Volume 9, No. 1, Spring 1998

General Announcements

The World Congress of Philosophy. The World Congress of Philosophy meets at Copley Place in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 10-16 August 1998. Numerous philosophical societies from throughout the world will be meeting before, during, and after the main Congress sessions. The ISEE program is as follows. ISEE members and others may have submitted papers on environmental ethics, and on many other topics of interest to ISEE members, to the main Congress sections and sessions, as well as to other societies meeting before, during, or after the Congress. Contributed papers submitted to the Congress, but not through ISEE, are not listed below.

World Congress, Main Program, Congress-Invited Speakers. Topic: "Philosophy and the Environment." Chair, Robin Attfield. Speakers: John Passmore (Australian National University), Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff), Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University).

Subsection Organized by Robin Attfield. Azizan Baharuddin (University of Malaya, and Institute for Policy Research), Heta and Matti Häyry (University of Helsinki), Gunnar Skirbekk (University of Bergen).

Sections Organized by ISEE:
Section I. Tuesday, August 11, 6.00 - 7. 50 p.m. Organized by Jack Weir (Morehead State University), invited addresses. Chair, Jack Weir. Theme: Approaches to Environmental Ethics (intended to be introductory to current issues, for philosophers not otherwise acquainted with environmental ethics). Speakers: J. Baird Callicott (University of North Texas, President ISEE), "Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental Ethic?" Richard Sylvan (at the 15th World Congress, 1973, Varna, Bulgaria): Quarter Century Retrospective"; Ronnie Zoe Hawkins (University of Central Florida); Alan Holland (University of Lancaster, U.K., Editor, Environmental Values); Val Plumwood (Australia).

Section II. Wednesday, August 12, 6.00 - 7. 50 p.m. Organized by Mark Sagoff (Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland at College Park), invited papers. Part One: Chair, Mariachiara Tallacchini (University of Milan, University of Firenze); Speakers: Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology); Eugene Hargrove (University of North Texas, Editor, Environmental Ethics), "Traditional Environmental Ethics." Part Two: Chair, Eugene Hargrove; Speakers: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida); Laura Westra (University of Windsor, Canada).
Section III. Thursday, August 13, 2.00 - 3.50 p.m. Organized by Holmes Rolston from contributed papers. Chair, Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University). Speakers: Andrew Light (University of Montana), "Economic Goods, Human Needs, and Environmental Values"; Ricardo Rozzi (Universidad de Chile and Institute of Ecological Research, Chile), "Ecological-Evolutionary Concepts of Nature and their Relationship to Environmental Ethics"; Jan Wawrzyniak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland), "Where Do All the Flowers Stand? An Attempt at Evolutionary Axiology"; Andrew McLaughlin (Lehman College, City University of New York), "Globalization and the Environment"; Teresa Kwiatkowska - Szatzscheider (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico), "Environmental Ethics in Tropical Rainforests."

Contributed papers on the main Congress program (not ISEE-organized) in the sessions entitled "Philosophy and the Environment" are:
--David R. Keller, "Ecological Hermeneutics"
--Roger J. H. King, "Educational Literacy in the Context of Environmental Ethics"
--Erazim Kohak, "Truth of the Myths of Nature"
--Ricardo Rozzi, "The Dialectical Links Between Environmental Ethics and Sciences"
--Dieudonne Zognong, "Philosophie de la nature et sauvage ecologique de la terre chez Teilhard de Chardin"
--Susan Feldman, "Some Problems with Ecofeminism"
--Catherine Gardner, "Ecofeminism and the Urban Environment"
--Chelsea H. Snelgrove, "Relation and Responsibility: Drawing the Boundaries of the Ethical Self"
--Karen J. Warren, "Environmental Justice: Some Ecofeminist Worries About A Distributive Model"
--Philip Cafaro, "Thoreau on Science and System"
--Jozef Dolega, "Sociology and Ecophilosophy: Sciences of the 20th Century"
--Jason Kawall, "Environmental Diversity and the Value of the Unusual"
--Yury Levin, "Philosophy and Environment"
--Jack Weir, "Case-Based Environmental Ethics"
--Verena Andermatt Conley, "The Environment in Postructuralist Philosophy: Guattari's New Ecological Territories"
--Valeriy Lebedev, "Thoughts Caused by Blizzards: Whose Frost is Stronger?"
--Igor K. Liseyev, "Ecological Thinking as a New Paradigm of Democratic Culture"
--Kent Peacock, The Ethics of Symbiosis"
--Wieslaw Sztumski, "Philosophie als Erzieherin der Menschheit"
--David Waller, "From Necessity to Authenticity: An Argument for Environmental Angst"

For the presentation schedule (day and time) of the above contributed papers, see the Congress program at the Congress Website.

The Website address for the World Congress is: www.bu.edu/WCP

The International Association for Environmental Philosophy offers a forum for philosophical discussion of nature and the human relation to the natural environment, including not only environmental ethics, but environmental aesthetics, ontology, theology, the philosophy of science, political philosophy, ecofeminism, the philosophy of technology, and other areas. A particular emphasis will be Continental philosophy and phenomenology and the contribution this can make to environmental philosophy. A first program meeting will be held 11 October 1998 in Denver. A Website address is:
http://www.utc.edu/~iaep/
The president is Bruce Foltz, Eckerd College, 4200 5th Ave, South, St. Petersburg, FL 33733. Email: bfoltz@aol.com
Dues are $15 US, payable to Kenneth Maly, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601.

Warwick Fox is now in place at the Centre for Professional Ethics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK. He has recently given seminars at Middlesex University and Lancaster University. Along with Robin Attfield, Mary Midgley, and Piers Stephens, he was one of four speakers at a conference organized by KeeKok Lee at Manchester University on 1 May During the spring semester, Fox is running a course on Values and the Environment with an enrollment of 65. Tel: (01772) 89 2546. Fax: (01772) 89 2942. Email: w.a.fox@uclan.ac.uk (Note: this is a correction of the email address announced in the previous Newsletter [Winter 1997]).

Aldo Leopold's portrait in alfalfa. Stan Herd, the crop artist, has been commissioned by Wes Jackson, The Land Institute, Salina, Kansas, to create a portrait of Aldo Leopold in an alfalfa field in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Leopold's death. This will be done by appropriate mowing, and the portrait will be visible from the air. Stanley J. Herd is the author of Crop Art and Other Earthworks (NY: Harry Abrams, 1994).

David Boonin has taken a tenure track position at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he will teach environmental ethics, replacing Dale Jamieson, who has moved to Carleton College.

All India Bioethics Association. This is a newly formed association for the promotion of bioethics, including environmental ethics, in India. Contact: Professor Jayapaul Azariah, No. 3, 8th Lane, 5th Cross Street, Indira Nagar, Chennai 600 020, India. Azariah is professor and chair, Department of Zoology, University of Madras. E-mail: jazariah@unimad.ernet.in. Fax 91-44-4910910. (Chennai is the restored Tamil name for the city long known as Madras.) The Association conducted in January a series of six seminars in bioethics at key locations in India, including the National Law University at Bangalore and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Holmes Rolston was on the international team of four persons conducting the seminars.

ISEE's New Contact Person for Western Europe is Martin Drenthen. He succeeds Prof. Wouter Achterberg, who has resigned. Prof. Achterberg served as ISEE contact person since the Society was founded. Thanks to Prof. Achterberg for many years of service!
Drenthen is currently working as a junior researcher at the Center for Ethics of the University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), the Netherlands. The Centre has three lines of research, one of which is "the concept of nature in applied ethics." This line focuses on environmental ethics, animal ethics, and health care ethics. Drenthen will soon finish his PhD project on the significance for current environmental ethics of Friedrich Nietzsche's critiques of morality and philosophy of nature.
Information about Drenthen's project is at: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html
A description of all research projects at the Center for Ethics of the University of Nijmegen can be found at: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/programs/cekun.html
The Website of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Nijmegen is:
http://www.kun.nl/phil
Drenthen can be contacted at: Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Tel: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751 (Office); Fax: 31-24-3615564; Email: mdrenthen@phil.kun.nl; Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html

Andrew Light will be taking a new position starting this Fall as Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Environmental Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton. Part of his position will involve the creation of an environmental philosophy emphasis in the philosophy department's already established PhD program. As of July 15, his address (and the address of his journal, Philosophy and Geography) will be: Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 USA, Tel. 607-777-2295, Fax: 607-777-2734, Email: alight@binghamton.edu

Greetings from the Syllabus Project! The Environmental Ethics Syllabus Project continues, with course syllabi by philosophers and others from around the world. Seventy-five different courses are listed, and they can be searched in different ways, by instructor, title, and so on. The address of the Syllabus Project is:
http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE
To keep contributors informed of new course information and additions to the Syllabus Project, all contributors of a syllabus will automatically receive a new on-line serial (ISSN: 1098-5328) via quarterly emails (at the end of the months of March, June, September, and December). To unsubscribe, please send email to: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu
Volume 2, Issue 1 (January, February, March 1998) contains updates of new courses added:
--Kisner, Environmental Ethics, http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE/WendellKisner/KisnerEnvironmentalEthics.htm
--Sterba, Environmental Ethics, http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE/JamesSterba/SterbaPhil247.htm
--Epstein, Environmental Ethics, http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE/RonEpstein/RonEpsteinEES98.htm
--Nelson, Environmental Ethics, http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE/RonEpstein/RonEpsteinEES98.htm
--Bissell, Environmental Values and Ethics (Distance Learning), http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE/SteveBissell/
BissellEPM4400Distance.htm
Cordially submitted by Robert L. Hood, Coordinator of the Syllabus. Address: Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43402-0222, Email: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu). (Thanks to Robert for all the work he's done on the Syllabus Project.)

A workshop for environmental scientists and professionals will be held Sept. 18-20, 1998, at the University of North Texas. Speakers will include J. Baird Callicott, Eugene Hargrove, and John Lemons (University of New England). For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove (address above).

The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare will be available from Greenwood Press within a few months (it may already be off the press). Edited by Marc Bekoff, a biologist at the University of Colorado, this one-volume reference work provides essays by recognized authorities in the field, addressing the many issues of animal rights and animal welfare. The Foreword is by Jane Goodall. For more information, contact Marc at EPO Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0334 USA; marc.bekoff@colorado.edu

Goddard College and the Institute for Social Ecology announce their Summer 1998 program of courses, practica, lectures, and seminars:
May 28-June 21 Planning, Design and Construction for Sustainability
June 25-July 24 Ecology and Community
BA and MA courses start in June. Areas of study include social ecology, land use, politics and activism, ecofeminism, ecological technology, organic agriculture, environmental racism, art and culture, sustainable communities, and more. Faculty will include Murray Bookchin, Daniel Chodorkoff, Chaia Heller, Brian Tokar, Grace Gershuny, Beveral Naidus, Bob, Spivey, Cindy Milstein, Sam Clar, Janet Biehl, and others. For more information, contact Claudia Bagiackas, Associate Director, Institute for Social Ecology, P.O.Box 89, Plainfield, Vermont 05667 USA; Tel: 802-454-8493.

The Sierra Institute will offer several summer field courses. All courses are available for credit through Environmental Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. The Institute is an interdisciplinary natural history field program directed by biologist Ed Grumbine and is affiliated with the University of California Extension in Santa Cruz. Courses include: Mountain Ecology-The High Sierra; Olympic Wilderness-Nature Philosophy; Mountana Rockies-The Wild Divide; Spirit of the Mountains-Idaho Wild; Colorado Plateau-Native American Culture and Prehistory; Wild in the San Juans-Conserving Colorado's Biodiversity; Salmon Dreams-Wild Nature and Culture in North Coast California. Most of the courses begin June 23 and conclude mid-August; UC Santa Cruz is on the quarter system. Enrollments are limited, and applications must be submitted by April 23rd. For specific dates, locations, faculty, fees, etc., contact: Sierra Institute, University of California Extension, 740 Front St., Suite 170, Santa Cruz, CA 95060; Tel: 408-427-6618; Email: sierrai@cats.ucsc.edu; Website: www.ucsc-extension.edu/unex.bio/sierra.html


CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS


CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Applied Philosophy, Annual Conference, in Conjunction with ISEE. 27-29 June 1999. Mansfield College, Oxford University, UK. Theme: "Moral and Political Reasoning in Environmental Practice."
The aim of the conference is to explore ethical and political issues raised by environmental practices ranging from activism to government regulation. It will include discussion of the values implicit in environmental practices, and of the ethical justifications for and criticisms of schemes of justice and rights in relation to environmental issues.

The conference will be organized around three main themes, and contributions are invited on any of the following topics: 1. Politics vs. Philosophy: Environmental philosophy and environmental practice. The political framework of environmental theory. Political Ecology and Political Philosophy. Community values and environmental problems. 2. Justice, Non-Humans & Future Generations: Environmental Justice. Schemes of Justice and Future Generations. Overlapping concerns between humans and non-humans. Environmental Racism. 3. Arguing From Cases: Generalizing from examples. Top-down vs. Bottom-up theorizing. Theorizing for/with grassroots activism. Motivating green morality. Problems with meta-ethics in environmental philosophy. Specific case studies of any of the topics mentioned above.

Keynote speakers for the conference will be Brian Barry (Professor of Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science) and Henry Shue (Hutchinson Professor, Program on Ethics & Public Life, Cornell University).

