Volume 10, No. 4, Winter 1999

General Announcements

ISEE Members. Please check to seeif your address label bears an asterisk.If so, it's time to renew your membership. Please sendall dues and address changes to treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. Seemembership/renewal form at the end of the Newsletter.

ISEE Members. Don't forget to votefor Vice-President/President-Elect. See ballot at theend of the Newsletter. You must submit your ballot in the enclosedenvelope and sign across the back, or your vote will not count!

"Ecological Restoration, Of Whatand Why." ISEE President Baird Callicott gavea well-received keynote address to the annual meeting of the Coloradochapter of the Wildlife Society of America (January 19-21). Thetitle the conference was "Ethics, Politics, and Biology ofthe Reintroduction of Threatened and Endangered Species."

ISEE Nominating Committee. Alan Holland (University of Lancaster)and Ronnie Hawkins (University of Central Florida) have been electedto serve on the ISEE nominating committee. Their responsibilitiesinclude finding candidates to serve as ISEE officials and administeringelections. Holland is editor of Environmental Values and is currentlyworking on issues in biotechnology. Hawkins has degrees in philosophyand medicine; her work focuses on understanding our human placewithin the ecosphere and seeking environmental justice acrossspecies boundaries. The other nominating committee members areGary Varner (Texas A&M) and committee chair Victoria Davion(University of Georgia).

Sand County Foundation Website. TheSand County Foundation carries forward the vision of Aldo Leopold.Their website is: www.sandcountyfoundation.com. P. O. Box 3037,201 Waubesa Street, Madison, WI 53704.

Columbia River Report. On May 12, 1999, the Roman Catholicbishops of the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia releaseda 55-page "reflection" on the Columbia River watershedand how best to protect its resources, preparatory to releaseof a pastoral letter on the subject in 2000. The document, entitledThe Columbia River Watershed: Realities and Possibilities, viewssalmon as a sign of the ecological health of the river and the"spiritual vitality" of the watershed. The full textcan be obtained on the Web at: http://www.columbiariver.org/index1.html.A contact person is: John Hart, Theology, Carroll College, Helena,MT 59625.

The Trumpeter,volume 15, is an electronic journal, now on website: http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca.Bruce Morito is editor, Global and Social Analysis, AthabascaUniversity, 1 University Drive, Athabasca, AB T9S 3A3, Canada.Phone: (780) 675-6143; fax: (780) 675-6186.

Society for the Advancement of AmericanPhilosophy, Annual Meeting,March 9-11, Indianapolis, IN. Will include a panel titled "EcologicalRestoration and the Culture of Nature: A Pragmatic Perspective."Papers are: Andrew Light (SUNY/Binghamton), "Restoring theCulture of Nature," Danielle Poe (Fordham), "Human Integrityas Dependent on Natural Integrity," and Ben A. Minteer (GeorgiaInstitute of Technology), "Intrinsic Value for Pragmatists?The Restoration Extension." Chair: Drew Christie (Universityof New Hampshire).

Customized Environmental Ethics Anthology, under construction. McGraw-Hill hasdeveloped an electronic database publication system, called Primis,that enables instructors to create customized anthologies fortheir courses. Instructors can construct their text and ordera free sample copy over the Internet, using the Primis web page:http://mhhe.com/primis. The philosophy section is called "Discourses,"currently with 127 readings. A further set is under constructionon environmental ethics. See web page: http://mhhe.com/primis/philo.For further information also contact: Donald C. Abel, PhilosophyDepartment, St. Norbert College, 100 Grant St., De Pere, WI 54115.E-mail: abeldc@mail.snc.edu. Phone: 920/403-3086. Fax: 403-4086.

Singer and His Critics, ed. Dale Jamieson, has been awardedChoice magazine's Outstanding Academic Title of 1999 Award. Thelist of these outstanding academic titles was published in theJanuary 2000 issue. More detail on the relevant entries in animalwelfare and environmental ethics in Newsletter vol. 10, no. 2,Summer, 1999.

Ethics Codes Online. The Center for the Study of Ethics inthe Professions at Illinois Institute of Technology has postedits comprehensive collections of codes of ethics online. Thisdata base is an excellent resource for students and scholars.For information, contact Vivian Weil, Director, Center for theStudy of Ethics in the Professions, IIT, 102 Stuart Building,Chicago, IL 60616. Phone: 312-567-3017. Email: weil@charlie.cns.iit.edu.

Russian Conservation News. Website: www.russianconservation.orgThis site is maintained by the Center for Russian Nature Conservation,also publishing Russian Conservation News.

Wild Duck Reviewwill be publishing an interview with Keekok Lee about hisupcoming book The Natural and the Artefactual. Look for it inthe Spring issue 2000.


The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh seeks an Assistant Professor of EnvironmentalStudies/Humanities to begin September 2000. Applicants must havea Ph.D. in Environmental Studies or in a discipline informed bythe Humanities. The appointment will be in both EnvironmentalStudies and a department in the College of Letters and Sciences.Broad training in Environmental Studies with a specializationin the value dimensions of human attitudes and behaviors towardnature and knowledge of environmental ethics is essential. Collegeteaching experience and commitment to research are required. Willingnessto participate in program development is expected. Teaching responsibilitiesinclude the collaboratively developed "Environment and Values"core course and several others listed on the web site. Opportunitiesexist to develop new courses. Candidates should send 1) a coverletter explaining their interdisciplinary range, experience, andvision for Environmental Studies, identifying core courses theyare competent to teach and elective courses they would most liketo offer; 2) a curriculum vita indicating teaching experienceand a research record; 3) a writing sample; 4) official transcripts;5) at least three letters of recommendation that refer to thecandidate's interdisciplinary background in Environmental Studies.The deadline for applications is February 28, 2000. Send all materialsto Dr. Bron Taylor, Environmental Studies Director, Universityof Wisconsin Oshkosh, Swart 230, Oshkosh, WI 54901. AA/EOE. Moreinformation about the program and University at:
www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/programs/environ_studies/ Additionalquestions may be addressed to Bron Taylor at 920-424-0644 or taylor@uwosh.edu.

University of Montana, EnvironmentalStudies. The EnvironmentalStudies Program at the University of Montana, Missoula, invitesapplications for a tenure-track assistant professor. The Programhas recently initiated an undergraduate Bachelor of Arts major.The position requires a Ph.D. in environmental studies or relateddiscipline, demonstrated ability to teach at the undergraduateand graduate levels, environmental activism, and ability to teachan introductory course in environmental science, history of theearth from an environmental perspective, and courses in environmentalphilosophy, environmental ethics, or social theory of the environment.Applicants must include a letter addressing the criteria, a vita,and three letters of reference, directed to the applicant's abilityto fill this position. Consideration of applicants begins February15, 2000 and continues until the position is filled. EO/AA. Contact:Tom Roy, Director, Environmental Studies, University of Montana,Missoula, MT 59812. E-mail: tomroy@selway.umt.edu. Website: http://www.umt.edu/hrs/recruit/vacancies/ffevst.html

Teaching the Ethical, Legal, and SocialImplications of the Human Genome Project.A Summer Faculty Institute at Dartmouth College. This isan intensive two-week program on teaching the implications ofthe Human Genome Project. It will allow participants to collaboratewith leading experts, examine social issues in human genetic research,and learn skills in multi-disciplinary teaching. Applicationsare being solicited from two-person interdisciplinary teams andindividual faculty. For more information and questions on funding,contact Barbara Hillinger at: Phone: 603-646-1263. Fax: x2652.Email: barbara.hillinger@dartmouth.edu.


ISEE Group Session. If anyone is interested in giving apaper or being a commentator at the ISEE session, Eastern DivisionAPA, in December 2000, please contact Kristin Shrader-Frechette,O'Neill Professor of Philosophy and Concurren Professor of BiologicalSciences, 336 O'Shaughnessy Hall, University of Notre Dame, NotreDame, IN 46556 (email:
Kristin.Shrader-Frechette.1@nd.edu). Please send a 10-page paper,plus abstract, plus snail mail and email addresses, plus phoneand fax numbers, and a short resume. There will be one paper bya senior person in environmental ethics, and one paper by a juniorperson in environmental
ethics, and 2-3 commentators for each. If you would prefer tobe a commentator or chair for the session, then you need not sendany paper, and only a resume. Everyone is welcome.

UNESCO Encyclopedia Project--callfor authors. UNESCO is sponsoring a large-scale encyclopedia thatis to include articles in all areas of philosophy. An outgrowthof several United Nations earth summits, the Encyclopedia of LifeSupport Systems is directed at concerns
of sustainable development broadly conceived and ranging overissues of science, technology, economics, and social policy. Philosophyis being given a fundamental place in the encyclopedia for itsrole in the foundations of knowledge. Articles in all major areasof philosophy from epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics andvalues, and also the history of philosophy will be included, afew between 10-15,000 words, but most between 5-10,000 words.Authors will receive honoraria from the publisher at rates dependenton length. For further information and a list of topics to beincluded, please e-mail Thomas Magnell, the Honorary Theme Editorfor Philosophy: tmagnell@drew.edu.

The British Society for Ethical Theory. Papers are invited for the 2001 conference,to be held 13-15 July 200l at the University of Glasgow, Scotland.Papers may be on any aspect of ethical theory i.e. metaethicsand normative ethics. Papers on topics in applied ethics or thehistory of ethics may also be considered provided they are alsoof wider theoretical interest. Please supply
your full name, address (electronic as well as postal if possible)and academic affiliation on a separate sheet. Papers, which shouldbe unpublished at time of submission, should be in English, nolonger than 6500 words, readable in at most 45 minutes and ina form suitable for blind review. Submissions should be received­notpostmarked­by December 15 2000. Papers and accompanying particularsshould be sent to: Mr Angus McKay, Department of Philosophy, Universityof Glasgow, GLASGOW G12 8QQ,U.K. Further particulars: a.mckay@philosophy.arts.gla.ac.uk.

New Deadlines.Deadlines have been extended for paper submissions fortwo upcoming conferences. "Connecting Environmental Ethics,Ecological Integrity and Health in the Millennium" will beheld June 24-29, in San Jose, Costa Rica. The deadline for papersubmissions has been moved from January 31 to February 29. "ThinkingAbout the Environment: Our Debt to the Greek and Medieval Past"will be held August 17-20, in Firenze, Italy. The deadline forpaper submissions has been moved from January 21 to February 29.See below and previous newsletter for further details on theseconferences.

The 11th Global Warming InternationalConference & Expo: TheKyoto Compliance Review.
April 25-28, 2000, Cambridge, MA, USA. The GWXI Conference providesup-to-the-minute international review of progress towards KyotoProtocol Targets by all nations in all relevant sectors, and presentsthe most current science and policy activities on global warming,sustainable environment and health on five continents. RequestRegistration Form from GWXI Registration (FAX +1-630-910-1561,gw11@globalwarming.net). For time schedule and sessions details,please see http://globalwarming.net. All registration must becompleted by March 1.

Are Genes Us?May 19-21, 2000, Society for Applied Philosophy AnnualConference 2000,
Manchester, UK. Information: Stephen Burwood, phone + 44 1482346311, e-mail: s.a.burwood@phil.hull.ac.uk.

Health and Risk II, 2nd Biannual International Conference.St Catherine's College, Oxford, 3rd-5th July 2000. A large conferencebringing together a range of disciplines and practitioners, coveringpublic health, statistical, economic, ethical, legal and politicalissues. Papers are welcome from economists and philosophers. Papersrelevant to the decision, judgement and risk analysis themes ofthe journal Risk Decision and Policy, published by Cambridge University
Press, received one month prior to the conference, will be consideredfor publication in the journal. One copy of a final paper (nota draft) should be sent to arrive no later than a month beforethe conference and those selected for further consideration willbe informed at the
conference. To submit a paper or poster proposal, please senda 300 word abstract and 50 biography to: P.Dolan@sheffield.ac.uk.Deadline for submission is 29 Feb 2000.

Philosophy and Geography. Beginning in January 200, the journalPhilosophy and Geography moves to a new format--coming out twicea year as a journal with open submissions. The journal aims topublish the best and clearest philosophical work on the environment:human and natural, built and wild, as well as clear-headed meditationson the nature of space and place. The editor invites submissionson any topic of interest to the journal at any time. Send threecopies to: Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, SUNY Binghamton,P. O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. Authors should aimfor manuscripts of about 10,000 words.

Taking Nature Seriously: Citizens,Science, and Environment,February 25-27, 2001, University of Oregon. This conference isdesigned to bring together scientists, community
activists, and science studies scholars who are working on environmentalissues in an effort to reveal and move beyond barriers that haveinhibited interaction between scholars in the sciences, socialsciences, and humanities, and between academics and activists.Keynote Speakers:
Donna Haraway, Richard Lewontin, Andrew Pickering. Conferenceorganizers are Nancy Tuana, William Rossi, and Lynne Fessenden.Suggested conference topics include but are not limited to: empiricalanalyses of specific environmental issues and proposed/implementedactions; environmental justice; the nature and potential of public-interestscience; realism/social constructivism debates; and more.

Abstracts for proposed papers, research presentations, panels,and forums are encouraged. Please send three copies of a two-pageabstract and one copy of an abbreviated curriculum vita for eachparticipant. Prospective presenters should keep in mind a generalrather than a specialist audience. Prospective presenters arewelcome to submit a complete panel proposal or to advertise forpanel participants on the conference Web site (send a title anda brief description of your proposed panel, along with contactinformation, to conference coordinator Lynne Fessenden, tns@darkwing.uoregon.edu).Proposals are due no later than May 1st, 2000. Send proposalsto: Taking Nature Seriously, Environmental Studies Program, 10Pacific Hall, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5223. Website: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~tns. For further informationcall 541/346-5399, fax 541/346-5096, or e-mail: tns@darkwing.uoregon.edu.

Between Nature: Explorations in Ecologyand Performance. 27-30July 2000. Centre for the Study of Environmental Change &Department of Theatre Studies, Lancaster University, Lancaster,United Kingdom "Between Nature" will be a major regional,national and international gathering for anyone concerned withecology or performance. By bringing together these two domainsthe event aims to generate new understandings and modes of engagementat a time when rapid technological and cultural change is disruptingmany received boundaries - between aesthetics and ethics, natureand artifice, private and public, knowledge and politics. Topicsaddressed may include: recasting technologies - democracy as theatre- art as social practice - staging science - landscape and embodiedmemory - the presentation of the ecological self.

They invite proposals for all types of presentation from academicsin the social sciences, arts and humanities and natural sciences,arts practitioners and performers, political and cultural activists,
decision makers and citizens. If you would like to offer a proposal,or simply register to attend the
event, you can do so on our website - www.lancs.ac.uk/users/csec/betweennature.Deadline: February 15.

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature has secured a publisher (Continuum International)and established a web site. The editors, Bron Taylor and JeffreyKaplan, are actively soliciting suggestions for entries and contributors.A detailed overview of the project and templates for providingsuggestions may be found on the world wide web at ReligionandNature.com/The editors can be reached by email at:ern@religionandnature.com.Alternately, Bron Taylor may be contacted c/o the EnvironmentalStudies Program, The University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, OshkoshWI 54901. Phone: 920-424-0644; fax x0882.

