Volume 8, No. 4, Winter 1997
The Editors would like to encourage all members of ISEE to submit announcements, issues, and other items that might interest ISEE members. Especially needed are items related to your particular region of the world, items that are unlikely to come to Weir's or Rolston's attention. Your submissions will help all of keep informed and up-to-date. When possible, send your items via Email to Weir (address below).
The World Congress of Philosophy. The World Congress of Philosophy meets at Copley Place in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 10-16 August 1998. Numerous philosophical societies from throughout the world will be meeting before, during, and after the main Congress sessions. The ISEE program is as follows. ISEE members and others may have submitted papers on environmental ethics, and on many other topics of interest to ISEE members, to the main Congress sections and sessions, as well as to other societies meeting before, during, or after the Congress. Contributed papers submitted to the Congress, but not through ISEE, are not listed below.
World Congress, Main Program, Congress-Invited Speakers. Topic: "Philosophy and the Environment." Chair, Robin Attfield. Speakers: John Passmore (Australian National University), Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff), Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University).
Subsection Organized by Robin Attfield. Azizan Baharuddin (University of Malaya, and Institute for Policy Research), Heta and Matti Häyry (University of Helsinki), Gunnar Skirbekk (University of Bergen).
Sections Organized by ISEE.
Section I. Tuesday, August 11, 6.00 - 7. 50 p.m. Organized by Jack Weir (Morehead State University), invited addresses. Chair, Jack Weir. Theme: Approaches to Environmental Ethics (intended to be introductory to current issues, for philosophers not otherwise acquainted with environmental ethics). Speakers: J. Baird Callicott (University of North Texas, President ISEE), "Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental Ethic?" Richard Sylvan (at the 15th World Congress, 1973, Varna, Bulgaria): Quarter Century Retrospective"; Ronnie Zoe Hawkins (University of Central Florida); Alan Holland (University of Lancaster, U.K., Editor, Environmental Values); Val Plumwood (Australia).
Section II. Wednesday, August 12, 6.00 - 7. 50 p.m. Organized by Mark Sagoff (Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland at College Park), invited papers. Part One: Chair, Mariachiara Tallacchini (University of Milan, University of Firenze); Speakers: Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology); Eugene Hargrove (University of North Texas, Editor, Environmental Ethics), "Traditional Environmental Ethics." Part Two: Chair, Eugene Hargrove; Speakers: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida); Laura Westra (University of Windsor, Canada).
Section III. Thursday, August 13, 2.00 - 3.50 p.m. Organized by Holmes Rolston from contributed papers. Chair, Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University). Speakers: Andrew Light (University of Montana), "Economic Goods, Human Needs, and Environmental Values"; Ricardo Rozzi (Universidad de Chile and Institute of Ecological Research, Chile), "Ecological-Evolutionary Concepts of Nature and their Relationship to Environmental Ethics"; Jan Wawrzyniak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland), "Where Do All the Flowers Stand? An Attempt at Evolutionary Axiology"; Andrew McLaughlin (Lehman College, City University of New York), "Globalization and the Environment"; Teresa Kwiatkowska - Szatzscheider (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico), "Environmental Ethics in Tropical Rainforests."
The Center for Environmental Philosophy will present an Earth Day colloquium on April 3-5, 1998, in the newly constructed Environmental Education, Science and Technology Building at the University of North Texas in Denton. Speakers include: Holmes Rolston, J. Baird Callicott, Eugene C. Hargrove, Tom Birch, Eric Katz, and Max Oelschlaeger. For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove at Dept. of Philosophy, UNT, P O Box 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel:940-565-2727; Fax:940-565-4448; Internet: email@example.com and www.cep.unt.edu
A workshop for environmental scientists and professionals will be held Sept. 18-20, 1998, at the University of North Texas. Speakers will include J. Baird Callicott, Eugene Hargrove, and John Lemons (University of New England). For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove (address above).
The Winter 1997 issue of the Environmental and Architectural Phenomenology Newsletter focuses on Goethean science, which can be described as an implicit phenomenology of nature and the natural world. Though best known as one of the world's great poets and playwrights, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) also developed a qualitative style of science that drew on firsthand experience of particular phenomena. Goethe's own scientific work focused on plants and the nature of light and color. Recent work by others has examined such topics as the nature of water, animal form, and the built environment. This issue of the EAP Newsletter includes an essay by ecologist Mark Riegner on the relationship between Goethe and deep ecology, and reviews of two recent books on Goethean science. The EAP Newsletter is published three times annually and a subscription is $10. For a free sample copy or to subscribe, contact the Editor: David Seamon, Architecture Department, 211 Seaton Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-2901; Tel: 785-532-1211.
The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare will be available from Greenwood Press within a few months (it may already be off the press). Edited by Marc Bekoff, a biologist at the University of Colorado, this one-volume reference work provides essays by recognized authorities in the field, addressing the many issues of animal rights and animal welfare. The Foreword is by Jane Goodall. For more information, contact Marc at EPO Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0334 USA; firstname.lastname@example.org
Currently in use in schools and homes worldwide, EarthAware is an environmental education software program that calculates an individual's or household's contribution to global warming. Don Lotter, a graduate student in ecology at the University of California at Davis, developed the program. Individuals or households are evaluated in six areas: 1) Home Energy and Utilities, 2) Transportation, 3) Consumerism, 4) Waste, 5) Advocacy, and 6) Land Use/Family Planning. EarthAware gives a numerical "Eco" score, a rating ranging from Eco-Titan to Eco-TyrannosaurusRex, and the score indicates the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere. The score is presented in a seven-page printout with charts and graphs. The US is by far the biggest producer of greenhouse gases, mostly by the burning of fossil fuels, with an average emission of 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per person. Europe emits approximately 7 mt, and China 3 mt per person. To download the program, find its Website by searching the Web under the name "EarthAware." The program is free.
Ecopsychology Internet Discussion Group. Prof. Claudia Robinson of Clemson University has started a listserv discussion group on ecopsychology. To subscribe, send a message to:
In the BODY of the Email message write:
subscribe ecopsychology Yourfirstname Yourlastname
subscribe ecopsychology Sigmund Freud
Prof. Robinson's Email address is: email@example.com
Goddard College and the Institute for Social Ecology announce their Summer 1998 program of courses, practica, lectures, and seminars:
May 28-June 21 Planning, Design and Construction for Sustainability
June 25-July 24 Ecology and Community
BA and MA courses start in June. Areas of study include social ecology, land use, politics and activism, ecofeminism, ecological technology, organic agriculture, environmental racism, art and culture, sustainable communities, and more. Faculty will include Murray Bookchin, Daniel Chodorkoff, Chaia Heller, Brian Tokar, Grace Gershuny, Beveral Naidus, Bob, Spivey, Cindy Milstein, Sam Clar, Janet Biehl, and others. For more information, contact Claudia Bagiackas, Associate Director, Institute for Social Ecology, P.O.Box 89, Plainfield, Vermont 05667 USA; Tel: 802-454-8493.
During the Fall Semester 1997, Holmes Rolston taught a graduate seminar on aesthetic appreciation of nature at Colorado State University, Fort Collins. A syllabus of the class is available on Rolston's homepage: http://lamar.colostate.edu/~rolston/
The Sierra Institute will offer several summer field courses. All courses are available for credit through Environmental Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. The Institute is an interdisciplinary natural history field program directed by biologist Ed Grumbine and is affiliated with the University of California Extension in Santa Cruz. Courses include: Mountain Ecology-The High Sierra; Olympic Wilderness-Nature Philosophy; Mountana Rockies-The Wild Divide; Spirit of the Mountains-Idaho Wild; Colorado Plateau-Native American Culture and Prehistory; Wild in the San Juans-Conserving Colorado's Biodiversity; Salmon Dreams-Wild Nature and Culture in North Coast California. Most of the courses begin June 23 and conclude mid-August; UC Santa Cruz is on the quarter system. Enrollments are limited, and applications must be submitted by April 23rd. For specific dates, locations, faculty, fees, etc., contact: Sierra Institute, University of California Extension, 740 Front St., Suite 170, Santa Cruz, CA 95060; Tel: 408-427-6618; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Website: www.ucsc-extension.edu/unex.bio/sierra.html
Warwick Fox has taken a position, starting January 1, 1998, at the Centre for Professional Ethics, University of Central Lancashire. Also at the University of Central Lancashire is Ruth Chadwick, president of the International Association for Bioethics and editor of the recently published Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. Also there is Udo Schuklenk, who has strong environmental ethics interests and was a Green MP in a German state parliament for 5 years. Nearby is Lancaster University, which has an the environmental ethics and policy emphasis. Address: The Centre for Professional Ethics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK. Email: email@example.com
Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, is now a Research Associate at the University of California, Riverside, and has an internet website at www.igc.org/gadfly. Featured are some of his publications, work in progress, news from Russian environmentalists, research tools, links with significant environmental websites, and more.
