Volume 11, No. 4, Winter 2000


ISEE Listserv. The ISEE Board of Directors has approved creation of an ISEE e-mail discussion list. All ISEE members are invited to subscribe. The list is ISEE-L@LISTSERV.TAMU.EDU and will be managed by Gary Varner at Texas A&M University. This is not intended to be a "chat" list but a forum for serious discussion, and a place to post questions and answers relating to teaching and research in environmental ethics. Announcements, including jobs and conferences, will be welcome. To protect subscribers from "junk e-mail," only list members will be able to post to the list, and only the list owner will have access to the subscribers' email addresses. To subscribe, send email to: LISTSERV@LISTSERV.TAMU.EDU, with the entire body of the message reading: SUBSCRIBE ISEE-L. You should then receive an e-mail asking you to confirm your participation. As soon as you follow the instructions in that email, you will be subscribed to the list. If you have any trouble subscribing, contact Gary Varner at gary@philosophy.tamu.edu.

ISEE Group Sessions at the APA Pacific Division Meeting, San Francisco, 2001.
* Session I. "Population and the Environment in the United States." Chair: Philip Cafaro (Colorado State University). Speakers: Virginia Abernethy (Vanderbilt University), "The Harms of Population Growth and the Sources of Population Growth in the United States." Thomas Young (Mansfield University), "Overconsumption and Procreation: Are They Morally Equivalent?" Ben Zuckerman (UCLA), "U.S. Population Growth and the Environment: Is Overimmigration Unethical?" Commentators: Steven Weiss (Georgia Southern University), Roger Paden (George Mason University), Mark Woods (University of San Diego).

* Session II. "Population, Wilderness and the World Environment." Chair: Thomas Young. Speakers: Steven Weiss, "Population, Environmental Degradation, and Social Injustice in India." Warren Hern (University of Colorado), "Are Human Beings a Cancer on the Biosphere?" Mark Woods & Steven Kramer (Southwest State University), "Naturalness, Wildness, and Freedom: An Argument for the Foundational Values of American Environmentalism." Commentators: Roger Paden, Virginia Abernethy and Philip Cafaro.

The Trumpeter is now an on-line quarterly journal at: http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca, edited by Bruce Morito of the Centre for Global and Social Analysis. Address: Athabasca University, 1 University Drive, Athabasca, Alberta, T9S 3A3, Canada. Managing editor is John Ollerenshaw. johno@athabascau.ca.

Marquette University will begin to offer an interdisciplinary minor in environmental ethics in Fall 2001. The 18-credit hour minor requires courses in Ecology, Natural Resource Economics, Earth and Environmental Physics, Environmental Philosophy, Theocentric Foundations for Ecological Ethics, and an Arts & Sciences Capstone Seminar in which the skills and knowledge of the required courses are integrated to investigate and address an environmental problem from an ethical perspective. The program will be facilitated by Theology and Philosophy faculty on a two-year rotational basis. Considerable interest among students was identified in a Spring 20000 marketing survey. Planning is underway to promote the new program during the Spring 2001 semester with the assistance of Marquette's student group, Students for an Environmentally Active Campus. Further information about the minor and the proposal that was submitted can be found at www.theo.mu.edu/schaefer and by contacting its director, Jame Schaefer in the Theology Department (schaeferj@marquette.edu).

Steve Kramer has taken a position as assistant professor, concentrating in environmental ethics, in the Department of Philosophy, Southwest State University, Marshall, MN. He was earlier at the University of Montana and completed his Ph.D. at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Green Skiing. The Ski Area Citizens' Coalition has rated ski areas throughout the western U.S. based on their environmental sensitivity. Criteria included avoiding expansion of developed skiing acreage into undisturbed forest; avoiding commercial or residential development on undisturbed lands; avoiding water degradation from ski area management activities; wildlife habitat and forest protection; and recycling, water and energy conservation, and pollution reduction. The results are posted at:

http://www.skiareacitizens.com. Areas rating an "A" included Sundance Resort (Utah), Timberline Ski Area (Oregon), 49 Degrees North Mountain Resort (Washington), Aspen Highlands Ski Resort (Colorado), Sun Valley Resort (Idaho), Wolf Creek Ski Area (Colorado), Silver Mountain Ski Resort (Idaho), and Buttermilk Mountain Ski Resort (Colorado). Areas receiving an "F" included Copper Mountain Ski Resort (Colorado), Snowbasin Ski Resort (Utah), Keystone Ski Resort (Colorado), The Canyons (Utah), Breckenridge Ski Resort (Colorado), Deer Valley Ski Resort (Utah), Vail Ski Resort (Colorado), Telluride Ski and Golf Company (Colorado), Beaver Creek Ski Resort (Colorado),Crystal Mountain Ski Area (Washington).


Science and Religion Course Award. Since 1994, The Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences has granted over 500 $10,000 awards to scholars from a wide range of disciplines, to develop new courses which address the relationship between science and religion. Selection criteria include: attention to current developments in the natural sciences, theology, and religious reflection; balanced presentations of both religious and scientific perspectives; examination of philosophical and historical aspects of the science/religion relationship. To find out more, visit the course program section of the CTNS website at: www.ctns.org.

The College of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Francisco invites applications for a tenure-track position in (a) Communication Studies, (b) Environmental Science (with expertise in Urban Ecology, Land Use, and Resource Management), (c) Media Studies, (d) Philosophy, or (e) Sociology. Candidates should be able to teach in an interdisciplinary Environmental Studies program. This position will be at the Assistant Professor level and will begin in the Fall 2001, pending approval and funding.

Qualifications: University teaching experience, evidence of a strong commitment to teaching, evidence of scholarship, an earned doctorate by Fall 2001, experience and willingness to work in a culturally diverse environment, and an understanding of and commitment to support the mission of a Jesuit university are required. The candidate will be expected to develop an independent and ongoing research program.

Applicants should submit a letter of application, curriculum vitae, graduate transcripts, copies of recent publications, statement of teaching philosophy, evidence of teaching ability including copies of complete teaching evaluations, and three letters of recommendation to: Environmental Studies Program, c/o Gerardo Marin, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117-1080. Applications must be received by January 15, 2001, in order to ensure full consideration.

The Environmental Studies Program, Denison University, seeks candidates for a senior level, full-time, one-to-two-year position, beginning August, 2001. Preference will be given to candidates at an Associate or Full professor level. Candidates should have rigorous interdisciplinary training and extensive experience in environmental studies/science. We are especially interested in persons with experience in teaching an interdisciplinary "Introduction to ES" course and additional courses in the candidate's area(s) of interest. Candidates should demonstrate excellence in environmentally relevant teaching and innovative ideas for incorporating hands-on, experiential student opportunities.

Please send letter of application along with curriculum vitae, a statement describing views on teaching ES in a liberal arts context, and contact information for three references (names, phone numbers, email, and mailing addresses) to: Dr. Abram Kaplan, Director of ES, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023. Review of applications will begin January 16th, 2001 and continue until the position is filled. See more information at: http://www.denison.edu/enviro.

Sabbaticals in the Parks. The U.S. National Park System preserves the nation's most significant natural and cultural resources. The Sabbatical in the Parks program assists in arranging faculty sabbaticals to conduct scholarly activity which provides usable knowledge for the NPS and/or advances science and human understanding. The Program works by providing faculty members with the services of a sabbatical clearinghouse. Eligible faculty are from four-year institutions of higher education in the United States who have successfully competed for sabbaticals according to the procedures of their institution. No deadline for applications exists, but faculty should submit materials as soon as possible before their planned sabbatical. For more information please contact Jared Ficker at jared_ficker@nps.gov or at (530) 759-0892.

Environmental Ethics and Issues: Alaska as a Case Study, an NEH Summer Institute, will take place May 27th through July 1, at the University of Alaska Anchorage in the heart of southcentral Alaska. This unique five-week institute will involve some of the most important scholars in the field of environmental ethics and some of the most interesting environmental issues of the day--all in the setting of the Great Land. The Institute is designed as an integration of ethical theory, environmental issues, and relevant site visits. The principal visiting scholars for the Institute are J. Baird Callicott, Allen Carlson, Eugene Hargrove, Dale Jamieson, and Karen Warren. They will lead discussions on the history of environmental thought, the land ethic, aesthetic theories of the environment, ecofeminism, animal rights, and biocentrism. Among the environmental issues examined will be indigenous views of the land; fisheries management; management of national parks; and oil development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Site visits will include Denali National Park, Prince William Sound, Kenai Fjords National Park, Valdez, and Chugach National Park. For further information, please visit: http://cwolf.uaa.alaska.edu/~ayphi/institute.htm, or contact the Director, James Liszka, at: AFJJL@uaa.alaska.edu.


ISEE Group Sessions. Proposals are invited for individual papers or group sessions for the APA Western, Central and Eastern Division meetings. For the Western, contact ISEE newsletter editor Phil Cafaro, acting for ISEE treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. For the Central, contact ISEE secretary Laura Westra. For the Eastern, contact ISEE Vice-President Dale Jamieson. Addresses at the end of the newsletter. The deadline for proposals is September 1 for the Western and Central, March 1 for the Eastern.

Ethics & the Environment is pleased to announce that it has been acquired by Indiana University Press. Victoria Davion, founding editor five years ago, remains as journal editor. IUP will publish volume 6 beginning in the Spring of 2001. Subscriptions rates are: North America, $30 yearly for individuals, $90 for institutions; foreign, same rates with a surcharge of an extra $7 surface, or $14 air. Further information is available on the IUP web site at: http://www.iupjournals.org. The journal is once again accepting submissions. Preference will be given to manuscripts of 25 pages or less. Please send three copies to: Victoria Davion, Editor, Ethics & the Environment, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1627. Please e-mail inquiries to Mona Freer at mfreer@arches.uga.edu.

Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics is a new journal edited by Seumas Miller which aims to publish refereed articles and discussion papers in all areas of professional and applied ethics. Some articles will be philosophical analyses, others will be empirical studies, still others will be interdisciplinary in character. The journal will publish the works of practitioners, as well as academics. All submissions and correspondence concerning submissions should be addressed to: The Editor, Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics, Centre for Professional and Applied Ethics, St. Mark's National Theological Centre, Charles Sturt University, 15 Blackall Street, Barton ACT 2600, AUSTRALIA. E-mail: cpae@csu.edu.au. Subscription information at: www.csu.edu.au/faculty/arts/humss/AJPAE.

Environmental Philosophy And Ethics is a new book series edited by J. Baird Callicott and John van Buren. Following in the SUNY Press's long and active history in the field of environmental philosophy, this new series welcomes submissions from all philosophical traditions, including the Analytic and Continental traditions, as well as interdisciplinary submissions with a philosophical or ethical dimension. For information or submissions, contact John van Buren, evanburen@fordham.edu, Department of Philosophy, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458.

The Canadian Society for the Study of Practical Ethics has a new website. Find current and archived newsletters of the society and a call for papers for the upcoming conference "Ethics, Science, and the Professions" (May 2001, Quebec, Canada) at www.carleton.ca/csspe-sceea.

Land, Air, Water: Public Environmental Law Conference. University of Oregon School of Law, Eugene, OR, March 1-4, 2001. A famous conference continues, keeping the issues alive, featuring environmental policy and ethics. For a full program see http://www.pielc.uoregon.edu.

The XIIth Global Warming International Conference and Expo will be held April 8- 11, 2001, at Cambridge, UK. This year's conference focuses on the Kyoto compliance review. Advanced registration deadline: January 15, 2001. Regular registration deadline: March 1. For further information: www.globalwarming.net.