Recognizing the Autonomy of Nature.Call for papers for an edited book. In modern timesanthropogenic changes in the natural environment have become soconsiderable that a rethinking of our relationship to nature hasbecome imperative. One of the questions to be explored is whetherknowing nature is really possible, or whether what appears tous as nature is merely the result of our preconceptions. Otherquestions include whether it makes sense to think of non-humannature as autonomous, and whether, if non-human nature indeedmay be properly understood as autonomous, a respect analogousto the respect required by the autonomy of human beings is calledfor.

Papers should be philosophically informed as well as groundedin concrete practice, and intelligible to non-specialists. Sendpapers as soon as possible, and up until May 31, 2000; expressionsof interest accompanied by abstracts of up to 100 words shouldbe sent as soon as possible. Papers should be no more than 5000words long (excluding notes), submitted in duplicate, type written,double-spaced, written according to the specifications of TheChicago Manual of Style, 14th ed.; they should be prepared forblind refereeing with the author(s) name, institutional affiliation(if available), mailing address and e-address appearing on a separatesheet. Essays should be accompanied by a stamped, self-addressedenvelope. Send to Thomas Heyd, Department of Philosophy, Universityof Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P4, Canada. Phone:250 ­ 381 2239. Facsimile: 250 ­ 721 7511. E-mail: heydt@uvic.ca.Web page: http://web.uvic.ca/~heydt.

Connecting Environmental Ethics, EcologicalIntegrity and Health in the New Millennium.June 24-29, 2000, San Jose, Costa Rica. Call for papers.Sponsored by the Organization for Tropical Studies, the GlobalIntegrity Project, Sarah Lawrence College, and the InternationalSociety for Environmental Ethics. With two dozen well-known scholarsand activists as principal speakers, from Maurice Strong to DaleJamieson, and many others. Other societies participating includethe Society for Value Inquiry and the Society for Philosophy ofTechnology. Contact Laura Westra, Professor of Environmental Studies,Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Mead Way, Bronxville, NY 10708-5999.Phone 914/395-2487 or 905/303-8181. Fax 905/303-8211. E-mail:lwestra@mail.slc.edu. N.B. The deadline for submitting papersor panel proposals has been extended to February 29.

The International Association forEnvironmental Philosophy willpresent its third annual program at Pennsylvania State University,immediately following the Annual Meeting of the Society for Phenomenologyand Existential Philosophy. October 7-9, 2000. IAEP offers a forumfor wide-ranging philosophical discussion of nature and the humanrelation to the natural environment. IAEP welcomes diverse approachesto these issues, including many schools of continental philosophy,studies in the history of philosophy, and the tradition of Americanphilosophy. Call for papers, in 20 or 40 minute formats. Deadline:January 25. Abstracts to Robert Mugerauer, School of Architecture,University of Texas, Austin 78712-1160. IAEP Website: http://www.utc.edu/~iaep/.

Natural Law and Natural Environments. Vera Lex, the journal of the NaturalLaw Society, is accepting submissions on the place of naturallaw and rights in the current conversation on environmental philosophyand ethics. Issues in environmental justice, rights of nature,the "good" of nature, the value of place, technologyand nature, are appropriate but not exhaustive. Manuscripts shouldhave no written-in alterations and should be originals. Writingshould be in plain English and technical words should be defined.Deadline: May 1. Submissions to: Robert Chapman, Editor, VeraLex, Pace University, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies,41 Park Row, Schiff Hall, Room 310, New York, NY 10038.


February 25-29, 2000. Living Waters--Streamsof Faith. St. Simon'sIsland, Georgia. Sponsored by Presbyterians for Restoring Creation.Ecologist Sandra Steinbraber (Living Downstream: An EcologistLooks at Cancer and the Environment), Theologian Jay B. McDaniel(Of God and Pelicans: A Theology for the Reverence of Life), EnvironmentalAdvocate: Hans Neuhauser (Georgia Land Trust Service), BeldenLane (The Solace of Fierce Landscapes: Exploring Desert and MountainSpirituality). Contact: Janet Adair Hansen, 108 So. Ave F, Portales,NM. 505/356-5533. E-mail: revjanet@pdrpip.com.


March 2-5, 2000. Six Billion Downstream, 18th Annual Public Interest EnvironmentalLaw Conference, at the University of Oregon Law School, Eugene,OR. A famous conference, continuing. Website: http://www.pielc.uoregon.edu/E-mail: L-A-W@law.uoregon.edu.

April 7-9, 2000. Environmental Philosophyand the Earth Sciences.Sponsored by the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the Universityof North Texas, Denton. Featured speaker: Steve Bohlen, AssociateChief Geologist for Science, U. S. Geological Survey. Contact:Center for Environmental Philosophy, P. O. Box 310980, Universityof North Texas, Denton, TX 76202-0980. E-mail: cep@unt.edu.

May 11-12, 2000. Consciousness, Cognitionand Animal Welfare, theUFAW symposium, Zoological Society of London's Meeting Rooms,London, UK. Information: Dr Stephen Wickens, UFAW, The Old School,Brewhouse Hill, Wheathmapstead, Herts AL4 8AN, UK, phone + 441582 831818, fax + 44 1582 831414, e-mail: wickens@ufaw.org.uk.

June 17-24, 2000. Willa Cather's EnvironmentalImagination, a conferenceat Lied Conference Center at Arbor Day Farm, Nebraska City, Nebraska."It fortified her to reflect upon the great operations ofnature, and when she thought of the law that lay behind them,she felt a sense of personal security. That night she had a newconsciousness of the country, felt almost a new relation to it... under the long shaggy ridges, she felt the future stirring."-- O Pioneers! Contact Susan Rosowski, Department of English,University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0333. Phone:402/472-8777. www.unl.edu/cather_seminar.

September 21-24, 2000. Fifth WorldCongress of Bioethics: Ethics, Law and Policy. Imperial College, London, UK. Information:Anne Lavender, Centre for Ethics in Medicine, 73 St Michael'sHill, Bristol, BS2 8BH, UK, e-mail: anne.lavender@bristol.ac.uk,web-site:

October 26-28, 2000. Sustainable RegionalDevelopment: The Role of the University in a Globalizing Economy. Conference at Lowell, Massachusetts.The Committee on Industrial Theory and Assessment at the Universityof Lowell announces a call for paper abstracts. The purpose ofthe Conference is to create a forum for the sharing of experiencesand analyses among people in both institutions of higher educationengaged in regional development and regional development agenciesthat are linking their efforts with universities. A conferencevolume is planned. Further information: Judy_Blackburn@uml.edu.

Recent Articles and Books

The website bibliography will be given its annual update inFebruary 2000, at which time all the entries from the four 1999Newsletters will be incorporated into the database. Also, articlesfrom the four main journals in the field, Environmental Ethics,Environmental Values, Ethics and the Environment, and the Journalof Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not listed in thequarterly newsletters, but are included, with abstracts, in theannual update.

Thanks especially to Parrish W. Jones, Winber, PA, and to GregPritchard, Victoria, Australia, for help on the bibliography,doing the keyboarding to bring Uncover database references intousable form. Jones is teaching at the University of Pittsburgh,Johnstown, PA, and is also a pastor in the area. Pritchard isdoing his Ph.D. in environmental ethics and literature.

--Alexander, Stephanie. "Air Power." Alternatives25(No.3, Summer 1999):6- . Despite government inaction, more Canadiansare turning to green energy from windmills.
--Aswani, Shankar, "Common Property Models of Sea Tenure:A Case Study from the Roviana and Vonavona Lagoons, New Georgia,Solomon Islands, " Human Ecology 27(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):417-.

--Ayensu, Edward, et al. (a couple dozen others!), "InternationalEcosystem Assessment," Science 286(22 October 1999):685-686.Ecosystem management on global scales. The authors argue thatan international system of ecosystem modelling and monitoring,integrating the many differing factors--climate change, biodiversityloss, food supply and demand, forest loss, water availabilityand quality--is urgently needed. The magnitude of human impactson ecosystems is escalating. One third of global land cover willbe transformed in the next hundred years. In twenty years worlddemand for rice, wheat, and maize will rise by 40%. Demands forwater, for wood will double over the next half century. At theturn of the millennium, we need to undertake the first globalassessment of the condition and future prospects of global ecosystems.

--Azariah, Jayapaul, Azariah, Hilda, and Macer, Darryl R. J.,eds., Bioethics in India. Christchurch, New Zealand: Eubios EthicsInstitute, 1998. Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshopin Madras (India): Bioethical Managment of Biogeoresources, 16-19January 1997, University of Madras. ISBN 0-908897-10-3. Contains115 papers, mostly short, on diverse bioethical topics. Biotechnologyand the genome. Philosophy of life and death. Reverence for Life.Biodiversity. Medical ethics. Animal rights. Environmental ethics.Ethics of large-scale systems. Philosophy and environmental science.Costs and benefits in environmental ethics. Land ethics and ecoethicalmanagement. Excellent for an introduction to Indian concerns andperspectives in bioethics and environmental ethics. These seminarshave been taking place for several years, at various locationin India. A key figure is Jayapaul Azariah, who teaches zoologyat the University of Madras. An e-mail contact is Darryl Macer:macer@sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp.

--Bader, Harry R. "Not So Helpless: Application of theU.S. Constitution Property Clause to Protect Federal Parklandsfrom External Threats." Natural Resources Journal 39(No.1, Winter 1999):193- .

--Baker, Beth, "Government Regulation of Wetlands Is UnderSiege from All Sides" Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):869-.

--Baker, Beth. The Greening of Utilities. Bioscience 49(No.8,August 1999):612- . Biologists are making a difference at electricutilities across the United States.

--Baker, Nathan. "Water, Water, Everywhere, and at Lasta Drop for Salmon? NRDC v. Houston Heralds New Prospects UnderSection 7 of the Endangered Species Act." Environmental Law29(No. 3, 1999):607- . Mr. Baker discusses Natural Resources DefenseCouncil v. Houston's potential to revolutionize federal waterdelivery programs in the Pacific Northwest. He concludes thatthis recent Ninth Circuit decision will lead to greater protectionof imperiled salmon and other listed species in the Pacific Northwest,because the Bureau of Reclamation will be required to increaseconsultation with the fish and wildlife agencies on the effectsof its various projects in the region.

--Baker, Susan and Jehlicka, Petr. "Dilemmas of Transition:The Environment, Democracy and Economic Reform in East CentralEurope - An Introduction." Environmental Politics 7(no.1,Spring 1998):1- .

--Baker, Susan and Baumbartl, Bernd. "Bulgaria: Managingthe Environment in an Unstable Transition." EnvironmentalPolitics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):183- .

--Barnhill, David Landis, ed., At Home on the Earth: BecomingNative to our Place. A Multicultural Anthology. Berkeley: Universityof California Press, 1999. $ 18.00

--Baulch, Helen, "Fish Fight, " Alternatives 25(no.4, Fall 1999):4- . Alien salmon in Lake Huron keep anglers happy,but threaten native lake trout.

--Baulch, Helen. "Clear-cutting the Ocean Floor."Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):7- . Trawling gear devastatesthe world's continental shelves.

--Baxter, G. S., M. Hockings, and Beeton, R. J. S. "Trendsin Wildlife Management and the Appropriateness of Australian UniversityTraining." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Societyfor Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):842- .

--Bekoff, Marc, "Social Cognition: Exchanging and SharingInformation on the Run," Erkenntnis 51(1999):113-128. Thisis a theme issue of Erkenntnis on "Animal Minds."

--Ben-Ari, Elia T. Better than a Thousand Words. Bioscience49(No.8, August 1999):602- . Botanical artists blend science andaesthetics.

--Benedick, Richard E., ed., Ozone Diplomacy: New Directionsin Safeguarding the Planet, Enlarged Edition. 512 pages. Cambridge,MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

--Bengston, David N. and Fan, David P. l. "The PublicDebate about Roads on the National Forests: An Analysis of theNews Media, 1994-98." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):4-. The debate about forest roads as expressed in news stories reflectsthe changing social context in which the Forest Service must overhaulits policy. Some of the conflicting views are predictable, butthe debate among recreational users is surprising.

--Berg, Scott and Cantrell, Rick, "Sustainable ForestryInitiative: Toward a Higher Standard" Journal of Forestry.97(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):33- . The American Forest and Paper Association'sSustainable Forestry Initiative program offers building blocksto sustainable forestry in the United States and around the world.

--Berger, Antony R., Dark Nature in Classic Chinese Thought.Victoria, BC: Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, Universityof Victoria, 1999. 78 pages. ISBN 1-55058-205-4. Contact: CSRS,University of Victoria, Box 1700 Stn CSC, Victoria BC V8W 2Y2,Canada. E-mail: csrs@uvic.ca. How the founders of Daoism (Taoism)and Confucianism experienced and acknowledged natural catastrophes,river floods, channel switching, earthquakes, landslides, andsea-level rise. Many natural processes cause harm to humans andto ecosystems. Nature has two sides: nature supports life, butnatural forces are not always benevolent to the well-being ofeither humans or ecosystems. This darker side of nature has beenoverlooked by environmental philosophers.
Some Chinese thinkers took the anthropocentric view that bad thingsin nature were the consequences of bad human actions. They sawthe world as fundamentally harmonious, as long as people followedthe correct rituals and codes of behavior (rather like some modernenvironmentalists). Other Chinese thinkers held that harm waspart of nature's processes and is to be accepted as part of thatpattern. On a human scale, these may cause pain and sorrow; ona cosmic scale, they are only the flow of the Dao (Tao). "Thereis a challenge, which in my view has not yet been fully met, todevelop a way of living and thinking, naturalistic or not, thatrecognizes fully that nature has for all life forms both a benevolentand a harmful dimension" (p. 46). Berger is an earth scientist.

--Bevill, R.I. and Louda, S.M., "Comparisons of RelatedRare and Common Species in the Study of Plant Rarity." ConservationBiology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No.3,June 1999):493- .

--Blockstein, David E., "Integrated Science for EcosystemManagement: An Achievable Imperative." Conservation Biology:The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 13,June 1999):682- .

--Boff, Leonardo, Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll,NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 242 pages. $ 22.00. Focuses on the Amazon,the economic and metaphysical ties that bind the fate of the rainforestswith that of the indigenous peoples there. Boff is a Braziliantheologian.

--Bollig, Michael and Schulte, Anja, "Environmental Changeand Pastoral Perceptions: Degradation and Indigenous Knowledgein Two African Pastoral Communities" Human Ecology 27(no.3, Sept 01 1999):493- .

--Botchway, F. Nii, "Land Ownership and Responsibilityfor the Mining Environment in Ghana." Natural Resources Journal38(No. 4, Fall, 1998):509- .

--Bradley, Nina Leopold, "Aldo Leopold: On the Path TowardUnity of Knowledge" Wild Earth 9(no. 3, Fall 1999):11- .

--Brittan, Jr., Gordon G., "The Secrets of Antelope,"Erkenntnis 51(1999):59-77. Daniel Dennett claims, in ConsciousnessExplained: "Antelope, in their herds, have no secrets andno way of getting any. So an antelope is probably no more capableof hatching a secret plan than it is capable of counting to ahundred or enjoying the colors of a sunset." Brittan replies:"I am not at all sure what the qualification `in their herds'is supposed to entail. Otherwise, it is simply false that antelope(at least the American antelope or pronghorns) have no secrets,as I can attest on the basis of watching them very carefully overthe past 25 years." A doe, for example, keeps it secret whereher fawns is hidden. When he is not watching antelope, figuringout their secrets, Brittan is professor of philosophy at MontanaState University. This is a theme issue of Erkenntnis on "AnimalMinds."