Conference Program Advisors are Avner de-Shalit (Department of Political Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and Andrew Light (Departments of Philosophy and Environmental Studies, State University of New York, Binghamton).
Offers of papers (not exceeding 30 minutes presentation time) are invited under the above headings. Abstracts should be sent to Prof. Andrew Light, SAP/ISEE Conference, Department of Philosophy, SUNY Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. FAX: 607-777-2734. E-mail (after July 15): alight@binghamton.edu. The deadline for proposals is 29 November 1998.
The conference fee, inclusive of meals and accommodation, will be in the region of £130, with some subsidised places for the unwaged (including students). Places can be reserved by sending a deposit of £10 (cheques payable to the Society for Applied Philosophy) to the Conference, payable to the Society for Applied Philosophy) to the Conference, Co-ordinator, Adam Hedgecoe, Dept. of Science and Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (tel: 0171 387705 ext.2094).

CALL FOR PAPERS. European Congress on Agricultural and Food Ethics. 27-29 September 1998. Wageningen, the Netherlands. Sponsored by the prospective European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics (EUR-SAFE, to be established in 1998). In most highly industrialised European countries, the relationship between society and agriculture is changing. In most of the old members of the EU, the societal need for food security is being met. This creates a challenge for European agriculture to grow to sustainability, to harmony with multi-functional land-use, to integrated rural development and a need to cope with rapid changes in global markets: markets which will be fully demand-driven, strongly consumer-oriented and with the tendencies of openness and loss of trade barriers.

The Congress will bring together philosophers, ethicists, scientists and policy-makers in government, industry and NGO's who work in the field of agriculture and who are keen to cooperate in non-dogmatic and open academic discussion on value-questions in agricultural praxis, science and policy. Invited speakers and commentators from several European countries will identify and analyze the important ethical questions in agricultural praxis, science and policy.

Contributed papers are needed for workshop-sessions, which will be on three general topics: (1) ethical limits in the use of natural resources and the use of animals; (2) ethical questions concerning the use of (bio)technology for solving the world's food dilemmas, and (3) professional ethics in agricultural science and industries. The programme-committee will select the papers on the basis of abstracts. Abstracts of 300 to 400 words should be submitted to the Congress Office before June 1, 1998. By July 15, authors will be informed about acceptance. Guidelines for full papers (oral presentations) will be given. After being refereed, accepted papers will be published in a special issue of the Journal Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. QUERIES on the scientific programme: Centre for Bio-ethics and Health Law, Utrecht University, Frans W.A. Brom, Heidelberglaan 2, NL-3584 CS Utrecht, Telephone: +31 30 2534399, Telefax: +31 30 2539410, E-Mail: fbrom@ggl.ruu.nl. REGISTRATION and all correspondence: Congress Office, Wageningen Agricultural Univiversity, Joost Meulenbroek, Costerweg 50, NL-6701 BH Wageningen, Tel: +31 317 482029, Fax: +31 317 484884, E-Mail: Joost.Meulenbroek@Alg.VL.WAU.NL

A conference on the theme "Against `Against Nature'" was held on 1 May 1998 at the International Society House of the University of Manchester, UK. The conference was sponsored by the Centre for Philosophy and the Environment, University of Manchester. Speakers included: Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff), "Global Warming and `The Brotherhood of Man'"; Warwick Fox (University of Central Lancashire), "The Green Crusade, Its Opposition, and Environmental Ethics"; Mary Midgley (Free Lance Philosopher), "Who and What Is Gaia?"; Piers Stephens (University of Manchester), "Nature, Purity, Instrumentalism: Towards a Conceptual Clarification."

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Bucknell Review, a biannual, multidisciplinary journal, invites critical or creative essays for a special issue on feminist literary ecocriticism (contracted to appear in the year 2000). Deadline: 15 January 1999. Earlier submissions are encouraged. For suggestions of topics, style guidelines, and so on, contact: Glynis Carr, Department of English, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837, Tel: 717-524-3118, Email: gcarr@bucknell.edu

The Hastings Center and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) will hold a conference on "Restoring Wolves to the Adirondacks: Civic Democracy and Obligations to Future Generations," October 21-23 at the AMNH in New York City (79th and Central Park West). The conference will feature invited speakers and panelists discussing biological, political, and ethical dimensions of wolf reintroduction to Adirondack Park. Details will be available in the next Newsletter. Invited papers only. For information, contact the project co-director: Virginia Ashby Sharpe, PhD, Associate for Biomedical and Environmental Ethics, The Hastings Center, Garrison, NY 10524-5555, Tel: 914-424-4040, Fax: 914-424-4545, Email: sharpeva@thehastingscenter.org

European Conference in Agricultural and Food Ethics. 4-6 March 4 1999. The Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands. Intended for academic scholars and policy-makers, governmental and nongovernmental. Invited speakers and commentators from several European countries will identify and analyze the important ethical questions in agricultural praxis, science, and policy. Suggested topics for contributed papers: the persistence of hunger in the world; the environmental damage caused by agricultural practices; preserving biodiversity in local and global contexts; new (bio)technologies regarding food, animals, the environment, and society at large; consumer trust and industrial trustworthiness in food safety and food ethics; animal welfare and animal health in intensive husbandry systems; questions concerning human health. For more information: http://www.theo.uu.nl/eur-safe; or Dr. Frans W. A. Brom, Centre for Bioethics and Health Law, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, NL-3584 CS Utrecht, Email: FBrom@theo.uu.nl

"Global Integrity Project" will meet at the World Bank, 8-11 July 1998. Group collaborators Ernest Partridge, Mark Sagoff, Robert Goodland, William Aiken, Don Brown, James Sterba, Jim Karr, Robert Ulanowicz, Colin Soskolne, Peter Miller, Philippe Crabbe, and others will be present. Invited speakers/guests are Theo Colborn, Rachelle Hollander, Margaret Mellon, and Herman Daly.

CALL FOR PAPERS: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:
--Eastern Division: February 1st
--Central Division: September 1st
--Pacific Division: September 1st
For specific dates and locations, see "Events" (below).

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Kristin Shrader-Frechette (ISEE Vice President-President Elect), Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa Florida 33620 USA; Tel: 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept); Fax: 813-974-5914. For the December 1999 meeting: Two sessions are being planned: recent important books on environmental ethics, and submitted papers. Please send proposals and papers as soon as possible.

--Submit Central Division proposals to Laura Westra (ISEE Secretary), Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050.

--Submit Pacific Division proposals to Ernest Partridge, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: gadfly@igc.org

CALL FOR PAPERS. "Wilderness Science in a Time of Change." University of Montana, Missoula, 23-27 May 1999. Possible topics include wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science, changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. Contact: Natural Resource Management Division, Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. 406/243-4623. 888/254-2544 Email: ckelly@selway.umt.edu. www.wilderness.net

The 9th Annual Environmental Writing Institute will be held 20-25 May 1998 in Montana's Bitterroot Valley. This year's Director will be naturalist and writer Rick Bass. The Institute is co-sponsored by the University of Montana's Environmental Studies Program and the Teller Wildlife Refuge, Inc. For more information, contact: Hank Harrington, Environmental Studies Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 USA; Tel 406-243-2904; Email: hrh@selway.umt.edu; Website: http://www.umt.edu/ewi/EWIPAGE.HTML
The 9th Global Warming International Conference & Expo (GW9) will be held at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), June 8-11, 1998, Hong Kong. A distinguishing feature of the GW Conference is its commitment to Resource Management policy and techniques. Sound resource management is seen by the GW Program Committee as the ultimate method for mitigating global warming and facilitating the sustainable growth of the world's economy. Over 200 papers and panels will address global and regional resource conservation and resource management methods, addressing agricultural, forestry, mineral, material, transportation, energy, water, and other resources. For additional information, contact Prof. Sinyan Shen, Chair, International Program Committee, Global Warming International Center (GWIC) USA, PO Box 5275, Woodridge IL 60517 USA, Tel 1-630-910-1551, FAX +1-630-910-1561. The GWIC USA Website can be located by searching via Yahoo for "Global Warming International Conference."

The Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas. 8th Annual Conference, in conjunction with the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, May 27-28,1998. A session is being planned on "Asethetics of Nature in Hybrid Spaces." Possible topics for the session are landscape architecture, gardens, earthworks, reclamation artworks, and nature restoration. Abstracts are due February 15th. Papers of 12 pages (20 minutes reading time) are due by April 1st. Architecturally oriented papers should be sent to Prof. Rafael Gomez-Moriana, Faculty of Architecture, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 CANADA; Tel: 204-474-6794; Fax 204-474-7532; Email: gomezmor@cc.umanitoba.ca. Philosophically oriented papers should be sent to Prof. Thomas Heyd, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4 CANADA; Email: theyd@uvvm.uvic.ca

A conference on "Philosophy and Ecology: Greek Philosophy and the Environment" will be held in Samos, Greece, 23-28 August 1998. Organized by Prof. K. Boudouris, University of Athens, International Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy (IAGP and SAGP-USA). Contacts: Prof. Tom Robinson, Philosophy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, CANADA; Tel: 416-978-2824; Fax: 416-978-8703; Email: tmrobins@epas.utoronto.ca; and Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, address below.


ISSUES

Bioprospecting in Yellowstone National Park. Park authorities have now set a policy that scientific research without expectation of commercial results is free, but that research in expectation of commercial results must enter into a "shared benefits contract," by which the park will receive a set amount of cash and a percentage of royalties from any future successful applications resulting from the research. There is great interest the thermophiles, especially since Thermus aquaticus, or "tac" was used to develop the polymerase chain reaction, a process worth many millions of dollars. Craig Elliott, "New Frontiers: Thermal Pools May Hold Many Secrets," Wilderness Profile (Newsletter of the Yellowstone Association), 13 (no. 1, Spring 1998):1-4.

Brazil wants to cut of its biological bounty. The Brazilian Senate is trying to pass legislation to ensure that Brazil's citizens share in any profits from crops or medicines derived from the biological wealth of the Amazon. But the legislators are finding it difficult to be precise about who should benefit, who has rights to the biodiversity, differentiating between scientific collecting and bioprospecting, and wondering whether such legislation will stimulate or discourage bioprospecting. Lingering in memory is still-smoldering anger from the early 1900's when rubber trees were transplanted to Southeast Asia, which the Brazilians widely regarded as being stolen. Elizabeth Pennisi, "Brazil Wants Cut of Its Biological Bounty," Science 279(1998):1445.

Weeds on Montana public lands. All hay, grain, straw, cubes, or pelletized food used for stock on Montana Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management public lands must be certified as noxious weed free, by a policy that went into effect October 8, 1997. This applies to recreational uses, hunters, outfitters, ranchers with grazing permits, and contractors who use straw for reseeding or erosion control purposes. An estimated 6 million acres of National Forest and 8.5 million acres of BALM lands already contain harmful weeds, largely introduced by livestock, which are spreading to another 10-14 percent of these lands yearly.

Environmental Racism: BFI vs. Titusville, AL. On 30 January 1998, the Alabama Supreme Court reversed its earlier decision favoring Browning Ferris Industries (BFI). In its earlier decision, the Court overturned a lower court judgment against BFI, stating that the lower judgment was not in the public interest but only in the economic interests of the African-Americans in Titusville, Alabama. BFI is a company with a history of placing garbage facilities in African-American neighborhoods. A paper on the BFI-Titusville case, by Laura Westra, is in Faces of Environmental Racism, edited by Westra and Peter Wenz (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995). The lawyer for the Titusville neighborhood association, David Sullivan, used the book as an "exhibit" in the case. In the reversal, which was a ruling against BFI, the company was denied permission to operate its new facility in Titusville, even though the facility had been built. The facility is across from a school and a children's playground. Sullivan asked Westra to outline why the case involved the "public interest" as required by US law. Using Westra's arguments, Sullivan's appeal eventually succeeded. This decision by the Alabama Supreme Court is an important victory for minorities everywhere, whose interests have often been dismissed as "only economic" or as involving only a few people. Congratulations--and thanks--to David Sullivan and Laura Westra. (The document and the court's ruling are available from Westra [address below] or Sullivan [in Birmingham, AL]).

Patents on Human-Animal Chimeras? Cellular biologist Stuart Newman and anti-biotechnology activist Jeremy Rifkin are seeking a patent on creatures that are part human and part animal (as well as a patent on a process of making such hybrids). They have not made such creatures and have no intention of doing so. Rather, their aim is to reignite debate about the morality of patenting life forms and engineering humans, activities they believe to be immoral. Patents are available on the basis of detailed descriptions of an invention, even if it is not made or used. They give owners exclusive 20-year rights to their inventions, and Newman would use the patent to block anyone else from commercializing such processes or creatures. To date, 79 animal patents have been issued, including patents on birds, fish, and sheep.

Patents are not allowed on human beings, because the patent office has ruled that this would violate the 13th Amendment to the Constitution which bans slavery. But a number of patents have been issued for human genes and cell lines, as well as for animals that contain human genes and cells. The question these activists are forcing is: How human must something be before patents will be denied? The application is for a technique that mixes human embryo cells with embryo cells from some other animal (such as a monkey or ape) and then transfers the fused single embryo into a surrogate mother (human or other animal). The method is an updated version of one that ten years ago successfully produced "geeps," creatures that were part goat and part sheep. Because people and monkeys are more closely related to each other than sheep and goats, Newman believes the technique would work to produce human-animal chimeras of unpredictable nature. Such creatures might be useful for understanding human development, as organ donors, and for toxicity testing of human tissues.

