Colorado State University introductory philosophy class, November 1989. Bernard Rollin defends duties directly to sentient animals only, with other components of the environment having only instrumental value. Holmes Rolston defends an ethic of respect for all forms of life, flora as well as fauna, including ethical concern at the level of species and ecosytems. Includes questions from class members. For a VHS copy for $ 10, contact Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 303/491-6315.

ISEE would like to compile a listing of courses in environmental ethics, environmental philosophy, and related courses which are taught in colleges and universities around the world. Send a note, brief description, outline, syllabus, etc. to Holmes Rolston, address above.

Recent titles and articles in the field


--Andrew Linzey and Tom Regan, eds., LOVE THE ANIMALS: MEDITATIONS AND PRAYERS (New York: Crossroad, 1989).

--J. Ronald Engel and Joan Gibb Engel, eds., ETHICS OF ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT: GLOBAL CHALLENGE AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE (London: Belhaven Press, Pinter Publishers, 1990). Published in association with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Twenty one articles with an international focus.

--The Czechoslvoakian Philosophical Journal, FILOZOFIKY CASOPIS, volume 37, no. 5 (1989), is a special issue on environmental ethics, "Philosophy and Ecological Problems." Ten articles include such titles as "Philosophy and the Devastation of the Earth," "The Uniqueness and Value of Terrestrial Nature," "Marxism, the Ecological Crisis and the Dominion of Nature," and "Points of Departure of Environmental Ethics." There are English abstracts. Book reviews include an review of Holmes Rolston, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, and an account of Fritjof Capra's books. A summary of the articles in this issue will appear later in the journal ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS.

--The INTERNATIONAL DIRECTORY OF HUMAN ECOLOGISTS, 2nd edition, 1989, compiled by Richard J. Borden and Jamien Jacobs, is available c/o College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, at a cost of $10 plus $ 2 handling. Phone 207/288-5015. The directory lists over 700 human ecologists worldwide with descriptions of their work, research, and activities, addresses, phone numbers and topical index.

--BIBELOT, a periodical for pastors and alumni of the United Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio, has issued a special number, "The State of the Ark," devoted to environmental ethics and religion and environment. Many current books are reviewed and developments in these areas are analyzed. The author is Leonard I. Sweet. $3.00 a copy from United Theological Seminary, 1810 Harvard Boulevard, Dayton, OH 45406.

--THE HARVARD DIVINITY BULLETIN for Fall 1989 contains a special section, "Theology for a Small Planet," with a number of short articles by divinity school faculty and others addressing environment and theology. Contact Thomas N. Gardner, HARVARD DIVINITY BULLETIN, 45 Francis Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138.

--Peter Miller, "Descartes' Legacy and Deep Ecology," DIALOGUE (Canada):28(1989):183-202.

--Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb, Jr., FOR THE COMMON GOOD: REDIRECTING THE ECONOMY TOWARD COMMUNITY, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989). This book, jointly authored by an economist and a theologian, was in manuscript the focus of several symposia, and is likely to prove a major contribution to the effort to achieve a sustainable, conservation oriented economy. Daly is now with the World Bank and Cobb is at Clarement School of Theology.

--Jay B. McDaniel, OF GOD AND PELICANS: A THEOLOGY OF REVERENCE FOR LIFE (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989). Develops from a process perspective a theological sensitivity for all living things, animal and human, especially those who suffer and are oppressed.

--Jay B. McDaniel, EARTH, SKY, GODS AND MORTALS: DEVELOPING AN ECOLOGICAL SPIRITUALITY (Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1990). McDaniel weaves together various strands of contemporary theology for an ecological spirituality. Influenced by process theology, the author synthesizes core insights of feminism, liberation theology, creation theology, and world religions. Study questions and an annotated bibliography. McDaniel is professor of religion at Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas, has served as chair of Meadowcreek Project, and is a member of the Church and Society Working Committee of the World Council of Churches.