--Caro, T.M. "Demography and Behaviour of African MammalsSubject to Exploitation. Biological Conservation 91(No. 1, 1999):91-.

--Carwald, Georgia O., "Hydroelectric Development andRoad Paving in Brazil's Transamazon Area" The Journal OfEnvironment And Development 8(no. 4, Dec 01 1999):397- .

--Chavez, Deborah J., James A. Harding, and Tynon, Joanne F."National Recreation Trails: A Forgotten Designation."Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):40- . Ever heard ofa National Recreation Trail? The authors look at this forgottendesignation and suggest ways to revitalize it.

--Chinn, Lily N. "Can the Market Be Fair and Efficient?An Environmental Justice Critique of Emissions Trading."Ecology Law Quarterly 26(No. 1, 1999):81- .

--Cho, Hong Sik. "An Overview of Korean EnvironmentalLaw." Environmental Law. 29(No. 3, 1999): 501- . Severe environmentalharms have forced the Korean people to reevaluate the balancebetween industrialization and environmental protection in Korea.Korea has reached a point in its economic development where itspeople have begun to evaluate their surroundings and quality oflife as affected by the environment. Hong Sik Cho recommends thatother developing nations take a serious look at Korea's currentchallenge of balancing economic prosperity with environmentalprotection and that they learn from Korea's experience.

--Cho, Mildred K., Magnus, David, Caplan, Arthur L., McGee,Daniel, and the Ethics of Genomics Group, "Ethical Considerationsin Synthesizing a Minimal Genome," Science 286(1999):2087-2090.Efforts to create a free-living organism with a minimal genomeare underway, although the prospects of so doing are rather faroff. Such an organism would have the minimal genome that allowsfor replication in an environment, estimated at 256 genes. Theresearch may give insight into the origins of life and into morecomplex genomes, as well as have applications in genetic engineering."The prospect of constructing minimal and new genomes doesnot violate any fundamental moral precepts or boundaries, butdoes raise questions that are essential to consider before thiswork advances further." "The dominant view is that,while there are reasons for caution, there is nothing in the researchagenda for creating a minimal genome that is automatically prohibitedby legitimate religious considerations."

--Clark, Jamie Rappaport, "The Ecosystem Approach froma Practical Point of View." Conservation Biology: The Journalof the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):679-.

--Cohn, Jeffrey P., "Saving the California Condor"Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):864- .

--Cole, D.C., R.E.G Upshur, and Gibson, B.L. "DetectiveWork." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):26- . Environmentalcontaminants are important contributors to ill health, but itis not easy to identify the culprits and measure their effects.

--Corbin, Greg D. "The United States Forest Service'sResponse to Biodiversity Science." Environmental Law 29(No.2, 1999):377- . The National Forest Management Act and its implementingregulations require the United States Forest Service to managethe national forests' biodiversity based on a set of science-basedmanagement prescriptions. Mr. Corbin argues that while the ForestService adopted a regulatory program designed to incorporate thenew understanding of biodiversity science into the forest planningprocess, the agency's litigation posture and proposed regulatorychanges in favor of ecosystem management ignore the science ofbiodiversity to preserve broad regulatory discretion and maximumon-the-ground management flexibility.

--Coward, Harold, ed., Population, Consumption, and the Environment:Religious and Secular Perspectives. Albany: State University ofNew York Press, 1995.

--Coward, Harold, and Maguire, Daniel C., eds., Visions ofa New Earth: Religious Perspectives on Population, Consumption,and Ecology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.248 pages. 13 contributors. Examples:
* Yu (Yü), Chün-fang, "Chinese Religions on Population,Consumption, and Ecology" (China)
* Olupona, Jacob K., "African Religions and the Global Issuesof Population, Consumption, and Ecology" (Africa).

--Coward, Harold, ed., Traditional and Modern Approaches tothe Environment on the Pacific Rim. Albany: State University ofNew York Press, 1998.

--Cowlishaw, Guy. "Predicting the Pattern of Decline ofAfrican Primate Diversity: An Extinction Debt from HistoricalDeforestation." Conservation Biology: The Journal of theSociety of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1183- .

--Cox, George W., Alien Species in North America and Hawaii:Impacts on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: Island Press,1999. 400pp. cloth $60. paper $30. Comprehensive overview of theinvasive species phenomenon, examining the threats posed and thedamage that has already been done to ecosystems across North Americaand Hawaii. Cox is emeritus professor of ecology at San DiegoState University.

--Daly, Herman E. "The Lurking Inconsistency." ConservationBiology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No.4, August 1999): 693- .

--deLaplante, Kevin, Toward a General Philosophy of Ecology,Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Philosophy, University of WesternOntario, 1998. Examines the role that ecological concepts andtheories play in environmental philosophy and defends a conceptionof ecological science that is broad enough to address the philosophicaland scientific concerns of environmental philosophers. These aimsare consistent with the dominant tradition in contemporary environmentalphilosophy, but the argument is highly critical of the way theecology-environmental philosophy relationship is conceived incontemporary environmental philosophy. Rather than view ecologyas a conceptual and scientific resource that is relevant to environmentalphilosophy only insofar as it provides support for the ethical,social and political aims of environmentalism, deLaplante arguesthat the core problems of environmental philosophy are essentiallyproblems for a general science and philosophy of ecology. Thethesis defends the robustness of a conception of ecology thatis sufficiently broad to encompass "ecological psychology","ecological economics", and "ecological anthropology",as well as traditional ecological science.
Part One is a survey and critique of the role of ecology in environmentalphilosophy. Part Two develops a conceptual framework for a generalphilosophy of ecology based on developments in complex systemsapproaches in theoretical ecology and ecological psychology. PartThree explores in greater detail certain issues in the foundationsof the relevant complex systems sciences. The supervisor was KathleenOkruhlik. Kevin de Laplante is now teaching at Iowa State University,Ames.

--Depledge, Joanna. "Coming of Age at Buenos: Aires: TheClimate Change Regime After Kyoto." Environment 41(No. 7,September 1999):15- . The international community's effort toforestall climate change entered a new phase of maturity at thefourth Conference of the Parties.

--Dickson, Barnabas. "The Precautionary Principle in CITES:A Critical Assessment." Natural Resources Journal 39(No.2, Spring 1999):211- .

--Dillingham, Terese, "Playing Reindeer Games: NativeAlaskans and the Federal Trust Doctrine." Boston CollegeEnvironmental Affairs Law Review 26(No. 3, Spring 1999):649- .The Reindeer Industry Act of 1937 gave native Alaskans a monopolyover reindeer, helping native Alaskans to become self-sufficient.But a 1997 court decision has opened the reindeer industry tonon-natives, and this threatens the U. S. federal governmentsobligation to the native Alaskans.

--Dimmick, Walter Wheaton, Michael J. Ghedotti, and Pennock,David S., "The Importance of Systematic Biology in DefiningUnits of Conservation." Conservation Biology: The Journalof the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):653-.
--Dragomirescu, Simina, Cristina Muica, and Turnock, David. "EnvironmentalAction during Romania's Early Transition Years." EnvironmentalPolitics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):162- .

--Dretske, Fred, "Machines, Plants and Animals: The Originsof Agency," Erkenntnis 51(1999):19-31. This is a theme issueof Erkenntnis on "Animal Minds."

--Dukas, Reuven, ed. Cognitive Ecology: The Evolutionary Ecologyof Information Processing and Decision Making. Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 1998. 420pp. cloth $95, paper $30. The intersectionof cognitive psychology and behavioral ecology. Neural networks,recognition of bird song, spatial memory, and foraging decisions.Reviews of current research intended to produce a coherent viewof a new field.

--Eckersley, Robyn, "The Discourse Ethic and the Problemof Representing Nature," Environmental Politics 8(no. 2,Summer 1999):24- .

--Egan, Andrew F., Kathy Waldron, and Bender, John. "EcosystemManagement in the Northeast: A Forestry Paradigm Shift?"Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):24- . A survey was conductedto determine if new forestry terms actually represent new ideasto practicing foresters, and whether these concepts shape theirday-to-day forestry activity.

--Egan, Andrew F. "Forest Roads: Where Soil and WaterDon't Mix." Journal of Forestry 97(No.8, August 1999):18-. A review of the forest science literature on forest road practicesreveals some general concepts that foresters need to considerwhen planning, building, and maintaining forest access systemsso as to avoid water quality problems.

--Ehrenfeld, David, "Earth Stories" Wild Earth 9(no.3, Fall 1999):15- .

--Emerson, H arriet J. and Gillmor, Desmond A., "RuralEnvironment Protection Scheme of the Republic of Ireland,"Land use policy 16(no. 4, Oct 01 1999):235- .

--Engel, Kirsten H. "The Dormant Commerce Clause ThreatTo Market-Based Environmental Regulation: The Case of ElectricityDeregulation." Ecology Law Quarterly 26(no. 2, 1999):243-.

--Eriksson, Lena. "Graduate Conservation Education."Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of ConservationBiology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):955- .

--Ewel, John J., Dennis J. O'Dowd, and Daehler, Curtis C. "DeliberateIntroductions of Species: Research Needs." Bioscience 49(No.8,August 1999):619- . Benefits can be reaped, but risks are high.

--Fagin, Adam and Jehlicka, Petr. "Sustainable Developmentin the Czech Republic: A Doomed Process?" Environmental Politics7(no.1, Spring 1998):113- .

--Farber, Daniel A. Eco-pragmatism: Making Sensible EnvironmentalDecisions in an Uncertain World. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress, 1999. 210pp. $23. Environmental policy, steering a middlecourse between those who advocate strict cost-benefit analysisand those who would protect the environment at any cost. Defendsan emerging social consensus favoring environmental values, butat the same time, demonstrates how those values are consistentwith a balanced weighing of costs and benefits, and shows howenvironmental policies can respond dynamically to changing needsand new information.

--Fieser, James, Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and AppliedEthics. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth, 1999. 512 pages. Includes sectionson animal ethics: Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Regan, Machan; environmentalethics: Augustine, "Against the View that God Dwells in PlantLife"; Thoreau, "Primeval Nature"; Leopold, "TheLand Ethic"; Fieser, "An Argument Against NormativeEcocentrism." Fieser is at the University of Tennessee atMartin, TN.

--Fitzsimmons, Allan K., Defending Illusions: Federal Protectionof Illusions. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999. A synopsisis "The Illusion of Ecosystem Management," PERC Reports17 (no. 5, December 1999):3-5. The main problem is that ecosystemsare not real. "Ecosystems are only mental constructs, notreal, discrete, or living things on the landscape. They do notbreathe, emerge from wombs, or spring from seeds. They are notreal, organized entities consciously seeking to perpetuate themselvesagainst internal or external threats to their existence"(p. 4). The second problem is that, even if they were real, wehave no idea of what their "health" or "integrity"might mean. There are some further problems, such as the "wooliness"of the ideas of "ecologist Bryan Norton" about ecosystemhealth and creativity. Fitzsimmons is a geographer and environmentalanalyst, president of Balanced Resource Solutions, a consultingfirm in Woodbridge, Virginia (and no doubt also unreal, sinceconsulting firms are mental constructs and do not breathe, emergefrom wombs, or spring from seeds).

--Flannery, Maura C. "Education: The Conservation Aestheticand the Microscopic Aesthetic. Bioscience 49(No.10, Oct. 1999):801-.

--Fleischner, Thomas. "Revitalizing Natural History."Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):81- .

--Flores, Dan, Horizontal Yellow: Nature and History in theNear Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999.The complex relationships of humans with the natural environmentin the U.S. Southwest.

--Ford, Peter, "Howl over Wolves' Return," ChristianScience Monitor, November 1, 1999, pp. 12-13. While there arethousands of wolves in Italy and Spain, wolves have been extinctin France for over half a century--until 1992 when a pair wassighted in the French Alps, presumably having come from the Italianpopulation. Many people have welcomed the idea of wolves in theFrench Alps, but to shepherds it is a catastrophe. Today thereare about 50 wolves in the Alps and they have killed about 1,000sheep. The best hope seems to lie in a guard dog, the pastou,the Great Pyrenean Mountain Dog.

--Garner, Robert, "Biodiversity since Rio," EnvironmentalPolitics 8(no. 2, Summer 1999):148- .

--Geist, Cathy and Galatowitsch, Susan M. "ReciprocalModel for Meeting Ecological and Human Needs in Restoration Projects."Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of ConservationBiology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):970- .

--Gerber, Leah R. and DeMaster, Douglas P. "A QuantitativeApproach to Endangered Species Act Classification of Long-LivedVertebrates: Application to the North Pacific Humpback Whale."Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of ConservationBiology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1203- .

--Gillingham, Sarah and Lee, Phyllis C., "The impact ofwildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of localpeople around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania," EnvironmentalConservation 26(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):218- .

--Glushenkova, Helena I., "Environmental AdministrativeChange in Russia in the 1990s" Environmental Politics 8(no.2, Summer 1999):157- .

--Gonick, Larry and Outwater, Alice, The Cartoon Guide to theEnvironment. New York: HarperCollins, 1996. Irreverent humor thatat the same time educates into environmental fundamentals. Enviromentalscience, chemical cycles, life communities, food webs, agriculture,population growth, energy and raw materials, waste disposal, recycling,cities, pollution, deforestation, ozone depletion, and globalwarming. Gonick is a cartoonist; Outwater is an environmentalengineer.

--Goodall, Jane, and Berman, Philip, Reason for Hope: A SpiritualJourney. Warner Books, 1999. Jane Goodall's return to religiousfaith, facing the realities of environmental destruction, animalabuse, and genocide, especially as she has known them in Africa.Her studies with the chimpanzees have enhanced, not ended herbelief in God. She shares a spiritual epiphany during a visitto Auschwitz, and an experience before the rose window in theCathedral of Notre Dame, hoping for spiritual power to overcomethe evils in the world. She recalls bravery in the face of chimpanzeeimprisonment in medical laboratories. There is a chapter on individuals,corporations, and countries that are doing the right thing. "Togetherwe must reestablish our connections with the natural world andwith the Spiritual Power that is around us. And then we can move,triumpantly, joyously, into the final stage of human evolution--spiritualevolution" (p. 267). Wendy Wasserstein, a Pulitzer prize-winningplaywright, calls Goodall, "one of the ten most influentialwomen ever."

--Gorman, Michael E., Mehalik, Matthew M., Werhane, PatriciaH. Ethical And Environmental Challenges to Engineering: A Casebookin Engineering and Environmental Ethics. Upper Saddle River, NewJersey: Prentice Hall, 2000. 256 pp. The first casebook designedspecifically for engineering and environmental ethics, this textfeatures multi-faceted, real-life cases of design and managerialdilemmas in a variety of settings. Background readings that illustratehow one can integrate ethical and environmental challenges intoengineering decisions are incorporated throughout. It includesvarious cases that can be adapted to a variety of classroom settings,including cases on engineering design, environmental ethics, culturaldiversity, management, engineering dilemmas. It presents real-lifeevents showing engineering students certain situations they willencounter on the job.