Social Issues and the Environment: A Green Approach to Improving Our Communities, a national conference, will be held March 6-8, 2001, at the Lied Conference Center in Nebraska City, Nebraska. Topics to be addressed include urban forestry, environmental justice, community gardens, brownfields reclamation, and more. For further information or to register on line: www.arborday.org/socialissues.


Corporate Criminals. A multimedia case study on "Shell in Nigeria" has been produced by the Council for Ethics in Economics. The case addresses environmental issues of oil exploration and production in the Niger Delta. The case is delivered over the Internet and can be previewed at www.i-case.com.


Thanks to Greg Pritchard, graduate student at Deakin University, Victoria, Australia, for editing one hundred of these entries. Pritchard is doing a thesis in environmental ethics and literature.

--Acevedo, Mariana T., "The Intersection of Human Rights and Environmental Protection in the European Court of Human Rights," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8 (No. 2, 2000): 347- .

--Alpert, Peter, "Stewardship, Concept Of," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 481-494. Stewardship is taking care of something for someone else. Originally, a steward was a person who managed household affairs for a landowner. In natural resource management, stewardship often refers to voluntary actions taken by private landowners to promote ecological goals on their own lands. Stewardship may have an instrumental rationale, such as the human need for natural resources; or an intrinsic rationale, such as the moral rights of species to exist.

--Angermeier, Pl L., "The Natural Imperative for Biological Conservation," Conservation Biology 14 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 373- .

--Baker, Beth, "Farm Bill Environmental Program May Threaten Native Prairie Habitat.," Bioscience. 50 (No. 5, 2000 May 01): 400- .

--Barnett, Jonathan, ed. Planning For a New Century. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 218 pages. Paper $29.95. Ways in which public policies have helped create, and can help solve, many of the problems facing our communities, federal, state, and local, including environmental quality.

--Barrett, Gary W. and Farina, Almo, "Integrating Ecology and Economics," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 311- .

--Benari , Ella T., "Speaking for Nature," Bioscience 50 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 556- .

--Benari, Ella T., "Not just slime," Bioscience 49 (No. 9, 1999 Sep 01): 689- . Beneath the slippery exterior of a microbial biofilm lies a remarkably organized community of organisms.

--Berkes, Fikret, "Religious Traditions and Biodiversity," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 109-120. Religious traditions have little to say specifically about biodiversity, but they provide the values, worldviews, or environmental ethics that shape the way in which different societies interact with biological diversity and nature in general. In this sense, religion can be part of the problem or part of the solution. Anthropologist Eugene Anderson observes that all traditional societies that have succeeded in keeping resources productive over time have done so in part through religious or ritual representation of resource management. The key point, he says, is not religion per se, but using emotionally powerful cultural symbols to maintain a sense of sacred respect.

--Blumener, Earl, "Entrepreneurial Environmentalism: A New Approach for the New Millennium," Environmental Law 30 (No. 1, 2000): 1- . As the environmental movement enters the new millennium, it must confront an array of hurdles. Faced with political stalemate concerning environmental remedies and policy and shrinking public revenues and resources, Congressman Blumener suggests adoption of an entrepreneurial environmentalism strategy. Environmentalism in the coming millennium, according to Congressman Blumener, must provide comprehensive solutions, use "cheap and green" strategies, look to performance based regulations, and encourage economic incentives.

--Bormann, Herb), "On Respect for Nature," NRCC News, Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative (P. O. Box 2705, Jackson, WY 83001), Autumn 2000, no. 13, pp. 4-5. "The biogeochemistry of the forest ecosystem changes with disturbances like cutting or fire and ... the forest ecosystem restores its regulation of biogeochemistry as it repairs itself through growth. The most astounding thing is that this great waxing and waning of the forest and its control over biogeochemistry occurs through the interaction of the abiotic environment with thousands of species of plants, animals and microbes and that it is repeatable. Not only is it repeatable through millennia of modest local, regional, and global disturbances, but ecosystems also have the power of adjustment to new conditions, through evolution of component species and migrations of new species.

The complexity of it all is overwhelming. ... Despite our growing knowledge of the natural world, there is still a vast unknown component to the earth whose extent and effectiveness is supported every day as this green planet sails through forbidding space. We should respect, cherish and change with utmost caution this largely unknown natural world because it works as it is and we are totally dependent on its working." Bormann is emeritus, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, and celebrated for his designing of the small watershed technique for measurement and analysis of forest ecosystems.

--Botkin, Daniel B. No Man's Garden: Thoreau and a New Vision for Civilization and Nature. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 288 pages. Cloth $24.95. Ecologist Daniel Botkin takes a new look at the life and writings of Thoreau to discover a model for reconciling the conflict between nature and civilization that lies at the heart of our environmental problems. He develops an account designed the assist in preserving the health of our biosphere that simultaneously allows for the further growth and development of civilization.

--Boyle, T. C., A Friend of the Earth. New York: Viking, 2000. An eco-novel, portraying a future dystopia in which all the efforts of environmentalists accomplish nothing and the world succumbs to global warming. At the conclusion, the lead couple, broken and old, head for the blasted mountain forest to rebuild the wrecked house in which they had once lived. They watch the woods begin to come back, "the shoots of the new trees rising up out of the graveyard of the old, aspens shaking out their leaves with a sound like applause, willows thick along the streambeds."

--Brick, Philip, Snow, Donald, Van de Wetering, Sarah, eds. Across the Great Divide: Explorations in Collaborative Conservation and the American West. 256 pages. Cloth $50. Paper $25. Collaborative conservation as a new approach to environmental problem solving.

--Brown, Elizabeth Cowan, "The "Wholly Separate" Truth: Did the Yellowstone Wolf Reintroduction Violate Section 10 (j) of the Endangered Species Act," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 27 (No. 3, 2000 Spring): 425- .

--Bunyard, Peter, "Fiddling while the climate burns.," The Ecologist. 30 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 48- . Bunyard reveals the likely changes in climate if we do not change our ways.

--Burger, Joanna, Ostrom, Elinor, Norgaard, Richard B., Policansky, David, and Goldstein, Bernard D., eds. Protecting the Commons: A Framework for Resource Management in the Americas. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 328 pages. Cloth $60. Paper $30. Commons issues and policies.

--Burnham, Philip. Indian Country, God's Country: Native Americans and the National Parks. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 352 pages. $27.50. The complex relationship between Native Americans and the national parks, relating how Indians were removed, relocated, or otherwise kept at arm's length from lands that became some of our nations's most hallowed ground.

--Busby, Chris, "And the dangers pylon," The Ecologist. 30 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 50- . New evidence claims that overhead power lines and cancer are unrelated. Chris Busby examines the truths.

--Cafaro, Philip and Primack, Richard, "Ethical Issues in Biodiversity Protection," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 2: 593-607. Conservationists and conservation biologists share a basic ethical commitment to preserve biodiversity. But ethical disagreements and dilemmas arise in the attempt to realize this commitment. This article examines some important ethical issues faced by those who seek to protect biodiversity.

--Callicott, J. Baird, "Harmony between Men and Land--Aldo Leopold and the Foundations of Ecosystem Management," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 5, 2000 May 01): 4- . Essays published only recently reveal that formulating a concept of ecosystem health--"land health," as he called it--was central to Aldo Leopold's philosophy of conservation. Our contemporary concepts of ecosystem health and ecosystem management were, in fat, clearly outlined in Leopold's writings 50 years ago.

--Callicott, J. Baird, Crowder, Larry B., and Mumford, Karen, "Normative Concepts in Conservation Biology: Reply to Willers and Hunter," Conservation Biology 14 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 575- .

--Calthorpe, Peter, and Fulton, William, The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. 260 pages. Cloth $55. Paper $35. A new metropolitan form and how regional- scale planning and design can help direct growth wisely and reverse current trends in land use.

--Calvez, Leigh, "Deafness in the depths," The Ecologist 30 (No. 4, 2000 Jun 01): 48- . Leigh Calvez shows how sonar equipment used by the US navy is threatening the existence of whales, dolphins and other sea mammals.

--Catton, Jr., William R., "Kulturelle Rueckstaendigkeit gefaehrdet die Zukunft der Menschheit" (article in German) Humanity's Future Imperiled by Cultural Lags. Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 3-25. Abstract: Human societies exploiting Earth's ecosystems beyond carrying capacity make ideas about human dominion obsolete. Formerly successful policies become disastrous. With six billion humans using Earth three ways (as supply depot, activity space, and disposal site) mutual interference between these uses escalates. Technological advances, once progressive, now enlarge per capita resource appetites and impacts, reducing the number of humans the planet can continue supporting. Sustainability requires enormous efficiencies and a period of "negative population growth".

--Cohn, Jeffrey P., "Saving the Salton Sea," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 295-.

--Conelly, W. Thomas and Chaiken, Miriam S., "Intensive Farming, Agro-Diversity, and Food Security Under Conditions of Extreme Population Pressure in Western Kenya," Human Ecology 28 (No. 1, 2000 Mar 01): 19- .

--Corash, Michele B., "Consensus Will Be Key to Globalization Environmental Law," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 7 (No. 3, 2000 Winter): 30- .

--Corley-Smith, Graham E., and Brandhorst, Bruce P., "Preservation of Endangered Species and Populations: A Role for Genome Banking, Somatic Cell Cloning and Androgenesis?" Molecular Reproduction and Development 55 (no. 3, July 1999):363- 367.

--Cornhett, Zane J., "The Courage to Say "Not Yet" to the Proposed Code of Ethics," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 22- . Until we have engaged each other in debate and anticipated the values we will need in the 21st century, we should just say "Not yet" to the current proposal to revise our Code of Ethics.

--Coufal, James E., "Facing Difficult Questions: Can the SAF Code of Ethics Help?," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 28- . Not trying to answer the tough questions is behaving like the ostrich that sticks its head in the sand. In either case, danger does not just go away.

--Crowley, Kate, "A Failed Greening? The Electoral Routing of the Tasmanian Greens," Environmental Politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Winter): 186- .

--Cudahy, Richard D., "Coming of Age in the Environment," Environmental Law 30 (No. 1, 2000): 15- . Judge Cudahy traces the history of the environmental movement in the United States and concludes with a peek into the future of Environmental law. He questions the direction in which the United States is headed in terms of urban sprawl and also ponders the population dilemma.

--Dasgupta, Partha, Levin, Simono, and Lubchenco, Jane, "Economic Pathways to Ecological Sustainability," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 339- .

--Dasgupta, Partha, "Economic Value of Biodiversity, Overview," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 2: 291-304. Any assessment of the value of biodiversity should begin with an account of why we need to value it and the reasons market values would not be expected to suffice for the purpose. The first three sections discuss these matters in the wider context of valuing natural resources (biodiversity is but a special case). Following sections discuss the special problems that arise in valuing biodiversity.

--Daszak, Peter, Cunningham, Andrew A., and Hyatt, Alex D., "Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife--Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health," Science 287(21 January 2000):443-449. Infectious diseases of wild animals spill over into domestic animals and vice versa. They also spill over into humans and vice versa. These diseases threaten biodiversity as well as human health. Increased populations escalate the problem. The Spanish conquistadors brought smallpox and measles into native American peoples; likewise their animals brought wildlife diseases. A classic misfortune, a paradigm for the future, is the African rinderpest epidemic of the 1880's and 1890's, introduced from Asia, and spreading across Africa in ten years, devastating cattle and wild buffalo. Daszak is with the Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia.