--Daniel B. Botkin, Margriet F. Caswell, John E. Estes, Angelo A. Orio, eds., CHANGING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT: PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN INVOLVEMENT (Boston: Academic Press, 1898). A series of essays written by environmental, economic, and social scientists from around the world. Examines possible solutions suggested by remote sensing and the implementation of worldwide computer-based systems. A multi-disciplinary approach to the study of the total biosphere. The first three authors are at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Orio is in the department of environmental science, University of Venice, Italy.

--Earle J. Coleman, "Is Nature Ever Unaesthetic?" BETWEEN THE SPECIES 5:138-146. Examines four models of aesthetic appreciation of nature: the contextual-ecosystem model, Kant's phenomenological model, Bosanquet's expressionist model, building to argue for a metaphysical model that provides a more inclusive account of aesthetic experiences of nature. Coleman is in the department of religion and philosophy at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.

-THE ECOLOGIST, a British and European journal since 1969, based in Cornwall, England, will now also be distributed in the United States and Canada by MIT Press.

--Jim Nollman, SPIRITUAL ECOLOGY (New York: Bantam Books, 1990). Paper, $ 9.95.

--John Hospers, "Humanity vs. Nature: Two Views of People and Animals," LIBERTY, March 1990, pp. 26-36. Hospers contrasts the animal rights ethic with the land ethic.

Arthur H. Westing has organized and edited for the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) a number of books on war and environment:

--Arthur H. Westing, ed., CULTURAL NORMS, WAR AND THE ENVIRONMENT (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
--Arthur H. Westing, ed., ENVIRONMENTAL WARFARE: A TECHNICAL, LEGAL AND POLICY APPRAISAL (London and Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1984).

--Arthur H. Westing, ed., HERBICIDES IN WAR: THE LONG-TERM ECOLOGICAL AND HUMAN CONSEQUENCES (London and Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1984).

--Arthur H. Westing, ed., EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR: MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS (London and Philadelphia: Taylor and Frances, 1985).


--Arthur H. Westing, ed., COMPREHENSIVE SECURITY FOR THE BALTIC: AN ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACH (London and Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1989).

The series of books amply document the devastating effects of war and preparation for war on the environment. The books are also sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme, although their publication was (in part at least, according to Joan Martin- Brown of UNEP) opposed by the U. S. State Department. Although rather expensive books, they should be in all major libraries. For a review of the first five, see Holmes Rolston, III, "International Conflict and Conservation of Natural Resources," CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 3(1989):322-326.

--SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, September 1989, vol. 261, no. 3, is a special issue devoted to "Managing Planet Earth." Eleven articles are on atmosphere, climate, water, biodiversity, population, agriculture, manufacturing, sustainable development, and a sustainable world. The issue can be ordered from SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Dept. MPE, 415 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10017, for $ 6.00. Phone 212/754-0550.

--TIME, January 15, 1990, contains a cover story on Antarctica. Once inaccessible and pristine, the white continent is now threatened by spreading pollution, budding tourism, and the world's thirst for oil. Many environmentalists believe the only way to preserve the continent's wonders is to set up a world park, where most development would be barred. But the first priority is to get an agreement to curb minerals exploration.

--TIME, October 16, 1989, contains a cover story on the slaughter of elephants for ivory. Elephants face a grim struggle against greed and deceit. Whole families are an increasingly rare sight. The older animals have been wiped out in many herds, and younger ones are now the targets. Poachers must take more tusks to get the same amount of ivory. From the bloody hands of poachers into the stashes of smugglers, ivory moves across Africa under the noses of often corrupt officials. By many routes, some direct and some devious, much of the trade flows to Hong Kong. The final destination is most often Japan, where exquisite carving is a tradition.

--"Humanity's Encounter with Nature," is a special issue of ZYGON: JOURNAL OF RELIGION AND SCIENCE, December 1989. The issue contains papers from a section on this theme during the conference, "The World Community in Post-Industrial Society, August 21-September 8, 1988 in conjunction with the Seoul Olympiad. Many of the papers are international in orientation.