--Gorte, Ross W. "Multiple Use in the National Forests:Rise and Fall or Evolution?" Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10,Oct. 1999):19- . Is multiple use dead? Or has it simply morphedinto ecosystem management? A look at the management history ofthe national forests provides some clues.

--Gottlieb, Roger S., A Spirituality of Resistance: Findinga Peaceful Heart and Protecting the Earth. New York: CrossroadPublishing Co., 1999. 195 pages. $ 25.00. Chapter 4: "A SleeplessEthicist and Some of His Acquaintances, Including the Monoculturalist,the Poetic Naturalist, and the Very Famous Biologist." Chapter5. "Finding a Peaceful Heart and Protecting the Earth. "Whatcan we hope for? In his own lifetime the Ethicist has seen a worldwidemovement improve the condition of women throughout the world.He knows that his individual actions are a minuscule part of asimilarly vast effort to reorient society toward environmentalsanity. He hopes that as this effort unfolds it will lead us tobe more unassuming both in our self-assessment as a species andour desires for a `better life'--even though achieving this self-assessmentmight require a difficult and contentious social transformation.We may learn that a truly `higher standard of living' cannot beachieved until we curtail our current environmental aggression,and that no amount of toys will cure our loneliness for both naturaland human community. We might learn that false expertise shouldnot be trusted, and that a monocultured earth is very lonely;and that to love either people or the earth we need to love both"(pp. 134-135). Gottlieb is in philosophy at Worcester PolytechnicInstitute, Worcester, MA.

--Guruswamy, Lakshman D. "The Convention on BiologicalDiversity: Exposing the Flawed Foundations." EnvironmentalConservation 26(No. 2, June 1999):79- .

--Hackel, Jeffrey D. "Community Conservation and the Futureof Africa's Wildlife." Conservation Biology: The Journalof the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):726-.

--Haenn, Nora, "The Power of Environmental Knowledge:Ethnoecology and Environmental Conflicts in Mexican Conservation,"Human Ecology 27(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):477- .

--Harrinton, Winston, Richard D. Morgentern, and Nelson, Peter."Predicting the Costs of Environmental Regulations."Environment 41(No. 7, September 1999):10- . Comparison of theestimates made before and after a regulation has been implementedhelp to quell the controversy over whether regulators routinelyoverestimate or underestimate costs.

--Hermy, M., O. Honnay, and Lawesson, J.E. "An EcologicalComparison between Ancient and Other Forest Plant Species of Europe,and the Implications for Forest Conservation." BiologicalConservation 91(No. 1, 1999):9- .

--Hertsgaard, Mark, Earth Odyssey: Around the World in Searchof our Environmental Future. Shelter Island, NY: Broadway Books.London: Abacus, 1999.

--Hessel, Dieter T., and Reuther, Rosemary Radford, eds., Christianityand Ecology: Seeing the Well-Being of Earth and Humans. Religionsof the World and Ecology 3. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UniversityPress, 2000.

--Hill, Brennan R., Christian Faith and the Environment: MakingVital Connections. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999. How twentiethcentury theologians such as Karl Rahner, Bernard Lonergan, PierreTeilhard de Chardin have connected Christian faith, nature, andthe creation. Examines sacrimental rites, Catholic church documents,and feminist theological insights on ecology. A Christian environmentalspirituality, the ethical challenges posed by our new awarenessof the environment.

--Hirsh, Richard F. and Serchuk, Adam H. "Power Switch:Will the Restructured Electric Utility System Help the Environment."Environment 41(No. 7, September 1999):4- . Under the right circumstances,the deregulation of electricity generation and transmission canlead to improvements in the environment.

--Hoare, Richard E. and Du Toit, Johan T., "CoexistenceBetween People and Elephants in African Savannas." ConservationBiology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(no.3, June 1999):633- .

--Holdsworth, Andrew, John Talberth, and Bird, Bryan. "Stateof the Ecosystem Reports: A Tool for Wildlands Advocacy."Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):64- .

--Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., Environment, Scarcity, and Violence.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. 280 pages. $29. The Earth's human population is expected to pass eight billionby the year 2025, while rapid growth in the global economy willspur ever increasing demands for natural resources. The worldwill consequently face growing scarcities of such vital renewableresources as cropland, fresh water, and forests. These environmentalscarcities will have profound social consequences--contributingto insurrections, ethnic clashes, urban unrest, and other formsof civil violence, especially in the developing world. A soberinganalysis. Homer-Dixon is in political science at the Universityof Toronto.

--Hovden, Eivind, "As if Nature Doesn't Matter: Ecology,Regime Theory and International Relations," EnvironmentalPolitics 8(no. 2, Summer 1999):50- .

--Hrdy, Sara Blaffer, Mother Nature: A History of Mothers,Infants, and Natural Selection. New York: Pantheon, 1999. Babiesare naturally selected to be adorable, and every trait--plumpness,cuteness--that increases adorability increases the infant's chancesof survival, inducing the mother to give up bodily resources,subordinating her own aspirations to the interest of the infant.Mothers have a head start in this seduction by the infant, butfathers come soon after. Hrdy, known for her work on primate behavior,taught anthropology at the University of California, Davis.

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published bythe Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 4,December 1999. Special Topic: Greening Higher Education (continued).Contains (all in Chinese):
* Wang Dazhong, "Carrying Out the "Green University"Project and Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century"
* Hu Xianzhang & Wang Fengnian, "Environmental Educationfor Sustainable Development"
Zhou Shaoqi, "Emphasizing the Ecological Conscience in GreeningHigher Education"
* Xu Qixian & Li Yin, "Ethical Considerations in DevelopingScenic Sites for Tourism"
* Tang Kuiyu & Fu Qianqian, "Dietary Life-Styles andEcological Ethics"
* Hong Rongxi, "Humanization of Science and Technology andthe Establishment of Environmental Ethics"
* Li Changsheng, Han Jing & Ding Xi, "Trends in EcologicalEconomics in the 21st Century"
* Center for the Study of Environment and Society InvestigationTeam, "The General Report from an Investigation Tour to theHalahai Wetland"
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Lake Solitude: The Individual inWildness" (translated by Liu Er)

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published bythe Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 3,September 1999. Special Topic: Greening Higher Education). Contains(all in Chinese):
* Preparatory Committee of the Chinese Society for Green HigherEducation, "Comments on the `International Conference onGreening Higher Education,'" (1)
* A Summary of the "International Conference on GreeningHigher Education"
* The Great Wall Declaration--An Agenda for the "GreeningHigher Education
in China" Project
* Wu Minsheng, "Green Education at Qinghua University"
* Yang Tao, "Turn Engineering Universities `Green'"
* Jin Chaohui, "Make Green Education an Important Part ofthe College Experience"
* Jia Jinping & Wu Dan, "From Environmental Protectionto Sustainable Development"
* Chen Jun & Bai Jie-hong, "Strengthen Green Educationand Train High Quality Talents"
* Ma Guangyi, "Environmental Education: The Groundwork forEnvironmental Protection"
* Zhang Cong, "Envisioning the Greening of Agricultural Collegesand Universities"
* Ma Huidi & Cheng Sumei, "Free Time and Freedom"
* Turner, Frederick, "The Invented Landscape," (trans.by Xie Baojun)

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published bythe Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 2,June 1999. Contains (all in Chinese):
* Yang Tongjin, "Anthropocentrism and Non-anthropocentrism:Differences, Consensus, and a Synthesis"
* Liu Er, "The Theoretical Difficulties of Non-anthropocentricEcological Ethics and Some Possible Solutions"
* Zhang Yunfei, "Ecologically Sound Directions for TechnologicalRevolution"
* Ju Xi, "Some Reflections on Rolston's Axiology." JuXi is an independent Taoist scholar, a hermit, Luishihe, Fusongcounty, Jilin Province, China.
* Zhang Baiyan & Wang Youren, "The Theoretical Foundationsof Policies and Laws for Forest Tourism"
* Yi Baoli, "Sadness and Joy for Halahai: A Report from theSonghua-Nen River Plain"
* Guo Zhenwei & Gou Chunlei, "Experts Call for the Establishmentof a Nature Reserve at the Halahai Wetland"
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Environmental Protection and anEquitable International Order: Ethics after the Earth Summit"(trans. by Li Shili)
* Melle, Ullrich, "How Deep Is Deep Enough?: Ecological Modernizationor Farewell to the World-City? (Part 2)" (trans. by HuangYingna).

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published bythe Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 1,February, 1999. Contains (all in Chinese):
* Ye Ping, "A History of Environmental Theories"
* Yu Mouchang, "Environmental Morality in the Relation betweenMan and Nature"
* Dai Maotang, "The Blending of Idealism and Illusion: ACritique of Western Ecological Ethics"
* Liu Guocheng, "Ecological Ethical Views in Ancient China(Part 2)"
* Zhang Baiyan & Zhang Pengcheng, "U.S. Legislation inForestry and Tourism: History and the Current Situation"
* Piao Xiwan & Wang Zhiguo, "On Policy Options of HeilongjiangProvince in Developing Green Food Industry"
* Zhang Ye & Yi Baoli, "A Jewel of the City that UrgentlyNeeds Our Protection: A Report on Northeast Forestry University'sForest for Experimental Use in the City of Harbin
* Melle, Ullrich, "How Deep Is Deep Enough?: Ecological Modernizationor Farewell to the World-City? (Part 1)", (trans. by HuangYingna)
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Are Values in Nature Subjectiveor Objective? (Part 2), (trans. by Ye Ping & Liu Er).

--Hume, Bill. "Big River, Big Issues." Natural ResourcesJournal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):17- . The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo.

--Humphreys, David. "The Report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Forests." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring1998):214- .

--Iannone, A. Pablo, Philosophical Ecologies: Essays in Philosophy,Ecology, and Human Life. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1999. 274pages. $54.95 cloth. Contemporary social fragmentation, applyingan ecological model to a wide range of philosophical problems.

--Ingalsbee, Timothy. "Learn from the Burn: Research NaturalAreas for Habitat and Science." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer1999):57- .

--James, Frances C., "Lessons Learned from a Study ofHabitat Conservation Planning," Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov01 1999):871- .

--Jancar-Webster, Barbara. "Environmental Movement andSocial Change in the Transition Countries." EnvironmentalPolitics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):69- .

--Johnson, Elena. "Poor Environment, Poor Health."Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):17-.

--Johnson, Todd R., "Community-Based Forest Managementin the Philippines," Journal of Forestry. 97(no. 11, Nov01 1999):26- . An initiative toward sustainable forest managementin the Philippines shows some promise despite the dire conditionof the islands' forest resource, primarily because the local residentsare defining their own criteria and indicators.

--Kafin, Robert J., "Can You Canoe a Canoe? New York Ruleson Navigability." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice6(No. 4, Spring, 1999):53- .

--Kaiser, Jocelyn, "Booby-Trapped Letters Sent to 87 Researchers,"Science 286(5 November 1999):1059. Letters with razor blades,and a note: "You have until August 2000 to release all ofyour primate captives and get out of the vivisection industry,"have been sent to 87 researchers in the U.S. The responsible groupseems to be one called "The Justice Department," originatingin the U.K.

--Kammen, David M., and Hassenzahl, Should We Risk It? Princeton,NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. $ 40. An attempt to organizeand evaluate previously disparate theories and methodologies connectedwith risk analysis for health, environmental, and technologicalproblems. Kammen is in energy and society at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley. Hassenzahl is in science, technology, andsociety at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and InternationalAffairs, Princeton University.

--Karliner, Joshua. "Co-opting the UN." The Ecologist29(No. 5, August 1999):318- . The UNDP's new "GSDF"programme links the UN with some of the world's worst corporations,with the aim of "bringing 2 million more people to the market"early next century.

--Kerasote, Ted, "The Untouchable Wild," Audubon101 (no. 5, Sept./Oct. 1999):82-86. Are today's eco-trips reallybetter for Africa's habitat than the shooting parties of Hemingway'sera? Hemingway had to shoot a lion and eat part of it raw; butthat macho hunter era is gone. Kenya has banned hunting entirelysince 1977. Other countries seek to combine hunting and ecotourism,hoping that both will contribute to sustainable development, typicallywhere the annual per capita income is $ 500. Kerasote concedesthat no good studies exist, but speculates that ecotourists intheir fancy lodges may be more demanding on the environment thana few hunters in a temporary tent. He also thinks that neitherhunters nor ecotourists get very close to the real wild. Kerasote,who lives in Wyoming, is the author of Bloodties: Nature, Culture,and the Hunt.

--Keulartz, Jozef, The Struggle for Nature: A Critique of EnvironmentalPhilosophy. London: Routledge, 1999. 208 pages. $ 23. Deep ecology,social and political ecology, ecofeminism and eco-anarchism, criticizingthe dependence on science of these philosophies and the socialproblems they engender. Keulartz argues for a post-naturalisticturn in environmental philosophy.

--Khanbivardi, Reza M., "How Innovative, Cost-EffectiveTechnologies Can Help Protect the World's Supply of Fresh DrinkingWater." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 6(No.4, Spring, 1999):57- .

--Kheel, Marti, "License to Kill: An Ecofeminist Critiqueof Hunters' Discourse," pages 101-104 in Adams, Carol J.,and Donovan, Josephine, eds., Animals and Women: Feminist TheoreticalExplanations.

--Kittredge Jr., David B., Mark G. Rickenbach,and Broderick,Stephen H. "Regulation and Stumpage Prices: A Tale of TwoStates." Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):12- .Contrary to conventional wisdom, a study finds that Massachusettsregulations do not seem to adversely affect stumpage prices andlandowner profit from the sale of timber.

--Kjellberg, Seppo, Urban Ecotheology. Utrecht, Netherlands:International Books, 2000. The need for an ecological city. Ecotheologyin an urban context. The Tampere, Finland, case. Nature as partof the urban environment. Kjelberg is senior lecturer at the AboAkademi University in Turku, Finland.

--Kloor, Keith, "A Surprising Tale of Life in the City,"Science 286(22 October, 1999):663. Ecologists are finding websof life in the city more intricate than suspected. The U.S. NationalScience Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research program, mostlystudying wild sites, added two urban sites for comparison, Phoenixand Baltimore, and discovered more biodiversity in the nooks andcrannies, the lawns, waste lots, and parks of the cities thananticipated: 75 species of bees, 200 species of birds, and hundredsof species of insects in Phoenix, along with 2.8 million people.But the larger wildlife, such as bighorn sheep, were absent. Also95% of plant species and one in four kinds of birds were introducedexotics. Still, says John Wiens, the bottom line is that "citiesare not the kind of sterile wastelands that some people think."

--Knopman, Debra S., Susman, Megan M. and Landy, Marc K., "CivicEnvironmentalism: Tackling Tough Land-Use Problems With InnovativeGovernance," Environment 41(no. 10, Dec 01 1999):24- . Citizenleaders who want to mobilize their deep concerns for a local placecan make a significance difference in improving their environment.

--Koggel, Christine M., ed., Moral Issues in Global Perspective.Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999. 812 pages. $ 30.00paper. Chapter 24 is "Animals and the Environment."Singer, "Animal Liberation"; Callicott, "AnimalLiberation: A Triangular Affair"; Shrader-Frechette, "EnvironmentalEthics"; Guha, "Wilderness Preservation: A Third WorldCritique"; Patterson, "Maori Environmental Values."