--Davidson, Carlos, "Economic Growth and the Environment: Alternatives to the Limits Paradigm.," Bioscience 50 (No. 2000 May 01): 5- .

--Debinski, Diane M. and Holt, Robert D., "A Survey and Overview of Habitat Fragmentation Experiments," Conservation Biology 14 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 342- .

--deCastri, Francesco, "Ecology in a Context of Economic Globalization," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 321- .

--DesJardins, Joseph, Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001. Concise, summary, balanced descriptions of available positions, sketches of historical developments, readable by undergraduates without compromise of serious argument; conclusions are often provisional and open-ended, intended to keep the student on inquiry. New sections on the idea of wilderness, biocentric ethics, and environmental pragmatism. More integration of cases into chapter material. Broadened discussion of the debate over consumption and population, now moving beyond energy policy to philosophical examination of a wider range of ethical responsibilities to future generations. The first edition was in 1993; the second in 1997. Des Jardins is in philosophy at the College of Saint Benedict/St. John's University, St. Joseph, MN.

--Dileva (Di Leva), Charles, "Developing Countries and the Global Nature of Environmental Issues Demand Responsible Involvement of the International Community," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 7 (No. 3, 2000 Winter): 27- .

--Dobson, Andrew, "Drei Konzepte oekologischer Nachhaltigkeit" (article in german). Three conceptions of environmental sustainability. Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 62-85. Abstract: The concept of environmental sustainability is usually approached either definitionally or discursively. Both these approaches have their limitations. Better is an analytical strategy revolving around the distillation from the literature of the questions to which any theory of environmental sustainability would have to have an answer. This produces a framework for analysis that can be transformed into a typology by grouping the answers to those questions into "conceptions of sustainability". Two "diagnostic packages" are proposed for determining the causes of, and solutions to, unsustainability.

--Dobson, Andrew P., and Rodriguez, Jon Paul, "Conservation Biology, Discipline Of" Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 1: 855-864. Conservation biology is one of the fastest-growing fields of modern scientific research. It is an applied discipline that integrates principles of natural and social sciences with the objective of achieving the long-term persistence of biodiversity on Earth. This article reviews current trends in conservation biology, using a hierarchical organization to present the principle domains of research. These domains range from the largest level of ecosystems and communities, to the intermediate level of species and populations, and down to the smallest level, that of the individual and genes.

--Domosh, Mona, "Sexing feminist geography," Progress In Human Geography. 23 (No. 3, 1999): 437- .

--Drechsler, M., "A model-based decision aid for species protection under uncertainty," Biological Conservation 94 (No. 1, 2000): 23- .

--Driesen, David M., "Choosing Environmental Instruments in a Transnational Context.," Ecology Law Quarterly 27 (No. 1, 2000): 1- .

--Ehrlich, Paul R. Human Natures: Genes, Cultures, and the Human Prospect. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 542 pages. Cloth $29.95. Using personal anecdote, vivid example, and narrative, Ehrlich searches his way through the thicket of controversies over what science can and cannot say about the influence of our evolutionary past on everything from race to religion, from sexual orientation to economic development. Ehrlich attempts a fresh view of human natures and evolution, applying this to questions such as who and where we are as a species, and where we may be headed.

--Ehrlich, Paul, and Kremen, Claire, "Human Effects on Ecosystems, Overview," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 3: 383-394. Two central issues concerning biodiversity today are the roles that plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms play in the functioning of ecosystems, and the primarily negative impacts of human beings on those ecosystems. Here we focus on the latter, starting with the rise of humanity as a geophysical force and then examining in some detail current anthropogenic alteration of ecosystems and the prospects of further damage by human beings to the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Finally, we look at ways in which human damage to ecosystems could be limited in the future.

--Elias, David and Goodman, Robert C., "When Nothing is Something: Understanding Detection Limits," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 7 (No. 3, 2000 Winter): 52-.

--Ellefson, Paul V., "The Safety of Our Forests and the Prosperity of Our People--Has Gifford Pinchot's Regulatory Vision Been Realized," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 5, 2000 May 01): 14- . Forestry on private land should be regulated, Gifford Pinchot argued, and so it came to pass...though not quite in the way he imagined. Recognizing their cost and administrative burden, regulatory programs of the future will further accommodate public and private interests in forests.

--Els, H., and J. Du P. Bothma, "Developing partnerships in a paradigm shift to achieve conservation reality in South Africa," Koedoe (Research Journal, South African Parks) 41 (no. 1, 2000):19-26. Community development as an integral part of, not an add-on to, conservation. Programmes which really achieve conservation-based community development, enhancing survival for both the communities and their inherent natural resources. Both authors are at the Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

--Farina, Almo, "The Cultural Landscape as a Model for the Integration of Ecology and Economics," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 313- .

--Ferrier, S., Pressey, R.L., and Barrett, T.W., "A new predictor of the irreplaceability of areas for achieving a conservation goal, its application to real-world planning, and a research agenda for further refinement," Biological conservation 93 (No. 3, 2000): 303 -- .

--Fischer, Megan, "Should We Save Nature While People Go Hungry?: An Analysis of Nature Preservation and Poverty." M.A. thesis, Philosophy, Colorado State University. 2000. Sometimes, the most ethical decision is to preserve nature even if some people have basic needs unmet. This issue is important and often faced in nature preservation internationally. Some case studies. Priority should be given to win-win situations, where needy people can remain on lands without degrading them or harming wildlife. Attention needs to be given to the deeper social problems that underlie and cause such poverty. Also one must consider whether policies are likely to succeed or be counter-productive. Sustainable development, though desirable, is not always an answer. Analysis must take all values into account, including the holistic values, and optimizing such value will require saving nature even though human needs go unmet. This ought to prove an interim ethic, and on longer time scales future generations of humans are likely to be better off in result.

--Fjetland, Conrad A., "Possibilities for Expansion of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act for the Protection of Migratory Birds," Natural Resources Journal 40 (No. 1, 2000 Winter): 47- .

--Fjetland, Conrad A., "The Endangered Species Act and Indian Treaty Rights: A Fresh Look," Tulane Environmental Law Journal 13 (No. 1, 1999 Winter): 45- .

--Flanagan, Maureen A., "Environmental Justice in the City: A Theme for Urban Environmental History," Environmental History 5 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 159- .

--Folke Carl, and Colding, Johan, "Traditional Conservation Practices," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 681-694. People have inhabited terrestrial ecosystems for thousands of years. Both resource management systems and cosmological belief systems have evolved and continue to develop. In fact, most, if not all, ecosystems and biodiversity have been altered by humans to various degrees. The human imprint has in many cases wiped out species and caused substantial land use change. However, some traditional and contemporary practices do contribute to biodiversity conservation.
--Forbes, Wiliam and Lindquist, Christopher, "Philosophical, Professional, and Environmental Ethics: An Overview for Foresters," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 4- . Discussions of contemporary environmental ethics should emphasize the importance of case-specific flexibility, workplace settings, and experiential learning in ethical decision making.

--Fox, Jefferson, Truong, Dao Minh, and Leisz, Stephen, "Shifting Cultivation: A New Old Paradigm for Managing Tropical Forests," Bioscience 50 (No. 6, 2000 Jun 01): 521-

--Fox, Michael W., Bringing Life to Ethics. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2000. We ought to use the compass of global bioethics--humility, responsibility, interdisciplinary and intercultural competence--to counter technological, ecological, and value threats, moving toward a human and sustainable society. Fox, a veterinarian, writes the nationally syndicated column, "Ask the Animal Doctor."

--Fox, Warwick, ed., Ethics and the Built Environment, London: Routledge, 2000. 15 original papers, divided into three sections entitled: (1) The Green Imperative - and its Vicissitudes; (2) Building with Greater Sensitivity to People(s) and Places; (3) Steps Towards a Theory of the Ethics of the Built Environment. Just as traditional, anthropocentrically focused forms of ethics have exhibited a major blind spot in their theorising with respect to the nonhuman world, so the development of environmental ethics has thus far exhibited a major blind spot of its own. The world around us--what we call "the environment"--consists of both spontaneously occurring and humanly constructed environments. This natural/built environment distinction is perhaps the most obvious division that we can make in the day-to-day world in which we live. Yet, despite the fact that the world around us consists of both natural and built environments (and their various admixtures), environmental ethics, as a formal field of inquiry, has been overwhelmingly focused upon the spontaneously self-organising natural environment as opposed to the humanly created, or intentionally organised, built environment. Environmental ethics has not yet truly earned the name that it presently goes under. On the one hand, this bias towards concerns with the natural environment is completely understandable: environmental ethicists have wanted to escape the almost exclusively anthropocentric focus that has pervaded traditional ethical approaches. On the other hand, this bias is decidedly odd. Whereas humans evolved in natural, or spontaneously self-organising, environments, we now increasingly live in built, or intentionally organised, environments.

--Garrett, Gary W. and Odum, Eugene P., "The Twenty-First Century: The World at Carrying Capacity," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 363- .

--Gelbard, Alene, "Population Stabilization, Human," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 4: 799-810. Human population change has three components: births, deaths, and migration. On a global level, only births and deaths determine changes in population size. In the 1990s, more than 70 million people were added to the world's total population each year and it took only 12 years for the world's population to increase from 5 to 6 billion people. This growth will continue into the twenty-first century. How much growth will occur, and how quickly, and when or whether this growth will stabilize, depends on a host of factors. In 1994, the world community agreed on the need to stabilize global population growth. This article describes the history of global population growth, factors associated with this growth, and how countries view this growth. It concludes with a discussion of prospects for the stabilization of population in the future.

--Giljum, Stefan, and Hinterberger, Friedrich, "Wie misst man oekologische Nachhaltigkeit? Ein Vergleich ausgewaehlter Methoden des `Physical Accounting' (article in German). How do we measure ecological sustainability? A comparison of selected physical accounting methodologies. Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 26- 43. Abstract: Energy and materials form the base for all natural and social processes on our planet. Thus, the implementation of ecological sustainability requires methodologies, which represent the metabolism of social systems in physical terms. This article presents four of the most influential approaches in physical accounting and defines criteria for a comparison of these methodologies. Understanding ecological sustainability as a global challenge demands for the application of comprehensive calculation methodologies, which indicate the demand for natural resources independent from the region of their occurrence.

--Gleick, Peter H. The World's Water 2000-2001: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 304 pages. Paper $32. Freshwater resources and their use. The most significant trends worldwide, the most current data available. Brief reports on issues such as arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh, the collection of fog as a source of water in remote regions, and more.

--Gobster, Paul H., Hull, R. Bruce, eds. Restoring Nature: Perspectives from the Social Sciences and Humanities. 269 pages. Cloth $50. Paper $25. Using a recent controversy over ecological restoration efforts in Chicago as a touchstone for discussion, this book explores the difficult questions that arise during the planning implementation of restoration projects in urban and wildland settings. Ways in which restoration conflicts might be resolved, and examples of stewardship that show how volunteers and local residents can help make and maintain restored environments.

--Goodenough Ursula, "At Home with Ecology," Science and Spirit 11(no. 4, November/December 2000):18-19. The sacred depths of nature emerge from the common ground of subjective, cultural and natural dwellings. Might this be religion? Life is a coral reef. We each leave behind the best, the strongest deposit we can. But what's important is the reef. The metaphor goes to the heart of ecology. Goodenough is in biology at Washington University.