Holmes Rolston will be in India and Nepal from January 1 - February 15, 1998. In India, a team of Rolston and three others will conduct a series of seminars and lectures in bioethics, including environmental ethics. The seminars are being sponsored by the University of Madras, Department of Zoology, and will be held at several locations in India: Madras Atomic Power Station, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, at Kalpakkam, near Madras; V.M.K.V. Medical College, Salem; National Law University, Bangalore; National Chemical Laboratory, Poona; Ahmednagar College, Ahmednagar; and the All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi. Dr. Jayapaul Azariah, professor and head, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, is the organizer. In Nepal, Rolston will be on treks in the Annapurna region and in Royal Chitwan National Park, and then he will study biological conservation issues in the Mt. Everest region.
The Southern African Wildlife College officially opened on September
15, 1997, the biggest project in the nearly three decades of World Wide
Fund for Nature South Africa. The college is adjacent to Kruger National
Park and focuses on training blacks from South Africa and other southern
Africa nations in wildlife conservation, emphasizing ways that wildlife
are of value to black communities. Contributions have come from throughout
the world, although the German, Danish, and Dutch governments have been
especially committed to the project. Address: Southern African Wildlife
College, Private Bag X3015, Hoedspruit 1380, South Africa.
CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS
ISEE Programs at the AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION:
--Eastern Division, Mariott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, December 27-30, 1997: Program in previous Newsletter.
--Pacific Division, Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, CA, March 25-28, 1998:
Friday, March 27, 7:00 PM. Chair: Ernest Partridge (University of California, Riverside). Speaker: William J. McKinnery (Southwest Missouri State University), "The Science Wars Meets Environmental Philosophy." Commentator: James Heffernan (University of the Pacific). Speaker: Mark Woods (University of San Diego), "Upsetting the Balance of Nature." Commentator: Ernest Partridge (University of California, Riverside). Speaker: Christoph Rehmann-Sutter (University of California, Berkeley), "An Introduction to Places." Commentator: Laura Westra (University of Windsor).
--Central Division, Palmer House, Chicago, IL, May 6-9, 1998:
Session One. Topic: Recent Works in Environmental Ethics. Chair: Laura Westra University of Windsor (Canada). Speakers: Michael Mark, Austin Peay State University (TN), "Environmentalism with a Liberal Face"; Philip Cafaro, Southwest State University (MN), "Thoreau on Science and System"; Bruce Morito, University of Guelph (Canada), "Examining Ecosystem Integrity as a Primary Mode of Recognizing the Autonomy of Nature"; Laura Westra, University of Windsor (Canada), "The Ethics of Integrity: A Response to Bruce Morito."
Session Two. Topic: Author Meets Critics--Eric Katz's Nature as Subject: Human Obligations and Natural Community. Chair: Andrew Light, University of Montana. Speakers: Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston, Wayne Ouderkirk, Empire State College (SUNY). Respondent: Eric Katz, New Jersey Institute of Technology.
The World Congress of Philosophy. See General Announcements above.
"ETHICS and the EARTH: Environmental Justice and the Philosophy of Nature" is a conference to be held on February 26th, 1998, at Lewis University in Romeoville, IL 60446. Lewis University is near Chicago and northwestern Indiana. The one-day conference will begin at 9:00 AM and conclude about 7:00 PM with the keynote address by Prof. Karen Warren, who will critique and supplement distributive justice models. Other speakers include: James P. Sterba of Notre Dame; Franklin Dmitryev, who will speak on Marxism and Eco-Activism; Jack Weir of Morehead State, who will speak on "Case-Based Methods and Environmental Racism"; and others. Registration is free. Meals will be available but at your own expense. Groups are welcome, including entire classes, but if possible contact the Lewis faculty in advance for any special needs and to guarantee adequate seating. The conference is co-sponsored by the Transcultural Student Services Office at Lewis, and will involve a wide range of faculty, graduate students, and undergraduates in Lewis' Scholars (honors) program. Panels made up of Lewis faculty and students will respond to speakers, and time will be allowed for discussion. All events will be in the Sancta Alberta Convocation Center. To preregister and for more information, including directions and assistance with overnight accomodations, contact the conference coordinator: Prof. Sarah Bishop Merrill, Adjunct Associate Professor, Philosophy Department, Lewis University, Romeoville, IL 60446; Tel: (815) 838-0500 x 5312 (MWF), or (219) 929-1343; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Centre for Philosophical Studies at King's College London is hosting a conference on the theme "Philosophy of the Environment." The Conference will take place at the Strand Campus of King's College on April 18-19, 1998. Speakers are: Stephen Clark (University of Liverpool), "Evolutionary Ethics and the Environment"; Michael Jacobs (Fabian Society and L.S.E), title to be announced; Bryn Jones (former Director of Greenpeace), "Has the Environmental Movement Failed? And Why?"; Tim Lenton (University of East Anglia), "A Natural Philosophy of Gaia"; Mary Midgley, "Who or What Is Gaia?"; Kate Rawles (University of Lancaster), "Environmental Ethics and Animal Welfare: Complementary or Incompatible?"; Roger Scruton (Birkbeck College, London), "Absent Generations"; Sir Crispin Tickell (Green College, Oxford), "Religion and the Environment"; Eric Turner (Environmental Resources Management), "The Role of Business in Delivering Sustainable Development." The Registration Fee is £50 until 28 February 1998; thereafter an additional £10 will be charged. (Cheques should be made payable to "King's College London".) The Registration fee includes the cost of coffee and tea on both days. All registered members of the conference are invited to the conference reception, featuring an address by the Principal of King's College. In addition to the registration fee, there will be charges for lunch and dinner for those who wish to eat on campus. A limited number of rooms are available at King's College Hall at Camberwell (£15.75 per night for bed and breakfast; early booking is essential). For application forms and more information, contact Dr. Tony Dale , Centre for Philosophical Studies, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS; Tel 0171 8732585; Email: email@example.com; Website: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/kis/schools/hums/philosophy/Centre.html
The 9th Annual Environmental Writing Institute will be held 20-25 May 1998 in Montana's Bitterroot Valley. This year's Director will be naturalist and writer Rick Bass. The Institute is co-sponsored by the University of Montana's Environmental Studies Program and the Teller Wildlife Refuge, Inc. For more information, contact: Hank Harrington, Environmental Studies Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 USA; Tel 406-243-2904; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Website: http://www.umt.edu/ewi/EWIPAGE.HTML
The 9th Global Warming International Conference & Expo (GW9) will be held at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), June 8-11, 1998, Hong Kong. A distinguishing feature of the GW Conference is its commitment to Resource Management policy and techniques. Sound resource management is seen by the GW Program Committee as the ultimate method for mitigating global warming and facilitating the sustainable growth of the world's economy. Over 200 papers and panels will address global and regional resource conservation and resource management methods, addressing agricultural, forestry, mineral, material, transportation, energy, water, and other resources. For additional information, contact Prof. Sinyan Shen, Chair, International Program Committee, Global Warming International Center (GWIC) USA, PO Box 5275, Woodridge IL 60517 USA, Tel 1-630-910-1551, FAX +1-630-910-1561. The GWIC USA Website can be located by searching via Yahoo for "Global Warming International Conference."
CALL FOR PAPERS: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:
Eastern Division: February 1st
Central Division: September 1st
Pacific Division: September 1st
For specific dates and locations, see "Events" (below).
--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Kristin Shrader-Frechette (ISEE Vice President-President Elect), Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa Florida 33620 USA; Tel: 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept); Fax: 813-974-5914. For the December 1999 meeting: Two sessions are being planned: recent important books on environmental ethics, and submitted papers. Please send proposals and papers as soon as possible.
--Submit Central Division proposals to Laura Westra (ISEE Secretary), Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050.