Unlike the European patent office that can reject patents on moral grounds, the U.S. patent office is not empowered to take ethical criteria into account. The hope is that the courts and Congress will rethink the current liberal policy concerning patenting of life forms. See Rick Weiss, "Patent Sought on Making Part-Human Creatures," Washington Post (4/2/98): A12.

Humans threatening 1 in 8 plant species. Worldwide, 1 in every 8 species of plant is threatened with extinction; in the U.S., the rate is nearly 1 in 3. So says a new report from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, an authoritative body composed of scientific organizations and governments that has been keeping a Red List of threatened species since 1960. A twenty year assessment by botanists and conservationists led to 34,000 plant species being added to the Red List. (There are 270,000 known species of plants.) The two main causes of the endangerment are habitat loss (due to agriculture, logging, and development) and exotic species (invasions of plants from one part of the world that crowd out native species in another part).

Ninety percent of the plants on the list are native to only one country, thus making them especially vulnerable. The U.S. rate is so much higher because plants were likely better surveyed there than elsewhere. Two years ago the union placed nearly one quarter of mammals species and 11 percent of birds on the list. Ecologist Stuart Pimm claims that the latest report is one more piece of evidence that "a whole chunk of creation is at risk." "All the evidence is that the destruction is continuing at an accelerating pace." See William K. Stevens, "One in Every 8 Plant Species Is Imperiled, A Survey Finds," New York Times (4/9/98): A1.

Climbers clear trash from Everest. A team of Americans plans to climb 29,000-foot Mount Everest to pick up the trash that has been left by previous climbing expeditions. Since Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay first reached the summit of the world's highest peak in 1953, hundreds have followed in their footsteps. Climbing at that altitude without oxygen is exceedingly difficult and dangerous, so many carry 18 inch long canisters of oxygen weighing 10 pounds each. Common practice has been to throw the empty canisters away, instead of packing them out. Climbers do not want to carry unnecessary items when their lives are in jeopardy and when a single footstep can take eight breaths. The Nepalese Government has threatened to fine climbers who fail to take out their garbage and this has helped to reduce refuse at the 17,600-foot base camp. But the highest camp, 3000 feet below the summit, is littered with hundreds of oxygen bottles. The team of American climbers plans to bring these bottles back and to sell them as mementos. See AP story, "U.S. Climbers Plan to Clear Hikers' Trash From Everest," New York Times (4/7/98): A10.

Windstorm destroys 20,000 acres of Colorado wilderness. On October 24, 1997, hurricane force winds flattened 5 million trees in the Routt National Forest near Steamboat Springs. The blowdown measured thirty miles long by two to four miles wide, the largest blowdown ever recorded in the Rocky Mountains. The wind came from the east, and, in less than an hour, it flattened old-growth Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir like pickup sticks thrown in the same direction. The trees were accustomed to prevailing winds blowing from the West and were susceptible to blowdown because of damp soil from an unusually wet summer. In one 4,000 acre patch, virtually every tree was down. Sixty percent of the 200 million board feet of downed timber is in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness area where no motorized access is allowed and where blocked hiking trails will have to be cleared using hand-held crosscut saws. The potential for fire and insect infestations are fueling calls by the timber industry for salvage logging. Scientists want to use the area to study theories about disturbance, succession, and the appropriate amount of wood material to leave after timber operations are complete. See Tom Kenworthy, Washington Post (2/3/98): A3.


RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS

Reminder: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not indexed here, but are included in the annual update on disk and on the website.

--Michael Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, Karen J. Warren, and John Clarke, eds. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998. This second edition of a popular anthology expands edition one (1993) with two new essays on environmental ethics, a section on political ecology, social ecology, including essays on free market environmentalism, sustainable development, liberal environmentalism, socialist environmentalism, bioregionalism, ecotage.

--Pojman, Louis P., ed., Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, second edition. 568 pages. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998. Another second edition of another popular text. This one was first issued by Jones and Bartlett, 1994. One of the new features is an exchange between Holmes Rolston and Ernest Partridge on intrinsic values in nature, with some of the material written for this volume. Beyond the usual topics, there is material on the Gaia hypothesis, world hunger, immigration (with a commissioned article, Lindsey Grant, "The Central Immigration Issue: How Many Americans?") and risk assessment (with a commissioned article by Kristin Shrader-Frechette, "A Defense of Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis." Pojman teaches philosophy at the U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y.

--Vilkka, Leena, The Intrinsic Value of Nature. Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi, 1997. ISBN 90-420-0325-1. 168 pages. This was the first Ph.D. done in Finland in environmental philosophy, now available in print (in English). Chapter titles: What is Intrinsic Value? Goodness in Nature. The Forms of Intrinsic Value. Zoocentrism. Biocentrism. Ecocentrism. The Origin of Value. Anthropocentrism and the Problem of Priorities. The Rights of Animals and Nature. Vilkka develops a naturalistic or naturocentric theory of value based on ethical extensionism and pluralism. She is quite well read in the American, British, Continental, and Scandinavian literature and an effective critic of other positions as she forges her own. An earlier book by Vilkka is YmpäristÖetiikka (Environmental Ethics) in Finnish. She is researcher at the Academy of Finland and University Lecturer in Environmental Philosophy.

--Peacock, Kent, ed., Living with the Earth: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Co., Canada, 1996. 461 pages. Features Canadian authors, and, often, authors who are not professional philosophers. An anthology that can be read by individuals on their own, as well as used in an introductory class in environmental ethics. Section and chapter titles: Is there really an environmental crisis? Crisis in the skies: The ozone hole and global warming. Extinction is so final: The crisis in biodiversity. The human crisis: war, disease, poverty, and overpopulation. Soils and forests. Seeking a perspective (humans in relation to nature). What is the environment? Some views of the ecosystem. Symbiosis, parasitism, and commensalism. The Gaia hypothesis. Environmental ethics at last. Where ecology meets philosophy. Is anything sacred. Deep and shallow ecology. Hunting, trapping, and animal rights. Ecofeminism. Should we let the market decide? What is wealth? Sustainable development: Hypocrisy or best hope? Toward symbiosis. Can species be saved. The artifactual ecology.
"In this book, I have tended to give prominence to the impact of environmental degradation upon humans, and I have more than once suggested, or presented other authors who suggest, that human stewardship of the environment is a meaningful and desirable end. In the eyes of many, such views will be called `arrogant' and `anthropocentric.' And in some circles these days, to be found out as anthropocentric is a very grave thing indeed. And yet ... I resist being classified as either anthropocentric or biocentric exclusively. It seems to me that this categorization is beside the point if not harmful. I seek a view that recognizes both the special abilities and the special responsibilities of humans, and at the same time recognizes the dependency of humans upon nonhuman life and the relative insignificance of humans in the grand biotic scheme. To pretend that nonhuman life does not have intrinsic value, however philosophers may struggle to define such values, is indeed fatuous arrogance; to deny that humans do not have special capacities and a special place (for a whole at least) in nature on this planet is a simple abdication of responsibility. We have had enough of both, the arrogance and the abdication; now let's get on with the task of figuring out how to live with the Earth, instead of just on it" (p. 435). Peacock teaches environmental philosophy at the University of Western Ontario. Reviewed by David G. A. Castle, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(1997):87-89.

--Kwiatkowska, Teresa, and Issa, Jorge, eds., Los caminos de la etica ambiental (The ways of environmental ethics). Mexico City: Plaza y Valdez, S.A. de C.V., 1998. ISBN 968-856-587-3. The first anthology in environmental ethics in Spanish. Contains:
Prefacio (Introduction) by T. Kwiatkowska & Jorge Issa
Part One: Philosophy and the conservation of nature
1. Metaphysical approach (Enfoque metafisico)
Introduction by J. Issa
Arne Naess: Deep Ecology
2. Aesthetic approach (Las razones esteticas)
Introduction by E. Hargrove & T. Kwiatkowska
Eugene Hargrove. Ontological Argument
3. Ecological Approach (Un alegato ecologico)
Introduction by T. Kwiatkowska
Aldo Leopold, The Land Ethic
4. Ethics & nature (Etica y naturaleza)
Introduction by Ricardo Rossi
J. Baird Callicott, In Search of Environmental Ethics
Part Two: Environmental ethics proposals (Aproximaciones a la etica ambiental)
1. Traditional humanism (Vindicacion del humanismo tradicional)
Introduction by T. Kwiatkowska
John Passmore, Man's Responsibility for Nature, chapter 1.
2. Animal liberation (En defensa de los animales)
Introduction by Alejandro Herrera
Peter Singer, The Value of Life
Tom Regan, Animal Rights
3. Biocentrism (Un enfoque biocentrico)
Introduction by Jorge Issa
Paul Taylor, Respect for Nature
4. Toward ecosystem ethics (Hacia una etica para el ecosistema)
Introduction by Jorge Issa
Holmes Rolston III, Environmental Ethics, Values in and Duties to the Natural World.
Kwiatkowska and Issa both teach philosophy at the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City.

--Sorensen, Merete, Arler, Finn, and Ishoy, Martin, eds., Mijo og etik (Environment and Ethics). Arhus, Denmark: NSI Press (Nordisk Sommeruniversitet), 1997. 303 pages. The first environmental ethics anthology in Danish, with most articles by Scandinavian authors, two translated from English. Nordic Summer University is an organization operating both summer institutes and a press with the purpose of increasing mutual understanding between the Nordic countries. There are abstracts of the articles in English.
Contents: (With apologies for not being able to reproduce all the Scandinavian diacritical marks in English wordprocessing!)
--Rolston, Holmes, "Vaerdi i naturen og vaeridens natur" ("Value in Nature and the Nature of Value")
--Einarsson, Niels, "Naturens rettigheder og det islandske fiskeris realiteter," ("The rights of nature and the realities of Icelandic fishery")
--Sorensen, Merete, "Xenotransplantation: Respekt, sympati eller mangel pa samme?" ("Xenotransplantation: Respect, sympathy or lack of such?")
--Forsgard, Nils-Erik, "`Rattvisa at alla'--Zacharias Topelius och djurskyddet," ("Justice for all"--Zacharias Topelius and animal protection") (In Swedish, though the author is Finnish)
--Ishoy, Martin, "Kristen miljoethik. Kristendommens slaegtskab med dybokologien," ("Christian environmental ethics. The affinity between Christianity and Deep Ecology")
--Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten, "Natursyn--etik-praksis," ("Views of nature--ethics--practice")
--Kaltoft, Pernille, "Ingeniorer og naturetik," ("Engineers and environmental ethics")
--Zeitler, Ulli, "Miljoetik og miljokonsekvensvurderinger," ("Environmental ethics and environmental impact assessment")
--Arler, Finn, "Renere teknologi--hvor rent skal det vaere?" ("Cleaner technology--how clean ought it to be?")
--Ingimundarsson, Einar Valur, "Baeredygtig udvikling," ("Sustainable development")
--Ranum, Morten, "Naturpraksis--mod et ikke-dualistisk naturbegreb," ("Nature practice--toward a non-dualistic concept of nature")
--Vogel, Steven, "Habermas og naturetik," ("Habermas and ethics of nature")
Sorensen and Arler are in philosophy at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. Ishoy is a Ph.D. candidate in theology there.

--Berleant, Arnold, and Carlson, Allen, eds., special issue, Environmental Aesthetics, of The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56, no. 2, Spring 1998. Stimulating discussions in a steadily developing field of aesthetics. Frequent themes are experience of nature as more engaged than is usual in the arts, its multi-sensory nature, the character of disinterestedness, environmental aesthetics and environmental ethics, the place of the scenic in a more comprehensive aesthetic, and the role of science in aesthetic appreciation of nature. Contains:
--Saito, Yuriko, "The Aesthetics of Unscenic Nature"
--Godlovitch, Stan, "Evaluating Nature Aesthetically"
--Foster, Cheryl, "The Narrative and the Ambient in Environmental Aesthetics"
--Brady, Emily, "Imagination and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature"
--Eaton, Marcia Muelder, "Fact and Fiction in the Aesthetic Experience of Nature"
--Rolston, III, Holmes, "Aesthetic Experience in Forests"
--Fisher, John Andrew, "What the Hills Are Alive With: In Defense of the Sounds of Nature"
--Schauman, Sally, "The Garden and the Red Barn: The Pervasive Pastoral and Its Environmental Consequences"
--Melchionne, Kevin, "Living in Glass Houses: Domesticity, Interior Decoration, and Environmental Aesthetics"
--Sandrisser, Barbara, "Cultivating Commonplaces: Sophisticated Vernacularism in Japan."

--Derr, Thomas Sieger, Nash, James A., Neuhaus, Richard John, Environmental Ethics and Christian Humanism. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996. A major article by Derr, "Environmental Ethics and Christian Humanism," with two replies: Nash, "In Flagrant Dissent: An Environmentalist's Contentions," and Neuhaus, "Christ and Creation's Longing." Derr holds that a wide range of "ecologists" (including biocentrists, animal rights advocates, and ecofeminists) distort the picture of humanity by submerging human life into "nature," ignoring human transcendence over it. The "spectacles" with which many "ecologists" view the world are badly ground and parts of their vision are distorted.
Nash, in a sharply stated response, claims that Derr does not see the issues clearly. "Derr's position must not stand unchallenged! It represents a widespread and unwarranted distortion of much environmental thought" (p. 105) Derr is too much focused on a confidence on human nature, and, indeed, on the capacity of modern, technological civilization to meet key challenges of the new ecological awareness. Derr has yet to find the correct balance of earth, humanity, and divinity.
Neuhaus agrees with Derr that the balance between the naturalistic and the humanistic dimensions of our world have been too lopsided on the naturalistic side. But he doubts that either Derr or the radical ecologists have a picture of the place of divinity in all this, which can be known only with an adequate Christology. Derr is a Reformed thinker, Nash a "liberal" Methodist, and Neuhaus a "conservative" Roman Catholic.