--Kohák, Erazim, The Green Halo: A Bird's Eye View ofEcological Ethics. Chicago: Open Court, 2000. Czech environmentalethics! -- now for everyone. Perhaps the most remarkable of theseveral introductions to environmental ethics in a growing literature--remarkableboth for the unusual career of its author and the multi-dimensionalnature of the work. First published in Czech. Kohák fledCzechoslovakia with the coming of the Soviet regime, had a distinguishedcareer at Boston University, living in a one-room rural home,without electricity, then returned to his native country afterthe Soviet collapse, and is on the Philosophical Faculty of CharlesUniversity in Prague. This was originally written as an introductionfor his students there.
Kohák's life in multiple worlds gives him resources lackingto other environmental philosophers. He knows the naturalistsas well as the philosophers. He knows American philosophy withas much facility as European philosophy. In Europe he knows notonly British and Western European sources, analytic and continentalphilosophy; he draws readily from scholars and original sourcesin Central and Eastern Europe, both those challenging as wellas those within the former Soviet ideology.
Kohák joins conviction and strategy, although he refrainsfrom prescribing straight forth what we ought to do. He claimsonly to describe ideas, challenges, problems, opportunities, andinvites readers to think for themselves. Readers who accept thisinvitation will find that conviction and action are inescapable."`Ecology'--the conscious search for long-term sustainablemodes of cohabitation of humankind and the Earth--is no longerthe hobby of nature lovers. It is the task of humankind and themeaning of our being" (p. 163).

--Kolk, Ans and van der Weij, Ewout. "Financing EnvironmentalPolicy in East Central Europe." Environmental Politics 7(no.1,Spring 1998):53- .

--Kolstad, Charles D. and Guzman, Rolando M. "Informationand the Divergence between Willingness to Accept and Willingnessto Pay." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management38(No. 1, July 1999):66- .

--Krueger, Jonathan, "What's to Become of Trade in HazardousWastes?: The Basel Convention One Decade Later," Environment41(no. 9, Nov 01 1999):10- . A controversial ban on the exportof hazardous wastes to developing countries highlights the needfor more environmentally sound management of such wastes and lesshazardous waste generation overall.

--Laitos, Jan G. and Carr, Thomas A. "The Transformationon Public Lands." Ecology Law Quarterly 26(no. 2, 1999):140-.

--Lakoff, George, and Johnson, Mark, Philosophy in the Flesh:The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York:Basic Books, 1999.

--Landweber, Laura, and Dobson, Andrew P., eds., Genetics andthe Extinction of Species: DNA and the Conservation of Biodiversity.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. 192 pages. $20, paper. Contributors analyze why the burgeoning field of conservationbiology must rely on the insights of population geneticists. Newinsights into how populations have evolved in response to pastselection pressures provides a broad new understanding of thegenetic structure of natural populations. Ways to measure biodiversity.Benefits and drawbacks of captive breeding. The editors are inbiology at Princeton University.

--Lear, Linda, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. 1997. NewYork: Henry Holt and Company, 1997. 634 pp. $17.95, paper. $35.00,cloth. The first comprehensive biography of the great naturalist.Two themes recur repeatedly: (1) the hurdles she had to overcomeas a woman in the masculine worlds of science, government andthe professions. Carson pursued and ultimately abandoned worktowards a Ph.D. in biology. (2) Her tenacity as a writer, culminatingin Carson's struggle to write Silent Spring, and the politicalfirestorm the book ignited. Despicable attempts by chemical andagribusiness interests to slander Carson and discredit her work.She pressed her cause in the face of family tragedy and failinghealth, one of the heroic stories in conservation history. Seealso:

--Carson, Rachel, Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of RachelCarson. Beacon Press, Boston, 1998. 267 pp. $ 24.00.

--Lekan, Thomas, "Regionalism and the Politics of LandscapePreservation in the Third Reich," Environmental History 4(no.3, July 01 1999):384- .

--Leopold, Aldo, For the Health of the Land: Previously UnpublishedEssays and Other Writings. Edited by J. Baird Callicott and EricT. Freyfogle. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999. Several dozen,mostly short, pieces, excerpts, some never before published, somepublished in obscure places. Leopold, who died fighting a grasslandsfire, left his work only partially in print. Here is Leopold,a prophet recalled from mid-century, with surprising relevancefor environmental ethics at the turn of the millennium.

--Leopold, Aldo. The Essential Leopold: Quotations and Commentaries.Meine, Curt D., and Knight, Richard L., eds. Madison: The Universityof Wisconsin Press, 1999.

--Levidow, Les, "Regulating BT Maize in the United Statesand Europe: A Scientific-Cultural Comparison," Environment41(no. 10, Dec 01 1999):10- . Cultural factors play a large rolein determining how societies regulate genetically modified crops.

--Levin Simon, Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons.Reading, MA: Helix (Perseus), 1999. 264 pages. $ 27 paper. A tourthough the current intellectual landscape of ecology and environmentalscience. Six fundamental questions (Chapter 3): (1) What patternsexist in nature? (2) What are the relative roles of historicalaccident versus environmental determinism? Answers: Depends ontemporal and spatial scale. (3) How do ecosystems assemble themselves?Often no answers are available, but the answers that are indicatetrouble ahead with invasive species. (4) How Does evolution Shapethese ecological assemblages? (5) What is the relation betweenan ecosystem's structure and how it functions? (5) Does evolutionfavor resilient systems? Answers require a look at self-organizedcriticality, edge of chaos, fractal landscapes, and more. Otherchapters: Chapter 4: Patterns in Nature. Chapter 5: EcologicalAssembly. Chapter 9: Where do we go from here? Complexity andthe commons. We can hold on to our best human qualities only througha scientifically-informed stewardship of the biosphere. Levinteaches biology at Princeton University and is a well known ecologist.Reviewed by Robert May, "How the Biosphere is Organized,"Science 286(1999):2091.

--Lewandrowski, Jan and Ingram, Kevin. "Policy Considerationsfor Increasing Compatibilities between Agriculture and Wildlife."Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 2, Spring 1999):229- .

--Li, W., Z. Wang, and Tang, H. Designing the Core Zone ina Biosphere Reserve Based on Suitable Habitats: Yancheng BiosphereReserve and the Red Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis). BiologicalConservation 90(No. 3, 1999):167- .

--Li, W., Z. Wang, and Tang, H. "Designing the BufferZone of a Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Yancheng Biosphere ReserveChina. Biological Conservation 90(No. 3, 1999):159- .

--Liverman, Diana M. "Vulnerability and Adaptation toDrought in Mexico." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter1999):99- .

--Lowi, Miriam R., "Water and Conflict in the Middle Eastand South Asia: Are Environmental Issues and Security Issues Linked?,"The Journal Of Environment And Development 8(no. 4, Dec 01 1999):376-.

­Lyons, Michael. "Political Self-Interest and U.S.Environmental Policy." Natural Resources Journal 39 (No.2,Spring 1999): 271- .

--Maddox, Gregory. "Introduction: Africa and EnvironmentalHistory." Environmental History 4(No. 2, April 1999):162-.

­Magoc, Chris J. Yellowstone: The Creation and Sellingof an American Landscape, 1870- 1903. Albuquerque: Universityof New Mexico Press, 1999. Paper, $20. The American myths

and late-Victorian values behind the movement both to preservethe Yellowstone wilderness and to extract its natural resources,codifying the ultimate American landscape.

­Manson, Neil A. "The Precautionary Principle, TheCatastrophe Argument, and Pascal's Wager," CPTS (Center forPhilosophy, Technology and Society, University of Aberdeen, Scotland)Ends and Means, vol.4, no.1, Autumn 1999, pp.12-16. Argues thatenvironmentalists should consider embracing cost-benefit analysis,and would be pleasantly surprised by how often it rules in theirfavor. Manson is Gifford Research Fellow at the University ofAberdeen.

­Markarian, Michael. "Tally-ho, Dude!" The AnimalsAgenda 19 (no.6, November 1 1999): 22-. Fox hunting isn't a Britishrelic, it's an American reality, and Markarian tells its dirtylittle secrets.

­Martin, Peter and Ritchie, Helen. "Logics of Participation:Rural Environmental Governance under Neo-liberalism in Australia."Environmental Politics 8 (no.2, Summer 1999): 117­ .

McKinnel, Robert G. and DiBerardino, Marie A., "The Biologyof Cloning: History and Rationale." BioScience 49 (no.11,Nov 01 1999): 875­ .

­Martinez, Eluid. "Coping with Scarcity on the RioGrande/Rio Bravo." Natural Resources Journal 39 (No.1, Winter1999): 134- .

Mason, Marianne D. "Saving the Chesapeake Bay, One Gazeboat a Time." Natural Resources and the Environment. 14 (No.2,Fall 1999): 134- .

McDuff, Mallory D. "Public Outreach and Conservation Scientists."Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for ConservationBiology 13 (No.4, August 1999): 695- .

McKibben, Bill. "Climate Change and the Unraveling ofCreation. Christian Century 116 (no34, Dec. 8, 1999): 1196-1199."In the past 30 years we have systematically and even morerapidly destroyed this planet's inventory of life . . .In thecase of the struggle to save and preserve the environment­God'screation­the church's leadership is absolutely mandatory."McKibben is the author of The End of Nature and Maybe One, recentlyreissued by Penguin.

­McLean, Ian F.G. "The Role of Legislation in ConservingEurope's Threatened Species." Conservation Biology: The Journalof the Society of Conservation Biology 13 (No.5, Oct. 1999): 966-.

­Michael, Mark A., ed. Preserving Wildlife: An InternationalPerspective. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1999. 275 pages. $21.95.

­Millard, Frances. "Environmental Policy in Poland."Environmental Politics 7 (no.1, Spring 1998): 145- .

­Milton, Kay. Environmentalism and Cultural Theory: Exploringthe Role of Anthropology in Environmental Discourse. London: Routledge,1996. "The position that human beings are unique in possessingculture has always seemed an absurd denial both of experienceand of logic" (pp.63-64). "The myth of primitive ecologicalwisdom is not well founded" (p.133).

­Montesinos, Miriam. "It May Be Silly, But It's AnAnswer: The Need to Accept Contingent Valuation Methodology inNatural Resource Damage Assessments." Ecology Law Quarterly26 (No.1, 1999): 48- .

­Montgomery, Claire A., Pollak, Robert A., and White, Denis."Pricing Biodiversity." Journal of Environmental Economicsand Management 38 (No.1, July 1999): 1- .

­Moore, Bryan. "National Mining Association v. UnitedStates Army Corps of Engineers: The District of Columbia CircuitDrains Wetlands Protection from the Clean Water Act." TulaneEnvironmental Law Journal 12 (No.1, Winter 1998): 235- .

­Moore, Mary Elizabeth. Ministering with the Earth. St.Louis, MO: Chalice Press, 1998. 226 pages. Moore is fond of themetaphor, suitably pastoral and feminist, of ministering as "quiltinga life in relation to God and God's creation." A collectionof insightful stories, episodes, thoughts, sermonettes, pastoralideas and opportunities. Moore is professor theology and Christianeducation at Claremont School of Theology.

­Muttit, Greg. "Degrees of Involvement." TheEcologist 29 (No.5, August 1999): 326- . UK universities, ratherthan using their expertise to find solutions to climate change,are instead acting to prop up the oil industry.

­Nabhan, Gary Paul and Holdsworth, Andrew. "Stateof the Sonoran Desert Biome." Wild Earth 9 (No.2, Summer1999): 71- .

--Nash, Roderick Frazier, "Nature and Civilization: ABiocentric Solution," afterword in Jackson, William Henryand Fiedler, John, photographers, and Marston, Ed, text, Colorado1870-2000. Englewood, CO: Westcliffe Publishers, 2000. A coffeetable book with matching old and new photographs, showing environmentalchanges. Nash outlines "seven possible pillars that may helpdefine a new wilderness philosophy." "Ours may be thelast generation with the chance to make major course correctionsin a mood of deliberation rather than desperation. Perhaps bytempering power with moral responsibility we can still be thecapstone--not the cancer--of life on Earth" (p. 223).

--Native Plants Journal is a new journal, concerned with nativeplant conservation, restoration, reforesting, landscaping, highwaycorridors, and, generally, with the appreciation and understandingof native plants on landscapes. The first issue apprears Spring2000. Contact: http://www.its.uidaho.edu/nativeplants/

--Nickler, Patrick A., "A Tragedy of the Commons in CoastalFisheries: Contending Prescriptions for Conservation, and theCase of the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna." Boston College EnvironmentalAffairs Law Review 26(No. 3, Spring 1999):549- . The AtlanticOcean's population of bluefin tuna is under severe stress, andan international commission recommends no fishing for juvenilefish of this species for the indefinite future. But implementingthis under the current management system is particularly ineffective.

--Noal, Fernando Oliveira, Reigota, Marcos, and Barcelos ValdoHermes de Lima, compilers, Tendências da EducaçaoAmbiental Brasileira (Trends in Brazilian Environmental Education).Santa Cruz do Sul (Brazil): EDUNISC, published by the Universityof Santa Cruz do Sul Press, 1998. In Portugese. Website contacts:info@unisc.br; www@unisc.br. Publisher's address: Avenida Indepêndencia,2293, 96815-900 Santa Cruz do Sol - RS, Brazil. Fax: (051) 717-1855.14 articles by different contributors, including articles on Amazonia.

--OMahony (O'Mahony), Patrick, ed., Nature, Risk and Responsibility.London: Routledge, 1999. 224 pages. $ 25.00. Ethical issues inbiodiversity. Whether sufficient consensus exists or is emergingto enable biotechnology to occupy a significant role in the techno-economic,

social and cultural order. The implications of biotechnologyfor nature, life and social organization. O'Mahony is at UniversityCollege, Cork, Ireland.

--Orr, David W. "The Not-So-Great Wilderness Debate."Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):74-.

--Ostergren, David M. and Hollenhorst, Steven J., "Convergencein Protected Area Policy: A Comparison of the Russian Zapovednikand American Wilderness Systems," Society & Natural Resources12(no. 4, 1999):293- .

--OToole (O'Toole) Jr., Laurence J. "Hungary: PoliticalTransformation and Environmental Challenge." EnvironmentalPolitics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):93- .

--Panalver, Eduardo M., "Acts of God or Toxic Torts? ApplyingTort Principles to the Problem of Climate Change." NaturalResources Journal 38(No. 4, Fall 1998):563- .

--Parke, Rebecca and Vandermast, David. "The AmericanChestnut: Its Continuing Story." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer1999):23- .

--Petersen, Shannon. "Congress and Charismatic Megafauna:A Legislative History of the Endangered Species Act." EnvironmentalLaw 29(No. 2, 1999):463- . When Congress overwhelmingly passedthe Endangered Species Act in 1973, it failed to anticipate thatthe Act would become one of the strongest and most comprehensiveof environmental laws. Instead, most in Congress believed theAct would apply modest restrictions primarily to protect charismaticmegafauna representative of our national heritage, like bald eagles,bison, and grizzly bears.

--Phillips, Sarah T. "Lessons From the Dust Bowl: DrylandAgriculture and Soil Erosion in the United States and South Africa,1900-1950." Environmental History 4(No. 2, April 1999):245-.