--Submit Pacific Division proposals to Ernest Partridge, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: email@example.com
CALL FOR PAPERS. The Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas. 8th Annual Conference, in conjunction with the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, May 27-28,1998. A session is being planned on "Asethetics of Nature in Hybrid Spaces." Possible topics for the session are landscape architecture, gardens, earthworks, reclamation artworks, and nature restoration. Abstracts are due February 15th. Papers of 12 pages (20 minutes reading time) are due by April 1st. Architecturally oriented papers should be sent to Prof. Rafael Gomez-Moriana, Faculty of Architecture, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 CANADA; Tel: 204-474-6794; Fax 204-474-7532; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Philosophically oriented papers should be sent to Prof. Thomas Heyd, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4 CANADA; Email: email@example.com
CALL FOR PAPERS. "Wilderness Science in a Time of Change." University of Montana, Missoula, May 23-27, 1999. Possible topics include wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science, changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. Contact: Natural Resource Management Division, Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. 406/243-4623. 888/254-2544 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. www.wilderness.net
CALL FOR PAPERS. A conference on "Philosophy and Ecology: Greek
Philosophy and the Environment" will be held in Samos, Greece, 23-28
August 1998. Organized by Prof. K. Boudouris, University of Athens, International
Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy (IAGP and SAGP-USA). Contacts: Prof.
Tom Robinson, Philosophy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, CANADA;
Tel: 416-978-2824; Fax: 416-978-8703; Email: email@example.com;
and Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, address below. Deadline, 28 Feb.
Restoration of Yellowstone Wolves Ruled Illegal. A federal judge has ruled that the restoration of 150 wolves to Yellowstone and central Idaho was illegal. The introduced wolves were designated an "experimental, nonessential population" which allows the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (and ranchers) more control over "problem" wolves. Wolves who migrated on their own into these areas and mingled with the restored wolves were to be treated under this experimental designation as well. The judge ruled that it violated the Endangered Species Act to provide these naturally-occurring wolves with less than full protection. The suit had been brought not only by ranchers opposing wolf restoration, but by some environmental groups who wanted the wolves to have full protection under the Act. Some fear that the judge's order to remove the wolves, if upheld, will result in the federal government killing the animals because recapturing the packs would be exceedingly difficult. The judge's decision has been appealed. The restored wolves have had a significant impact in Yellowstone, killing half the coyotes in the Park, which in turn has made rodents more plentiful, leading to a increase in hawks and eagles. The wolves have also become a major Park attraction. See Tom Kenworthy, "Wolf Reintroduction Program is Illegal," Washington Post (12/13/97): A2 and Jim Robbins, "In 2 Years, Wolves Reshaped Yellowstone," New York Times (12/30/97): F1. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Kyoto Greenhouse Gas Accord Reached. One hundred and fifty nations meeting in Kyoto, Japan reached an agreement that would legally obligate the industrialized nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2 percent below 1990 levels. The accord was reached when the United States agreed to a 7 percent reduction by 2010, dropping its earlier less stringent target of simply reducing emissions to 1990 levels, rather than below them. This is a significant goal, for current trends in U.S. energy use would result in U.S. greenhouse gas emissions being 30 percent higher in 2010. To meet these goals, people will have to start driving more efficient vehicles, power companies will have to alter their methods of producing energy, and consumers will have to buy more energy-efficient appliances. Industry and labor groups are fighting the treaty, predicting that it would lead to a loss of millions of jobs and, for example, a decrease in farm income of 50%. The treaty includes provisions for emissions trading whereby one country or company can meet its reduction targets by buying credits from others countries or companies that have exceeded their targets. It also provides incentives for transferring energy-efficient technologies and nonpolluting forms of energy production from richer nations to poorer ones. It is unclear if the U.S. Senate will sign the treaty as it had previously strongly endorsed the idea that greenhouse gas reduction by developing nations like China must be included, something the treaty failed to achieve. The Clinton Administration continues to seek "meaningful participation" by the developing world in controlling greenhouse gases and said it won't submit the treaty for Senate ratification until this is achieved. While it is imperative that the developing nations not repeat the industrialized world's high pollution path to development, fairness dictates that the developed world--which caused the global warming problem--should shoulder the vast majority of the burden of its solution. See W.K. Stevens, "Tentative Accord is Reached to Cut Greenhouse Gases," New York Times (1/11/97): A1. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Forest Roads: Contentious, Not Needed? "I understand that road-building into roadless areas is the most contentious," said Forest Service Chief Mike Dombeck in an Associated Press article that ran in the Portland Oregonian. Dombeck's comments came in response to a nation-wide call by conservationists, religious leaders, and scientists for an end to logging in National Forest roadless areas. Chief Dombeck is apparently taking notice. He continued, "The single most permanent thing we do to change a landscape is probably roads. We need to be very careful and sensitive. There are a lot of roads that aren't needed anymore."
Signed by 136 scientists, a letter to President Clinton states, "A scientifically-based policy for roadless areas on public lands should, at a minimum, protect from development all roadless areas larger than 1,000 acres." The group called on the President to acknowledge and implement into policy his own words from a November 14th statement: "(Roadless areas) must be managed through science, not politics." The scientists noted that areas smaller than 1,000 acres also have special ecological significance and deserve protection because of their contributions to regional landscapes.
`The Big R' (Religion) underlies the other three "R's" (Resources, Rivets holding together ecosystems, and Recreation), says Heather Kaplan of the Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL) in a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington DC. The four R's are reasons for protecting roadless areas. "Species serve each other because of the unity of God's universe, and proclaim to us the values we preserve when we protect forests," Kaplan said. COEJL consists of 26 Jewish organizations, including the American Jewish Congress, Jewish War Veterans, and the National Council of Jewish Women.
According to a new report by American Wildlands, in the National Forests of the Northern Rockies, over 440,000 acres that were inventoried "roadless" have been developed since the 1980s. Kim Davitt, the report's author, points out that the acreage is likely much larger since the data comes from incomplete US Forest Service figures. Many forests have failed to track projects in roadless lands. The report maintains that protecting roadless areas is an "essential part of protecting biodiversity in the Northern Rockies." An earlier report by the Wilderness Society determined that over one million acres of roadless land in Idaho alone were lost in the same time period. For a copy of the American Wildlands report, call 406-586-8175. (Submitted by Steve Holmer, Campaign Coordinator, Western Ancient Forest Campaign, 1025 Vermont Ave. NW, 3rd Floor, Washington, D.C. 20005, tel 202-879-3188, fax 202-879-3189, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Definition for "Organic" Food. The US Agriculture Department has put out for public comment proposed national rules that specify what types of foods can be marketed as organic. The rules require the use of environmentally-sound farming practices to maintain water and soil quality, severely limit the use of synthetic chemicals, and specify handling practices for animals. Processed foods would have to contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients to be labeled "organic." Organic meat would have to come from animals raised under "living conditions adequate to promote the health of the animal;" routine use of antibiotics and other drugs in healthy animals would be prohibited. Although a congressionally-mandated panel of experts had recommended that foods that are genetically-engineered, irradiated, or fertilized with sewage sludge be precluded, the proposed guidelines do not require this and explicitly allow the use of a genetically-engineered bacterial pesticide. The panel also had recommended that confinement of animals without space for movement or access to the outdoors be allowed only temporarily due to illness or inclement weather. The guidelines were criticized by animal-care activists for backing away from this requirement and allowing "organically-raised" animals to be confined indefinitely in crowded factory-farm conditions. The guidelines would also allow milk to be sold as organic even it came from a cow that had been on antibiotics or other drugs "relatively recently." The proposed rules could shape the $3.5 billion organic foods industry which is growing at 20 percent a year. The stronger the rules, the more likely organic farming--currently dominated by small and medium sized farms of 100 acre or less--can continue to avoid being taken over by large agribusiness. See Rick Weiss, "When is Food `Organic'? USDA Proposes 1st Rules," Washington Post (12/16/97): A1. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Light Trucks and Sports-Utility Vehicles. "Light trucks" are gas guzzlers, high polluters, unsafe for occupants, and threatening to car drivers and pedestrians. Sports-utility vehicles (SUV), minivans, and pickups now constitute 40 percent of all family vehicles sold. Although the vast majority are used as passenger cars, Federal law regulates these "light trucks" far more loosely than cars. They need only meet a fuel economy standard of 20.7 miles per gallon (mpg), compared with an average of 27.5 for passenger vehicles. Their popularity thus explains why average vehicle fuel economy has gone down in the U.S. in the last few years. Light trucks are exempt from gas-guzzler taxes that apply to cars getting less than 22.5 mpg and are exempt from luxury taxes which apply to cars costing more than $36,000, even though many deluxe trucks cost even more. Although there are twice as many cars on the road as light trucks, the trucks produce as much total carbon-dioxide pollution as cars. Federal regulations allow these vehicles to emit nearly twice the smog-causing nitrous oxides as cars. By 2010 they are projected to account for 75 percent of smog-causing pollutants. Many buy these bigger, heavier vehicles because believe they are safer. But studies shown that they pose serious safety problems to their occupants. Brakes on light trucks are generally not as effective as car brakes, partly because Federal standards for these vehicles are somewhat more lenient. Light trucks are harder to control than cars when drivers try to brake and steer at the same time. Because SUV are four times more likely than cars to roll over in an accident, occupants of SUV involved in an accident are as likely to die as are people in cars that crash. Meanwhile, SUV and full-sized pickups are nearly three times as likely as cars to kill the drivers of other vehicles during collisions. Additionally, because of their weaker brakes and lack of maneuverability, the biggest light trucks account for an unusually large share of pedestrian deaths. See, Editorial, "The Family Truck," New York Times (12/10/97): A22 and Keith Bradsher, "Further Problems of Safety Found for Light Trucks," New York Times (12/12/97): A1. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Wetlands Loss Continues. Despite a nearly decade-old policy of no-net loss of wetlands, between 1985 and 1995, the U.S. lost a total of over 1 million acres of wetlands (1600 square miles). One half of this loss occurred in the Southeast. The ten year loss was 1 percent of total wetlands in the 48 contiguous states, which have lost 50 percent of their wetlands since colonial times. There once were over 200 million acres in the "lower 48 states"; now 100 million acres remain (Alaska has 170 million acres left). Fortunately, the rate of wetland loss is slowing: From 1965 to 1975 the loss was 5 million acres and from 1975 to 1985 the loss was 3 million acres. Still, 100,000 acres are lost a year. Of particular concern are the forested wetlands of the Southeast. In the last decade, 2.5 million acres of swamp were lost, 5 percent of the 50 million acres of swamp remaining. Much of this isn't reflected in the overall loss statistics, because after they are logged, shrubs may remain and this type of wetland (shrub wetland) actually increased in the ten year period, offsetting other losses. Many forested wetlands were drained entirely and converted to pine farms or croplands. Other increases in wetlands include freshwater ponds (e.g., development retention ponds and water traps on golf courses and agricultural fields). Wetlands provide a number of important functions including flood control, pollution filtering, protection from erosion, and wildlife nursery and habitat. See John Cushman, "One Million Acres of Wetlands Was Lost From 1985 to 1995, Despite New Protections," New York Times (9/18/97): A18. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Federal Government Orders Dam Removed. For the first time in history, the federal government ordered the removal of a private hydroelectric dam that the owner wanted to continue to operate. The 160 year old Edwards Dam on the Kennebec River in Maine was ordered removed in order to restore the habitat of nine species of migrating fish. The dam was an easy target: The electricity it generates is 3 times more expensive then the going rate in Maine, it irrigates no fields and does not control floods, and it employs only four people. The owner claims the federal government is taking private property without just compensation and will appeal the removal order. A change of law in 1986 requires the federal agency which licenses dams to balance environmental and recreation costs against the benefits of dams. There is increasing pressure across the country for removal of dams, some of which are far bigger and provide far more power than the Edwards dam. Hydropower provides 14 percent of the nation's electricity supply. See Blaine Harden, "U.S. Orders Maine Dam Destroyed," Washington Post (11/26/97): A1 and Carey Goldberg, "Fish Are Victorious Over Dam as US Agency Orders Shutdown," New York Times (11/26/97): A12. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Community Ordinances to Protect Starry Sky. A growing number of local governments are regulating lighting to prevent unsafe glare and to bring back the night sky. The U.S. is so well illuminated that only one in 10 Americans lives in a place where light pollution has not marred the beauty of the night sky. These ordinances require that new lighting be shielded so that light is directed downward, not sideways or up, and they require that outdoor lights not needed for security must be reduced or turned off after business hours. In addition to making the night sky more visible, the ordinances aim to make driving more safe by reducing glare that can temporarily blind or disorient motorists. See Stevenson Swanson, "To Bring Back Starry Skies, Local Ordinances Restrict Excess Illumination," Washington Post (12/25/97): A 19. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Hunting in England to Be Outlawed? By a vote of 411-151, the British House of Commons passed the second reading of a bill that would ban hunting of foxes and other wildlife (e.g., deer, hare, and mink). However, Prime Minister Tony Blair, who says he supports the ban, has not provided time on the parliamentary agenda for it to clear the hurdles necessary for passage. See Associated Press story, "Fox-hunting foes vote to end tradition," Charleston Post and Courier (11/29/97): 14A. For a detailed story on British opposition to hunting foxes with hounds, see Warren Hoge, "The Fox Hunt Is Hounded, But Won't Turn Tail," New York Times (4/10/97): A4. (Submitted by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston)
Evolution Statement Altered by Biologists. After first refusing to do so, the National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) has dropped the words "unsupervised" and "impersonal" from its official description of evolution. The group's eight-person board of directors voted unanimously on October 11 to alter the wording of its two-year-old statement in support of teaching evolution--and the board did so just three days after it had voted unanimously not to make the change. Religion scholar Huston Smith and philosopher Alvin Plantinga had urged NABT to make the change, arguing that inclusion of the two words constituted a theological judgment about the nonexistence of God that went beyond the boundaries of empirical science.
While the fossil record may shed light on the process of evolution, the
two scholars argued, it cannot answer the question of whether evolution
is or is not directed by God. They argued that the statement was vulnerable,
made NABT a legitimate target for creationists, and, since polls show that
more than 90 percent of Americans profess belief in God, undermined Americans'
respect for scientists, especially when scientists were drawing conclusions
beyond the available evidence. NABT officials first unanimously refused,
and then three days later unanimously reversed themselves. Informed of the
board's change of heart, Smith said, "Isn't that heartening? It restores
one's faith in human nature and what reason can do. It's not easy to admit
one was mistaken. I take my hat off to them." Story in Christian Century,
November 12, 1997, p. 1029.
RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS
Reminder: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not indexed here, but are included in the annual update on disk and on the website.
--Tallacchini, Mariachiara, Diritto per la natura: Ecologia e filosofia del diritto (Law for Nature: Ecology and Philosophy of Law). Torino: Giappichelli, 1996. 410 pages. ISBN 88-348-6139-6. Lire 40.000. Inadequate attention has so far been paid to philosophical reflection on the bases of environmental law, that is, on the conception of the relation between human beings and nature implicit in the growing legal concern with the environment. "Shallow" and "deep" ecophilosophies offer opposite ways of solving the tormented relationship between human beings and nature. Shallow ecologies, here called "environmentalist," hold an anthropocentric point of view and attribute to nature an instrumental value. Deep ecologies, here called "ecologist" philosophies, instead take an ecocentric point of view, that of the biosphere, and claim for nature an intrinsic value. "Environmentalisms" do not uphold great innovations in the relationship with nature, only a cautious management of resources; "ecologisms" introduce an attempt to "think like a mountain" and so inspire human actions with the principle of non-interference in ecosystemic processes.
Italian laws on the environment appear as an inextricable entangling of not always consistent norms, due to the lack of a specific constitutional rule protecting the environment as a fundamental value. They reveal an attitude aimed more at repairing nature than preventing damage. European law consists almost of principles, and the original economic inspiration of the 1956 Rome treaties is difficult to reconcile with the ecological caring implicit in the Maastrict agreements. International law, lastly, appears torn between old principles, which still recognize single states as autonomous sovereign units and the new global reality, which makes of the Earth a single common home.
What are the links between positive law and environmental philosophies? Legal system risk failing in their intent to safeguard the environment unless they have a consistent sustainable attitude as a basis for decisions. From remote times, law has been responsible for environmental degradation, an anthropocentric ideology. After a critical examination of the new rights for the protection of the biosphere (human right to the environment, animal rights, nature's rights), the author outlines, with the idea of "law for nature," a legal framework for an adequate protection of nature. From the methodological point of view, there is the assumption of a systemic Gestalt in line with deep ecology. From the axiological point of view there is the adoption of a weak, humble anthropocentrism, in line with the most advanced approaches of shallow ecology. From this paradigm "ecological normativity" flows. Sustainable law "must" have three elements:
(1) Normativity of limits (law of limits). The finiteness of the world becomes the starting point from which to define the rights and the concrete basis for the goal of uncertainty.
(2) Normativity of uncertainty (law of uncertainty). The uncertainty of ecological forecasts produces the need for a precautionary approach (as, for example in the precautionary principle of the Rio Declaration).