--Lubchenco, Jane, "Entering the Century of the Environment: A New Social Contract for Science," Science 279(1998):491-497. As the magnitude of human impacts on the ecological systems of the planet becomes apparent, there is increased realization of the intimate connections between these systems and human health, the economy, social justice, and national security. The concept of what constitutes "the environment" is changing rapidly. Urgent and unprecedented environmental and social changes challenge scientists to define a new social contract. This contract represents a commitment on the part of all scientists to devote their energies and talents to the most pressing problems of the day, in proportion to their importance, in exchange for public funding. The new and unmet needs of society include more comprehensive information, understanding and technologies for society to move toward a more sustainable biosphere--one which is ecologically sound, economically feasible, and socially just.
New fundamental research, faster and more effective transmission of new and existing knowledge to policy- and decision-makers, and better communication of this knowledge to the public will all be required to meet this challenge. Lubchenco's presidential address to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, February 1997, and well worth study. Implications for the use of ecology in policy, for science and advocacy, science and conscience. Lubchenco has been president of the Ecological Society of America, is an active environmentalist, and was influential in the Society's policy statement that ecological research ought be devoted neither to sustainable development nor to pure science, but to a "sustainable biosphere." She is in zoology at Oregon State University, and her election as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science is a tribute to her impact in her field, insisting on its relevance and on scientific responsibility.

--Chahal, Surjeet Kaur, Environment and the Moral Life: Towards a New Paradigm. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1994. ISBN 81-7024-615-6. The first systematic work on environmental ethics from a philosopher in India. Chapter titles: Necessity and Possibility of Environmental Ethics. The Problem of Interests and Rights in Environmental Ethics. Reflective Equilibrium--A Framework for Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics: The Ultimate Questions. She develops a holistic approach towards the geosphere, on the basis of which she hopes for a change in the prevalent behavior towards nature and preserving the environment for future generations. "The problems of environmental ethics restore a sense of urgency and realism to the philosophical enterprise itself" (p. vii). She is well read in the British and American literature, and draws especially from the Sikh tradition. The author teaches philosophy at the University of Poona (or Pune), inland from Bombay (or Mumbai).

--Cooper, David E., Palmer, Joy A., eds. Spirit of the Environment: Religion, Value and Environmental Concern. London: Routledge, 1998. 204 pages. Contains:
--Bilimoria, Purushottama, "Indian Religious Traditions," pp. 1-14.
--Palmer, Martin, "Chinese Religion and Ecology," pp. 15-29.
--Bartolomeus (His All-Holiness Bartolomeus), Hertzberg, Arthur (Rabbi), and Khalid, Fazlun, "Religion and Nature: The Abrahamic Faiths' Concepts of Creation," pp. 30-41.
--Clark, Stephen R.L., "Pantheism," pp. 42-56.
--Mathews, Freya, "The Real, the One and the Many in Ecological Thought," pp. 57-72.
--Primavesi, Anne, "The Recovery of Wisdom: Gaia Theory and Environmental Policy," pp. 73-85.
--Milton, Kay, "Nature and the Environment in Indigenous and Traditional Cultures," pp. 86-99.
--Cooper, David E., "Aestheticism and Environmentalism," pp. 100-112.
--Garrard, Greg, "The Romantics' View of Nature," pp. 113-130.
--Rawles, Kate, "Philosophy and the Environmental Movement," pp. 131-145.
--Palmer, Joy, "Spiritual Ideas, Environmental Concerns and Educational Practice," pp. 146-167.
--Smith, Richard, "Spirit of Middle Earth: Practical Thinking for an Instrumental Age," pp. 168-181.
Cooper is in philosophy, Palmer in education, at the University of Durham, UK.

--Animal Issues is a new journal aimed to investigate philosophical and ethical issues related to human/animal interactions. Papers are invited on any topics within this general area. Word length should be 4,000-10,000 words and papers should preferably be sent on a Mac disc by e-mail to the editor, or if this is not possible, a hard copy should be sent to the editor. The founding editor is Denise Russell, Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia, e-mail: Denise.Russell@philosophy.su.edu.au. Co-editors: L. Birke, Institute for Women's Studies, University ofLancaster, United Kingdom; B. Forsman, Department of Medical Ethics, University of Lund, Sweden; P. Hallen, Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; F. Mathews, School of Philosophy, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia; V. Plumwood, Department of Philosophy, Montana University, United States.
Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, contained the following articles:
Freya Mathews, "Living with Animals"
Val Plumwood, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat," Part 1
Lynda Birke, "Science and Animals, or, Why Cyril Won't Win the Nobel Prize" Emma Munro, "Speciesism and Sexism"
plus an interview with Peter Singer.
Vol. 1, No. 2 1997, contained the following articles:
Andrew Brennan, "Ethics, Conflict and Animal Research"
Birgitta Forsman, "Two Different Approaches to Gene Technology in Animals" Val Plumwood, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat," Part ll
Lynda Birke and Mike Michael, "Hybrids, Rights and Their Proliferation"
plus an interview with Julia Bell.
Subscriptions (1998-99 rates): Australia and New Zealand: A$12 per issue (including postage). Other countries: A$20 per issue (including postage). Send payment with your name and address to: Dr. Denise Russell, The Editor, Animal Issues, address above.

--Salazar, Debra J., "Environmental Justice and a People's Forestry," Journal of Forestry 94(Nov., # 11, 1996):32-36. The environmental justice movement asks about the quality of the environment in the underprivileged, especially in cities. Urban forestry has an important role to play in any such quality of life. Salazar is in political science, Western Washington University, Bellingham.

--Wallace, Mary G., Cortner, Hanna J., and Burke, Sabrina, "Taming Nature: The Enlightenment's Legacy for the Future," Journal of Forestry 94(Nov., # 11, 1996):39-44. The very ideals of the Enlightenment--reason and science--at times have been destructive, especially in their treatment of the natural world. America's Western frontier was a geographic testing ground for Enlightenment thought. Forestry as applied science is overshadowed by this worldview. We need new theoretical principles that retain the best of the Enlightenment thought but discard its dark sides. Critical theory can greatly help. With much citation of M. Horkheimer and T. Adorno, J. Dryzek. Rather surprising to see critical theory applied to forestry. The authors are associated with the Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona.

--Zeide, Boris, "Another Look at Leopold's Land Ethic," Journal of Forestry 96(1998):13-19. Leopold is universally praised, but his concept of an ecosystem is hardly currently viable. Ecosystems are not so stable and integrated but more open and chaotic. Nor does he give any help identifying the extent to which humans must and ought to modify ecosystems. His metaphors can be misleading. Zeide is professor of forestry University of Arkansas at Monticello. With commentary by J. Baird Callicott, "A Critical Examination of `Another Look at Leopold's Land Ethic,'", pp. 20-26. Leopold may indeed need some revision in his concept of an ecosystem, but his main ideas remain valid, that ecosystems are self-organizing systems with considerable regularity and they can be predictably degraded. Economic is not the only consideration managing landscapes, but sustainable ecosystemic processes are important on a healthy landscape.

--Elliot, Robert Faking Nature: the Ethics of Environmental Restoration, Routledge, London and New York, xii, 177. This book is a development of the view first outlined in Elliot's 1982 Inquiry article, "Faking Nature". Although the present account revises certain aspects of the earlier account it maintains the earlier claims that natural value cannot be restored and that naturalness is a basis for intrinsic moral value. These claims are developed in the context of a theory of value which is both subjectivist and nonanthropocentric. The book takes into account criticisms of the earlier article, particularly those of Richard Sylvan and various restoration ecologists. The chapter titles, indicative of the content are, "The nature of natural value", "Environmental obligation, aesthetic value, and the basis of natural value", "Faking nature", and "Naturalness, intrinsic value and restoration ecology." Elliot is at Sunshine Coast University College, Maroochydore South, Queensland, Australia.

--Maguire, Daniel C. and Rasmussen, Larry L., Ethics for a Small Planet. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1998. The crisis caused by the combined impact of overpopulation, overconsumption, and economic and political injustice. The authors wish to bring religious scholarship into dialogue with the world's policymakers. The world's religions will be important players in the crises relating to population and the threat of ecocide. Maguire indicts our male-dominated religions for the problems they have caused for our ecology and reproductive ethics. Rasmussen claims that Europeans packaged a form of earth-unfriendly capitalism and shipped it all over the world with missionary zeal. Maguire teaches social ethics at Marquette University. Rasmussen teaches social ethics at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

--Wood, Jr., Forrest, "Against Cartmill on Hunting: Kinship with Animals and the Midcentric Fallacy," Philosophy in the Contemporary World 4 (nos. 1 & 2. Spring, Summer, 1997): 56-60. Three recent books offer alternative views of hunting: Matt Cartmill's A View to a Death in the Morning, James Swan's In Defense of Hunting, and Forrest Wood's The Delights and Dilemmas of Hunting. Wood argues, first, that Cartmill's claim of continuity of kind between animals and persons is both overstated and logically disconnected from the hunting/antihunting debate, and, second, that Cartmill's claims that the suffering of sentient animals is somehow intrinsically undesirable exhibits an unjustified prejudice toward middle-sized organisms.

--McNally, Ruth and Peter Wheale, "Biopatenting and Biodiversity: Comparative Advantages in the New Global Order," The Ecologist 26 (no. 5, Sept.-Oct, 1996):222-228. Over the last two decades, the biosciences industry has been stretching the interpretation of patent law in order to attain intellectual property rights over genetically engineered living organisms. Such patent rights, coupled with moves to gain exclusive access to the biodiversity of the South, are leading to a new global order. Opposition to such "biotechnological imperialism" is gaining in momentum. McNally is in human sciences at Brunel University. Wheale is with the University of Surrey's European Management School.

--Reed, Edward S., Toward an Ecological Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 224 pp. $ 35.00. The human niche, and the psychology by means of which humans, and animals, make their way through the natural, and social, worlds. Reed is at Franklin and Marshall College.

--Reforesting Scotland is published twice a year, Spring and Autumn, a publication of Reforesting Scotland, a group devoted to the restoration of Scottish forests, raising awareness and promoting understanding of the deforestation of Scotland and its implications in ecological, social, and economic terms. It seeks to develop community participation in ecological restoration, forest management, and integrated land use. Sam Murray is administrator. Reforesting Scotland, 21a Coates Crescent, Edinburgh, EH3 7AF, Scotland. Phone 44 (0)131 226 2496. Fax 44 (0)131 226-2503. Website: http://www.scotweb.co.uk/Environment/reforest.

--Burton, Ian, Kates, Robert W., and White, Gilbert F., The Environment as Hazard, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1993. Storms, floods, droughts, introduction of exotic species, pathogens, earthquakes, and hurricanes. How individuals, communities, and nations respond and what factors condition and restrain those responses. First issued in 1978.

--Pennisi, Elizabeth, "New Threat Seen from Carbon Dioxide," Science 279(1998):989. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is having an adverse effect on coral reefs. Even though these are highly carbonate systems, they are more sensitive to minor shifts in the carbon in seawater, influenced by carbon in the air, than previously thought.

--Moffat, Anne Simon, "Global Nitrogen Overload Problem Becomes Critical," Science 279(1998):988-989. Synthetic nitrogen, from fertilizers, is overloading many regional ecosystems. Though fixed nitrogen is essential for life, the added nitrogen is too much of a good thing. Human activities, mostly synthetic fertilizers, but also fossil fuel burning, especially in automobiles, produce 60% of all the fixed nitrogen deposited on land each year. The situation is changing quite rapidly.

--Kaiser, Jocelyn, "New Wetlands Proposal Draws Flak," Science 279(1998):980. The Army Corps of Engineers has proposed revisions to current policy, which, though from one perspective can seem to be more conservative about wetlands, in fact opens up the possibility of much more wetland development, say critics.

--Gowdy, John, ed., Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998. Humans, it is said, have unlimited wants and limited means to satisfy these wants, so the end result is scarcity. The central irony of this book is the claim that the hunter-gatherers had structured their lives so that they needed little, wanted little, and for the most part had all the means to satisfy their needs at their immediate disposal, living much more rewarding lives than ours. Sample contents: Marshall Sahlins, "The Original Affluent Society"; James Woodburn, "Egalitarian Societies"; Paul Shepard, "A Post-Historic Primitivism"; Eleanor Leacock, "Women's Status in Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social Evolution." Gowdy is in economics at Rennsselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY

--Young, Oran R., ed., Global Governance: Drawing Insights from the Environmental Experience. Cambridge, MA: The MI Press, 1998. Problems of international governance in the absence of a world government. The emerging environmental agenda has prompted an awareness of the need for new arrangements to achieve sustainable human/environment relations. Environmentalism offers new opportunities for international governance. Young is in environmental studies and directs the Institute on International Environmental Governance at Dartmouth College.