--Gorke, Martin, "Was spricht für eine holistische Umweltethik? (article in German). What speaks for ethical holism? Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 86-105 Abstract: Ethical holism ascribes intrinsic value to all natural things and whole systems. I argue in favor of this ethic in three steps: Firstly I expose that there is an elemental intuition which supports holism. Secondly I show that holism can be rationally justified: The universal character of the moral point of view doesn't permit to exclude any natural entities from the moral community. Thirdly I advance arguments that preservationists should remain pragmatic holists.

--Grendstad, Gunnar, "The New Ecological Paradigm Scale: Examination and Scale Analysis," Environmental Politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Winter): 194- .

--Grimm, Nancy B., Grove, J. Morgan, and Redman, Charles L., "Integrated Approaches to Long-Term Studies of Urban Ecological Systems," Bioscience 50 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 571- .

--Hammitt, William, and Cole, David, Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management. New York: John Wiley, 1998. Management strategies to mitigate environmental impacts of recreation. Features management, more than science. For the science see Liddle, Michael, Recreation Ecology: The Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism.

--Hanna, Susan, "Property Rights and Biodiversity," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 4: 891-899. Property rights to natural resources define privileges and responsibilities in the use of environmental goods and services. They specify the way people are to behave toward one another as they use environmental resources. This chapter describes the form and function of property rights in general and discusses the relation of property rights to biodiversity in particular. This discussion summarizes what is known about the potential and limitations of property rights to protect biodiversity. It also examines the considerable uncertainty that exists with respect to the design of property rights for biodiversity protection.

--Hanson, Meira, "`Sustainability' Rendered Usable? The Idea of Environmental Space," Environmental Politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Winter): 211- .

--Heal, Geoffrey. Nature and the Marketplace: Capturing the Value of Ecosystem Services. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 184 pages. Cloth $50. Paper $25. The controversial proposition that markers should be designed to capture the value of services provided by functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services and the economics of the environment, eschewing "romantic" notions about ecosystem preservation in favor of "real-world" economic solutions.

--Herman, Carol Casazza, "Globalization of Environmental Issues," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 7 (No. 3, 2000 Winter): 12- .

--Herzog, Thomas R., Herbert, Eugene J., and Crooks, C.L., "Cultural and Developmental Comparisons of Landscape Perceptions and Preferences," Environment And Behavior 32 (No. 3, 2000 May 01): 323- .

--Higgs, Eric, Light, Andrew, and Strong, David., eds., Technology and the Good Life? Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. 18 essays on the philosophy of technology of Albert Borgmann. Of particular interest to environmental philosophers:

Higgs, Eric, "Nature by Design," and Thompson, Paul B., "Farming as Focal Practice."
Higgs is at the University of Alberta, Light at New York University, and Strong at Rocky Mountain College, Billings, Montana.

--Hildreth, Richard G., "Water Law at the Crossroads," Journal of environmental law and litigation 14 (No. 1, 1999): 1 - .

--Hoffman, Andrew J., "Integrating Environmental and Social Issues into Corporate Practice," Environment 42 (No. 5, 2000 Jun 01): 22- . Can corporations develop strategies that simultaneously allow them to achieve economic prosperity, environmental quality, and social equity?

--Houston, Pam, "Wide Awake in Bear Country: Why the Wilderness Needs a Predator," Wilderness, 2000, p. 41, p. 59. "You might argue that a wilderness that supports a predator as huge and powerful as a grizzly bear is wilderness raised to the second power. I'd argue that a wilderness that contains nothing that might eat you isn't worthy of the name." Houston is a guide who lives in Colorado.

--Hull, R. Bruce, Robertson, David P., and Kendra, Angelina, "What Are We Hiding Behind the Visual Buffer Strip? Forest Aesthetics Reconsidered," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 34- . Current aesthetic policies hide the practice of forestry, suggesting that these practices are bad for the land. We need to take a leadership role in shaping public tastes.

--Humphries Jr., William C., "Mixing Ethics and Management: A Crisis in Our Profession," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 31- . Including the "land ethic" in the SAF Code of Ethics creates confusion and weakens the integrity of the code.

--Hunter Jr., Malcolm L., "Refining Normative Concepts in Conservation," Conservation Biology 14 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 573- .

--Hursthouse, Rosalind, ed., Ethics, Humans and Other Animals: An Introduction with Readings. London: Routledge, 2000. Three standard approaches to ethics: utilitarianism, rights, and virtue ethics, and how each approach encourages us to think about our treatment of animals. Hursthouse is at the Open University, UK.

--Jamieson, Dale, ed., A Companion to Environmental Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. Not cheap, $ 125.00, and not small, 511 pages. Not just for philosophers, but quite inclusive. Major reference work for everybody, especially for libraries.
1 Indigenous perspectives, Laurie Anne Whitt, Mere Roberts, Waerete Norman, and Vicki Grieves.
2 Classical China, Karyn L. Lai.
3 Classical India, 0. P. Dwivedi.
4 Jainism and Buddhism, Christopher Key Chapple.
5 The classical Greek tradition, Gabriela R. Carone.
6 Judaism, Eric Katz.
7 Christianity, Robin Attfield.
8 Islam, S. Nomanul Haq.
9 Early modern philosophy, Charles Taliaferro.
10 Nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy, Andrew Brennan.
11 Meta-ethics, John O'Neill.
12 Normative ethics, Robert Elliot.
13 Sentientism, Gary Varner.
14 The land ethic, J. Baird Callicott.
15 Deep ecology, Freya Mathews.
16 Ecofeminism, Victoria Davion.
17 Literature, Scott Slovic.
18 Aesthetics, John Andrew Fisher.
19 Economics, A. Myrick Freeman III.
20 History, Ian Simmons.
21 Ecology, Kristin Shrader-Frechette.
22 Politics, Robyn Eckersley.
23 Law, Sheila Jasanoff.
24 Wilderness, Mark Woods.
25 Population, Clark Wolf.
26 Future generations, Ernest Partridge.
27 Sustainability, Alan Holland.
28 Biodiversity, Holmes Rolston III.
29 Animals, Peter Singer.
30 Environmental justice, Robert Figueroa and Claudia Mills.
31 Technology, Lori Gruen.
32 Climate, Henry Shue.
33 Land and water, Paul B. Thompson.
34 Consumption, Mark Sagoff.
35 Colonization, Keekok Lee.
36 Environmental disobedience, Ned Hettinger.

--Kalas, Peggy Rodgers and Herwig, Alexia, "Dispute Resolution Under the Kyoto Protocol," Ecology Law Quarterly 27 (No. 1, 2000): 53- .

--Kane, Hal. Triumph of the Mundane: The Unseen Trends that Shape Our Lives and Environment. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 208 pages. Cloth $22.95. How and why our day-to-day lives have changed in recent decades, and the wide-ranging impacts of those changes. Using a variety of indicators--distances between family members, the things we own, the pace of our lives, he traces the social transformations that have occurred, and considers the profound effects of those changes on our values, relationships, and physical surroundings.

--Keller, David R., and Golley, Frank B., eds. The Philosophy of Ecology: From Science to Synthesis. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000. Anthology on philosophy and ecology edited by a philosopher and an ecologist. The challenges of defining scientific ecology, tracing its genealogy, and distinguishing the science from various forms of "ecological-like" thinking. The ontology of ecological entities and processes. Selected concepts of community, stability, diversity, and niche. The methodology of ecology (rationalism and empiricism, reduction and holism). The significance of evolutionary law for ecological science.

"Introduction: Ecology as a Science of Synthesis."
PART ONE. Entities and Process in Ecology
1. Frederic E. Clements, "Preface to Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation."
2. Henry A. Gleason, "The Individualistic Concept of the Plant Association."
3. Arthur G. Tansley, "The Use and Abuse of Vegetational Concepts and Terms."
4. Daniel Simberloff, "A Succession of Paradigms in Ecology: Essentialism to Materialism and Probabilism."
5. Robert E. Ulanowicz, "Life after Newton: An Ecological Metaphysic."
PART TWO. Community, Niche, Diversity, and Stability
6. Karl Möbius, "An Oyster Bank Is a Biocönose, or a Social Community."
7. Robert H. Whittaker, Simon A. Levin, and Richard B. Root, "On the Reasons for Distinguishing Niche, Habitat, and Ecotype."
8. Ruth Patrick, "Biological Diversity in Ecology."
9. Andrew Redfearn and Stuart L. Pimm, "Stability in Ecological Communities."
PART THREE. Rationalism and Empiricism
10. Karl R. Popper, "The Bucket and the Searchlight: Two Theories of Knowledge."
11. Robert M. May, "The Role of Theory in Ecology."
12. Kristin Shrader-Frechette and Earl D. McCoy, "Community Ecology, Population Biology, and the Method of Case Studies."
PART FOUR. Reductionism and Holism
13. Thomas W. Schoener, "Mechanistic Approaches to Ecology: A New Reductionism?"
14. Eugene P. Odum, "The Emergence of Ecology as a New Integrative Discipline."
15. Donato Bergandi, "`Reductionist Holism': An Oxymoron or a Philosophical Chimera of Eugene Odum's Systems Ecology?"
16. Richard Levins and Richard C. Lewontin, "Dialectics and Reductionism in Ecology."
17. T.F.H. Allen and Thomas B. Starr, "Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity."
Part Five. Ecology and Evolution
18. David L. Hull, "The Metaphysics of Evolution."
19. Stephen J. Gould and Richard C. Lewontin, "The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Program."
20. Ernst Mayr, "How to Carry Out the Adaptationist Program?"
21. James P. Collins, Evolutionary Ecology and the Use of Natural Selection in Ecological Theory."
22. Craig Loehle and Joseph H. K. Pechmann, "Evolution: The Missing Ingredient in Systems Ecology."

--Kelly, Phillip F., "The geographies and politics of globalization," Progress In Human Geography 23 (No. 3, 1999): 379- .
--Kipnis, Kenneth and South, David B, "Personal Values and Professional Ethics," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 11- . A professional code of ethics should reflect the core values of the profession: the question before SAF, then, is whether each principle in the proposed new code expresses a value we all share.

--Krausmann, Fridolin, "Landnutzung, Energie und industrielle Modernisierung: Eine historische Perspektive mit Blick in die Zukunft" (article in German). Land Use, Energy and Industrial Modernization: Historical aspects and implications for future development. Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 44-61. Abstract: The transformation of the socio-economic energy system, with a substitution of fossil fuels by biomass during the process of industrial modernization was connected with sweeping changes in land use, the agricultural production system and socio-economic biomass metabolism. In this paper an empirical analysis of the development of the human appropriation of net primary production in Austria since the early 19th century in connection with the changes in the socioeconomic energy system is presented. This focus is of interest not only from an environmental history perspective, but also reveals important aspects about possibilities and limitations of a development towards a modern version of a society based on solar energy.

--Kwik, Jessica, "Gardens Overhead," Alternatives 26 (No. 3, 2000 Summer): 16- . Rooftop culture sprouts in North American cities.

--Lankford, Bruce and Franks, Tom, "The Sustainable Coexistence of Wetlands and Rice Irrigation: A Case Study From Tanzania," The Journal of Environment and Development 9 (No. 2, 2000 Jun 01): 119- .