(3) Normativity of Gestalt (the law of Gestalt). It is necessary to elaborate new legal concepts, because ecological entities cannot always be grasped by traditional legal tools.
Tallacchini is a researcher in philosophy of law at the University of Florence. Address: Dipartimento di Teoria e Storia del Diritto, Piazza Indipendenza 9, 50129 Firenze, Italia. Tel. 39-55-496533/496610. Fax 39-55-474756. E-mail: email@example.com
--Tallacchini, Mariachiara, "Human Right to the Environment or Rights of Nature?" in Martin, Rex, and Sprenger, Gerhard, eds., Challenges to Law at the End of the 20th Century: Rights. Vol. I. Proceedings of the 17th World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR), Bologna, June 16-21, 1995. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1997. In English. The environment is a fairly recent object for law and rights. The need to place limits of human intervention in the environment has led to two opposing theories of rights: (1) the human right to the environment, which protects man from man in the exploitation of nature, and (2) the rights of nature, which protect nature from man. The environment as an object of a human right is the expression of the so-called third generation of human rights--whose reference-value is solidarity, "freedom together,"--and aims at defending human beings from environmental degradation produced by industrial development. The configuration of the rights of nature swings between extreme conceptions: a minimal one, which merely exploits the emphasis of the language of rights to refer to human duties; a maximal one, according to which "biorights" are "the rights of unique landscapes to remain untouched." The first considers subjective rights as a mere persuasive formula, the second leads to the contradictory consequence whereby the complete intactness of nature demands the disappearance of man and of law. But if the expression "rights of nature" is to have any meaning at all, the meaning is to be sought by excluding these two definitions.
--Chappell, T. D. J. Chappell, ed., The Philosophy of the Environment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997, and New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. 194 pages. Contains new as well as reprinted articles. Chappell teaches philosophy at the University of Manchester.
--Chappell, Timothy, "Respecting Nature--Environmental Thinking in the Light of Philosophical Theory," pages 1-18.
--Clark, Stephen R. L., "Platonism and the Gods of Place," pp. 19-37.
--Rolston, III, Holmes, "Nature for Real: Is Nature a Social Construct?", pp. 38-64.
--Hepburn, Ronald W., "Trivial and Serious in Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature," pp. 65-77.
--Haldane, John, "`Admiring the High Mountains': The Aesthetics of Environment," pp. 78-88.
--Midgley, Mary, "Sustainability and Moral Pluralism," pp. 89-101.
--Chappell, Timothy, "How to Base Ethics on Biology," pp. 102-116.
--Sprigge, Timothy L. S., "Respect for the Non-Human," pp. 117-134.
--Rawles, Kate, "Conservation and Animal Welfare," pp. 135-155.
--Callicott, J. Baird, "Whaling in Sand County: The Morality of Norwegian Minke Whale Catching," pp. 156-179.
--Jamieson, Dale, "Zoos Revisited," pp. 180-192.
Rolston, Holmes, III, "Nature for Real: Is Nature a Social Construct? Pages 38-64 in Chappell, T. D. J. Chappell, ed., The Philosophy of the Environment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997, and New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. The claim that "nature" is a social construct has become commonplace, confusedly mixing cultural ideas of "nature" with nature in itself. Humans have no unmediated access to nature; we do not and cannot know nature for real--so it is claimed. "The world" is variously "constituted" by diverse cultures; and there is doubt about what, if anything, is "privileged" about the prevailing Western concepts. All such word-ideas, world-ideas, have been made up historically by peoples in their multifarious cultures. "Nature," "environment," "wilderness," "science" in its descriptions of "nature,"and "Earth" as planet and world viewed--all now have a modernist color to them, and the make-up of the words colors up what we see.
More radically, all human knowing colors whatever people see, through our percepts and concepts. The skepticism runs deep. Many question whether humans know nature at all, in any ultimate or objective sense. The pejorative word is "absolute," comparably to "privileged" as revealing our bias in "right" or "true". Rather we know nature only provisionally or operationally; "pragmatically" is the favored word). There is an epistemic crisis in our philosophical culture, which, on some readings, can seem to have reached consummate sophistication, and, the next moment, can reveal debilitating failure of nerve.
Philosophers need to ask, in theory, whether nature is for real, to know, in practice, whether and how ethicists ought to conserve it. The less we really know about nature, the less we can or ought save nature for what it is in itself, intrinsically. We cannot correctly value what we do not to some degree correctly know. The epistemic crisis is as troubling as the environmental crisis, and one must be fixed before the other can. Rolston teaches philosophy at Colorado State University.
--Stephens, Piers H. G., Value, Nature and the Subject-Object Divide. PhD thesis, Centre for Philosophy and the Environment, University of Manchester, 1997. 362 pages. Modernity is characterized by dynamics of appropriation and artefactualisation that are drawn from Descartes, Bacon and Locke, manifesting themselves in continuously reductive instrumentalisation. This dynamic is challenged by synthesising the work of Anthony Weston and Robert E. Goodin within the epistemological framework of William James' pragmatic naturalism. Nature is ontologically contrasted to artifice, then defended as a source of spontaneity at the experiential level and of coherence at the theoretical/political level, making the claim for nature as a necessary primary good in the latter domain. The thesis supervisor was Keekok Lee. The external examiner was Andrew Dobson, University of Keele.
--Botzler, Richard G., and Armstrong, Susan J., eds., Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, 2nd edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 1998. 600 pages. A second edition of one of the more popular anthologies. Based on feedback from the first edition, there are new sections on conflict resolution, biodiversity, environmental justice, environmental restoration, and genetic engineering, with deletions so as to make the text reasonably compact. 28 of 72 articles are new. Botzler is in wildlife science, Armstrong in philosophy at Humboldt State University, California.
--Ecotheology is a refereed academic journal published in the United Kingdom. The editor is Mary Grey, LSU College of Higher Education, The Avenue, Southhampton SO17 1BG, UK. There are two issues a year. The publisher is Sheffield Academic Press, Ltd. Sample articles: Bishop Kallistos of Dioklea, "Through the Creation to the Creator"; Edward P. Echlin, "Jesus and the Earth Community"; Denise Ackerman, "Earth-Healing in South Africa: Challenges to the Church"; Elisabeth Gerle, "Justice, Please and the Integrity of Creation"; Rosemary Radford Ruether, "Ecofeminism: First and Third World Women"; Catherine Keller, "Eschatology, Ecology, and a Green Ecumenacy."--all in the January 1997 issue, Issue No. 2.
--Cousins, Emily, "Mountains Made Alive: Native American Relationships with Sacred Land," Cross Currents 46 (no. 4, Winter 1996/97):497-509. "The phrase `sacred land' is used frequently these days, both by Native Americans trying to protect land and by non-Natives sensitive to this cause. Yet despite its increased use, the meaning of the phrase remains elusive to many non-Natives, who relate to land mostly through property lines or hiking trails. Traditional Native American cultures, on the other hand, have defined geography through myth, ritual ceremonies, and spirit power. This difference highlights perhaps the widest gulf between the two cultures. It also represents a place where we must meet, as both cultures face environmental crisis." Cousins is a writer and editor living in Missoula, Montana.
--Horgan, John, "From Complexity to Perplexity," Scientific American 272(no. 6, 1995):104-109. Many scientists are beginning to doubt whether there can be a unified theory of complex systems, and even whether there can be a science of complex systems. At least natural complex systems may be too contingent, or open, or complex, either for there to be a science of them, or, if they are more regular, for our minds to grasp that science. About computer models of natural systems, such as evolutionary natural history or ecosystems, there is considerable doubt. With particular focus on the Santa Fe Institute and studies there. Horgan is a senior writer for Scientific American.
--Slesser, Malcolm, King, Jane, and Crane, David C., The Management of Greed: A Bio-Physical Appraisal of Environmental and Economic Potential. Edinburgh: RUI Publishing Co., 1997. (12, Findhorn Place, Edinburgh Scotland, EH9 2JP) ISBN 1-872579-07-8. 327 pages. £ 12.00. Greed is not entirely bad. It is a motivating force for creativity. It is a spur to endeavor. But where greed becomes an obsession with material acquisition, it can become a cancer. Unconstrained and thoughtless consumption is driving our humanly designed economy and society into an unsustainable state because it is overtaxing nature's ability to cope. We humans need to defend nature, not just for her sake, but for ours as well. Nature is infinitely more durable than the human race. Greed is but a fact of the life force. In the management of greed towards positive ends hope can be found.