--Donald Edward Davis, ECOPHILOSOPHY: A FIELD GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE (San Pedro, CA: R. & E. Miles, 1989) is an excellent annotated bibliography of nearly three hundred books in environmental philosophy and related areas. There are appendices listing periodicals and organizations. Available for $ 8.95 plus $ 1.50 postage and handling from R. & E. Miles Co., P. O. Box 1916, San Pedro, CA 90733. Phone 213/833-8856.

--Eric S. Higgs, "A Space between Planning and Technology," MAN- ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS, vols. 5 and 6 (Summer 1989). Technology shapes regional planning, intended to enrich community autonomy, but too often inhibits it instead. The thesis is illustrated with the Landscape Evolution Model applied in Bruce County, Ontario, with proposals for reforming technology to achieve a community autonomy that maintains the integrity of the natural environment. Higgs is interim director of environmental studies, Oberlin College, and moves this fall to a position in technology and environment at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. David Orr, currently Director of the Meadowcreek Center, Fox, Arkansas, will become director of Oberlin's environmental studies program this fall.

--Robert C. Paehlke, ENVIRONMENTALISM AND THE FUTURE OF PROGRESSIVE POLITICS (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989). A historical, philosophical, and political analysis, arguing that an environmentally informed progressive movement can be a political response to neo-conservatism in the 1990's.

--Anna Bramwell, ECOLOGY IN THE 20TH CENTURY (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989). An intellectual and political history of the ecology movement in the twentieth century. The first thorough study of the origins and background of the "green" politics that has in recent years carved out a significant political constituency. Ecologism is a political category in its own right.

--Holmes Rolston, III, "Respect for Life: Can Zen Buddhism Help in Forming an Environmental Ethic?" in ZEN BUDDHISM TODAY, Annual Report of the Kyoto Zen Symposium, No. 7, September 1989. This issue results from the Seventh Annual Kyoto Zen Symposium, held in March 1989 in Kyoto. Copies available from Holmes Rolston.

--Niklas Luhmann, ECOLOGICAL COMMUNICATION (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989). As much social theory as environmental ethics. Understanding how society becomes aware of environmental dangers and why irrational responses tend to appear must precede any ethics of environmental responsibility.

--The North American Conference on Christianity and Ecology publishes FIRMAMENT: A QUARTERLY OF CHRISTIAN ECOLOGY and holds conferences and publishes proceedings and videotapes. It will sponsor some sixty events in 1988 and 1990. The most recent conference proceedings is a book, CHRISTIAN ECOLOGY: BUILDING AN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHIC FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, available for $ 12 plus $ 3 postage and handling. For information contact Eleanor Rae, President, North American Conference on Christianity and Ecology, P. O. Box 14305, San Francisco, CA 94114-0305.

--COMPLETE GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CAREERS, The CEIP Fund, Lee P. DeAngelis, Project Director, et al. Published by Island Press, Washington, D. C. and Covelo, CA. 1989. A 331-page guide to careers in environmental fields. Useful to share with students who are interested in environmental conservation and wondering how to make a living at it, who would like to apply their philosophy and environmental ethics at work.

--NATIONAL FORUM, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Winter 1990) is a special issue on "Preserving the Global Commons." This is the national magazine of the Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi, Box 16000, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70893. Among other authors, Lester Brown lists the six most pressing environmental problems, while Julian L. Simon argues that population growth is not bad for humanity.

--Michael J. Himes and Kenneth R. Himes, "The Sacrament of Creation: Toward an Environmental Theology," COMMONWEAL, January 26, 1990. Michael Mimes is professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame and Kenneth Himes is professor of moral theology at Washington Theological Union in Silver Spring, Maryland.

Recent and upcoming events

A Conference on Christian Faith and Ecology was held at Canterbury, September 1989 within the context of the Festival of Faith and the Environment in which seven world religions were represented (Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Bahai, and Sikhism). For a report contact Jeanne Knights, Saint Francis Trust, P. O. Box 73, Cambridge CB3 OHQ, United Kingdom.