--Lanza, Robert P., Dresser, Betsy L., and Damiani, Philip, "Cloning Noah's Ark," Scientific American 283 (no. 5, November, 2000): 84-89. A humble Iowa cow is slated to give birth to the first cloned endangered species, a gaur, an ox-like animal now rare in India and listed by IUCN as endangered. The cloned Gaur bull is to be named Noah, in commemoration of the world's first endangered species project. Biotechnology, some biologists claim, might offer the best way to keep some endangered species from disappearing from the planet. One could also wonder if this might not launch another round of the "faking nature" debate. Lanza and Damiani are with Advanced Cell Technology, Worcester, MA, and are conservationists. Dresser is in research at the Audubon Institute Center for Research of Endangered Species, New Orleans.

--Lariviere, S., Jolicoeur, H., and Crete, M., "Status and conservation of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in wildlife reserves of Quebec," Biological Conservation 94 (No. 1, 2000): 143- .

--Lee, Kai N., "Sustainability, Concept and Practice Of," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 553-568. Biodiversity is dependent on sustainable utilization of the natural world by humans, and the conservation of biodiversity may well be essential to the durability of the human species. Is a sustainable economy possible? Recent scientific appraisals suggest that it is but that a transition toward sustainability will require significant social, political, and technological changes during the next two generations. This is also the time period in which human population seems likely to level off; hence, it is possible to think of a sustainability transition on the timescale of the demographic transition drawing to a close during the twenty-first century.

--Levin, Simon, editor-in-chief, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. San Diego: Academic Press, 2001. The Encyclopedia of Biodiversity is a comprehensive study of the topic of diversity in the natural world, contained within the covers of a single unified work. It consists of five volumes and includes 313 separate full-length articles by leading international authors, from "Acid Rain and Deposition" through "Zoos and Zoological Parks." Many articles focus on particular taxonomic groups: "Arachnids," "Fungi," "Hymenoptera," "Salmon." Others focus on important biological concepts or areas of study: "Dispersal Biogeography," "The Concept of the Ecosystem," "Mass Extinctions," "Methods of Taxonomy." Still others focus on management issues: "Ex Situ, In Situ
Conservation," "Insecticide Resistance," "Logged Forests," "Soil Conservation." In his foreword, E.O. Wilson writes: "The articles in the Encyclopedia of Biodiversity are unusually eclectic, yet organized by a set of easily articulated goals. They are the following: to carry the systematics and biogeography of the world fauna and flora toward completion; map the hotspots where conservation will save the most biodiversity; orient studies of natural history to understand and save threatened species; advance ecosystem studies and biogeography to create the needed principles of community assembly and maintenance; acquire the knowledge of resource use, economics, and polity to advance conservation programs based on sustainability; and enrich the ethic of global conservation in

Many articles should be of interest to environmental ethicists, including the following: (see separate bibliographic listings for each.)
* "Aesthetic Factors," Gordon Orians.
* "Agriculture, Sustainable," G. Philip Robertson and Richard R. Harwood.
* "Conservation Biology, Discipline Of," Andrew P. Dobson and Jon Paul Rodriguez.
* "Conservation Movement, Historical," Curt Meine.
* "Ecological Footprint, Concept Of," William Rees.
* "Economic Growth and the Environment," Karl-Goran Maler.
* "Economic Value of Biodiversity, Overview," Partha Dasgupta.
* "Environmental Ethics," Richard Primack and Philip Cafaro.
* "Ethical Issues in Biodiversity Protection," Philip Cafaro and Richard Primack.
* "Human Effects on Ecosystems, Overview," Paul Ehrlich and Claire Kremen.
* "Land-Use Issues," John Marzluff and Nathalie Hamel.
* "Population Stabilization, Human," Alene Gelbard.
* "Property Rights and Biodiversity," Susan Hanna.
* "Religious Traditions and Biodiversity," Fikret Berkes.
* "Restoration of Biodiversity, Overview," Joy B. Zedler et al.
* "Stewardship, Concept Of," Peter Alpert.
* "Sustainability, Concept and Practice Of," Kai N. Lee.
* "Traditional Conservation Practices," Carl Folke and Johan Colding.
* "Wildlife Management," David Saltz.

--Liddle, Michael, Recreation Ecology: The Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism. London: Chapman and Hall, 1997. Ecological impacts of outdoor recreation, featuring the science more than the management. For the management, see Hammitt, William, and Cole, David, Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management.

--Linden, Eugene, "The Road to Disaster," Time, Oct. 16, 2000, vol. 156, no. 16, pp. 96- 98. Paving the last 435 miles of BR-163, connecting Cuiaba with the TransAmazon highway, could open up the Pantanal to uncontrolled development, over half a million square miles in a region especially prone to burning.

--List, John A. and Co., Catherine Y., "The Effects of Environmental Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment," Journal Of Environmental Economics And Management 40 (No. 1, 2000 July 01): 1- .

--List, Peter C., ed. Environmental Ethics and Forestry: A Reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000. Paperback. 364 pages. The most comprehensive and concentrated mixture of science and conscience in forestry and philosophy anywhere available. During the last quarter century both forestry and philosophy have been rethinking their foundations; a principal focus is values carried by nature. A foreground conclusion of the contributors is that forestry needs philosophy to formulate an ethic, a background conclusion is that philosophy needs forestry to do the same. Throughout, here is ethics in practice.

Part 1: Ethical Systems in Forestry
* Bernhard Fernow, Forest and Forestry Defined.
* Gifford Pinchot, Principles of Conservation.
* Gifford Pinchot, The Use of the National Forests.
* John Muir, The American Forests.
* Aldo Leopold, The Land Ethic.
Part 11: Two Philosophical Issues in Forestry Ethics
* Holmes Rolston III, Values Deep in the Woods.
* Holmes Rolston III, Aesthetic Experience in Forests.
* Robin Attfield, The Good of Trees.
* Lawrence E. Johnson, Holistic Entities--Species.
* Lawrence E. Johnson, Ecointerests and Forest Fires.
Part III: Contemporary Forestry Ethics.
* Michael McDonald, First Principles for Professional Foresters.
* Paul M. Wood, "The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number": Is This a Good Land-Use Ethic?
* James E. Coufal, Environmental Ethics: Cogitations; and Ruminations of a Forester.
* The Ecoforestry Declaration of Interdependence.
* Code of Ethics for Members of the Society of American Foresters.
* Code of Ethics and Standards for Professional Conduct for Wildlife Biologists, The Wildlife Society.
* Code of Practices, American Fisheries Society.
* Code of Ethics, Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society.
* A Code of Ethics for Government Service.
* The Ecoforester's Way.
* James E. Coufal, The Land Ethic Question.
* Norwin E. Linnartz, Raymond S. Craig, and M. B. Dickerman, Land Ethic Canon Recommended by Committee.
* Holmes Rolston III and James Coufal, A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management: The Integrity of Forests and of Foresters Are Bound Together.
* Raymond S. Craig, Further Development of a Land Ethic Canon.
* Raymond S. Craig, Land Ethic Canon Proposal: A Report from the Task Force.
* Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Ethics and Environmental Advocacy.
* AFSEEE Vision: Strategy for Forest Service Reform.
* Jeff DeBonis, Speaking Out: A Letter to the Chief of the U.S. Forest Service.
* F. Dale Robertson, Chief Robertson Responds.
* On Speaking Out: Fighting for Resource Ethics in the BLM: Whistleblower Spills Beans on North Kaibab.
* A Combat Biologist Calls It Quits: An Interview with Al Espinosa.
* Cheri Brooks, Enough Is Enough! A Tongass Timber Beast Puts His Foot Down.
* James L. Bowyer, Responsible Environmentalism: The Ethical Features of Forest Harvest and Wood Use on a Global Scale.
* Alastair S. Gunn, Environmental Ethics and Tropical Rain Forests: Should Greens Have Standing?
* Doug Daigle, Globalization of the Timber Trade.
* Alan G. McQuillan, Cabbages and Kings: The Ethics and Aesthetics of New Forestry.
* Stephanie Kaza, Ethical Tensions in the Northern Forest.
* Alan Drengson and Duncan Taylor, An Overview of Ecoforestry: Introduction.
* Kathleen Dean Moore, Traveling the Logging Road, Coast Range.

--Little, Jo, "Otherness, representation and the cultural construction of rurality," Progress In Human Geography. 23 (No. 3, 1999): 437- .

--Low, Nicholas, ed., Global Ethics and the Environment. London: Routledge, 2000. The impact of development in new industrial regions, impacts of single events such as the Chernobyl disaster on the global community, and the ethical relationship between human and non-human nature. Low is at the University of Melbourne.

--Macdonald, D.W. and Johnson, P.J., "Farmers and the custody of the countryside: trends in loss and conservation of non-productive habitats 1981-1998," Biological Conservation 94 (No. 1, 2000): 221- .

--Machlis, Gary E., and Field, Donald R., eds. National Parks and Rural Development: Practice and Policy in the United States. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 296 pages. Cloth $55. Paper $27.50. Five case studies of rural development near national parks.

Lessons, principles applied, mistakes committed, and advances made. Personal essays from leaders in parks management.

--Maler, Karl-Goran, "Economic Growth and the Environment," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 2: 277-284. Will economic growth deteriorate or improve the environment? The general finding for many pollutants is that a country with a very low income does not have much pollution but when the scale of the economy grows, for example, as measured by GDP per capita, emissions of these pollutants will increase. However, when the income per capita is high enough, the economy will reach a turning point and pollution will decrease with further increases in per capita income. However, empirical and conceptual challenges remain.

--Maniates, Michael F. and Whissel, John C., "Environmental Studies: The Sky Is Not Falling," Bioscience 50 (No. 6, 2000 Jun 01): 509- .

--Marston, Sallie A., "The social construction of scale," Progress In Human Geography 24 (No. 2, 2000): 219- .

--Marzluff, John, and Hamel, Nathalie, "Land-Use Issues," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 3: 659-674. Land use issues concern the processes by which human activities determine land cover. Important issues are agricultural development and intensification, settlement, and extraction of natural resources. In response to human land use, the earth's land cover has changed from a mosaic of native woodlands, forests, and grasslands to an increasingly impacted mixture of degraded and fragmented native habitats, exotic croplands, and impervious urban surfaces. In the last three centuries, models suggest that forests have declined 19%, grasslands have declined 8%, and cropland has increased over 400%. This article discusses how land use processes have changed through time and how they have caused the natural pattern of land cover to change. This transformation of the planet's landscape is widely recognized as the primary driver in the current global loss of biodiversity. Several examples of how land use can influence biodiversity are also considered.

--Meffert, Lisa Marie, "How Speciation Experiments Relate to Conservation Biology," Bioscience 49 (No. 9, 1999 Sep 01): 701- . The assumption of captive breeding strategies--that founder events reduce genetic variation--may not always be correct.

--Meine, Curt, "Conservation Movement, Historical," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 1: 883-896. Modern efforts to conserve biodiversity have their foundations in older traditions of resource management and nature protection. This chapter traces the history of the conservation movement, focusing on those events and patterns that led to the emergence of biodiversity conservation from earlier utilitarian and preservation-oriented approaches. Because the conservation movement continues to redefine itself, this articles concludes with a consideration of key themes from recent history.

--Miller, Gordon L., ed. Nature's Fading Chorus. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. Declining amphibian life, figured into the worldviews of the many writers, scientists, and naturalists who considered amphibians across Western natural history tradition. Begins with Aristotle and continues through recent scientific accounts of declines and deformities in amphibian species.