--Upbin, Bruce, "Don't Tell the Whale Lovers," Forbes, October 20, 1997, pp. 153-154. The 2-inch long Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is waiting to be exploited, one of the world's last untapped resources. Schools of krill extend up to fifty miles squire, the diet of great whales, seals, and penguins. A Canadian entrepreneur, David Saxby, has founded Biozyme Systems to exploit the resource. Aquaculture is a $ 34 billion industry, and farmed fish have to be fed. If fed a diet laced with krill, fish eat better and more than with the present foods, often laced with anchovy. Bixby sold $ 3 million worth of krill in 1997, and hopes for $ 45 million worth next year.
--vonDroste (von Droste), Bernd, Plachter, Harald, and RÖssler, Mechtild, eds., Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value: Components of a Global Strategy. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer, 1995, in cooperation with UNESCO. Some thirty contributors. Includes: McNeeley, Jeffrey A. and Keeton, William S., "The Interaction between Biological and Cultural Diversity," pp. 25-37; Plachter, Harald and Rössler, Metchild, "Cultural Landscapes: Reconnecting Culture and Nature," pp. 15-18; with sections on Africa and Arab States, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, the Americas, and Europe, for example: Hegard, Tonte, "Nature and Culture--Two Aspects of the Same Story. Norwegian Landscape Management in the 1990's," pp. 374-377; Henne, Eberhard, "The Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve, Germany: Unique Species Diversity in a Centuries-Old Cultivated Landsacpe" pp. 333-349; and many more. Since 1992, outstanding cultural landscapes can be protected under the World Heritage Convention, the first international legal instrument recognizing and safeguarding such landscapes for future generations. Many of the authors feature the cultural landscapes but many also consider the integration of nature and culture, and biological conservation on such landscapes. von Droste and RÖssler are with the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris. Plachter is in biology at the University of Marburg.
--Porteous John Douglas. Environmental Aesthetics: Ideas, Politics, and Planning. New York: Routledge, 1996.
--Hull, R., and W. Stewart. "Validity of Photo-Based Scenic Beauty Judgments," Journal of Environmental Psychology 12(1992):101-114.
--Hull, R., and G. Revell. "Cross-Cultural Comparison of Landscape Scenic Beauty Evaluations: A Case Study in Bali," Journal of Environmental Psychology 9(1989):177-191.
--Bourassa, Steven C. The Aesthetics of Landscape. London: Belhaven Press, 1991. Landscape assessment, architecture, aesthetics of nature. Especially interested in developing a framework for landscape aesthetics that reaches beyond biology to incorporate the cultural component of landscapes. Aesthetic experience functions at three basic levels: biological, cultural, and personal.
--Kim, Ke Chung, "Preserving Biodiversity in Korea's Demilitarized Zone," Science 278(1997):242-243. The demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea has been uninhabited by humans for 45 years, rigidly enforced, and this provides sanctuary to endangered animals and plants. Damaged forests have been rehabilitated and farmlands that are thousands of years old have returned to a natural state. The DMZ has, in fact, become a unique nature reserve containing the last vestiges of Korea's natural heritage. The Korean Peace Bioreserves System provides a strategy to preserve the rich biodiversity of the DMZ, and here is one place North and South Korea can work together. Kim is at the Center for Biodiversity Research, Pennsylvania State University.
--Nissani, Moti, "Brass-Tacks Ecology," The Trumpeter 14(no 3, 1997):1543-148. Environmental reform has failed, for two important reasons. First, the great majority of environmental thinkers ignore concrete political realities. Instead they are caught up in debates about the significance of one or another proximate cause of the environmental crisis (human domination of nature, overpopulation). The environmental movement is bereft of a core practical philosophy guiding its actions. Second, environmentalists misconstrue political realities, concentrating on this or that specific issue (the Endangered Species Act, water pollution), when the real problem is an economic and political system in which money counts as the bottom line. With some sobering illustrations from both business and politics. Nissani is in the Interdisciplinary studies Program, Wayne State University, Detroit.
--Grant, Lindsey, Juggernaut: Growth on a Finite Planet. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 1996. 310 pages. $ 18.95. Population growth is leading us to a world we do not want, more crowded, with less personal freedom, more polluted and paved over, with less room for biodiversity. The first half of the book deals with world trends. The second half of the book focuses on the U.S. The U.S. population is growing by approximately 10% per decade. Alone among the rich industrialized nations, America's population is still growing because of a higher rate of fertility and generous immigration policies. Both in terms of curbing effluents and preserving wildlands, ending population growth will be the key. Grant is a former U.S. foreign service officer and Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population Affairs.
--Bouvier, Leon F., and Grant, Lindsey, How Many Americans? Population, Immigration, and the Environment. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994. 174 pages. $ 12.00.
--Braks, Andrew David, Aristotle's Primary Substance: The Bio-Platonic Motivations Behind Metaphysics Z and H. Colorado State University, Philosophy M.A. thesis, fall 1997. Aristotle stood in the legacy of Plato, but had much more interest in biology. His thought developed and for him, in the Metaphysics, primary substances are species forms. They define concrete individual substances, although in Aristotle's earlier thought in the Categories substances are primarily individuals. But Aristotle is unable to entertain ideas similar to modern evolutionary ideas. His biological species-forms are essentially unchanging and perpetually instantiated by a never-failing succession of living individuals.
--Godzinski, Ronald Peter, Jr., Hume's Emotivism and Callicott's Environmental Ethic. Colorado State University, Philosophy M.A. thesis, fall 1997. J. Baird Callicott's environmental ethics is founded on David Hume's moral epistemology. Hume has problems with the is/ought fallacy, which Callicott believes he can overcome with the model of environmental health. But making a rational appeal to persons to act ethically because they are motivated by environmental health is more complex than Callicott realizes. Further, Hume is either a subjectivist or an emotivist in ethics, and both views have been subjected to severe criticisms. Callicott's environmental ethics needs to face these criticisms. In fact, Callicott's whole line of reasoned argument in defense of ecosystems and duties to conservation is not really permissible, if Callicott really follows Hume, who does not concede the power of reason to motivate behavior.
Environmental Grantmaking Foundations, 5th edition. Rochester, NY: Resources for Global Sustainability, 1997. 1,000 pages. $ 89.00. 750 foundations, U.S. and Canadian sources of world-wide funding. The most comprehensive source. The first four editions were published by Environmental Data Research Institute, a related group. There is a CD-Rom version at $ 104.00 800/724-1857. Fax 716/473-0968. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Web site: http:/home.eznet.net/~rgs
--Lane, Belden C., "Open the Kingdom for a Cottonwood Tree," Christian Century 114(no. 30, October 29, 1997):979-983. " Trees should be included in the community of the sacred, and even in the communion of saints. ... We must extend justice to the creatures that sustain human life, using their products with gratitude and respect. Appreciation for these gifts entails an ethical reappraisal of logging practices and reforestation plans, including the rejection of clear-cutting policies and `salvage logging.' Particular respect must be given to trees in old-growth forests, where species diversity remains at high risk." Lane teaches theological studies at St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri.
--Gregersen, Niels H., Parsons, Michael W. S., and Wasserman, Christolph, eds., The Concept of Nature in Science and Theology. Studies in Science and Theology, vol. 3 (1995), Part I. Geneva, Switzerland: Labor et Fides, S. A., 1997. ISBN 2-8309-0859-7. Relatively short articles by two dozen theologians. Part I, this part, is on nature more generally. Part II (in press) will be more specific: epistemology and quantum reality, biology and theology, ecology and theology, ethics and human nature. Gregersen is in systematic theology at the University of Aarhus, Denmark.
--Carter, Dick, "Maintaining Wildlife Naturalness in Wilderness," International Journal of Wilderness 3 (no. 3, 1997):17-21. Federal managers may not introduce exotic species to wilderness areas, but they allow state managers to stock non-native fishes and to introduce non-native goats adjacent to wilderness areas, knowing they will migrate there. Carter is a Utah environmentalist.
--Shultis, John, "Social and Ecological Manifestations in the Development of the Wilderness Area Concept in New Zealand," International Journal of Wilderness 3 (no. 3, 1997):12-16. As opposed to wilderness in the United States, Canada, and Australia, wilderness areas in New Zealand have become much more stringently defined: areas designated as such "will not have developments such as huts, tracks, bridges, signs, nor mechanized access." Shultis is recreation and tourism, University of Northern British Columbia.