The First Latin American Congress of Ecology was held December 10- 17, 1989 in Montevideo, Uruguay, with over 600 persons attending from 35 countries and several papers devoted to environmental ethics. For information, contact Eduardo Gudynas, CIPFE, Centro de investigacion y promocion franciscano y ecologico [Franciscan and Ecological Center of Research and Promotion], Canelones 1164, Montevideo, Uruguay.

February 14-16. A conference on "Ethics, Values and Recreation Management," was held in Asheville, NC on February 14-16. For information contact M. Kathleen Perales, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 601/634- 3779.

March 1-3. A conference on "Responses to the Environmental Challenges: A Theology and Ethics Symposium" was held at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, March 1-3, 1990. Keynote speakers were John B. Cobb, Jr., "Post-Modern Christianity in Quest of Eco-Justice," and Holmes Rolston, "Wildlife and Wildlands: A Christian Perspective." Other major presentations were by Heidi Hadsell, McCormick Theological Seminary; Paul Santmire, Grace Lutheran Church, Hartford, Connecticut; Larry Rasmussen, Union Theological Seminary, New York; George Kehm, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary; Winston Persaud, Wartburg Theological Seminary, Dubuque; and Carol Johnston, Committee on Social Witness Policy, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).

March 5-12. The World Council of Churches held a conference in Seoul, Korea, on "Justice, Peace, and the Integrity of Creation."
There was more extensive participation by European than by American churches. For further details contact William Gibson (who attended), The Eco-Justice Project, G17 Anabel Taylor Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

March 30-April 1. A conference on "Economics and Ecology: Can Development Be Sustainable?" was held at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Featured speakers were: William C. Clark, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; William K. Tabb, Queens College, CUNY; Heidi Hadsell, McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago; and Jason Clay, Cultural Survival, Inc., Cambridge. Contact: The Eco-Justice Project, G17 Anabel Taylor Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

April 4-6. "Preparing to Manage Wilderness in the 21st Century," State Botanical Gardens, Athens, GA. Contact Patrick Reed, USDA Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Carlton and Green Streets, Athens, GA 30602, 404/546- 2451.

May 17-19. "Third Symposium on Social Science in Resource Management," College Station, TX. Contact: James H. Gramman, Department of Recreation and Parks, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, 409/845-4920.

May 31-June 1. The 1990 Annual Conference of the Association for Canadian Studies has the theme "To See Ourselves/To Save Ourselves: Ecology and Culture in Canada." It will be held at the University of Victoria, B. C. Contact Susan Hoeltken, Association for Canadian Studies, C. P. 8888, Succ. A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8. Phone 514/987-7784.

June 7-9, "Moral Philosophy in the Public Domain," Applied Ethics in Business, Medicine, and Environmental Policy. University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Speakers include Kenneth Goodpaster, Alison Jaggar, James Rachels, Peter Singer, Robert Soloman, and others. Contact Department of Philosophy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5.

17-20 June. Society for Conservation Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Contact: Dr. Stephen R. Humphrey, Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, 904/392-1721.

May 29-June 3. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A) will receive and act on a report prepared by its Eco- justice Task Force. The Assembly meets in Salt Lake City, Utah.

October 13-19. Conference on "Natural Areas and Yosemite: Prospects for the Future," at Yosemite National Park and the Sheraton Hotel and Conference Center, Concord, California. Papers are invited. A keynote is address is by Gilbert Grosvenor, President of the National Geographic Society. The conference is part of the Yosemite Centennial Celebration, and includes six plenary sessions with prominent speakers, as well as field trips to a number of San Francisco Bay natural areas. Contact The Yosemite Fund, 155 Montgomery Street, # 1104, San Francisco, CA 94104 or Coordinator, NA/Yosemite Centennial Symposium, CGNRA, Fort Mason Bldg. 201, San Francisco, CA 94123.