--Mooney, Harold A., Hobbs, Richard J., eds. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 352 pages. Cloth $55. Paper $30. Global change will exacerbate the invasive species problem; invasives are themselves a global change element that need to be considered in global change scenarios.

--Mulligan, Shane P., "For Whose Benefit? Limits to Sharing in the Bioprospecting `Regime'," Environmental Politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Wint): 35- .

--Naveh, Zev, "The Total Human Ecosystem: Integrating Ecology and Economics," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 357- .

--Neumayer, Eric, "Trade and the Environment: A Critical Assessment and Some Suggestions for Reconciliation," The Journal of Environment and Development 9 (No. 2, 2000 June 01): 138- .

--Newmark, William D. and Hough, John L., "Conserving Wildlife In Africa: Integrated Conservation and Development Projects and Beyond," Bioscience 50 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 585- .

--Norman, Myers, Jennifer Kent. Perverse Subsidies: How Misused Tax Dollars Harm the Environment and the Economy. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 240 pages. Cloth $40. Paper $20. Subsidies worldwide with a particular focus on the extent, causes, and consequences of perverse subsidies. Dramatic illustrations of the scale and dimensions of the problem.

--Nunez, Theodore, W., "Can a Christian Environmental Ethic Go Wild? Evaluating Ecotheological Responses to the Wilderness Debate." Pages 329-348 in Twiss, Sumner B., and Kelsay, John, eds., The Annual, Society of Christian Ethics 2000 (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000). Postmodern ecophilosophers, such as J. Baird Callicott, argue that the wilderness idea, specifically the Euro-American conception of pristine nature derived from Muir and inscribed in the 1964 Wilderness Act, is ethnocentric, elitist, androcentric, and unjust. The value of existing wilderness areas is not questioned, but rather the background assumptions and policy implications of the received wilderness concept. This essay first reviews several postmodern critiques of and alternatives to the wilderness idea, and then examines the responses of two leading ecotheologians, Larry Rasmussen and Sallie McFague, to postmodern themes in contemporary ecophilosophy. I conclude by outlining what it might mean for a Christian environmental ethic (in Holmes Rolston's phrase) to "go wild." Nunez is in ethics at Villanova University.

-OBrien, Mary, Making Better Environmental Decisions An Alternative to Risk Assessment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. Proposes to replace "risk assessment" with "alternatives assessment." We should not ask: "How much of a hazardous activity is safe, of insignificant harm, or 'acceptable'?" But: "What are our options for least harm, and the greatest restoration?" This book is not based on the academic risk assessment literature, but on the actual experiences of crucial public environmental decisions based on risk assessment, without looking at the pros and cons of a full range of reasonable alternatives. We should all take a "consumer reports" approach to decision-making. Just as the well-known consumer magazine examines a range of available options before recommending a particular toaster or TV, all decision-makers (public and private) should examine a full range of options before committing to a new project or new technology. The least-damaging option should be chosen. But that is not how decisions are made in the industrialized world. Instead of examining a full range of alternatives, decision-makers generally decide what they want to do, then they hire a risk assessor to convince everyone that the damage they are about to do is "acceptable." By the time damage becomes apparent, they are hauling loot to the bank. At that point, stopping them is almost impossible. The cumulative result of this "risk-based decision-making" is a severely degraded and stressed global ecosystem. O'Brien is a consultant on alternatives to risk assessment and to the use of toxic chemicals. She has been a staff scientist for the Environmental Research Foundation and for the U.S. office of the Environmental Law Alliance.

--OConnell-Rodwell, C.E., Rodwell, T., and Hart, L.A., "Living with the modern conservation paradigm: can agricultural communities co-exist with elephants? A five-year case study in East Caprivi, Namibia," Biological conservation 93 (No. 3, 2000): 381- .

--ONeill, Robert V. and Kahn, James R., "Homo economus as a Keystone Species," Bioscience 50 (No. 4, 2000 Apr 01): 333- .

--Orians, Gordon, "Aesthetic Factors," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 1: 45-54. Aesthetic factors are those characteristics of a given object or situation that evoke a certain emotional response, either a sense of beauty, attractiveness, pleasure, symmetry, order, and so on, or, conversely, of ugliness, disorder, menace, disgust, or the like. Generally speaking, the aesthetic preferences that humans display in response to their environment, in such contexts as mate choice, food patterns, and habitat selection, have been shaped by evolutionary experience and reflect suitable solutions for survival and reproductive success.

--Pasculli, Leonard P., "The "War" Against Industry as an Environmental Enemy Shows Signs of Ending," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 7 (No. 3, 2000 Winter): 17-.

--Patton-Mallory, Marcia, Franzreb, Kathleen, and Cline, Richard, "Ethical Conduct for Research: A Code of Scientific Ethics," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 32- Because it employs researchers from many disciplines, the Forest Service seeks to establish consistency in scientific (as opposed to professional) ethics through a formal code.

--Pepper, David, "Ecological Modernisation or the `Ideal Model' of Sustainable Development: Questions Prompted at Europe's Periphery," Environmental politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Winter): 1- .

--Phelps, Norm, "When Hunting is Homework.," The Animals' Agenda 20 (No. 3, 2000 May 01): 30- . How hunting groups "infiltrate" schools to recruit young people to their dying pastime.

--Pimentel, David, Westra, Laura, and Noss, Reed F.,eds. Ecological Integrity. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 384 pp. Cloth $70. Paper $35. Since 1992 the Global Integrity Project has brought together leading scientists and thinkers to examine the combined problems of threatened and unequal human well-being, degradation of the ecosphere, and unsustainable economies. Based on the proposition that healthy ecosystems are a necessary prerequisite for both economic security and social justice, the project is built around the concept of ecological integrity and its practical implications for policy and management. Ecological Integrity presents a synthesis and findings of the project.

--Platt, Rutherford H., Barten, Pl K., and Pfeffer, Max J., "A Full, Clean Glass? Managing New York City's Watersheds," Environment 42 (No. 5, 2000 Jun 01): 8- . New York may offer a model for how a city can protect its water sources and ensure community involvement.

--Polasky, S., Camm, J.D., and Ding, R., "Choosing reserve networks with incomplete species information," Biological Conservation 94 (No. 1, 2000): 1- .

--Pollock, Rebecca, "Crystal Waters," Alternatives 26 (No. 3, 2000 Summer): 36- . Australian ecovillage is a world-recognized pioneer in low-impact living.

--Prendergast, Kate, "The Green Infiltration of Agriculture," Science and Spirit 11(no. 4, November/December 2000):16-17. Many environmental groups believe industrialized agriculture deserves a sizeable blame for the world's ecological ills, and they are putting increasing pressures on these companies to be more ecologically responsible.

--Primack, Richard, and Cafaro, Philip, "Environmental Ethics," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 2: 545-555. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that seeks knowledge of human flourishing and right conduct toward others, so that we may act upon it. Modern philosophers have tended to limit their ethical concern to human beings, but throughout history people have also attempted to cultivate proper relationships to nature. Recently philosophers have turned to this topic, largely in response to environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity, and have created a new discipline: environmental ethics. Environmental ethicists attempt to specify appropriate human relationships to the nonhuman, natural world. In the course of their work they have developed strong ethical arguments for preserving biodiversity. They have also challenged conventional views of happiness and human welfare and the materialistic values at the base of much modern life. While environmental ethics treats the full range of environmental issues, from air pollution to nuclear risk assessment, this article focuses on ethical issues directly related to the preservation of biodiversity.

--Primavesi, Anne, Sacred Gaia: Holistic Theology and Earth System Science. London: Routledge, 2000. James Lovelock's Gaia theory considers the Earth as a whole, with its evolution and the evolution of life upon it merging into a single process. Primavesi develops the religious implications of this theory and presents a theology rooted in "awe at the sacredness of the whole earth system." Lovelock says: "A splendid book. I now see why thoughts of Gaia are as much in the realms of theology as of science." Theology is an earth science. Primavesi is at Bristol University.

--Radcliffe, Samuel J., "A Professional Code of Ethics for the 21st Century: The Ethics Committee's Proposal," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 7, 2000 July 01): 16- . This fall, SAF will vote on whether to adopt a completely revised Code of Ethics. The chair of the Ethics Committee discusses the committee's rationale for the proposed revision.

--Rees, William, "Ecological Footprint, Concept Of," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 2: 229-244. Ecological footprint analysis is a quantitative tool that represents the ecological load imposed on the earth by humans in spatial terms. Thus, the ecological footprint of a defined population is the total area of land and water ecosystems required to produce the resources that the population consumes, and to assimilate the wastes that the population generates, wherever on earth the land/water are located. Ecofootprinting can be used to assess the ecosystem area effectively "appropriated" in support of any specified human population or economic activity.

--Retallack, Simon, "Where next for the WTO?," The Ecologist. 30 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 30- . Simon Retallack reviews last year's `Battle of Seattle' and asks whether December's protests can change the World Trade Organisation for the better.

--Richardson, Jean. Partnerships in Communities: Reweaving the Fabric of Rural America. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 256 Pages. Paper $25. Sustainable rural community development. Community-based and community-driven responses to the challenges facing rural America. What works, what doesn't, and how financial and human resources can be most effectively focused in rural communities.

--Robertson, G. Philip, and Harwood, Richard R.."Agriculture, Sustainable," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 1: 99-108. Sustainable agriculture describes a food and fiber production system that is economically viable, environmentally safe, and socially acceptable over long periods.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Intrinsic Values in Nature." Pages 76-84 in II Congresso Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservacao, Anais, vol 1., Conferencias e Palestras, organizers Miguel Serediuk Milano and Veronica Theulen (Proceedings of the Second Brazilian Congress on Conservation Areas), 2000. The Congress was held November 5-9 2000 in Campo Grande, Brazil, and this is a plenary address, in English. Although much of the urgency for conserving biodiversity arises from our duties to other humans, with nature instrumental to what humans have at stake in their environments, a deeper environmental ethics recognizes intrinsic values in and duties directly to nature. Such duties arise because values are present at the levels of animals, living organisms, endangered species, and ecosystems as biotic communities. Ultimately and increasingly, we are responsible for and to Earth as planet and biosphere. Only people can be ethical, but this does not mean that only people count in ethics; to the contrary we are fully human only when we appropriately respect life on Earth in all its rich biodiversity.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Biodiversity and Spirit," Science and Spirit 11(no. 4, November/December 2000):34. "Looking for hallowed ground? Earth is it." Epilogue, one-page essay in a theme issue on Science, Religion, and the Stewardship of Earth.