--Cessford, Gordon, "Antarctic Tourism: A Frontier for Wilderness Management," International Journal of Wilderness 3 (no. 3, 1997):7-11. Antarctic tourism has grown rapidly in recent years, 10,000 persons in the four summer months. To date impacts have been relatively benign, but the prospect of continued growth brings some concerns about the adequacy of existing rules and calls for continued surveillance and research. Cessford is with the Department of Conservation in Wellington, New Zealand.
--Codling, Rosamunde, "Concepts of Wilderness in the Antarctic," International Journal of Wilderness 3 (no. 3, 1997):35-39. Tourists visiting by ship carry their accommodation and their means of propulsion with them, but while they may be spectators to the wilderness that is the land, they live and move through the wilderness that is the sea. Wilderness needs to be seen in a global contact, as part of a continuum of human impact that begins with highly urban areas and ends with remaining pristine regions. Codling is a landscape planner, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge University.
--White, Daniel R., Postmodern Ecology: Communication, Evolution, and Play. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. The trends in European thought that have contributed to the rise of industrial civilization and to the ecological crisis. Alternative visions of nature and culture, from Romanticism to ecological theory, in an effort to rewrite the story of natural and cultural history. Ecological poetics, technological artistry, evolutionary learning, the play of communication, and the struggle for a viable ecological ethic, and a larger theory of human and transhuman interests. White is in critical theory and cultural studies at the University of Central Florida.
--Ridley, Matt, The Origins of Virtue. London: Penguin Books, 1997. Chapter 11 is on "Ecology as Religion," where Ridley, following the prevailing biological theory of humans as always self-interested, dislikes any Romanticism, especially about aboriginal peoples, since peoples ancient and modern always act selfishly if they can get by with it, although they are also evolved to cooperate in their own self-interest. "The conclusion that seems warranted is that there is no instinctive environmental ethic in our species--no innate tendency to develop and teach restrained practice. Environmental ethics are therefore to be taught in spite of human nature, not in concert with it. They do not come naturally. We all knew that anyway, did we not? Yet we persist in hoping that we'll find an ecological noble savage somewhere inside our breast. ... He's not in there." (p. 225)
The book concludes (Chapter 10, The Gains from Trade, and Chapter12, The Power of Property) with a defense of free markets property rights. "Wherever you look, the reason for the environmental troubles in the Third World turns out to be caused by the lack of clear property rights. ... The poverty of the Third World is to be cured largely by creating secure property rights." (pp. 238-239). "Private property is often the friend of conservation, government regulation is often the enemy" (p. 243). "If we are to recover social harmony and virtue, if we are to build back into society the virtues that made it work for us, it is vital that we reduce the power and scope of the state" (p. 264). Government regulations and participatory democracy require too much faith in the common good. A good example of scientism, elevating a biological theory into a comprehensive worldview, including politics, getting Thatcherite politics and free market environmentalism out of selfish genes.
--Evans, Peter, "The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalization," World Politics 50 (no. 1, October 1997):62- .
--Cahn, Steven M., and Peter Markie, eds., Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Said to be the most comprehensive anthology available, but not comprehensive enough to include any environmental ethics. Tom Regan, "The Case for Animal Rights," and Carl Cohen, "The Case for the Use of Animals in Medical Research," make it in, but that's as non-human as ethics gets here. Otherwise the issues are the usual ones: abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, affirmative action, famine relief. Cahn is in philosophy at the City University of New York; Markie is in philosophy at the University of Missouri, Columbia.
--Laidler, Liz, and Laidler, Keith, China's Threatened Wildlife. London: Blandford, 1996. Distributed in U.S. by New York: Sterling Publishers. ISBN 0-7137-2372-6.
--Pakenham, Thomas, Meetings with Remarkable Trees. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1996. Remarkable pictures of remarkable trees, all over the world.
--VanDyke (Van Dyke), Fred, Mahan, David C., Sheldon, Joseph K., and Brand, Raymond H., Redeeming Creation: The Biblical Basis for Environmental Stewardship. Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996. Four Christian biologists address the ecological crisis.
--Easterbrook, Greg, "Greenhouse Common Sense: Why Global Warming Economics Matter More than Science," U.S. News and World Report, December 1, 1997, pp. 58-62. More than 2,500 economists, including eight Nobel prizewinners, endorsed a statement by the organization Redefining Progress saying that "sound economic analysis" shows that greenhouse emissions can be cut "without harming American living standards." Easterbrook remains rather much of a free market environmentalist.
--Low, Mary, Celtic Christianity and Nature: The Early Irish and Hebridean Traditions. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 1996. Also published in Northern Ireland: Belfast: The Blackstaff Press, 1996. 236 pages. £ 12.95.
--Mahiman, J. D., "Uncertainties in Projections of Human-Caused Climate Warming," Science 278 (21 November, 1997):1416-1417. Good summary, with as many certainties as uncertainties. Mahiman distinguishes virtually certain facts ("atmospheric abundances of greenhouse gases are increasing because of human activities"), virtually certain projections, 99 percent ("The stratosphere will continue to cool significantly as CO2 increases"), very probable projections, 90 percent ("A doubling of atmospheric CO2 over preindustrial levels is projected to lead to an equilibrium global warming in the range of 1.5o to 4.5oC"). Also incorrect projections ("the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and typhoons per year will increase"). The author is at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Lab at Princeton University.
--Man and Nature Center, Odense University, Denmark. This Center operated under a five year funding grant and produced many relevant publications in environmental philosophy, policy, and ethics. Its operations ended last summer (June 1997), although some of its publications, such as a Danish anthology in environmental ethics and a book by Finn Arler on Cross-Cultural Protection of the Environment, are still in press.
A list of publications is available at:
The list and many of the publications are in both English and Danish. Hollufgaard is the name of a research and conference center adjacent to the University, where the project was located. One philosopher associated with the project was Finn Arler, who has now returned to the philosophy department at Aarhus University. His address: Institut for Filosofi, Aarhus Universitet, Ndr. Ringgade, bygn 328, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Tel. +45 86 19 14 92. E-mail: email@example.com
--Dobb, Edwin, "Reality Check: The Debate Behind the Lens," Audubon 100 (no. 1, January-February 1998):44-51, 98-99. Ethical and related issues in wildlife photography. Our ability to separate photographic fact from fiction is a thing of the past. What hope remains for faithful, credible images of wildlife? New photographic technologies have provoked a debate over the ethics of digital manipulation, the use of captive or posed animals, the harassment of wildlife, and various artifices that stretch the truth.
--Mukerjee, Madhusree, "Trends in Animal Research," Scientific American 276 (no. 2, 1997):86-93.
--Fouts, Roger, with Mills, Stephen Tukel, Next of Kin: What Chimpanzees Have Taught Me About Who We Are. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1997. 420 pages. Fouts is a well-known psychologist with over thirty years of experience studying and caring for captive chimpanzees, including Washoe. He generally argues that chimpanzees have been treated badly by researchers. Introduction by Jane Goodall.
--Tomasello, Michael, and Call, Josep, Primate Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 517 pages. "The experimental foundation for claims that apes are `more intelligent' than monkeys is not a solid one, and there are few if any naturalistic observations that would substantiate such broad-based, species-general claims" (pp. 399-400).
--DeGrazia, David, Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 302 pages.
--Marler, Peter., "Social Cognition: Are Primates Smarter than Birds?" pages 1-32 in Nolan, Jr., Val, Ketterson, Ellen D., eds., Current Ornithology, vol. 13. New York: Plenum Press, 1996. "There are many striking similarities between the accomplishments of birds and primates. Their achievements in different forms of social learning are surprisingly similar with regard to the acquisition of both patterns of responsiveness to environmental stimulation and new motor patterns. Examples of tool use are as frequent and as complex in birds as in primates, although questions of social transmission remain moot in both cases. Primates seem to excel, however, in aspects of social cognition. There are cases of complex social cognition where primate accomplishments appear to be outstanding. . . . Accomplishments in the domain of social communication are just as impressive in birds as in monkeys and apes, and the ability for vocal learning is an outstanding avian achievement that leaves non-human primates far behind. I am driven to conclude, at least provisionally, that there are more similarities than differences between birds and primates. Each taxon has significant advantages that the other lacks" (p. 22).
--Burghardt, G. M., Review of Cavalieri, Paola, and Singer, Peter, eds., The Great Ape Project: Equality beyond Humanity, in Society and Animals 5(1997):83-86. The Great Ape Project is a speciesist project because of its emphasis on great apes.
--Byrne, Richard W., The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 266 pages. "It seems that the great apes, especially the common chimpanzee, can attribute mental states to other individuals; but no other group of animals can do so--apart from ourselves, and perhaps cetaceans" (p. 146). "A sharp discontinuity is implied between great apes and all other animals" (p. 154).