October 22-25. "Biodiversity and Landscapes: Human Challenges for Conservation in the Changing World," a conference sponsored at Pennsylvania State University. There are several dozen distinguished speakers. Contact Deb Hagar, Event Coordinator, Biodiversity and Landscapes, Center for Biodiversity Research, Environmental Resources Research Institute, 117 Land and Water Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Phone 814/863-0050.

11-14 November. "National Symposium on Urban Wildlife," Stouffer Five Seasons Hotel, Cedar Rapids, IA. Contact: Dr. Lowell Adams, National Institute for Urban Wildlife, 10921 Trotting Ridge Way, Columbia, MD 21044.

Events and issues

The town of Aspen, Colorado conducted a referendum on February 13, 1990 on whether to make Aspen a fur-free zone, that is, to prohibit the sale of furs in the city. The proposed ordinance failed by a 2 to 1 vote. Among those present and featured in the debate was Australian philosopher Peter Singer. A prominent argument against the prohibitive ordinance was: "Today fur. Tomorrow leather. Then meat, milk and wool."

Spring bear hunting in Colorado has been at issue in Colorado. Sports hunters have killed an average of 669 bears in Colorado each year over the last decade. Over 80% are taken in spring over bait or hunted down with dog packs. Although it is illegal to take sows accompanied by cubs, sows are cautious and often leave their cubs some distance away when investigating a bait site or send the cubs up a tree when fleeing dogs. The result is that unaccompanied females are killed or permanently separated from cubs and the cubs starve. Petitions containing 9,000 signatures were presented to the Colorado Wildlife Commission asking for an end to both the spring season and the use of bait, along with arguments in support of restrictions to protect lactating females with dependent cubs. An independent public opinion survey commissioned by the Division of Widlife showed strong public opposition (even among bear hunters!) to any hunt that places females with cubs at risk. Groups representing some hunters, outfitters, and stockmen have steadily resisted attempts to restrict bear hunting in Colorado. The Colorado Wildlife Commission, on recommendation from the Colorado Division of Wildlife, voted 4-3 to adopt a black bear seasion continuing, though shortening, the spring season. Bait and dogs are allowed. The spring season is April 1 - May 15 in 1990 and 1991. In 1989 the spring season extended through May 31 and in 1986-88 extended through June 15. It was argued that the shorter season reduces the proportion of females killed, on grounds that females with cubs leave their dens later in the season.

The U.S. Forest Service released a new policy on old-growth forests on October 19, 1989. Forest Service Chief F. Dale Robertson announced, "Old-growth forests are important ecosystems that we are just beginning to understand. We've learned enough to know that a significant share of them deserve to be protected and managed for posterity." In the position statement, "The Forest Service recognizes the many significant values associated with old-growth forests."

The 1990 Audubon schedule on TBS Superstation is:

IF DOLPHINS COULD TALK, Sunday, February 25; Monday, February 26; Saturday, March 3; Monday, March 19. Hosted by Michael Douglas.

ARCTIC REFUGE, Sunday, May 27; Monday, May 28; Saturday, June 2; Monday, June 11. Narrated by Meryl Streep.

BEACHES AND COASTAL POLLUTION, Sunday, September 30; Monday, October 1; Saturday, October 6; Monday, October 15. Hosted by Ted Danson.

WILDFIRE, Sunday, December 9; Monday, December 10; Saturday, December 15; Monday, December 17.

Audubon has lost sponsors for these programs as a result of pressures from the timber industry following its special documentary on old growth timber, "Ancient Forests: Rage over Trees," aired in September 1989. Stroh Brewery Company withdrew its corporate funding for the prize-winning programs, which appear both on the Turner Broadcasting Service (Superstsation TBS) and Public Broadcasting Service, in part because of a threatened boycott by beer-drinking loggers. Six major advertisers--Ford, Citicorp, Exxon, Sears (for its Discover Card), Michelin, and New York Life--pulled their commercials at the list minute. The continuing programs will be aired nonetheless. There is an effort, orchestrated by the Western States Public Lands Coalition, to block any recast on superstation TBS of "Ancient Forests: Rage over Trees."

The Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics, since its founding a year and a half ago, has seen a spectacular growth to over 1,200 members. The newsletter is called INNER VOICE. Members must be current, former, or retired Forest Service Employees. Associate members can be non-Forest service employees, often employees of state agencies or other natural resource professionals. There is provision for anonymous members, since pressures have been brought to bear on some members from within the agency. Contact the Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics, P. O. Box 11615, Eugene, OR 97440. Phone 503/484-2692.

The United States Department of Interior, in an interagency project, has produced a correspondence course, "Wilderness Management by Correspondence Study," for employees of the Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the National Park Service. Subcourse A, one of six subcourses, is "Philosophy of Wilderness and Development of a Wilderness Ethic." Readings include environmental philosophers and others. Subcourses may be taken separately or cumulatively. The subcourses receive academic credit through Colorado State University's Department of Recreation Resources, where they are listed as RR 436A-F, Wilderness Management, for a total credit of 15 semester hours. The Project Coordinator is David Porter, Wilderness Management, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC 20240.

Cockfighting in Kentucky is under debate. A CBS national telecast on Floyd County, Kentucky (a "48 hours" show in December 1989) contained some footage of the illegal fights. State Senator Benny Ray Bailey introduced Senate Bill 283 in February 1990 to legalize the fighting, which has been unofficially tolerated by legal authorities for years. The Louisville COURIER-JOURNAL endorsed the idea, "Kentuckians can be proud that they like games associated with the nobility" (January 23, 1990). Cockfighting began in ancient Asia where chiefs would sometimes settle their disputes by cockfighting. Cockfighters trim the natural spur on a gamecock's leg and replace it with a long metal gaff for competition, resulting in serious injuries and death. The cocks were originally jungle fowl with strong territorial instincts, further intensified by breeding. The bill was reported to the senate floor, debated, and returned to the committee, effectively killing it for this session. Cockfighting is legal--in some cases with restrictions--in only six states: Missouri, Oklahoma, Virginia, Louisiana, Arizona, and New Mexico. Thomas Jefferson is said to have enjoyed the sport.

Efforts are underway to encourage corporations to subscribe to the Valdez Principles, ten principles to promote standards by which corporations can act in concert for environmental responsibility. The principles involve protection of the biosphere, sustainable use of natural resources, reduction and disposal of waste, wise use of energy, risk reduction, marketing of safe products and services, damage compensation, disclosure, environmental directors and managers, and assessment and annual audit. Subscribing corporations pledge to make measurable progress implementing these ten principles.

Where have all the amphibians gone? The World Congress of Herpetology met September 1989 in Cambridge, England, alarmed that many of the frogs, toads, and other amphibians are vanishing. There has been a dramatic decline in the last fifteen years. The Biology Board of the National Research Council held a workshop on the question in March 1990 at Irvine, California. Herpetologists are unsure of the causes, since amphibians are disappearing in widespread environments, both in developed and in pristine areas. Possible causes include acid rain, changes in the ozone layer, or other early stages of global change. The amphibians may be "miner's canaries." See story in SCIENCE, March 2, 1990. Where have all the birds gone? Many species of migratory birds, especially some of the 250 species that breed in the temperate zone of North America and winter in the tropics, are declining in numbers. Examples include forest-dwelling songbirds such as warblers, vireos, thrushes and flycatchers. The prime cause is loss of habitat in the Neotropics, and if present land use trends continue, losses will escalate. See John Terborgh, WHERE HAVE ALL THE BIRDS GONE? (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989).

Where have all the wildflowers gone? For a region-by-region to threatened or endangered U. S. wildflowers, see Robert H. Mohlenbrock, WHERE HAVE ALL THE WILDFLOWERS GONE? (New York: Macmillan, 1983). Mohlenbrock is professor of botany at Southern Illinois University.