--Rolston, Holmes, II, Zhexue Zou xiang huangye [Philosophy Gone Wild], Green Classical Library, Jilin: Julin renmin chubanshe (Jilin People's Publishing House), 2000. Authorized translation by Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, translators Liu Er and Ye Ping. ISBN 7-206-02818-7.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, Huanjing Lunli xue: Daziran de jiazhi yiji ren dui daziran de yiwu [Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World] (Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press [Zhongguo Shehui kexue Chuban she], 2000). ISBN 7-5004-2743-3. Chinese translation, in a book series Waiguo Lunlixue Mingshu Yicong [Western Masterpieces in Ethics, Translation Series]. Other titles are Henry Sidgwick, The Methods of Ethics; Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments; John Rawls, A Theory of Justice; Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia; Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics; Tom Beauchamp, Philosophical Ethics. Translated by Yang Tongjin, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. This is the second translation, done on mainland China, of this book. The first was done in Taiwan: Huanjing lunlixue: Dui ziranjie de yiwu yü ziranjie de jiazhi [Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World], translated by Wang Ruixiang and edited by Huang Daolin (Taipei, Taiwan: National Institute for Compilation and Translation, 1996) ISBN 957-00-8564-9.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Aesthetics in the Swamps," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (no. 4, 2000):584-597. Wetlands are the most misunderstood of landscapes, typically experienced negatively as swamps, sloughs, and mires, and this includes their aesthetic appreciation. A scientific understanding of wetlands radically revises this estimate. Understanding wetlands ecology, knowledge of the specialized flora growing there and their unusual adaptations, and awareness of wetlands diversity can enrich aesthetic appreciation of these typically unappreciated landscapes. This revises both our estimate of "swamps" and also our aesthetic norms. Aesthetic experiences include a sense of the primeval, admiration for ingenious and odd solutions to the challenges of wetlands living, appreciation of individually inconspicuous plants en masse in their cumulative sweep and flair, of waterfowl and other fauna, of spontaneous order in ecosystems, and of life persisting in the midst of its perpetual perishing. Keywords: aesthetics, beauty, swamps, mires, bogs, adaptive fitness, spontaneous order, primeval nature, persistence of life.

--Rose, Robin and Coate, Jeremy, "Reforestation Rules in Oregon: Lessons Learned from Strict Enforcement," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 5, 2000 May 01): 24- . Oregon's Forest Practices Act, enacted in 1971 and revised several times since, is one of a number of comprehensive state regulatory programs that mandate desired outcomes for the practice of forestry on private land. What happens when a landowner doesn't comply with, for example, its requirements for reforestation?

--Rowe, Stan, "Eine Erd-Ethik für die Menschheit (article in German). An Earth-based ethics for humanity. Natur und Kultur, Vol. 1/2, 2000, pp. 106-120. Nature in the large sense is Earth, the ecosphere, the source of Life and therefore the best metaphor for Life. Humans are co-evolved parts of nature, and their achievements of language and Culture are derived in many ways from the creative Earth. This ecological fact suggests an ethical imperative: Revere the Earth and its sectoral ecosystems, for their importance is greater than that of any single species. An Earth-ethic--a modern form of Animism--goes beyond humanism and biocentrism, broadening the basis of religious sensibility.

--Salazar, Joanna Gail, "Damming the Child of the Ocean: The Three Gorges Project," The Journal of Environment and Development 9 (No. 2, 2000 June 01): 160- .

--Sale, Kirkpatrick, The Ecologist 30 (No. 4, 2000 Jun 01): 52- . A conspiracy is afoot - to deny the native Americans their legacy as stewards of the Earth. It must be resisted.

--Saltz, David, "Wildlife Management," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 823-830. Wildlife management is the science of manipulating wild populations to achieve a specific goal. Five major goals of wildlife management can be recognized: 1. Maximizing harvest/yield over time. 2. Preventing extinction and increasing survival probability. 3. Maintaining and managing the integrity of ecosystems and landscapes of which wildlife populations are a part. 4. Controlling wildlife to minimize damage to human crops and assets caused by wild populations. 5. Managing wildlife to return the ecosystem to some predetermined state.

--Sharp, Liz, "Local Policy for the Global Environment: In Search of a New Perspective," Environmental Politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Winter): 137- .

--Sharpe, Virginia A., Norton, Bryan, Donnelley, Strachan. Wolves and Human Communities: Biology, Politics, and Ethics. 280 pages. Cloth $65. Paper $30. Contributors address the complex ethical, biological, legal, and political concerns surrounding wolf reintroduction. The social, cultural, and ecological values that come into play in the debate.

--Sheppard, Hale E., "Native Forest Protection in Chile: The Inadequacies of the Recent Environmental Framework Law and Relevant Multilateral Instruments," Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 14 (No. 1, 1999): 225- .
--Shiva, Vandana and Emmott, Bill, "Is `Development' good for the Third World?," The Ecologist. 30 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 22- . Environmentalist Vandana Shiva and Economist editor Bill Emmott go head to head.

--Sive, David, "Standing, Sprawl, and More Stringent Emissions Limitations via the Clean Air Act," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 7 (No. 3, 2000 Winter): 6- .

--Smil, Vaclav, Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001. The industrial synthesis of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen, making possible large amounts of nitrogen rich fertilizer, has been of greater fundamental significance to the modern world than the invention of the airplane, nuclear energy, space flight, or television. The expansion of the world's population from 1.6 billion in 1900 to today's six billion would not have been possible without the synthesis of ammonia and the resulting fertilizer. One is left wondering whether any comparable technologies might be forthcoming.

--Thompson, J. William, and Sorvig, Kim. Sustainable Landscape Construction: A Guide to Green Building Outdoors. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 448 pages. Paper $45. "Green" landscape work: More than 100 projects from around the world are described and illustrated. Lists of resources, tools for implementing these ideas, adapting them to local conditions.

--Tittley, Emmanuelle, "Greening the Ivory Tower," Alternatives 26 (No. 3, 2000 Summer): 34- . North American universities learn to apply environmental wisdom.

--Townsend, Ellen, "Ecological Modernisation in Poland," Environmental Politics 8 (No. 4, 1999 Winter): 211- .

--VanDriesche (Van Driesche), Jason, and Van Driesche, Roy. Nature Out of Place: Biological Invasions in the Global Age. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 352 pages. Cloth $29.95. The invasive species crisis, its causes and consequences, and what can be done about it.

--Verchick, Robert R.M., "Dust Bowl Blues: Saving and Sharing the Ogallala Aquifer," Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 14 (No. 1, 1999): 13 - .

--Warren, Karen J., Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It is and Why It Matters. Lanham. MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. Chapters: Nature is a feminist issue: Motivating ecofeminism by taking empirical data seriously. What are ecofeminists saying? An overview of ecofeminist positions. Quilting ecofeminist philosophy: A Western perspective on what ecofeminist philosophy is. How should we treat nature? Ecofeminist philosophy and environmental ethics. Ethics in a fruit bowl: Ecofeminist ethics. Must everyone be vegetarian? Ecofeminist philosophy and animal welfarism. What is ecological about ecofeminist philosophy? Ecofeminist philosophy, ecosystem ecology, and Leopold's land ethic. With justice for all: Ecofeminist philosophy and social justice. Surviving patriarchy: Ecofeminist philosophy and spirituality. Warren is professor of philosophy at Macalaster College.
--Warwick, Hugh, "Terminator too," The Ecologist 30 (No. 3, 2000 May 01): 50- . Monsanto's initial terminator technology may have been abandoned, but its successor may be worse.

--White, Omar N., "The Endangered Species Act's Precarious Perch: A Constitutional Analysis Under the Commerce Clause and the Treaty Power," Ecology Law Quarterly 27 (No. 1, 2000): 215- .

--Willers, Bill, "A Response to "Current Normative Concepts in Conservation" by Callicott et al," Conservation Biology 14 (No. 2, 2000 Apr 01): 570- .

--Wondolleck, Julia M., and Yaffee, Steven L. Making Collaboration Work: Lessons from Innovation in Natural Resource Management. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2000. 288 pages. Cloth $50. Paper $25. Collaboration in natural resource management: Nearly two hundred cases from around the country.

--Wood, B., "Room for nature? Conservation management of the Isle of Rum, UK, and prospects for large protected areas in Europe," Biological Conservation 94 (No. 1, 2000): 93- .

--Woolley, John T. and McGinnis, Michael Vincent, "The Conflicting Discourses of Restoration," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 4, 2000 June 01): 339- .

--Zedler, Joy B. et al., "Restoration of Biodiversity, Overview," Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 203-212. Habitats that have lost populations of native species have potential for biodiversity restoration, that is, the return of species-rich conditions. Attempts to restore biodiversity involve multispecies efforts and single-species reintroductions. Genetic issues in biodiversity restoration involve the potential to reduce intraspecific diversity, especially in reintroduce populations of clonal plants and captive-reared animals. The deliberate introduction of nonindigenous species or species not known to occur naturally at a site does not constitute biodiversity restoration.

--Zimmerman, Michael E., Callicott, J. Baird, Clark, John, Sessions, George, and Warren, Karen, eds., Environmental Philosophy: Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Now out in a third edition. New features: Mark Sagoff, "Animal Liberation, Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce," which argues that these two important movements cannot be readily reconciled; a rebuttal essay by J. Baird Callicott which argues that animal rights and environmental ethics do have much in common. John Clark, "The Matter of Freedom: Ecofeminist Lessons in Social Ecology." Charles Bliese, "Traditionalist Conservatism and Environmental Ethics."


David Brower, one of the leading conservationists of the twentieth century, died in November at the age of 88. Brower led the Sierra Club through some of its toughest, most contentious battles. A Sierra Club member since 1933, he served as the Club's first executive director, a position he held from 1952 through 1969. During his tenure as executive director, the organization's membership rose from 2,000 to 77,000 members. Perhaps Brower's best-known accomplishment was his success during the
1960s in leading a campaign to block two hydroelectric dams proposed for the Grand Canyon. Brower took out full-page ads in the New York Times equating the proposal to flooding the Sistine Chapel. He led Sierra Club efforts to pass the Wilderness Act, halt dam construction in Dinosaur National Monument, and create Kings Canyon, North Cascades and Redwoods National Parks and Point Reyes and Cape Cod National Seashores. He also founded the League of Conservation Voters, Friends of the Earth and the Earth Island Institute. An avid mountain climber and skier, Brower served in the 10th Mountain Division during World War II and pioneered 70 first-ascents around the globe.

Congressman Bruce Vento (D-Minnesota), the leading expert on parks and public lands in Congress, died October 10, after a valiant fight with a rare form of lung cancer. Vento was a champion of conservation on public lands, with a special commitment to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in northern Minnesota. As a first-term Congressman, Vento was ordered by House Speaker Tip O'Neill to compromise on the enabling legislation for BWCA and allow snowmobile and motorboat use in the area. Vento held firm. In the final hours of that Congress, an exasperated O'Neill told an aide: "Vento has been camping on my doorstep for two days. Tell him I'm going to get that goddammed bill out for him," and the 1978 BWCA Wilderness Act became law.