--Plumwood, Val, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat,"Animal Issues 1(1997):1-20. "The problems in representingother species' communicative powers or subjectivities in termsof human speech are real, but they do not rule out such representationin any general way, and they pale before the difficulties of failingto represent them at all, or before the enormity of representingcommunicative and intentional beings as lacking all communicativeand mental capacity ... (which is) a much greater inaccuracy andinjustice than any anthropomorphism could be" (p. 1).

--Podoba, Juraj. "Rejecting Green Velvet: Transition,Environment and Nationalism in Slovakia." Environmental Politics7(no.1, Spring 1998):129- .

--Poe, Gregory L. "Maximizing the Environmental Benefitsper Dollar Expended : An Economic Interpretation and Review ofAgricultural Environmental Benefits and Costs." Society &Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):571- .

--Potter, Christopher S. "Terrestrial Biomass and theEffects of Deforestation on the Global Carbon Cycle." Bioscience49(No.10, Oct. 1999):769- . Results from a model of primary productionusing satellite observations.

--Pratt, Vernon, with Howarth, Jane, and Brady, Emily, Environmentand Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge, 2000. 275 pages.£ 14.00 An introduction to environmental ethics, concentratingon the philosophical presuppositions, and making these accessiblethose outside philosophy, especially to those in environmentalscience. Two great structures of modern Western civilization areparticularly questioned: individualism and science. Chapters:1. Introduction. 2. Objective nature. Science. 3. We are all onelife. Romanticism, reaction to science, ending in deep ecology.4. The exploitation of nature and women. Ecofeminism. 5. Phenomenologyand the environment (by Jane Howarth). 6. Coping with individualism.7. Lines into the future. The biological conception of life, biocentrism.Evolutionary origins and kinship of life. 8. Ecology and communities.Leopold's land ethic. 9. The importance of being an individual.Identity issues. 10. The aesthetics of the natural environment(by Emily Brady). The authors are all in philosophy at LancasterUniversity, U.K.

--Pray, Leslie. "Habitat Lost: Inbreeding Depression andExtinction." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):12- .

--Prendergast, John R., Rachel M. Quinn, and Lawton, John H.,"The Gaps Between Theory and Practice in Selecting NatureReserves." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Societyfor Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):484- .

--Pritchard, James, Preserving Natural Conditions: Scienceand the Perception of Nature in Yellowstone National Park. Ph.D.thesis, University of Kansas, 1996. 510 pages.

--Pyne, Stephen J., Andrews, Patricia, and Laven, Richard D.,Introduction to Wildland Fire. New York: John Wiley, 1996. Withsections on aboriginal fires.

--Ray, Justina C. and Ginsberg, Joshua R. "EndangeredSpecies Legislation beyond the Borders of the United States."Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of ConservationBiology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):956- .

--Ricciardi, Anthony and Rasmussen, Joseph B. "ExtinctionRates of North American Freshwater Fauna." Conservation Biology:The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct.1999):1220- .

--Robinson, John, and Bennett, Elizabeth, eds., Hunting forSustainability in Tropical Forests. New York: Columbia UniversityPress, 1999. Tropical forests can sustain no more than one personper square kilometer harvesting wildlife, if wildlife is to beconserved and sustainably harvested. Traditional peoples oftenexisted in much lower numbers than that. When game was depletedtraditional peoples could move on to other areas. Such patternshave now been broken, when these peoples turn to agriculture andstill hunt in nearby forests, with guns, flashlights, radios,and motorized vehicles. Early success produces more children,and more hunters, who need food and want modern goods.
As food sources, rainforests are surprisingly low in productivity,compared to grasslands with their ungulates and other grazers.Grasslands produce ten times as much edible meat. Even relativelysmall harvests for forest wildlife can deplete the populations.Robinson is at the University of Florida. Bennett is with theWildlife Conservation Society.

--Roblan, Aaron and Sage, Samuel H., "Steel Company v.Citizens for a Better Environment: The Evisceration of CitizenSuits Under the Veil of Article II." Tulane EnvironmentalLaw Journal 12 (No.1, Winter,1998):59- .

--Roozen, Tyler, "A Case of Need: The Struggle to ProtectBigleaf Mahogany." Natural Resources Journal 38(No. 4, Fall1998):603- .


--Rosa, Eugene A., "The Quest to Understand Society andNature: Looking Back, but Mostly Forward," Society &Natural Resources 12(no.4, 1999):371- .

--Ross, John, and Ross, Beth. Prairie Time: The Leopold ReserveRevisited. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

--Rowe, Garry M. "Shortage and Tension on the Upper RioGrande: Protecting Endangered Species during Times of Drought--TheRole of the Bureau of Reclamation, A Brief Overview of Relationshipsin the Upper Rio Grande Basin." Natural Resources Journal39(No. 1, Winter 1999):141- .

--Rozzi, Ricardo, "The Reciprocal Links between Evolutionary-EcologicalSciences and Environmental Ethics," BioScience 49(1999):911-921.Darwinian evolution and its implications for ecologists and ethicists.This is an important case because (1) the social influences andhistorical circumstances that led Darwin to formulate his theoryhave been well examined. (2) Darwinian theory is a foundationalbasis for both ecology and environmental ethics. (3) Darwiniantheory cuts both ways. It can encourage respect for the naturalenvironment by weakening anthropocentrism. But it can also favorpatterns of overconsumption and exploitation of the environmentby strengthening individualism with ideas of the struggle forexistence and natural selection. This paper was first presentedat an International Society for Environmental Ethics session atthe World Congress of Philosophy in Boston, August 1998. Rozziis at the Institute of Ecological Research Chiloé, Chile,though currently at the Departments of Philosophy and of Ecologyand Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs.

--Sale, Kirkpatrick. "Lessons From The Luddites."The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):314- . Kirkpatrick Sale recountsthe history of the original Luddites, and explains what the modernenvironmental movement can learn from their stand against destructive"progress".

--Schofield, Timothy, "The Environment as an IdeologicalWeapon: A Proposal to Criminalize Environmental Terrorism."Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 26(No. 3, Spring1999):619- . Global ecosystems are emerging as both targets andconduits of terrorist activity. But available law is quite ineffectivehere. A new criminal law of ecocide would be more effective.

--Schwartz, Sandra, Chance, Graham W. "Children First."Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):20- . Environmental contaminantprotection policy needs to be rewritten to reflect the needs ofour most vulnerable citizens.

--Scudder, G. G. E. "Endangered Species Protection inCanada." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Societyof Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):963- .

--Sellars, Richard West, Preserving Nature in the NationalParks: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. 380pages. The clash between traditional scenery-and-tourism managementand emerging ecological concepts in the national parks. Therehas been "a persistent tension between national park managementfor aesthetic purposes and management for ecological purposes"(p. 5). Focusing on the decades after the U. S. National ParkService was established in 1916, Sellars reveals the dynamicsof policy formulation and change, a Service tangled in conflictingvisions, as landscape architects, foresters, wildlife biologists,and other Park Service professionals contended for dominance andshaped the attitudes and culture of the Service, and the attitudesand culture of Americans who visit the parks to see wild nature.Sellars is a historian with the U.S. National Park Service, SantaFe, NM.
--Sharma, Subrat, Hem C. Rikhari, and Palni, Lok Man S. "Conservationof Natural Resources Through Religion: A Case Study from CentralHimalaya." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept.1999):599- .

--Shea, Nancy Huffman, The Status of Ecophilosophy and theIdeology of Nature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts,1991. Ecophilosophy is an attempt to render a new philosophy ofnature, generated by the need to liberate nature from the inherentlydomineering disposition of humankind. Although I am sympatheticto this effort, I believe that the current ambiguity of its content(who or what is to survive) carries with it the potentiality fornew forms of oppression. I argue that ecophilosophy suffers froma kind of Habermasian self-deception, taking on a vague conceptof nature that deceptively appears to do the philosophical workof healing the epistemological gap between nature and humans.My reconstruction unifies this loosely-defined vision along thelines of an equivocal use of two key concepts, the dominationof nature and nature itself, revealing the potentially subversivecharacter of its implicitly universalist philosophy of nature.
Ecophilosophers, rather than distinguishing themselves, fail toimprove upon Francis Bacon's suggestion that attention to naturewill liberate us. Their satisfaction with ecological solutionsindicates that they miss the essential ideological consequenceof the modern project: the domination by some humans over othershas been covered over by a self-deceptive belief in the liberatingcharacter of scientific methodology. By arguing for the emancipatorycapacity of ecology, they get themselves into a Marcusian-likebind, advocating this new science while at the same time rejectingscientific rationality as a pivotal component of their notionof the domination of nature. Because of this they are forced toargue that ecology is qualitatively different, offering a newkind of rationality that contains the necessary ingredients forradically changing society.
Ecophilosophers must reconsider the epistemologically naive andideologically negative repercussions of this position as I demonstratewith an analysis of the potentially repressive relationships thatexist between fourth world cultures and the environmental community.I conclude by subjecting the Habermasian universalist frameworkto revision as indicated by the possibilities of a new eco-vision,emerging from the contextual episteme of a reworked ecofeministperspective. The advisor was Robert Paul Wolff. Shea is now directorof the Murie Center in Grand Teton National Park.

--Shiva, Vandana. "Now Monsanto Is After Our Water."The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):297- .

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin and McCoy, Earl D. "MolecularSystematics, Ethics, and Biological Decision Making under Uncertainty."Conservation Biology : The Journal of the Society of ConservationBiology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1008- .

--Smith, J. Brian. "Western Wetlands: The Backwater ofWetlands Regulation." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 2,Spring 1999):357- .

--Smith, Mick. "Terra Nova: Nature and Culture."Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):237-240. A reviewessay of the contents of the journal Terra Nova, edited by DavidRothenberg. Terra Nova claims to be the journal to dissolve the"polarity" between nature and culture. "Terra Novacould be seen as expression of the need for a green poetics, apsycho-social alchemy, which might escape the all too narrow confinesof normal academic journals. It tries to be `extra' rather than`inter' disciplinary and for that reason often seems extra-ordinary.... Not long ago a journal like Environmental Ethics was regardedby serious (that is to say `staid') philosophers as a wacky irrelevance.Today not least due to the efforts of the editors of EnvironmentalEthics, environmental issues have begun to enter the philosophicalmainstream and the journal's primogeniture carries with it a certainacademic cachet." The mantle of the marginal has passed toTerra Nova, the only journal that can put Wordsworth togetherwith Wittgenstein. Smith is at the University of Abertay, Dundee,Scotland.

--Smith, Patrick D., Maureen H. McDonough, and Mang, MichaelT. "Ecosystem Management and Public Participation: Lessonsfrom the Field." Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):32-. Although ecosystem management has opened the door for greaterpublic participation, a study of professional and public perceptionshighlights remaining barriers.

--Soltis, Pamela S. and Gitzendanner, Matthew A., "MolecularSystemics and the Conservation of Rare Species." ConservationBiology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No.3, June 1999):471- .

--Soulé, Michael E. and Terborgh, John. "Roundtable:Conserving Nature at Regional and Continental Scales--A ScientificProgram for North America. Bioscience 49(No.10, Oct. 1999):809-.

--Spretnak, Charlene, The Resurgence of the Real: Body, Natureand Place in a Hypermodern World. London: Routledge, 1999. Anecological postmodern ethics, replacing the modern, mechanisticworldview with Homo economicus at its center. The ideologies ofmodernity have devalued "the knowing body, the creative cosmos,and the complex sense of place." The modern crisis is beingchallenged by an impressive network of corrective efforts.

--Stanford, Craig B., The Hunting Apes: Meat Eating and theOrigins of Human Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UniversityPress, 1999. 262 pages. $ 25. What made humans unique was meat,the desire for meat, the eating of meat, the hunting of meat,the sharing of meat. Being a "clever, strategic, and mindfulsharer of meat is the essential recipe that led to the expansionof the human brain." From analyses of the behavior of chimpsand other great apes, and existing human hunting and gatheringsocieties, Stanford claims that meat eating has been central tohuman evolution. Meat provides a highly concentrated source ofprotein, essential for the development and health of the brain,and is craved by many primates, including humans. This cravinghas given meat genuine power--the power to cause males to formhunting parties and organize entire cultures around hunting. Andit has given men the power to manipulate and control women inthese cultures. Steven N. Austad comments in Natural History:"I justify my meat eating by tradition. As Craig Stanford'sbook makes abundantly clear, my ancestors have been killing andeating meat for more than five million years. What kind of egotistwould it take to break a tradition like that?" (Perhaps Austadcontinues to dominate his women too!) Although Stanford portrays"the roots of human behavior as manipulation and cunningthat arise from the use of meat by our ancestors," he, atleast, concludes that we are not biologically driven to do anyof these things and that we are not innately aggressive demons.Stanford is in anthropology at the University of Southern California.

--Steins, Nathalie A. and Edwards, Victoria M. "CollectiveAction in Common-Pool Resource Management: The Contribution ofa Social Constructivist Perspective to Existing Theory."Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):539- .

--Stepien, Kathy Ann, Does an Ecological Self Need an EnvironmentalEthics? An Analysis and Critique of Warwick Fox's Deep Ecology.M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, Fall 1999. Warwick Fox'sinterpretation of the deep ecological position takes Self-realizationas the fundamental norm, a self essentially interconnected withall other entities, and contrasted with a tripartite conceptionof the self in traditional accounts. Fox rejects the need forenvironmental ethics, as a result of his expanded sense of self.The self's behavior is internally motivated, not externally regulated.But this is a mistake; rather a deep ecological ethics is in factneeded, offering much-needed moral reasoning to the expanded self,making difficult decisions in the real world. Rejected environmentalethics is reaffirmed, enabling the moral development of the expandedself, seeking to care in a complex world. The advisor was HolmesRolston. Stepien, who is also a physical therapist, now livesin Alaska in a cabin outside Juneau (where she drinks the waterthat runs off her roof into a cistern) and assists in some teachingat the University of Alaska--Southeast in Juneau.

--Stewart Wayne, Metaphysics by Default. A website book publication.Juxtaposes metaphysicians and naturalists, often thought to beat odds with one another, to create a dialogue between them, andeven a peaceful co-existence. Nineteen chapters. Website address:http://mbdefault.org/

--Stivers, Robert L., "Integrity: One Way of UnderstandingGod's Presence in All Creation," Earth Letter, January 2000,pp. 4-6. Published by Earth Ministry, 1305 NE 47th St., Seattle,WA 98105. Website: www.earthministry.org "At first glance,it does not seem to make much sense to speak of the integrityof nature. ... Plants and animals react instinctively and possessonly rudimentary intentionality. With no substantial freedom,they do not sin. There is no justice in a wilderness. Impersonalpredation is central to the evolutionary process and a preconditionof healthy ecosystems. Nature, it would seem, is without integrity.Nevertheless, we can still speak of integrity in nature. ... Wecan recognize as a form of integrity in nature the dynamic integrationof individuals, species, and ecosystems. The integrity of naturein this sense is the intact quality of this integration. We canfurther recognize that the preservation of nature's integrityis now a matter of human responsibility." Stivers teachesreligion at Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma.