--Schemo, Diana Jean, "Brazil Says Amazon Burning Tripled in Recent Years," New York Times, January 27, 1998, A3. Amazon deforestation, earlier said to be declining, in the days of the Rio Summit, is not. Rather deforestation is sharply up from the previous ten year average.

--Sagoff, Mark, "Can We Put a Price on Nature's Services," Report from the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, 17 (no. 3, Summer 1997):7-12. An analysis of Costanza et al, "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature 387(no. 6230, May 15, 1997) and related articles. "The effort Costanza and colleagues undertake to `estimate the "incremental" or "marginal" value of ecosystem services' should be seen as an aberration within the program of ecological economics. It can succeed only in lowering the credibility of the discipline while increasing the legitimacy of the standard cost-benefit analysis policy framework most likely to defeat attempts to protect the natural environment" (p. 12). Sagoff is at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park.

--Weigert, Andrew J., Self, Interaction, and Natural Environment: Refocusing Our Eyesight. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. An analysis of how we as individuals understand environmental issues and respond accordingly. Environmental issues exist on worldwide scale, but most people do not consider the pollution they cause by operating cars or fertilizing lawns.
--Madson, Chris, "A Life for Conservation" (Aldo Leopold), Wyoming Wildlife 62 (no. 1, January, 1998):14-19. Also: "Touching Wyoming," (Leopold in Wyoming) pp. 20-23; Elkhorn, Philip, "The Hunter" (Leopold as a Hunter), pp. 24-27. And excerpts from Leopold, "In His Own Words." A twenty page feature on Leopold on the 50th anniversary of his death. Madson is the editor of Wyoming Wildlife and a student of Bob McCabe's at the University of Madison. See entries under McCabe. Copies for $ 1.50 plus postage to Wyoming Wildlife, 5400 Bishop Blvd, Cheyenne, WY 82006. (Thanks to Phil Pister and Curt Meine.)

--McCabe, Robert A. Aldo Leopold: The Professor. Madison, WI: Rusty Rock Press, 1987. ISBN 0-910122-98-9 (Rusty Rock Press, Attn: Pam Starr, Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706). $29.95 hardbound, plus $2.50 shipping. McCabe took up the professorial reins in the University of Wisconsin Department of Wildlife Ecology when Leopold died and remained in the department until he retired about 1986, and continued to hold an office there until his death about two years ago. McCabe has collected and his recollections about Leopold. Sections on Leopold's department, Leopold as a teacher, personal and professional interactions, the shack, Leopold as a scientist, commissioner, hunter, writer, and the end of his life. (Thanks to Curt Meine.)

--McCabe, Robert A, ed., Leopold: Mentor, by His Graduate Students. Proceedings of an Aldo Leopold Centennial Symposium held in Madison, Wisconsin, April 23-24, 1987. Madison, WI: Department of Wildlife Ecology, UW-Madison, 1988. No ISBN number. $ 6.00 plus $ 1.50 shipping. (Pam Starr, Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706). Recollections by about two dozen graduate students.

--Bradley, Nina Leopold, "A Man For All Seasons," National Wildlife 36(no. 3, April/May, 1998):30-34. Leopold died fifty years ago, on April 21, 1948 (the anniversary falling on day before 1998 Earth Day). His daughter shares some memories of her father, among others his concern, curiosity, and the importance of keeping records. All five of Leopold's children became scientists, and Nina Leopold Bradley has spent the last two decades conducting ecological research at the 1,500 acre Leopold Memorial Reserve in Wisconsin.

--Stolzenburg, William, "Sweet Home Alabama," Nature Conservancy 47(no. 4, Sept./Oct 1997):8-9. Alabama a biodiversity hotspot? Well, yes. The 29th largest of the United States, Alabama is the nation's fourth richest kingdom of plants and animals. In species per square mile only Florida can match it. Part of the reason is the wide ranging topography, from sea level to the Southern Appalachians, which coincides with a reach from almost subtropical to mountain temperate forests. But, alas, Alabama's number of extinct or mission species towers above all other states in the lower 48. Some 98 species have gone extinct. See also Lydeard, Charles and Mayden, Richard L., "A Diverse and Endangered Aquatic Ecosystem of the Southeast United States," Conservation Biology 9(1995):800-805.

--Dickens, Peter, Reconstructing Nature: Alienation, Emancipation and the Division of Labour. London: Routledge, 1996. 217 pages. £14 paper. Social constructivism takes many forms. From a Marxist, and hence materialist, point of view the wholesale deconstructivism favored by "postmoderns" and discourse analysts goes too far. Dickens wants to correct an environmentalism he regards as "characterised by a profound failure to understand their relations with nature" (p. 149). He also rejects the idea that nature is "a purely social construction with no references to real and material processes `out there.'" Dickens targets what he refers to as "strong" social constructivism. He wants this label to apply equally to both those explicitly constructivist critics of environmental discourses who regard "nature" as simply a product of human social practices and those environmentalists who entirely reject this view and wish to retain (and in his terms reify) a pure nature untouched by human hands. The former he regards as idealists in the sense that they come to regard "nature" as an infinitely plastic creation of the human mind. The latter are idealists in the different sense of being unwitting dupes who accept a romanticized picture of the human/natural relations without recognizing it for the social construction it really is. Dickens is in urban studies and social policy at the University of Sussex, UK. Reviewed by Mick Smith, "What's Natural? The Socio-political (De)construction of Nature," Environmental Politics 6 (no. 2, Summer 1997):164-168.

--Eder, Klaus, The Social Construction of Nature: A Sociology of Ecological Enlightenment. London: Sage, 1996. 231 pages. £ 14, paper. Eder is embedded in contemporary German social theory, under the influence of Habermas's neo-Marxism and the neo-functionalism of Niklas Luhnmann.. He focuses on the symbolic appropriation of nature in various cultural systems. Western thought has concentrated on "labour" seeing nature from a utilitarian perspective and with an instrumental rationality. This instrumentalism is frequently the focus of radical environmentalist critiques. The products of labour are consumed. Our consumptive patters and preferences are not preordained by human needs, as naturalists might hold, but are culturally constructed and symbolically mediated. We use nature to make social distinctions. "People separate themselves according to culturally determined interactions with nature" (p. 21). Eder wants to make a series of cognitive, normative and symbolic corrections to historical materialism. We now belong to "a society that no longer allows for authoritative statements that found rationality on the idea of objectivity in dealing with nature" (p. 203). Eder holds a two cultures perspective in which he regards radical environmentalism as incommensurable with a dominant cultural codes.

--Guerrier, Yvonne, Alexander, Nicholas, Chase, Jonathan, O'Brien, Martin, eds. Values and the Environment: A Social Science Perspective. Chichester, UK and New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1995. 220 pp. Contains:
--Redclift, Michael R., "Values and Global Environmental Change," pp. 7-18. The way science and social science have developed since the nineteenth century have divorced the study of nature from the study of society and this makes it particularly difficult to address environmental issues.
--Clift, Roland, Burningham, Kate, Löfstedt, Ragnar E., "Environmental Perspectives and Environmental Assessment," pp. 19-32. Using wind power and the use of wind turbines, the authors critique the ways engineers traditionally assess environmental problems.
--Parker, Jenneth, "Enabling Morally Reflective Communities: Towards a Resolution of the Democratic Dilemma of Environmental Values in Policy," pp. 33-50. An "expert" model contrasted with a "process model," where the aim is to develop morally reflective communities that can take stewardship over the local environment.
--Smith, Mick, "A Green Thought in a Green Shade: A Critique of the Rationalisation of Environmental Values," pp. 51-60. Challenges "experts" such as environmental economists and moral philosophers, who claim to have conceptual systems and methodologies to evaluate the natural world. They fail to recogise that their frameworks arise from and support the society they wish to criticise.
--Chase, Jonathan, Panagopoulos, Ioannis S., "Environmental Values and Social Psychology: A European Common Market or Commons' Dilemma?" pp. 67-80. Identity processes are important factors in valuing the environment. Particular identities tend to emphasise different values.
--Clark, Judy, "Corncrakes and Cornflakes: The Question of Valuing Nature," pp. 81-94. A review and criticism of the contingent valuation method.
--Burningham, Kate, "Environmental Values as Discursive Resources," pp. 95-104. Discourse analysis, a set of theoretical and methodological approaches based on linguistics and psychology, used to critique the assumption that one can simply uncover people's values.
--Pearson, Peter J.G., "Environmental Priorities in Different Development Situations: Electricity, Environment and Development," pp. 111-124. The domestic problems of individual states as these are or are not shared by groups of states. Developing countries and industrialized do not face the same economic issues in respect of energy use, and do not have the same priorities.
--Hedger, Merylyn McKenzie, "Wind Farms: A Case of Conflicting Values," pp. 125-138. Wind farms in the U.K., especially Wales.
--Doupé, Michael John, "Orthodoxy and the Judiciary's Approach to Environmental Impairment: Legal Foresight and Environmental Myopia," pp. 139-150. The judiciary's response to environmental problems through the interpretation of laws in England, especially water pollution.
--Bonnes, Mirilia, Bonaiuto, Marino, "Expert and Layperson Evaluation of Urban Environmental Quality: The `Natural' versus the `Built' Environment," pp. 151-164. Expert vs. layperson and their apparent inconsistencies.
--Uzzell, David L., Rutland, Adam, Whistance, David, "Questioning Values in Environmental Education," pp. 171-182. Secondary education.
--Dibble, Dominic, "Education for Environmental Responsibility: An Essential Objective," pp. 183-194. A general call for new educational strategies for environmental education.
--Haigh, Martin J. "World Views and Environmental Action: A Practical Exercise," pp. 195-208. Hands-on experience not primarily with the physical constituents of natural environments but with their cultural, aesthetic, and social meanings.
Guerrier is at South Bank University, UK; Alexander at the University of Ulster, UK; Chase and O'Brien at the University of Surrey, UK.

--Hannigan, John A., Environmental Sociology: A Social Constructivist Perspective. London: Routledge, 1995. A society's willingness to recognize and solve environmental problems depends more upon the way these claims are presented by a limited number of interest groups than upon the severity of the threat they pose. The construction of environmental knowledge is placed in the context of wider debates within sociology on modernity and postmodernity. Examples from U.S., U.K., and Canada. Hannigan is in sociology at the University of Toronto.

--Clifford, Mary, ed., Environmental Crime: Enforcement, Policy, and Social Responsibility. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers (200 Orchard Ridge Drive, 20878), 1998. 560 pages. Seventeen authors, in criminal justice, political science, biology, sociology. Sample chapters: Five Types of Environmental Criminals. Environmental Ethics, Criminal Law, and Environmental Crime. International Environmental Issues. Environmental Crime Research: Where We Have Been, Where Should We Go. Clifford is in criminal justice at St. Cloud State University, MN.

--Kline, Benjamin, First Along the River: A Brief History of the U.S. Environmental Movement. San Francisco: Acada Books, 1998. Claims to be the first concise overview of the United States environmental movement from the colonial era to the present. Kline teaches environmental history at San Jose State University.

--Mapel, David R., and Nardin, Terry, eds., International Society: Diverse Ethical Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998. The moral foundations of the international order. Fifteen contributors. The character of international society, the authority of international law and institutions, and the demands of international justice. Mapel is in political science at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Nardin is in political science at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

--Goldemberg, José, "What is the Role of Science in Developing Countries?" Science 279(1998):1140-1141. Developing countries should not expect to follow the research model that led to the scientific enterprise of the United States and elsewhere. Many scientists from developing countries, trained in the United States and Europe, returned to their own nations and tried to imitate what was being done in developing countries. India, for example, had a nuclear research program, which failed, and was largely irrelevant to the needs of India. Developing countries need a science that is relevant to their local circumstances and needs, which includes appropriate technology for sustainable development. Goldemberg is at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

--Golliher, Jeffrey and Logan, William Bryant, eds., Crisis and the Renewal of Civilization: World and Church in the Age of Ecology. New York: Continuum, 1996. 144 pages. Twenty-three homilies on environmental issues delivered over the past two decades at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. Al Gore, Carl Sagan, Rene Dubos, Amory Lovins, Thomas Berry, John Kenneth Galbraith, Timothy C. Weiskel, James Lovelock, Maurice Strong, and others.

--Goldsmith, Edward, The Way: An Ecological World View. Revised and enlarged (second) edition. Foxhole: Dartington (Devon, UK): Themis Books, an imprint of Green Books, Ltd., 1996. 553 pages. A revision of the 1992 edition. 66 short chapters. Samples: Ecology is holistic. Ecology is emotional. The ecosphere is one. Gaia is alive. Life processes are dynamic. Living systems are intelligent. Cooperation is the primary Gaian relationship. Goldsmith was with the journal, The Ecologist, for twenty-five years. Reviewed ny Stan Rowe in The Trumpeter 14 (no. 1, 1997):40-43.

--Oksanen, Markku, "The Moral Value of Biodiversity," Ambio (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) 26(no. 8, Dec. 1997):541-545. How the preservation of biodiversity is morally justified in some of the key texts on environmental ethics. Whether or not biodiversity can be justified as a moral end in itself. Views are classified according to the criteria which they hold to be the ultimate moral beneficiaries; positions are named as anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism. In general, they are not in favor of regarding biodiversity as intrinsically valuable, but think its moral value is derivative. This means that the myriad characters of life on Earth are to be maintained as diverse because of their instrumental value for the constituents. It seems that Naess's deep ecology is the only major position that argues for biodiversity's intrinsic value, but this view has proved to be problematic. Oksanen is completing a Ph.D. in environmental ethics and property rights at the University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

--ONeill (O'Neill), John. "Managing without Prices: The Monetary Valuation of Biodiversity," Ambio (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) 26(no. 8, Dec. 1997):546-550.