US Plays Dirty As Planet Chokes. At the Kyoto environment summit three years ago, the industrialised nations agreed, in principle, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to a figure 7 per cent below their 1990 output. The purpose of the recent Hague summit was to reach global agreement on how to achieve this. 2,000 official delegates labored mightily over the fine print, assisted by 3,500 official observers from 180 nations and more than 700 journalists, as well as a phalanx of interested parties, including green groups, wind generator suppliers and climate researchers.
In the end, the talks collapsed over U.S. insistence that it be spared from reducing its carbon outputs and should instead be allowed to create new forests as "carbon sinks," both in the US and the Third World. The US also hoped that by planting crops specially designed to soak up carbon dioxide, it could extend its 'sink' philosophy from the wild to the farmyard, thus strengthening its case for unabated industrial emissions. Canada, Australia and Japan backed this approach, while Europe - led by Britain and Germany and supported by the developing nations and green groups - pressed for real emission cuts. Said Environment Minister Michael Meacher, who led Britain's negotiators: 'There is no substitute for taking domestic action to reduce the emissions by burning less fossil fuels.' Current evidence suggests that Europe's growing season has lengthened by 11 days in the past century and scientists are predicting all Arctic ice will have disappeared by 2080. (Observer of London, November 19, 2000)

Domestic animal diversity. Humans have domesticated about 40 species of animals and created thousands of breeds. Between 1,000 and 1,500 livestock breeds are at risk of extinction, representing about 30 percent of the most important domesticated species of birds and mammals. These animals are reservoirs of genetic diversity, play important roles in a number of ecosystems, and are sometimes central to the history and culture of human communities. 600 breeds of livestock have already gone extinct and another 78 are lost each year. The causes are the increasing industrialization of agriculture (including replacement of draft animals with machines and the loss of family farms), indiscriminate cross breeding, and a narrow focus on certain breeds­like Holsteins for milk­to the exclusion of others. Scientific breeding has produced industrial hens that lay 300 eggs a year compared to 30 for most indigenous birds, broiler chickens bred to mature in 6 to 7 weeks instead of the usual 12 weeks, and a doubling of milk production in Holsteins in the last 40 years. Scientists worry that levels of inbreeding necessary to attain these results reduce genetic diversity within the breeds and can lead to serious health problems. The eight million Holsteins in the U.S. are descendants of just 37 individuals. The greatest potential for losses of livestock diversity are in developing nations which are importing scientifically-improved livestock that replace their indigenous breeds. An example of a threatened breed in the U.S. is the "Gulf Coast native sheep." Directly descendant from the stock of the first Spanish and French colonists, these sheep have been breeding largely free of human intervention for more than 300 years. They have adapted to the heat and humidity of the Gulf coast and have developed resistance to diseases and parasites that debilitate other breeds. Scientists are trying isolate genes responsible for this resistance in order to introduce them into commercially important breeds. See Mark Derr, "Vanishing Livestock Breeds Leave Diversity Gap," New York Times (11/14/00): D3.

Are mice animals? No. Yes. No, at least not in 2001. The U.S. Department of Agriculture agreed to a lawsuit settlement challenging the 30-year old ruling that mice, rats, and birds are not laboratory "animals," under the Animal Welfare Act. This exempted 95% of all experimental animals from the federal government's legal definition of "animal." Animal welfare advocates have long challenged the ruling. In 1992 a federal judge ruled that the USDA's justification for the exemption--that Congress never intended the law to apply to the three kinds of animals-- was "strained and unlikely." In September 2000, the USDA agreed to include these animals and "initiate and complete a rulemaking on the regulation of birds, rats, and mice within a reasonable time."
Biomedical research groups protested vigorously, though their protests were disregarded by the USDA and the courts. But through the request of the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson to Congressman Thad Cochran (R-MS), on a rider attached to the agriculture appropriations bill, Congress voted that mice, rats, and birds will not be animals in fiscal year 2001. A recent editorial in Nature complained, "Some of the research lobby's arguments verge on the reactionary." Although currently voluntary, many research laboratory animals have included these animals in animal welfare concerns for decades. Others claim it will drive up costs unacceptably. See: David Malakoff, "Researchers Fight Plan to Regulate Mice, Birds," Science 290(6 October 2000):23-24. David Malakoff, "Research Group Wins Delay in Rules," Science 290(13 October 2000):243-245. John McArdle, "Animal Welfare Act's Changes Deserve Praise, Not Panic," Science 290(17 November 2000):1299-1300.

Primate goes extinct. For the first time in several centuries a member of the primate order­the taxonomic group to which humans belong­has become extinct. Miss Waldron's red colobus, a loud-mouthed, red-cheeked monkey from the rainforest of Ghana and Ivory Coast has not been seen since the 1970s and a seven-year effort to visit every remaining piece of its habitat ended without finding any evidence of its presence. Biologists fear that this is the beginning of a stream of extinctions of West African primates and other wildlife. Fragmentation of forests by roads and logging leaves isolated islands of animals that are then easily trapped or shot by hunters supplying the lucrative trade in bush meat that ends up in urban restaurants. See Andrew Revkin, "A West African Monkey Is Extinct, Scientists Say," New York Times (9/12/00): A20.

Setbacks for gene-altered foods in the U.S. According to one estimate, 60 percent of the products in America's grocery stores contain some genetically modified ingredients. But with consumer skepticism about biotech foods continuing to grow, U.S. farmers are now reversing the trend toward more biotech foods and plan to grow millions fewer acres of genetically modified, corn, soybeans and cotton. Fast-food chains such as McDonald's and potato chip makers Frito-Lay and Procter and Gamble are telling their potato suppliers to stop using genetically modified potatoes. At the prompting of food companies hoping to quite consumer fears, the U.S. Federal government is reviewing its regulations on biotech foods. Plans are under way to require genetically engineered crops to be kept separate from those that are not so altered and to require biotech companies to notify regulators four months before new biotech products enter the food supply. Critics argue that the changes are far too modest. They are sponsoring legislation that would require mandatory labeling of genetically-altered foods (a proposal strongly opposed by the industry). Congressman Dennis Kucinich of Ohio, a leading critic of biotech foods, charges that biotech food companies are "arrogantly assuming god-like power to bring forth a second genesis" and are "combining genetic materials from plants, animals, and humans in some weird commercial potion and then marketing it for all to consume." The director of the Center for Food Safety Andrew Kimbrell says: "Genetic engineering allows you to mix life forms that have never been mixed in traditional breeding. At least, I am not aware of any instance when a flounder has been mated with a tomato." See Scott Kilman, "McDonald's, Other Fast-Food Chains Pull Monsanto's Bio-Engineered Potato," The Wall Street Journal (4/28/00), John Dillin, "White House enters the biotech food fight," The Christian Science Monitor (5/5/00): 1, and Melody Petersen, "U.S. to Keep a Closer Watch On Genetically Altered Crops," New York Times (5/4/00): A23.

Biotech corn may not harm Monarchs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has tentatively concluded that Bt corn (corn genetically modified to produce the pesticide Bt) is unlikely to pose a serious threat to the overall Monarch butterfly population. The agency also downplayed the potential for the insecticide to persist in the soil or to lead to the evolution of pests that can withstand it. The Monarch has recently become a symbol of fragile nature threatened by biotechnology. See Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Biotech Corn Isn't Serious Threat to Monarchs, Draft U.S. Report Finds," New York Times (9/26/00): D4.

Parasitic wasp larva gets spider to build web for it. A parasitic wasp lays its egg on the abdomen of an orb-weaving spider. For two weeks the growing larva sucks juices that drip from small punctures in the spider's body as the spider continues to rebuild each day its fragile circular web. On the night before the wasp larva kills its host, the spider builds a totally different web that is much stronger and serves as a platform from which the larva can safely hang its cocoon. When scientists remove the larva from the spider on what would have been the final evening, the spider builds the platform-style web for two nights and then resumes making its usual orb. See Nicholas Wade, "Wasp Works Its Will on a Captive Spider," New York Times (7/25/00).

Roadless Areas. This November, the U.S. Forest Service issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement on its proposed roadless policy. The "preferred alternative" contained in the FEIS represents a great victory for conservationists. The preferred alternative recommends providing wilderness level protection for over 55 million acres of roadless areas with the National Forest System. Specifically, the alternative would prohibit road construction and reconstruction on 49.2 million acres of inventoried roadless areas, increasing that number to 58.5 million acres in April 2004 when the Tongass National Forest is included. It would also prohibit timber harvesting
except for clearly defined stewardship purposes in roadless areas, and allow road construction only when necessary for public safety and resource protection. Grassroots support was a major factor in the Forest Service decision-making process. In their press release announcing the preferred alternative, the Forest Service cited the importance of receiving more than 1.5 million letters, faxes, and e-mails during the course of the 9-week public comment period this past summer.

Thanks to Ned Hettinger, Holmes Rolston III, the Audubon Society and the Wilderness Society for this issue's issues.


President: Kristin Shrader-Frechette. 336 O'Shaughnessy Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: Kristin.Shrader-Frechette.1@nd.edu.

Vice-President: Dale Jamieson, The University Center for Human Values, 305 Marx Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1006. Phone: 609-258-2660. Fax: 609-258-2729. E-mail: djamieso@princeton.edu.

Secretary: Laura Westra. Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3. Phone: 905-303-8181. Fax: 905-303-8211 E-mail: lwestra@interlog.com.

Treasurer: Max Oelschlaeger. Department of Humanities, Arts, and Religion, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5634, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5634 USA. E-mail: max.oelschlaeger@nau.edu.


Africa: Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

Australia and New Zealand: William Grey, Department of Philosophy, University of Queensland, 4067, Queensland AUSTRALIA. Email: wgrey@cltr.uq.edu.au.

China: Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100732, China. Yang Tongjin, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijin,100732, China. E-mail: yangtong12@sina.com.

Taiwan: Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan 40704. Email: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net. Phones: 886-4-3595622 office; 886-4-3590991 home. Fax: 886-4-3595953.

Eastern Europe: Jan Wawrzyniak. Department of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Phone: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8430309. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl. Website: http://appliedphilosophy.mtsu.edu/ISEE/JanWaw/index.html.

Western Europe and the Mediterranean: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS. Office phone: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751. Fax: 31-24-3615564. E- mail:mdrenthen@hetnet.nl. Home: Van't Santstraat 122, 6523 BJ Nijmegen. Home Phone: (31) - (24) - 3238397.

Mexico and Central America: Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacan y Purissima s/n, 09340 Mexico D.F., MEXICO. Phones: (5) 637 14 24 (home), (5) 724 47 77 (office). Fax: (5) 724 47 78. E-mail: kwiat@xanum.uam.mx .

Canada: Laura Westra. Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3. Phone: 905-303-8181. Fax: 905-303-8211 E-mail: lwestra@interlog.com.

Pakistan and South Asia: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Education Manager, WWF-- Pakistan, T-28 Sahibzada House, Zeryab Colony, Peshawar City (NWFP), PAKISTAN. Phone: (92) (91) (841593). Fax: (92) (91) (841594). Email: lapis@brain.net.pk or naasir1@email.com.

South America: Ricardo Rozzi, Institute of Ecological Research Chiloe, Chile, and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile. E-mail: rrozzi@eudoramail.com.

United Kingdom: KeeKok Lee, Institute for Environment, Philosophy & Policy, Furness College, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK. E-mail: keekok.lee@lancaster.ac.uk.

United States: Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424 USA. Phone: 843-953-5786; 843-883-9201 (home). Fax: 843-953-6388. E-mail: HettingerN@CofC.edu). Address July 1999 to August 2000: 416 W. College, Bozeman, MT 59715. Phone: 406-522-9676.

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Phone: 970-491-6315 (Office). Fax: 970-491-4900. Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu.

Jack Weir, Department of Philosophy, Morehead State University,UPO 662, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office). Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on Fax). Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu.


Please send any announcements, calls for papers or news items via e-mail (preferred), snail mail or fax to newsletter editor Philip Cafaro. Address: Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA. E-mail: cafaro@lamar.colostate.edu. Phone: 970/491-2061. Fax: 970/491-4900. Brief reports of research and accounts of issues of philosophical importance are also welcome. Submissions will be edited and publication cannot be guaranteed. Please continue to send bibliographic items to Holmes Rolston III, at the address above. Correspondents, especially international ones, should realize that diacritical marks do not come through on U.S. e-mail. The next deadline for newsletter submissions is March 7.


Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.
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Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15 Regular, $10 Students; Outside U.S., $20 Regular, $15 Students. (Due to additional postage). Members outside the United States should send the equivalent of U.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates, to the ISEE Treasurer (address below). Sorry, we cannot accept credit card payments.

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Send with payment to Dr. Max Oelschlaeger, Department of Humanities, Arts, and Religion, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5634, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5634 USA.