--Stokstad, Erik, "Humane Science Finds Sharper and KinderTools," Science 286(5 November 1999):1068-1071. New technologyis helping researchers reduce their reliance on animal experiments,while at the same time improving their results. "Humane scienceis better science," was a frequent conclusion at the ThirdWorld Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences.Use of animals in the U.K. has declined nearly 50% (from over5 million a year in the seventies to about 2.5 million a year),although use of transgenic animals is up sharply in this decadefrom 50,000 to 450,000. A major feature is implantable chips.But government regulatory agencies are slow to accept these results.

--Sunderlin, William D. "Between Danger and Opportunity:Indonesia and Forests in an Era of Economic Crisis and PoliticalChange." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept.1999):559- .

--Swift Jr., Lloyd W. and Burns, Richard G. "The ThreeRs of Roads: Redesign, Reconstruction, and Restoration."Journal of Forestry 97(No.8, August 1999):40- . Old unpaved accessroads located near streams and rivers often contribute sedimentto the watershed. For landowners who cannot reconstruct and relocatesuch roads to protect water quality, low-cost mitigation alternativesare available.

--Talberth, John. "State of the Southern Rockies: SanJuan-Sangre de Christo Bioregion." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer1999):68- .

--Terborgh, John, James Estes, and Noss, Reed. "The Roleof Top Carnivores in Regulating Terrestrial Ecosystems."Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):42- .

--Terra Nova, vol. 2, no. 3, summer 1997 is a theme issue:Music from Nature. The many ways that music can reach and definenature. Among many contributions:
* Krause, Bernie, "What Does Western Music Have to Do withNature?", pp. 109-114. Western music in general has veryfew ties to the natural world, whatever other excellences it has,and this is a shortcoming. Krause is an audio artist, does sounddesign for Hollywood films, and records natural soundscapes fortheir preservation.
* Takemitsu, Toru, "Nature and Music," pp. 4-13. Takemitsuwas a contemporary Japanese composer, died 1996.

--Thorbjarnarson, John, "Crocodile Tears and Skins: InternationalTrade, Economic Constraints, and Limits to the Sustainable Useof Crocodilians." Conservation Biology: The Journal of theSociety for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):465- .

--Thoreau, Henry David, Wild Fruits. New York: W. W. Norton,2000. $ 30. Previously unpublished and little known Thoreau materials,recovered and edited by Bradley Dean. Dean is with the ThoreauInstitute, Lincoln, Massachusetts.

--Tobias, Michael, Fitzgerald, J. Patrick, and Rothenberg,David, eds., A Parliament of Minds: Philosophy for a New Millennium.Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000. 309 pages.$ 22. Contains, among others:
* Grene, Marjorie, "The Trials and Tribulations of Philosophyand Farming"
* Rothenberg, David, "Wild Thinking: Philosophy, Ecology,and Technology"

--Turner, Andrew M., Joel C. Trexler, and Loftus, William F."Targeting Ecosystem Features for Conservation: StandingCrops in the Florida Everglades." Conservation Biology: TheJournal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August1999):898- .

--Utton, Albert E. "Coping with Drought on an InternationalRiver under Stress: The Case of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo."Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):27- .

--VanWensveen (van Wensveen), Louke. Dirty Virtues: The Emergenceof Ecological Virtue Ethics. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1997.200 pages. $49.95. An overview of current "green" virtuelanguage and the basic elements of a matching ecological virtuetheory.

--Vaske, Jerry J. and Donnelly, Maureen P. "A Value-Attitude-BehaviorModel Predicting Wildland Preservation Voting Intentions."Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):523- .

--Vogel, Gretchen, "FDA Report Scores Chimp Research Lab,"Science 286(12 November 1999):1269-1271. The Coulston Foundation,a private chimp breeding and research facility in Alamogordo,New Mexico, has been severely criticized by a U.S. Food and DrugAdministration report for violating many procedures, resultingin sloppy science, and in some cases leading to chimpanzee deaths.

--Vogt, Kristiina A., et al., Forest Certification: Roots,Issues, Challenges, and Benefits. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers,1999. 384 pages. $ 90. Forest certification is widely acceptedas a tool for identifying environmentally acceptable managementof forests, both industrial and non-industrial. Five issues aretypically missing: the scientific basis for certification standards;incorporation of social and natural system sustainability; therationale for differing standards currently used to certify governmental,industrial, and non-industrial uses; the success of certification;the difficulty of certifying small landowners. All authors areat the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.
--Walker, Ken, and Crowley, Kate, ed., Australian EnvironmentalPolicy 2: Studies in Decline and Devolution. Sydney: UNSW PRESSUniversity of New South Wales, 1999. 320 pp. ISBN 0 86840 6732. Australian $ 35.00 Twelve contributors: Examples: Crowley,Kate, "Explaining Environmental Policy: Challenges, Constraintsand Capacity"; Adams, G., and Hine, M., "Local EnvironmentalPolicy Making in Australia"; Dovers, S., "InstitutionalizingEcological Sustainable Development: Promises, Problems, and Prospects."Walker is an analyst of environmental policy in Australia, authorof The Political Ecology of Environmental Policy: An AustralianIntroduction. Crowley teaches environmental policy at the Universityof Tasmania.

--Walker, Kenneth, The Political Ecology of Environmental Policy:An Australian Introduction. Kensington, NSW: UNSW PRESS Universityof New South Wales, 1994. 349 pages.

--Walker, Martin J. "The Unquiet Voice of Silent Spring."The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):322- . Rachel Carson's 1962book Silent Spring helped give birth to the modern environmentalmovement. But what was her real legacy?

--Waller, Michael. "Gepolitics and the Environment inEastern Europe." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):29-.

--Walters, Kerry S., and Portmess, Lisa, eds., Ethical Vegetarianism:From Pythagoras to Peter Singer. Albany, NY: State Universityof New York Press, 1999.

--Watson, Lyall, Dark Nature--A Natural History of Evil. NewYork: HarperCollins, 1995. A study of the dark side of nature,made in biological terms--not from the top down, but from thebottom up. The usual (top-down) accounts of evil events and behaviorthat are given in religion, philosophy, and ethics fail, not becausethey underestimate evil, but because they misunderstand its nature.Evil is commonplace and widespread, perhaps not even confinedto the human species, although it is all to easy to leap to unwarrantedconclusions, particularly where other species are concerned. Inevolutionary history, organisms make themselves, always a creativeadvance into novelty, and evil is a part of this scheme of things.It is part of the ecology of life, casting its shadow on everythingthat we do. As we humans choose our future, we have to understanda dark side to our own nature; but just this capacity to choosemakes us special, giving us the ability to select a course fornature, instead of just submitting to the course of natural selection.

--Weiss, Edith Brown and Jacobson, Harold K. "GettingCountries to Comply with International Agreements." Environment41(No. 6, July 1999):16- . A study of eight countries and fiveinternational agreements shows that compliance with environmentalaccords is a multilayered and volatile process.

--White, Allen L. "Sustainability and the AccountableCorporation: Society's Rising Expectations of Business."Environment 41(No. 8, Oct. 1999):30- . Thorough and consistentreporting is the key to increasing corporations' accountabilityin the environmental, social, and economic realms.

--Whiten, A., Goodall, J., et al., "Cultures in Chimpanzees,"Nature 399(1999):682-685.

--Wilkinson, Todd. "Yellowstone Grizzlies Delisting Dilemma."Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):27- .

--Willers, Bill. "Ecosystems and Evolution in Light ofSystems Analysis. Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):10- .
--Wilson, Patrick Impero. "Wolves, Politics, and the NezPerce: Wolf Recovery in Central Idaho and the Role of Native Tribes."Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 3, Summer 1999):543- .

--Woinarski, J. C. Z. and Fisher, Alaric. "The AustralianEndangered Species Protection Act 1992." Conservation Biology:The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct.1999):959- .

--Wood, Paul M., Biodiversity and Democracy: Rethinking Societyand Nature. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press,1999. The negative, potentially catastrophic, consequences ofbiodiversity loss are largely irreversible and the greatest losswill be suffered by future generations. The issue is one of intergenerationaljustice. Democracies are designed to implement the wishes of thecurrent population. Wood examines a number of contemporary theoriesof justice and concludes that biodiversity conservation is a legitimateconstraint on current collective preference. Biodiversity shouldbe preserved, even if it is not in the current public's best interestedto do so. This carries strong implications for constitutionaland statutory reform in liberal democracies. Wood is in ForestResources Management at the University of British Columbia.

--Wu, JunJie and Babcock, Bruce A. "The Relative Efficiencyof Voluntary vs Mandatory Environmental Regulations." Journalof Environmental Economics and Management 38(No. 2, Sept. 1999):158-.

--Wuethner, George. "Wolves for Oregon: Myths and Reality."Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):32- .

--Yaffee, Steven L. "Three Faces of Ecosystem Management."Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for ConservationBiology 13(No. 4, August 1999):713- .

--Yaukey, John, "Studies Suggest Animals Capable of HigherThought: Recent Research Ignites Debate on Ethics, Cruelty,"Gannett News Service story appearing in Gannett Newspapers, e.g.Fort Collins Coloradoan, October 4, 1999, A6. New research suggeststhat animals have much higher levels of cognition and social developmentthan previously thought. But this has to be tested for by ferretingout the kinds of problem-solving tactics animals need to hunt,hide, and survive, by seeing what the animals do naturally andcognitively--rather than with the old-style tests for languageor maze-running. One result is that lines blur between those animalsthat have intelligence and those that do not. Another result isthat animal rights/welfare law is tightening up. Harvard and Georgetownlaw schools have announced they will teach animal rights law.

--Ye Ping, ed., Huanjing yu kechixu fazhan yanjiu (For Environmentand Sustainable Development). Harbin, Heilongjiang, China: HeilongjiangScience and Technology Press, 1998. ISBN 7-5388-3508-3. Proceedingsof the First National (All-China) Conference on Ecological Philosophy,Environment and Sustainable Development, held in Harbin, China,October 20-24, 1998. Contains, among others (all in Chinese):
* Yu Mouchang, "Ecological Philosophy and Sustainable Development"
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Ziran de jiazhi yu jiazhi de benzhi(Value in Nature and the Nature of Value)", pp. 5-12, originallyin Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and theEnvironment (Cambridge University Press, 1994). Liu Er, translator.
* Yang Tongjin, "Value and Human Nature: Rolston's Methodsin Environmental Ethics"
* Ye Ping, "Knowledge-Based Economy and Sustainable Development"
* Chen Minhao, "Ecological Culture and Sustainable Development"
* Liu Er, "The Ecological Conscience and Our Choice of Life-Styles"
* Zhao Xuehai, "Problems in the Sustainability of Forestsand the Management of Forestry Enterprises"
* Li Xin & Xu Dejun, "On the Protection of Grasslandsafter the Flood" (Floods in northern China on the Neng Riverand the Songhua River in August 1998).

--Young, Oran R. "Hitting the Mark: Why Are Some InternationalEnvironmental Agreements More Successful Than Others." Environment41(No. 8, Oct. 1999):20- . Is it possible to increase the probabilitythat a regime created to solve an environmental problem will hitits target?

--Yu Mouchang, Xinshiji Xinshijiao (Eco-Ethics--from Theoryto Practice). Beijing: Shengtai Lunlixue, 1999. 362 pages. ISBN7-81039-950-0. (in Chinese). The Ecological Ethic in Chinese History.Modern Western Environmental Ethics: Schweitzer, Leopold, Singer,Ran Shan Zhu Qui, Rolston. Basic Ecological Ethics on Value inthe Natural World. Basic Ecological Ethics on Rights in the NaturalWorld. Ecological Ethics for Politics. Ecological Ethics for theEnvironment, for Forests, for Land, for Resources, for Consumers,for Business, for Population Growth, for Science, for War andthe Military. Yu Mouchang is in the Institute of Philosophy, ChineseAcademy of Social Sciences, Beijing.

--Zhexue Yicong (Philosophy Digest of Translation), (Journalof the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy,Beijing), 1999, Issue No. 2, contains several articles on environmentalethics, in Chinese translation:
* Rolston, Holmes, III, and Coufal, James, "A Forest Ethicand Multivalue Forest Management," Journal of Forestry 89(no.4, 1991):35-40.
* Murdy, W. H., "Anthropocentrism: A Modern Version,"Science 187(1975):1168-1172.
* Callicott, J. Baird, "Rolston on Intrinsic Value: A Deconstruction,"Environmental Ethics 14(1992):129-143.


Do ranchers have private propertyrights to graze on public lands?Nevada rancher Wayne Hage, a symbol of western defianceof the federal government and husband to Representative HelenChenoweth of Idaho (one of Congress' arch anti-environmentalists),is suing the federal government for revoking his permit to grazecattle on 240,000 acres of the Toiyabe National Forest. The lawsuitclaims a Fifth Amendment "taking"of his state-authorizedwater rights. In a preliminary ruling, a count found it "amatter of common sense that implicit in a vested water right basedon putting water to beneficial use for livestock purposes wasthe appurtenant right for those livestock to graze alongside thewater." See Tom Kenworthy, "Is Property Crusader's ClaimAll
Wet?" Washington Post (10/6/99): A31.

Political ramifications of the definitionof wilderness. About 100million acres of the United States (4 percent) is protected aswilderness and another 100 million acres are suitable for suchdesignation. In an attempt to prevent the expansion of designatedwilderness areas, wilderness foes are driving off-road vehiclesthrough Utah's red rock country in hopes of scarring the landwith visible tracks. In Alaska, timber interests are trying tobuild a primitive road through the biggest wetland in North Americaso that the Copper River Delta would be ineligible for wildernessdesignation. Participants of new outdoor thrill sports such asjet skiing, paragliding, mountain biking, and helicopter skiingwant to be able to pursue their sports in wilderness areas, placesthat generally legally prohibit mechanical vehicles, roads, commercialexploitation, or human habitation. The reporter chronicling thisdispute claims that "implicit in this debate is the conceptthat wilderness and humans should have nothing to do with eachother ­ that people have no place in wild country, exceptas occasional visitors." Some conservationists believe agreater tolerance for human presence in the wild could actuallyopen up more land for protection. Death Valley National Park isconsidering allowing the 300-member Timbisha Shoshone tribe, whichhas lived in the desert for centuries, to resume traditional hunting,gathering, and cultural activities
as long as they are pursued in the old-fashioned way. See TimothyEgan, "Searching for Eden: The Definition of Wilderness IsIncreasingly Elusive," NY Times (9/12/99).

Virtual Old Faithful. Live images (updated every 30 seconds)of Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park are now availableon the web at http://www.nps.gov/yell/oldfaithfulcam.htm. YellowstonePark's web coordinator isn't worried that vicarious online viewingwill undermine people's desire to see the real thing and thinksit may even enhance people's visitation of the Park. See MindySink, "The Same Old Old Faithful, With a Newfangled Twist,"NY Times (11/18/99).

Unsafe pesticides in U.S. produce. A study by Consumers Union (publisherof Consumer Reports magazine) found that U.S. domestic producehad, in most cases, higher levels of toxic pesticides than didimported produce. Although almost all the produce tested was withinlegal limits, pesticide residue was frequently well above thelevels that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) saysare safe for young children. Peaches, winter squash, apples,
green beans, pears, spinach, and grapes had toxicity hundredsof times the levels of other foods analyzed. Foods with the lowesttoxicity were apple juice, bananas, broccoli, canned peaches,milk, orange juice and canned or frozen peas and corn. See MarianBurros, "High Pesticide Levels Seen in U.S. Food," NYTimes (2/19/99).