--Kaiser, Jocelyn, "Population Growing Pains," Science 279(1998):1309. Does adding more people to the planet make society any worse off? Economists have tended to reject gloom and doom scenarios of impending environmental catastrophe, concluding that population growth should only slightly perturb living standards. But two economists, William Nordhaus and Joseph Boyer, of Yale University, argue that, although the next generation may not be much affected, if one projects eight or so generations, the cost can become enormous. Most of the costs are diminishing returns as land and capital are divvied up among descendants. Short story. This could seem obvious simply by thinking about it, but at least economists are making common sense respectable!

--Cushman, John H., Jr., "Courts Expanding Effort to Battle Water Pollution: New Enforcement Tactic," New York Times, National, March 1, 1998, p. 1, p. 16. A hitherto little used provision in the 1972 Clean Water Act allows states to measure water pollution more broadly, including nonpoint sources, and to impose across-the-board limits on pollution from all sources until clear water standards can actually be met. Courts are now tending to uphold this aspect of the law, which means that all development can be held up until the nonpoint source problem is addressed.

--Cushman, John H. Jr., "Scientists are Turning to Trees to Repair the Greenhouse," New York Times, March 3, 1998. Planting trees is by no means the whole solution, but it can be an important part of it.

--Maurer, Brian A., "Ecological Science and Statistical Paradigms: At the Threshold," Science 279(1998):502-504. Ecosystems are too complicated to form testable theories about easily. Linear thinking about ecosystems--assumptions that they are "balanced" or "stable," for example--is being replaced by the view that ecosystems are constantly changing and that those changes depend to a large extent on conditions experienced by an ecosystem before its measurement. Are ecosystems predictable in dynamic change, and lawlike or regular to this extent? Not yet in many cases, since both the theory and the statistics used in analysis have been too simplistic. But they may become so with more sophisticated statistical methods. Maurer is in zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

--Vardy, Peter, and Grosch, Paul, The Puzzle of Ethics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997. 238 pages. $ 18.95. Chapter 16 is Animal Rights; Chapter 17 is Environmental Ethics. Vardy is at the University of London. Grosch is at the College of St. Mark and St. John, Plymouth, UK.

--Zich, Arthur, "China's Three Gorges: Before the Flood," National Geographic 192(no. 3, September 1997):2-33. China's most ambitious project since the Great Wall, the Three Gorges Dam will displace nearly two million people as it swallows up cities, farms, and the canyons of the Yangtze River. The world's mightiest dam is rising on the Yangtze River. Gains: electric power and flood control. Losses: wild canyons and hundreds of thousands of homes. The pros and cons of this major project, now well into construction.

--Nordgren, Anders, ed. Science, Ethics, Sustainability: The Responsibility of Science in Attaining Sustainable Development. Uppsala: Uppsala University, Centre for Research Ethics, 1997. 281 pp. Sustainable development, research ethics, bioethics, environmental ethics, environmentally history, sociology of science, environmental economics, environmental policy, science and responsibility. Contains:
--Sörlin, Sverker, "Problem Continents and Island Experiences: Environment and Science in the Past and in the Present," pp. 19-29.
--Jernelöv, Arne, "The Environmental Protection in Recent History," pp. 31-37.
--Lindén, Anna-Lisa, "Sociological Aspects on Man, Value Orientation, Behaviour and Sustainable Development," pp. 41-50.
--Sundqvist, Göran, "Keeping Science and Politics Apart? The Role of Science in Environmental Policy," pp. 51-61.
--Lidskog, Rolf, "The Reinvention of Politics? Science and Politics in the Development towards Sustainability," pp. 63-67.
--Corell, Elisabeth, "The Expert--Decision-maker Relationship: Science and Politics in International Environmental Negotiations," pp. 79-90.
--Randall, Alan, "Sustainability: Economics Does Not Have the Answers, But It Helps Clarify the Questions," pp. 93-104.
--Zylicz, Tomasz, "Economic Values and Policy Implications," pp. 105-114.
--Söderbaum, Peter, "Science, Ethics and Democracy: Ecological Economics as a Response," pp. 115-133.
--Rolston, Holmes III, "Environmental Science and Environmental Advocacy: From `Is' in Science to `Ought' in Ethics," pp. 137-153.
--Nordgren, Anders, "Science and Sustainability: Some Reflections on the Moral Responsibility of Scientists," pp. 155-177.
--Brom, Frans W. A., Vorstenbosch, Jan, Schroten, Egbert, "Public Policy and the Moral Responsibility of Science," pp. 179-188.
--Nitsch, Ulrich, "The Reluctant Scientist: Some Reflections on Scientists' Commitment to Sustainability Research," pp. 189-203.
--Buhlmortensen (Buhl-Mortensen), Lene, "TYPE-II Statistical Errors and the Precautionary Principle: A Case Study in Marine Biology," pp. 205-210.
--Rydén, Lars, "Faces of Sustainability," pp. 211-220.
--Low, Nicholas, and Gleeson, Brendan, "Finding Justice in the Environment," pp. 221-233.
--Molnár, László, "`People or Penguins": Some Remarks on Criteria of Moral Considerability," pp. 235-241.
--Heeger, Robert, "Respect for Animal Integrity?" pp. 243-252.
--Gustafsson, Bengt, "The Value of Looking in Other Directions," pp. 255-263. The viewpoint of a concerned scientist.
--Thurdin, Gorel, "Ethics, Spiritual Values and a Political Will: Any Concern of Scientists?, pp. 267-273. The viewpoint of a concerned politician.

--Kahn, Jr, Peter H., "Developmental Psychology and the Biophilia Hypothesis: Children's Affiliation with Nature," Developmental Review 17(1997):1-61. A useful review of the biophilia hypothesis of Edward O. Wilson and Stephen R. Kellert. There are three overarching concerns: (1) The genetic basis of biophilia. (2) How to understand seemingly negative affiliations with nature. (3) The quality of the supporting evidence. Biophilia is a valuable interdisciplinary framework for investigating the human affiliation with nature, though a nascent framework. The second half of the article discusses recent studies on children's environmental reasoning and values, conducted in the U.S. and in the Brazilian Amazon. Kahn is in education and human development, Colby College, Waterville, ME.

--Kahn, Jr., Peter H., "Children's Moral and Ecological Reasoning About the Prince William Sound Oil Spill," Developmental Psychology 33(No. 6, 1997):1091-1096. School children were interviewed about the 1990 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Children cared that harm occurred to the shoreline and marine life and conceived of both types of harm as violating a moral obligation. Fifth and eighth graders used more anthropocentric reasoning than did second graders.

--Kahn, Peter H., Jr., "Bayous and Jungle Rivers: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Children's Environmental Reasoning." In Saltzstein, H., ed., Culture as a Context for Moral Development: New Perspectives on the Particular and the Universal. No. 76 in the series, New Directions for Child Development, Summer 1997, pp. 23-36. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers. Contrary to previous research that found that economically impoverished African Americans have little interest in and concern for the natural environment, research with children and parents in an African American community in Houston, Texas shows environmental sensitivity and commitment. Two groups are studied in Brazil, one in Manaus, a large city on the Amazon River, where children live in great poverty, and a second group in a remote village of 4,000 inhabitants on the Rio Negro. Both groups of children demonstrated environmental sensitivities and commitments based on a wide range of measures. Similarly in Howe, Daniel C. (Education and Development, Colby College) and Kahn, Jr., Peter H., "Along the Rio Negro: Brazilian Children's Environmental Views and Values," Developmental Psychology 32(No. 6, 1996):979-987.

--Percesepe, Gary, ed., Introduction to Ethics: Personal and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995. Chapter 10 is "Ethics of Animals and the Nonhuman Environment," with reprints from Thoreau, Bratton, Feinberg, Regan, Commoner, Warren.

--Golf and the Environment: Environmental Principles for Golf Courses in the United States. 15 pages. Developed through collaborative research and dialogue with some seventeen groups, for example, Audubon International, National Wildlife Federation, Friends of the Earth, Sierra Club, United States Golf Association, National Golf Foundation, American Farmland Trust, and others. Copies from The Center for Resources Management, 1104 East Ashton Avenue, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, UT 84106.

--DePalma, Anthony, "Canada No Safe Haven for Birds or Bears," New York Times, March 13, 1998, p. A1, A8. Canada frequently has a worse record than the United States for conservation. There is a list of 291 endangered animals, birds, and insects, but there is no legislation to protect them. One problem is tension between the provincial and the national governments, with the provinces resisting any national regulation. Another is Canadian perceptions of the hassles over endangered species in the U.S. Another is refusal of Canadians to believe that, in relatively undeveloped Canada, there is a problem.

--Peters, Ted, ed. Genetics: Issues of Social Justice. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1998. 262 pages. Moral and social aspects of genetics, including the human genome project and genetic engineering.

--Howes, Rupert, Skea, Jim, and Whelan, Bob, Clean and Competitive? Motivating Environmental Performance in Industry. London: Earthscan Publications, 1998. Draws on work at the Sussex University, UK, Science Policy Research Institute, with which the authors have been affiliated.

--Rayner, Steve, and Malone, Elizabeth L, eds., Human Choice and Climate Change. Four volumes: Volume 1: The Societal Framework. Volume 2: Resources and Technology. Volume 3: Tools for Policy Analysis. Volume 4. What Have We Learned? Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Marston Book Services and Battelle Press, 1998.

--Wenz, Peter S., Nature's Keeper. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. 207 pages. "In this book I attempt to understand, and to suggest how to curtail, the tragedy I was taught to call progress" (frontis). Chapter titles: Our Christian Heritage. Commercialism. Industrialism. Nationalism, Bureaucracy, and the Holocaust. Nuclear Power and Radiation Exposure. Nuclear Power and Human Oppression. Indigenous Peace and Prosperity. "In societies where there is much less human oppression than in ours, nature is typically respected as valuable in itself, and people are not trying to overpower nature for human benefit" (p. 119). Indigenous World Views. Implications. Practical Suggestions for agriculture, international trade, transportation, energy, equity, population control. Living with Nature.

--Agar, Nicholas, "Biocentrism and the Concept of Life," Ethics 108(1997):147-168. "I have sought to show that our entrenched apparently anthropocentric moral views can take us some distance into nature. The representational account of life (developed in this article) acts as a bridge between living things and value-anchoring psychological notions (such as suffering pains and pleasures). It enables value to be spread very broadly throughout nature. Individual things are not all to be valued equally, however. The amount of value we assign to an individual depends on the range and complexity of goals that an organism is capable of. Why does this type of complexity matter? As organisms have more varied and numerous goals they tend to become more folk psychological. Folk psychological notions in turn have the closest association with relevant normative notions. Thus the life-representational ethic both acknowledges the preeminent place of humans on this planet and spreads value broadly enough to provide firm foundations for an environmental ethic." "Consciousness does not occupy such an important place in the life representational ethic. Many nonconscious organisms will be morally valuable. However, ... consciousness will open up novel varieties of goal to an organism" (p. 168). Agar is in philosophy, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.

--Bernstein, Ellen, ed., Ecology and the Jewish Spirit: Where Nature and the Sacred Meet. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 1998. 37 essays. 288 pages. Hardcover $ 24.00.

--Barcalow, Emmett, Moral Philosophy: Theories and Issues, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998. Chapter 23 is "Morality and the Environment." Barcalow is at Western New England College.

--Cohen, Joel E., How Many People Can the Earth Support? New York: Norton, 1995. 532 pages. Past human population growth. Four evolutions in population growth. The uniqueness of the present relative to the past. Future human population growth. Projection methods. Scenarios of future population. The human carrying capacity of the earth. Eight estimates. A survey of four centuries. Human choices. Water. Natural constraints and time.

--Stone, Christopher D., Should Trees Have Standing? And Other Essays on Law, Morals, and the Environment, 25th anniversary edition. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1996. 186 pages. Stone wrote the seminal article, "Should Trees Have Standing?" a quarter century ago. Here is a reprint, with an introduction and epilogue "`Trees" at Twenty-five." Other essays: "The NonPerson in Law"; "Should We Establish a Guardian for Future Generations"; "How to Heal the Planet"; "Reflections on Sustainable Development"; "The Convention on Biological Diversity." "An Environmental Ethic for the 21st Century": "Moral Pluralism and the Course of Environmental Ethics." Stone is in law at the University of Southern California.

--Gunter, Pete A. Y., and Oelschlaeger, Max, Texas Land Ethics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997. 156 pages. Contents: What is a Land Ethic? Texas: The Land and its Communities of Life. Texas: A State of Neglect. Land Ethics and Economics. Are Land Ethics Practical? The Big Thicket. Gunter and Oelschlaeger are both in philosophy at the University of North Texas.

--Gunter, Pete A. Y., The Big Thicket, revised edition. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 1993. Updated from the earlier book of 1972, the first book predating (and pivotal in) designating the Big Thicket National Biological Preserve and the Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge.