Fisheries conservation. While about 70 percent of the world'simportant species are being fished to their limit or beyond, 60billion pounds worth of sea life is destroyed as bycatch eachyear, more than the annual catch of the entire U.S. fishing fleet.This includes 40,000 young swordfish that are thrown away by U.S.fishers each year because they are legally too small to keep.Shrimp boats which skim the bottom with huge trawl nets are notoriouslyinefficient, in one study throwing away 10 pounds of fish andshellfish for each pound of shrimp that goes to market. A notedmarine ecologist, Elliott Norse, says, "It's like killingthe pig for the squeal. We're not driving species to extinction,but we're harming our own fishing prospects." The U.S. NationalMarine Fisheries Service is using a number tactics to respondto these problems. Shrimpers have been required to pull TEDs (turtleexcluder devices) for a number of years and turtle populationshave been coming back. More recently, shrimpers have had to useBRDs (bycatch reduction devices) in addition to TEDs. Some environmentaland recreational fisher groups are pushing for limits on fishingwith "longlines," 20 to 70 mile long metal cables withhundreds of bated hooks. They also oppose the ongoing use of driftnets which are still legally deployed in U.S. waters at lengthsof up to 1 _ miles. Several summers ago, a small fleet of swordfishboats inadvertently killed 253 dolphins, 22 whales and 34 raresea turtles in two weeks of drift-net fishing. For several years,environmental groups have sponsor a boycott of Atlantic swordfish.A new idea with broad support is to establish permanent no-fishingzones. Analogous to national parks and wilderness areas, theseocean sanctuaries allow fish populations to rebuild and preserveecosystems in a near-natural state. Currently less than 1 percentof the sea is in such a preserve. Joby Warrick, "At Sea,the Catchword Is Conservation," Washington Post 1/7/99: A1.

American songbirds aren't in decline. Despite widespread opinion to the contrary,the best evidence is that most songbird populations have remainedrelatively stable across North America. Although there have beencatastrophic local and regional declines, 30 years of data fromthe North American Breeding Bird Survey suggest that continent-widenumbers of birds have remained generally stable. With some exceptions,forest songbirds are doing well because large chunks of NorthAmerican forests still provide sufficient habitat and serve asreservoirs that export birds to other areas. Grassland birds,on the other hand, are in serious decline, including a 90 percentreduction of bobolink in the Midwest. Although destruction oftropical forests is often cited as a threat to neotropical migrants,scientific opinion on the question is divided. See W.K. Stevens,"Something to Sing About: Songbirds Aren't in Decline,"NY Times (6/10/97).

President Clinton designates threenew National Monuments and expands a fourth,in a
ceremony--appropriately--on the rim of the Grand Canyon. All ofthe new/expanded monuments are designated from existing federalpublic lands:
* Grand Canyon-Parashant Nat'l Monument: more than 1 million acresin Arizona northwest of Grand Canyon National Park.
* Agua Fria Nat'l Monument: 71,000 acres north of Phoenix, wherehundreds of archaeological sites are threatened by urban sprawland pothunters.
* California Coastal Rocks & Islands Nat'l Monument: a stringof small, uninhabited islands and rock outcroppings along theentire California Coast, providing critical habitat for marinewildlife.
* Expansion of Pinnacles National Monument: nearly 8000 acresadded to the existing Monument south of San Jose, California,an area threatened by urban sprawl.

Lynx reintroduction in southwesternColorado. Forty-one lynxwere reintroduced last winter, under considerable criticism. Fifteenare known dead, eight unaccounted for, the others alive and well.Six of the fifteen starved, prompting a revised release protocol,later in the year, with more prey available. One lynx wanderedas far as Nebraska, seven hundred miles, apparently generallywandering north towards Canada, where it was earlier captured.It was eating pheasants, got into a chicken coop, where the farmermight have shot it, but saw the collar and spared it. Unfortunately,it was shot in a later incident. Another lynx has wandered asfar as Rocky Mountain National Park, five hundred miles away.Colorado Division of Wildlife plans to release fifty-two morethis spring. For earlier comment, see ISEE Newsletter, vol. 10,no. 1, spring 1999, especially Bekoff, Marc, "Jinxed Lynx?Some Very Difficult Questions with Few Simple Answers," Boulder(Colorado) Daily Camera, January 24, 1999, though Bekoff now approvesof the new protocols. See also Lloyd, Jillian, "When Savinga Species Proves To Be Hard on the Animals," Christian ScienceMonitor, Mar 11, '99.

The dozen most significant land protectionactions of the 20th century U.S.,in chronological order, according to the Wilderness Society:
(1) Creation of the first national wildlife refuge in 1903.
(2) Passage of the Antiquities Act in 1906
(3) Passage of the Weeks Act in 1911 (creating the first NationalForests east of the Mississippi)
(4) Creation of the National Park Service in 1916
(5) Defeat of Echo Park Dam in 1956
(6) Passage of the Wilderness Act in 1964
(7) Passage of the Land and Water Conservation Act in 1964
(8) The first Earth Day in 1970
(9) Passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970
(10) Passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973
(11) Passage of the National Forest Management Act in 1976
(12) Passage of the Alaska Lands Act in 1980.

"A New Way of Living With Nature."December 19, 1999. NY Times Editorial on "what can looselybe called the environmental ethic": "A century thatwill be remembered for material and scientific progress may alsobe remembered for something more modest--as a moment when mankind,realizing that the earth's resources were not finite and perhapsseeking expiation for years of predatory behavior, struck a trucewith nature. For the first time since the dawn of the industrialage there was, at least in the West and certainly in America,a rough armistice between the forces of economic growth and theforces of preservation. ... Having discovered that we can actuallychange the way nature operates, we have also discovered that withthis power comes a sacred obligation to restore what we once nearlyruined."

Hopi eaglet ceremony versus wildlifeconservation in national parks and monuments.Members of the Hopi tribe, native Americans in Arizona,wish to revive a ceremony that requires the killing of goldeneagle chicks taken from their sacred lands, now often in nationalparks and monuments. They received permission from the U.S. Fishand Wildlife to take up to 40 eaglets, but have been refused byPark Service officials, on grounds of wildlife conservation. Inparticular, they were refused admission to Wupatki National Monument,outside Flagstaff, Arizona, for this purpose; collecting chicksfrom Grand Canyon National Park is another possibility. Thosewho engage in the ceremony apparently believe that the eagletcan travel in the spirit world to inform their Hopi ancestorsof what the Hopis need in today's world. The Hopis say that theytreat the eaglet with respect, caring for it for some months,before its sacrifice. The name of the ceremony, literally translatedfrom the Hopi, is "baby eagle suffocation ceremony."The tribe has protested at various levels, including an appealto U.S. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt. For an appreciativeaccount of Native Americans in the Southwest, by a lawyer defendingtheir rights (and some mention of the eagle ceremony, p. 297),see Wilkinson, Charles, Fire on the Plateau: Conflict and Endurancein the American Southwest (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999).
In another native American story, to the dismay of many anthropologists,the bones of a teen-age girl who died in Minnesota 7,900 yearsago were returned to the Sioux tribe and reburied. Found in 1931,she was one of the oldest skeletons even found in North America,and anthropologists said she bore little resemblance to livingnative American tribes, for example 2 cm. canines, outside themodern range. A number of such skeletons have been reburied, justwhen new techniques for their study are becoming available, suchas genetic analysis, and scientists complain that opportunitiesto study the presence of early native Americans on the North Americanlandscape are being lost. Story: "Ancient Bones Returnedto Sod," Science 286(1999):1285.

The Lancet scolded over transgenicfood paper. Britain'smost prestigious medical journal, The Lancet, published a paperby Stanley Ewen and Arpad Pusztai claiming that rats fed transgenicpotatoes had abnormalities in their intestines. The authors, especiallyPusztai, have also claimed that transgenic potatoes can stuntrats' growth and impair their immune systems. Critics say thepaper is deeply flawed. The Lancet editors admit the paper iscontroversial but reply that five of six referees (twice the usualnumber) recommended publication, if only to get the claims evaluated.There is currently a heated debate over transgenic foods in theU. K. See Ewen, Stanley W. B., and Pusztai, Arpad, "Effectsof Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Espressing Galanthusnivalis Lectin on Rat Small Intestine," The Lancet 354 (October16, 1999):1353-1354. The authors are pathologists at the Universityof Aberdeen. Story: Martin Enserink, "The Lancet ScoldedOver Pusztai Paper," Science 286(22 October, 1999):565.

Przewalski's horse is wild again. Przewalski's horse was common in Siberiaat the end of the last Ice Age, but its numbers steadily declined,then declined even more rapidly with increased human populationpressures in the 18th and 19th centuries, although the specieswas not known by Western scientists to be yet alive, until itwas discovered by a Polish explorer Colonel Przewalski in 1878.It was extinct in the wild by the 1960's. From a handful in zoos,it has now been re-established in Mongolia, apparently a successfulreintroduction. This is the world's oldest and only truly wildhorse (other "wild" horses are feral), and it has neverbeen domesticated. See Peck, Robert McCracken, "Home Again!"International Wildlife 29 (no. 5, September/October, 1999):36-41.

Dam Indecision.The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers pleads for more time todecide whether to remove four dams on the Snake River to saveendangered salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The Corps finds thatthere would be great benefits to wildlife, but heavy economicand social impacts. Critics say that ample data is already inand that the Corps is stalling. Mann, Charles C., and Plummer,Mark L., "Army Corps Siezed by Dam Indecison," Science287 (7 January 2000):27.

Thanksto Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), Holmes RolstonIII (Colorado State University) and WildAlert! for this issue'snews clips.

Regional Representatives

Africa:Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, Universityof Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh headsthe Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (countrycode) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary);887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

Australia and New Zealand: William Grey, Department of Philosophy,University of Queensland, 4067, Queensland AUSTRALIA. Email: wgrey@cltr.uq.edu.au.

China:Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy ofSocial Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Taiwan:Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taichung,Taiwan 40704. Email: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net. Phones: 886-4-3595622office; 886-4-3590991 home. Fax: 886-4- 3595953.

Eastern Europe:Jan Wawrzyniak. Department of Philosophy, Adam MickiewiczUniversity of Poznan, Poland. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak,Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan,Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Phone: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax:+48 / 61 / 8430309. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7,POLAND. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl. Website: http://appliedphilosophy.mtsu.edu/ISEE/JanWaw/index.html.

Western Europe and the Mediterranean: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics Universityof Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS.Office phone: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751. Fax: 31-24-3615564.E-mail:mdrenthen@hetnet.nl. Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html.Home address: Van't Santstraat 122, 6523 BJ Nijmegen. Home phone:+31 (country) - 24 (city) - 3238397.

Mexico and Central America: Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad AutonomaMetropolitana- Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacany Purissima s/n, 09340 Mexico D.F., MEXICO. Phone: (5) 637 1424 (home), (5) 724 47 77 (office). Fax: (5) 724 47 78. Email:kwiat@xanum.uam.mx.

Canada: Laura Westra, 222Barrhill Rd., Maple,Ont.L6A lL2, Canada. Phone:914-395-2487. E-mail:lwestra@mail.slc.

Pakistan and South Asia: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior EducationOfficer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN.Phone: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk.

South America:Ricardo Rozzi, Institute of Ecological Research Chiloe,Chile, and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile.

United Kingdom:KeeKok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Phone and Fax: +44 (0)161275 3196. Email: keekok.lee@man.ac.uk.

United States:Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston,Charleston, South Carolina 29424 USA. Phone: 843-953-5786; 843-883-9201(home). Fax: 843-953-6388. E-mail: HettingerN@CofC.edu). AddressJuly 1999 to August 2000: 416 W. College, Bozeman, MT 59715. Phone:406-522-9676.

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University,Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Phone: 970-491-6315 (Office).Fax: 970-491-4900. Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu.

ISEE Newsletter Submissions

Please send any announcements, calls for papers or news itemsvia e-mail (preferred) or fax to newsletter editor Philip Cafaro.Address: Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University,Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA. E-mail: cafaro@lamar.colostate.edu.Phone: 970/491-2061. Fax: 970/491-4900. Brief reports of researchand accounts of issues of philosophical importance are also welcome.Submissions will be edited and publication cannot be guaranteed.Please continue to send bibliographic items to Holmes RolstonIII, at the address above. Correspondents, especially internationalones, should realize that diacritical marks do not come throughon U.S. e-mail. The next deadline for newsletter submissions isApril 7.

Membership/Renewal Form

Please enroll me as a member of the International Society forEnvironmental Ethics.
Enclosed are dues: ______________________.

Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15 Regular, $10 Students;Outside U.S., $20 Regular, $15 Students. (Due to additional postage).Members outside the United States should send the equivalent ofU.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates, to the ISEE Treasurer(address below). Sorry, we cannot accept credit card payments.

Name: ____________________________________________ Tel: (______)___________

Position or Affiliation:___________________________________________________________

Address (Include Postal Code):___________________________________________________



Send with payment to Dr. Max Oelschlaeger, Department of Humanities,Arts, and Religion, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5634,Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5634 USA.



One position is open for election to the post of Vice-President/President-Electof ISEE. Two individuals have been nominated for this position;members are asked to vote for ONE. Please mark your ballot, placeand seal it in the enclosed envelope, print and sign your nameon the outside back of the envelope, and send it to:

Dr. Victoria Davion, Philosophy Department, University of Georgia,Athens, GA 30602 USA

Please mark and mail ballots by March 30, 2000.

_____ Dale Jamieson _____ Laura Westra


DALE JAMIESON is Luce Professor in Human Dimensions of GlobalChange at Carleton College, Adjunct Scientist in the Environmentaland Societal Impacts Group at the National Center for AtmosphericResearch, and Adjunct Professor at Sunshine Coast University Collegein Maroochydore, Australia. He has been a visiting professor atCornell University and Monash University in Australia, and a visitingfellow of New College, Magdalen College, and St. Anne's Collegeat Oxford University. Dr. Jamieson has edited or co-edited sixbooks, most recently Singer and his Critics (Blackwell, 1999),named by Choice as one of the outstanding academic books of 1999,and Readings on Animal Cognition (MIT, 1996). He has publishedmore than sixty articles and book chapters in such journals asAnalysis, Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, Ethics,Journal of Value Inquiry, and Global Environmental Change. Hisresearch has been funded by NSF, US EPA, and the National Endowmentfor the Humanities.

LAURA WESTRA is the Barbara B. and Bertram J. Cohn Professorin Environmental Studies at Sarah Lawrence College. She has taughtat U.S. and Canadian Universities and has been funded since 1992by SSHRC (Canada) and NATO (1999). She has been an ethics consultantfor scientific associations including the World Health Organization,and she is a co-founder of ISEE. She has organized ISEE meetingsat scientific and philosophical associations for ten years (APA,AAAS, AIBS, ESA). Dr. Westra has nine published books, includingAn Environmental Proposal for Ethics:The Principle of Integrity(l994) and Living in Integrity (l998),and has co-edited bookson environmental/scientific issues, environmental racism and environmentaland business ethics. Three co-edited books are in press (IslandPress, Kluwer and Rowman Littlefield,2000), and she has over 65articles and chapters published and has been invited to speakin most European countries, Australia, Central and South America.