--Malnes, Raino, Valuing the Environment. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1995. Climate policy. The priority principle. Risk and hard cases. Realism and responsibility. Future people. Against ecological egalitarianism. Against the green theory of value. Malnes is in political science, University of Oslo.

--Kroll, Andrew J., and Barry, Dwight, "Integrating Conservation and Community in Colorado's San Juan Mountains," Wild Earth, Fall 1997, pp. 81-87. The possibilities of keeping the San Juan Mountains wild, including the restoration of big predators, such as wolves and grizzly bears, coupled with local ranching communities on the lower slopes and valleys, coupled with a growing recreational and ranchette trend. Kroll is an apprentice ecologist and Barry a conservation biologist focussing on the southwestern United States.

--Defenders of Wildlife, Oregon's Living Landscape: Strategies and Opportunities to Conserve Biodiversity. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 1998. A state wide assessment of Oregon's biodiversity, pioneering laws and programs, including the beach bill, the bottle bill, and statewide land use planning. Also sponsored by the Nature Conservancy and dozens of public and private cooperators.

--Dobkowski, Michael N., and Wallimann, Isidor, eds., The Coming Age of Scarcity: Preventing Mass Death and Genocide in the Twenty-first Century. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1998. 14 contributions. 350 pages. Paper, $ 35.00. Ominous, though not fatalistic. All the contributors agree that present-day population growth, land resources, energy consumption, and per capita consumption cannot be sustained without leading to catastrophes. Includes Cobb, John B., Jr., "The Threat to the Underclass"; Lewis, Chris H., "The Paradox of Global Development and the Necessary Collapse of Modern Industrial Civilization"; Abernethy, Virginia, "Defining the New American Community: A Slide to Tribalism," and many others. Part III is case studies of scarcity and mass death: Rwanda, Bosnia, Somalia, and Haiti. Dobkowski is in religious studies at Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Wallimann is in sociology at the School of Social Work in Basel, Switzerland.

--Suzuki, David, with McConnell, Amanda, The Sacred Balance: Rediscovering Our Place in Nature. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998. 269 pages. Cloth $26.00. "Nature is the ultimate source of our inspiration, of our sense of belonging, of our hope that life will survive long after we are gone. In order to realize this hope, we must learn to regard the planet as sacred." Suzuki is a Canadian media celebrity, and geneticist, host of a popular science program, "The Nature of Things."

--Grove, Richard H., Ecology, Climate and Empire: Studies in Colonial Environmental History. Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press, 1997. 250 pages. Concerns about climate change are far from being a uniquely modern phenomenon. The origins of present-day environmental debates about soil erosion, deforestation and climate change in early colonial administrators, doctors and missionaries. "Marginal" land and its ecology in the history of popular resistance movements. Grove is in environmental history at Australian National University and the University of Cambridge.

--Sylvan, Richard, Transcendental Metaphysics. Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press, 1998. 500 pages. £ 45.00. Sylvan links his "deep green" theory of environmental philosophy to wide-ranging work in metaphysics, semantics, logic and value theory, his last work just completed before he died. Pioneering, eclectic, and controversial. Sylvan advocates "plurallism" (sic). "There is not merely a plurality of correct theories and more or less satisfactory worldviews: there is a corresponding plurality of actual worlds. Plurality penetrates deeper in full plurallism than linguistic surface or than conceptual or theoretical structure, to worlds ... There is no single fact of the matter, there are facts and matters."
Contents:
Chapter 1. Introducing and placing full and deep plurallisms
Chapter 2. Explaining full metaphysical plurallisms: their features, their differences.
Chapter 3. Paths and arguments leading to deep plurallism: vias negativas Chapter 4. More arguments to deep plurallism: vias positivas
Chapter 5. Still more positive arguments to plurallism
Chapter 6. Worlds and wholes: their natures and relative features
Chapter 7. Talking and thinking plurallese as well as more ordinarily: modellings and discourse
Chapter 8. Making a wider metaphysical sweep: traditional notions, traditional pluralism, traditional objections
Chapter 9. Distancing plurallism from realism, anti-realism and relativism, and those other -isms
Chapter 10. Plurallistic investigation of relevant philosophers and philosophical schools
Chapter 11. Impacts upon Philosophy: harmonious applications and further problem-solving
Chapter 12. What deep plurallism does, its intellectual impact, and where it leads
Chapter 13. Beyond intellectual plurallism--to liberating practice
Richard Sylvan was Senior Research Fellow in the Philosophy Program at the Australian National University.

--Human Genetics Advisory Commission and Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (of the United Kingdom), Cloning Issues in Reproduction, Science and Medicine. London: Human Genetics Advisory Commission and Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, January 1998. An official UK government document. The Commission consists of scientists and one philosopher (Onora O'Neill). Sets out the issues quite well. The document may be found at the HGAC webpage at <http://www.dti.gov.uk/hgac>. Hard copies may be obtained from the Office of Science and Technology (Department of Trade and Industry), Albury House, 94-98 Petty France, London SW1H 9ST or via <chris.hepworth@osct.dti.gov.uk>.
There is also a mail list on human cloning: clone@mailbase.ac.uk (Thanks to KeeKok Lee).

--Watkins, Kevin, Economic Growth with Equity. UK: Oxfam.

--Wilson, Edward O., "Back from Chaos," Atlantic Monthly 281(no. 3, March, 1998): 41-62. Enlightenment thinkers knew a lot about everything, today's specialists know a lot about a little, and postmodernists doubt that we can know anything at all. The Enlightenment mostly got it right. The fragmentation of knowledge and the chaos in philosophy are not reflections of the real world but artifacts of scholarship. Wilson argues that we can know what we need to know, and that we will discover underlying all forms of knowledge a fundamental unity. Wilson divides what we know, at least about nature and environmental affairs, into four quadrants: environmental policy, environmental ethics, social science, biology. One good test of truth is when many lines of independent evidence converge in support of a claim, a consilience of inductions. Wilson's latest book is Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (New York: Knopf, Random House, 1998). Wilson is emeritus from comparative zoology at Harvard University.
Another discussion is in the current issue of The Wilson Quarterly, "Is Everything Relative?" where the editors, worried about crippling relativism, put Wilson into debate with Richard Rorty and biologist Paul R. Gross. Contains:
--Wilson, Edward O., "Resuming the Enlightenment Quest," The Wilson Quarterly, Spring 1998, pp. 16-27. Science is the royal road to truth, the cure to the contemporary fragmentation of knowledge, to which philosophers have too much contributed. Wilson's consilience of the sciences--philosophers will want to notice--has now reached the settled conclusion that our human nature, including its morality, is "biased by" the genes. The consilience within biology is expanding to overtake the social sciences and the humanities. The brain is a survival instrument, with Paleolithic survival instincts (p. 20). Fortunately, the biological sciences have figured this out and can correct for it (with what brain, Wilson does not say).
--Rorty, Richard, "Against Unity," pages 28-38. Rorty claims to be more biologistic than Wilson. Language is a survival tool, as Wilson should know. This means that things are described for various purposes, never for what they are in themselves. "As we pragmatists see it, there can and should be thousands of ways of describing things and people--as many as there are things we want to do with things and people--but this plurality is unproblematic" (p. 30). (But why we should accept Rorty's thousands-plus-yet-one-more view as being better than the rest does become problematic). "My scorn," Rorty continues, "for the claim that a natural scientist gets closer to the way things are in themselves than the carpenter, the moralist, or the literary critic" does mean that "I do indeed think of science as just another way of looking at the world" (p. 38). Rorty is University Professor of Humanities at the University of Virginia.
--Gross, Paul R., "The Icarian Impulse," pages 39-49. Gross defends Wilson; we need to press for consilience as much in ethics as in the sciences, but he is much less sure we are reaching it. Gross is University Professor of Life Sciences at the University of Virginia, co-author of Higher Superstition (1994), and an editor of The Flight from Reason and Science (1996).

--Bowie, G. Lee, Higgins, Kathleen M., and Michaels, Meredith W., eds., Thirteen Questions in Ethics and Social Philosophy, 2nd ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998. An anthology in 13 chapters, each a question. Chapter 11 is, "What Should We Sacrifice for Animals and the Environment?" Readings from Allen Ginsburg, Tom Regan, Peter Singer, Aldo Leopold, Mark Sagoff, Annette Baier, Marti Kheel, and John Stuart Mill. Bowie is at Mt. Holyoke College, Michaels at Hampshire College, and Higgins at the University of Texas at Austin.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Technology versus Nature: What is Natural" in CPTS Ends and Means: Journal of the University of Aberdeen Centre for Philosophy, Technology & Society 2(no. 2, Spring 1998):3-14. This journal is intended to be principally an electronic journal:
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/cpts/techno.htm
However, it is printed twice a year, and issues are free on request (University of Aberdeen, Old Brewery, Old Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UB, UK.)
In some meanings "nature" includes everything and thus includes technology. In other meanings "nature" refers only to spontaneous or wild nature and excludes all artifacts of culture, including technology. Nature continues environing culture; culture is always construct out of, superposed on nature. Natural is often also a normative term, while artificial is pejorative. A prevailing philosophy is that humans should become the planetary managers. This has become increasingly possible with the transition from muscle and blood to engines and gears, from about 1850 onward, coupled with the information explosion more recently, which have brought an epochal change of state, and makes a postnatural world possible. To some extent this is inevitable, though not wholly desirable. Significant areas of the planet are still relatively natural, and these areas might become increasingly humanized. Both appropriate respect for nature and moral responsibility require significant conservation of nature. Technological humans are still in search of a sustainable relationship with nature. Finally, there is a sense is which once and future nature is never at an end, since, when humans vanish, nature returns. Rolston is in philosophy at Colorado State University.

--Restoration Ecology is the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration, now in its sixth volume. Published by Blackwell Science. Society of Ecological Restoration, University of Wisconsin, Madison Arboretum, 1207 Seminole Highway, Madison, WI 53711.

--Branch, Michael P., and Philippon, Daniel J., eds. The Height of Our Mountains: Nature Writing from Virginia's Blue Ridge Mountains and Shenandoah Valley. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. Seventy writers beginning in 1607 and ending with contemporary writers such as Annie Dillard, Roger Tory Peterson and Edwin Way Teale.

--Hart, John Fraser, The Rural Landscape. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. A guide to the rural landscape, not as an artifact but as an interaction between humans and nature, in Europe and America. All the way from relict features of the landscape to the effects of contemporary recreation on the look of the land.

--Shepard, Paul (1925-1996), Nature and Madness, with foreword by C. I. Rawlins. The Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game, with foreword by George Sessions. Thinking Animals: Animals and the Development of Human Intelligence, with foreword by Max Oelschlaeger. All reprinted in paperback, 1998, by the University of Georgia Press, Athens, GA. Shepard was professor of natural philosophy and human ecology at Claremont College, Claremont Graduate University, and Pitzer College for more than twenty years.

--Humphrey, Caroline, and Sneath, David, eds. Culture and Environment in Inner Asia. Cambridge, UK: White Horse Press, 1996. In two volumes. Vol.1: The Pastoral Economy and the Environment. Vol.2: Society and Culture. Inner Asia is divided between Russian, Mongolian, and Chinese administration. Vast areas of steppeland are now subject to pasture degradation. Pastoralism has shaped the steppe environment and been the basis of the indigenous economy for more than two thousand years. Enormous social changes in recent years due to the advent of democracy in Russia and economic reforms in China. Humphrey has done anthropological research in Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva, and Inner Mongolia and is Reader in Asian Anthropology at the University of Cambridge. Sneath is a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at the department of Social Anthropology, University of Cambridge.

--Westra, Laura. Living in Integrity. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.

Lemons, J.; Westra, L.; and Goodland, R. Ecological Sustainability and Integrity: Concepts and Approaches. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

--Foundations of Science, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1997). Kluwer Academic Publishers. A special issue, edited by Matthais Kaiser, on "The Precautionary Principle and Its Implications for Science." Articles by J. Lemons, K. Shrader-Frechette, Matthias Kaiser, L. Westra, and many others.

--Wellington, A.; Greenbaum, A.; and Cragg, W. Canadian Issues in Environmental Ethics. Broadview Press, 1997. ISBN 1-55111-128-4. Case studies and issues. Chapters by Allan Drengson, Peter Miller, Wesley Cragg, Michael Fox, Peter Wenz, and Laura Westra.


VIDEOTAPES AND MULTIMEDIA

Two new Green Web Bulletins are available on request:
#63 "My Path to Left Biocentrism: Part I - The Theory."
#64 "My Path to Left Biocentrism: Part II - Actual Issues."
By D. Orton and dated April 1998, the Bulletins give a comprehensive presentation of the characteristics of the left biocentric theoretical tendency within the deep ecology movement. Part I (about 4,000 words) includes the important thinkers for a left biocentric synthesis, and discusses the continuities and discontinuities of left biocentrism with deep ecology. Bulletin #63 also includes the ten-point "Left Biocentrism Primer." Part II (about 5,000 words) shows the application of left biocentrism to actual issues: forests and forestry, aboriginal issues, relationship to the Left, green movement and party, protected areas and wildlife, and sustainable development. In discussing these issues, what is distinctive about left biocentrism compared to deep ecology, is outlined. Contact: Green Web, R.R. #3, Saltsprings, NS, Canada, B0K 1P0, Email: greenweb@fox.nstn.ca


EVENTS


1998

--April 3-5, 1998. Earth Day colloquium, University of North Texas in Denton. Speakers include: Holmes Rolston, J. Baird Callicott, Eugene C. Hargrove, Tom Birch, Eric Katz, and Max Oelschlaeger. For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove at Dept. of Philosophy, UNT, P O Box 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel:940-565-2727; Fax:940-565-4448; Internet: ee@unt.edu and www.cep.unt.edu

--April 6-12, 1998. American Ornithologists' Union. Joint annual meeting of several societies. St. Louis, MO. Contact: Bette Loiselle, Dept of Biology, University of Missouri-St Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St Louis, MO 63121, Tel: 314-516-6224, Email: bird_stl@umsl.edu; WWW: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/

--April 16-19, 1998. Christianity and Ecology. Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Environmental ethics grounded in religious traditions and linking the transformative efforts of the world's religions to the larger international movements toward a global ethics for a humane and sustainable future. Contact Mary Evelyn Tucker, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837. 717/524-1205.

--April 18-19, 1998. King's College London, Strand Campus. The Centre for Philosophical Studies is hosting a conference on the theme "Philosophy of the Environment." For more information, see Conferences above.

--April 23-25, 1998. Global-Ecojustice: The Church's Mission in Urban Society. Chicago, Lutheran School of Theology. Center for Respect of Life and Environment and Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge. Urbanization and environmental issues. Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone: 202/778-6133. Fax: 202/778-6138. E-mail: CRLE@aol.com. Webpage: http://www.centerl.com/crle.html

--May 6-9, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Central Division. Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL. See Conferences above.

--May 20-25, 1998. The 9th Annual Environmental Writing Institute. Bitterroot Valley in Montana, USA. This year's Director will be naturalist and writer Rick Bass. The Institute is co-sponsored by the University of Montana's Environmental Studies Program and the Teller Wildlife Refuge, Inc. For more information, contact: Hank Harrington, Environmental Studies Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 USA; Tel 406-243-2904; Email: hrh@selway.umt.edu; Website: http://www.umt.edu/ewi/EWIPAGE.HTML

--May 27-28, 1998. The Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas, 8th Annual Conference, and the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities. University of Ottawa. A session is being planned on "Asethetics of Nature in Hybrid Spaces." Contact: Prof. Thomas Heyd, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4 CANADA; Email: theyd@uvvm.uvic.ca

--May 27-31, 1998. Society and Resource Management, Seventh International Symposium. University of Missouri-Columbia. Papers, symposia, etc., invited. Contact: Sandy Rikoon, Rural Sociology, 108 Sociology Bldg., University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. Tel. 573/882-0861 Fax: 573/882-1473.
--June 3-6, 1998. Aesthetics of Bogs and Peatlands. Third International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics. Ilomantsi, Finland. This continues a series of very successful conferences organized by Yrjo Sepanmaa of the University of Joensuu and author of The Beauty of Environment. Speakers include Yrjo Sepanmaa, Yuriko Saito, Mara Miller, Allen Carlson, Pete A. Y. Gunter, Holmes Rolston, III, and Ronald Hepburn. The conferences are held in appropriate natural settings. Contact: Marjaliisa Pehkonen, Summer University of North Karelia, PL 111, 80101, Joensuu, Finland. Fax 358 13 244 2299. E-mail: marja.pehkonen@kkymail.ncp.fi

--June 8-11, 1998. The 9th Global Warming International Conference & Expo (GW9). Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST). Contact: Prof. Sinyan Shen, Chair, International Program Committee, Global Warming International Center (GWIC) USA, PO Box 5275, Woodridge IL 60517 USA; Tel: 630-910-1551; Fax: 630-910-1561. See Conferences above.

--July 13-16. 1998. Society for Conservation Biology. Annual Meeting. Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. For information, contact: Prof. George McKay, Email: george.mckay@mq.edu.au; or Prof. R. Frankham, SCB98 Program Chair, School of Biological Sciences, Macquarie Univesity, Sydney, NSW, 2109 Australia, Email: rfrankha@rna.bio.mq.edu.au, Fax: +61 2 9850 9237 Attention: SCB 1998 Program. Website: http://www.bio.mq.edu.au/consbio/

--August 10-16, 1998. 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Copley Place, Boston, MA, USA. See Conferences above.

--August 23-28, 1998. "Philosophy and Ecology: Greek Philosophy and the Environment." Samos, Greece. Organized by Prof. K. Boudouris, University of Athens. Sponsored by the International Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy (IAGP) and its US affiliate (SAGP-USA). Contacts: Prof. K. Boudouris, 5 Simonidou St. 17456 Alimos, Greece, Email: kboud@atlas.uoa.gr; Prof. Tom Robinson, Philosophy Dept., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, CANADA; Tel: 416-978-2824; Fax: 416-978-8703; Email: tmrobins@epas.utoronto.ca; and Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, address below.

--September 18-20, 1998. Workshop for environmental scientists and professionals. University of North Texas in Denton. Speakers will include J. Baird Callicott, Eugene Hargrove, and John Lemons (University of New England). For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove at Dept. of Philosophy, UNT, P O Box 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel:940-565-2727; Fax:940-565-4448; Internet: ee@unt.edu and www.cep.unt.edu

--September 28-30, 1998, Austin, TX. International Conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration. Making Connections. Call for papers. Rangeland restoration. Restoration Education. Cross-border Cooperation. Restoration using fire. Prairie Restoration. Wildlife Habitat Restoration. Urban Wetlands. And much more. David Mahler, SER International Conference, 4602 Placid Place, Austin, TX 78731. Tel: 512-458-8531. Fax: 512-458-1929.

--October 1998. Sixth World Wilderness Congress, Bangalore, India. (This conference has been rescheduled from October 1997. Contact Alan Watson, P. O. Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807. 406/542-4197. Fax 406/542-4196.

--October 4-7, 1998. Sustainability and the Liberal Arts. Hendrix College, Conway, AK. Center for Respect of Life and Environment and Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge. Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone: 202/778-6133. Fax: 202/778-6138. Email: CRLE@aol.com. Webpage: http://www.centerl.com/crle.html

--October 21-23, 1998. Restoring Wolves to the Adirondacks: Civic Democracy and Obligations to Future Generations. Conference sponsored by The Hastings Center and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). To be held at the AMNH in New York City (79th and Central Park West). Invited papers only. For information, contact the project co-director, Virginia Ashby Sharpe, PhD, Associate for Biomedical and Environmental Ethics, The Hastings Center, Garrison, NY 10524-5555, Tel: 914-424-4040, Fax: 914-424-4545, Email: sharpeva@thehastingscenter.org

--October 22-24, 1998. Ecumenical Earth: New Dimensions of Church and Community in Creation. Union Theological Seminary, New York, NY. Center for Respect of Life and Environment and Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge. Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone: 202/778-6133. Fax: 202/778-6138. E-mail: CRLE@aol.com. Webpage: http://www.centerl.com/crle.html

--December 27-30, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division. Washington, DC.


1999

--April 19-22, 1999. In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation. The Fifth International Symposium, at San Diego California. Call for papers, to Carol Young, Battelle, 505 King Avenue/Room 10-123, Columbus, Ohio 43201. Information from The Conference Group, 1989 West Fifth Avenue, Suite 5, Columbus, Ohio 43212. Fax 624/488-5747.

--May 23-27, 1999. Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. University of Montana, Missoula. Includes wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science. Changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. Call for papers. Natural Resource Management Division, Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. 406/243-4623. 888/254-2544 Email: ckelly@selway.umt.edu. www.wilderness.net


INTERNET ACCESS TO THE ISEE Newsletter
Back issues of ISEE Newsletters have been moved to the University of North Texas website at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
Newsletters can be searched using the FIND feature on Windows or other software. Newsletters can be Emailed to your local address.


MASTER BIBLIOGRAPHY
The ISEE Bibliography website bibliography has been updated to include all 1997 entries. Entries for 1998 are to be found in the quarterly newsletters and will be merged into the website bibliography in February of 1999. Access via Internet from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html

The site has a search engine, by name and keyword. Files and search results can be e-mailed to your local e-mail address. The preceding require only ordinary website and e-mail capacities. The bibliography has also been placed in PDF files at the same website. This requires an Adobe Acrobat Reader, with which the three files (A-F, G-O, and P-Z) can be downloaded to your local computer. With a PDF brower, the files can be read on line, though this requires a fast computer for convenience.

This bibliography is also available on disk in DOS WordPerfect 5.1 format (which can be easily converted to other formats), on three 3 1/2 disks. On disk, the bibliography is in three parts, A-F, G-O and P-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel: 970-491-6315 (office); Fax: 970-491-4900; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu Send $5 to Rolston.


THE ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS SYLLABUS PROJECT

Course offerings, syllabi, instructor's vitae, etc., from around the world are accessible at the following Website:
http://forest.bgsu.edu/ISEE
The project's goal is to collect information from throughout the world about what courses are taught, by whom, in which colleges and universities, and to make this available for teachers, administrators, students, prospective grad students, etc. Materials are submitted by the instructors. The site has many interactive links to environmental sites, home pages, universities, etc.

To submit materials, preferably via Email, contact the Project's founder and coordinator: Robert Hood, Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0222; Email: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu.

The materials can also be accessed, along with the ISEE Newsletter, at the ISEE Website homepage:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
To keep contributors informed of new course information and additions to the Syllabus Project, all contributors of a syllabus will automatically receive an on-line serial (ISSN: 1098-5328) via quarterly emails (at the end of the months of March, June, September, and December). To unsubscribe, send email to: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu


ISEE BUSINESS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

Current Officers of ISEE (Executive Board):

President: Prof. J. Baird Callicott, Dept of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton Texas 76203 USA; Dept Tel: 817-565-2266; Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1999-2000.

Vice-President and President-Elect: Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Dept of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa, Florida 33620 USA; Tel: 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept); Fax: 813-974-5914; Email: none; term to expire at the end of the academic year 1999-2000, when term as President begins.

Secretary: Prof. Laura Westra, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050; term to expire end of academic year 2000-01.

Treasurer: Ernest Partridge, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: gadfly@igc.org; Website: www.igc.org/gadfly; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Newsletter Editor: Prof. Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Tel: 606-783-2785, 606-784-0046; Fax: 606-783-5346; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Nominating Committee:

--Prof. Victoria Davion, Chair of the ISEE Nominating Committee, Dept of Philosophy, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA; Tel: 706-542-2827; Email: vdavion@uga.cc.uga.edu
--Prof. Alan Holland, Dept of Philosophy, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK; Fax: 44 (Country Code) (0) 524 (City Code) 846102; Email: A.Holland@lancaster.ac.uk
--Prof. Roger Paden, Dept of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 USA; Tel: 703-993-1265; Email: rpaden@gmu.edu
--Prof. Gary Varner, Dept of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4237 USA; Email: g-varner@tamu.edu


ISEE Newsletter PUBLICATION AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION

TO SUBMIT ITEMS FOR PUBLICATION:

Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor, of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this results in duplicated efforts. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred):
j.weir@morehead-st.edu

The parcel post address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Scholarly articles are not published. Very brief reports of research and publications will be considered. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Calls for Papers and Conferences should be limited to 150 words.
Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.

SOCIETY DUES, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND ADDRESS CHANGES:

U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA, Tel: 909-338-6173, Fax: 909-338-7072, Email: gadfly@igc.org; or Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA, Tel: 519-253-4232, Fax: 519-973-7050.

Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, renewals, new subscriptions, and address changes should be sent to these regional contact persons. The dues are used by the contact person to pay for duplication and mailing of the Newsletter.

If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them either to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, or to Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary (addresses above).

NOTE: NEWSLETTERS WILL NOT BE MAILED TO ANYONE WHOSE DUES ARE NOT PAID FOR THE CURRENT YEAR.


REGIONAL CONTACT PERSONS AND CORRESPONDENTS

Africa
Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Tel. 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Australia and New Zealand
The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; Tel: 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax: 61 74 30 1111; Email: elliot@mail.scuc.edu.au

Canada
Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050.

China: Mainland China
Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Europe: Eastern Europe
The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Tel: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8471-555 (24h), +48 / 61 / 8477-079 (8 a.m. - 3. p.m. MET).. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl

Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean
The contact person is Martin Drenthen. Send the equivalent of $15 US to: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Tel: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751 (Office), Fax: 31-24-3615564. Email: mdrenthen@phil.kun.nl, Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html

Pakistan and South Asia
Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Tel: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk

United Kingdom
Keekok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Tel & Fax: +44 (0)161 275 3196. Email: keekok.lee@man.ac.uk
Dues are £6.50 UK.

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston South Carolina 29424 USA. Tel: 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax: 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu; Tel: 970-491-6315 (Office); Fax: 970-491-4900.

Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bluilding, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).
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The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email (preferred) or by disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Building, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).
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SUBSCRIPTION FORM
Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.

Enclosed are dues: ______________________. Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15; Outside U.S., $20. Student dues are $10 inside U.S.; or $15 outside U.S. Members outside the U.S. should send the equivalent of U.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates, to the regional Contact Person (at the address listed above) or to the ISEE Treasurer (checks or drafts in U.S. dollars only).

Name:

Tel: (______)________________

Position or Affiliation:

Address (Include Postal Code):

Fax:

Email:


SEND with Payment to: Regional Contact Person (address above); or
Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA;
Tel: 909-338-6173; Fax: 909-338-7072; Email: gadfly@igc.org