--Allen, Colin, and Bekoff, Marc, Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1997. 209 pages.
--Bekoff, Marc and Elzanowski, A, "A. Collecting Birds: The Importance of Moral Debate," Bird Conservation International 7(1997):357-361.
--Hardy-Short, Dayle, and Short, Brant, "Fire, Death, and Rebirth: A Metaphoric Analysis of the 1988 Yellowstone Fire Debate," Western Journal of Communication 59(Spring 1995):103-125. Death metaphors were used primarily by those with an anthropocentric point of view and found in media reports of the fires. Birth metaphors were used primarily by those with a biocentric point of view and found in environmentalists' discussions of the fires. "Archetypal metaphors remain prominent in contemporary public discourse... such metaphors have an inventional quality ... and archetypal metaphors are especially powerful rhetorical devices in the context of a perceived crisis."
--Peterson, Tarla Rai and Horton, Cristi Choat, "Rooted in the Soil: How Understanding the Perspectives of Landowners Can Enhance the Management of Environmental Disputes," The Quarterly Journal of Speech 81(1995):139-166. The need to include the perspective of ranchers in environmental disputes, specifically the dispute over the endangered golden-cheeked warbler and its habitat. "Public discourse must enable divergent versions of collective identity to emerge," and, in the case of the warbler, these versions of collective identity provided by the ranchers and the environmentalists must be acknowledged and integrated if the warbler is to survive.
--Cantrill, James, and Masluk, Michelle, "Place and Privilege and Predictors of How the Environment is Described in Discourse," Communication Reports 9(1996):79. Focusing on the Beartooth Alliance, the authors find that proximity to a site of environmental controversy influences environmental discourse. The role of place and privilege must be considered when attempting to assess the most influential modes of discourse.
--Cantrill, James G., "Communication and Our Environment: Categorizing Research in Environmental Advocacy," Journal of Applied Communication Research 21(no. 1, 1993):18
--Myerson, George, and Rydin, Yvonne, The Language of Environment: A New Rhetoric. London: UCL Press, 1996. An extensive overview of styles of rhetoric concerning the environment. The environmental ethos, metaphorical argumentation, environmental irony, and the dialectic of catastrophe.
--Peterson, Tarla Rai, "The Meek Shall Inherit the Mountains: Dramatistic Criticism of Grand Teton Nation Park's Interpretive Program," Central States Speech Journal 39(no. 2, 1988):121-133. The author finds that Christian myths were used, effectively, in Grand Teton National Park interpretation.
--Muir, Star A., and Veenendall, Thomas L., eds., Earthtalk. London: Praeger Publishers, 1996. An anthology of environmental rhetoric. Language as both asset and downfall to environmental communication, alternative rhetorics.
--Killingsworth, M. Jimmie, and Palmer, Jacqueline S., Ecospeak. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992. "The patterns of rhetoric typically used in written discourse on environmental politics," offering "a provisional map of recent writers' attempts to reach new stages of consciousness and action through the medium of language."
--Hopkins, Patrick D., "Value, `Nature', and Copies of `Nature'", Center for Values and Social Policy Newsletter (Center for Values and Social Policy, University of Colorado), vol 16, no. 2, fall 1997. (Campus Box 232, Boulder, CO 80309). "While I simply have to accede to the fact that some people value things because they have not been shaped by human hands, and thus will always perceive the `artificial' as less valuable, this psychological and moral reaction means nothing for the `artificial' object in and of itself. It only points to the existence of anthropocentric cultural forces that attach metaphysical and moral taint to human-made objects. ... The analysis at least suggests that there is nothing inherently misguided or anti-environmentalist in high-tech restoration ecology projects. And, that there is nothing anti-environmentalist about thinking than an `artifact' can be as good as `nature'." Thinking that the artifacted forest is of less value than the natural is "seriously flawed." Hopkins is a visiting faculty member in philosophy at the University of Colorado.
--Luoma, Jon R., "Habitat Conservation Plans: Compromise or Capitulation?" Audubon 100 (no. 1, January-February 1998):36-51. Habitat Conservation Plants, sweeping regulatory arrangements, are fast becoming the new standard for ecosystem protection. In the past four years more than 400 have been approved or set in motion. But are they a great leap forward or a sellout of endangered species? Although in principle, they protect habitat and many species at the ecosystem level, and are praised as a win-win situation, in practice skeptics worry that species protection is becoming driven less by law and science, more by the backrooms deals cut between federal bureaucrats and developers and their lawyers. Especially objectionable is the Babbitt innovation of "no surprises" clauses, which locks in the agreed arrangements for a century, once the deal is struck. For all intents and purposes, landowners are absolved of any future liability under the Endangered Species Act. Critics also complain the HCP's are rushed through without adequate study, and, under these circumstances, surprises are to be expected. In a forceful letter to Congress, 167 scientists, mostly conservation biologists, complained that the "no surprises" clause "proposes a world of certainty that does not, has not, and never will exist... because we will always be surprised by ecological systems."
--Pimentel, David et al (and eight others), "Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity," BioScience 47(1997):747-757. The annual economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity in the United States total approximately $ 319 billion. Some aspects of conserving biodiversity are expensive, although they may return major dividends. The economic value to humans around the world is $ 2.9 trillion annually. By comparison, the gross domestic product in the U.S. topped $ 7.6 trillion in 1996. For another study, see Costanza, Robert, and twelve others, "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature 387(15 May 1997):253-260, and note in ISEE Newsletter, v.8,#2. Costanza's group figured the world total in the range of $ 16-54 trillion, with an average of $ 33 trillion per year. So the numbers seem slippery, but everybody agrees they are huge.
--Magnusson, Magnus, and White, Graham, eds., The Nature of Scotland: Landscape, Wildlife, and People, revised ed., 1997, first edition 1991. Edinburgh: Canongate Press, 1997. Chapter 16 is "The Protection of the Land," a review of nature conservation in Scotland.
--Earley, Jay, Transforming Human Culture: Social Evolution and the Planetary Crisis. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. How social evolution has led to remarkable achievements and also to moral horrors and the current world crisis as well. Certain ground qualities were present at the beginnings of our social evolution, such as natural living, belong, vitality, community, and equality, and over the span of human history certain emergent qualities developed to give us greater power in the world, such as technology, social organization, and rational thinking. In developing these emergent qualities, we have suppressed the ground qualities--but at the expense of our health and wholeness. The next step in our evolution is to take conscious charge of our future by integrating ground qualities with emergent qualities.
--Brooks, L. Anathea and VanDeveer, Stacy D., eds., Saving the Seas: Values, Scientists, and International Governance. College Park, MD: Maryland Sea Grant, 1997. 480 pages. $ 30.00. Maryland Sea Grant, 0112 Skinner Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD: 20742. Tel. 301/405-6376. Fax 301/314-9581. Eighteen essays by scholars in the area of marine and environmental management. Focus is on the world's coastal seas, where there is intense competition for resources, as well as for harbors, fisheries, shipping, and defense, also culturally important places and traditional ways of life.
--Sprigge, T. L. S., "Idealism, Humanism, and the Environment," in Coates, Paul and Hutto, Daniel D., eds., Current Issues in Idealism. Bristol, England: Thoemmes Press, 1996), pp. 267-302. "My main conclusion is that absolute idealism, conceived as the view that Reality is `a single Experience, superior to relations and containing in the fullest sense everything which is' (quoting Bradley), need not be, and should not be, in any way metaphysically humanist or vitalist, and that there is no reason therefore for those, like the deep environmentalists who are repelled by ethical humanism or even vitalism, and by metaphysical humanism or vitalism as implying it, to regard absolute idealism in general with suspicion; indeed they should recognize it as rather their best metaphysical friend, since it gives ground for recognizing as cognitively valid the pantheistic feelings towards nature which often inspire them. Sprigge is emeritus in philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
--Sprigge, T. L. S., "Some Recent Positions in Environmental Ethics Examined," Inquiry 34(1991):107-28. An examination of three recent books advocating beliefs about, and attitudes toward, wild or semi-wild nature, characteristic of those in eco-philosophy today. Paul Taylor, Respect for Nature; Holmes Rolston, Environmental Ethics; Andrew Brennan, Thinking about Nature. Taylor and Rolston are seen as forms of deep ecology; Brennan's position is humanistic ecology, a middle way between shallow and deep ecology. These authors are interpreted through Sprigge's panpsychism, in which he is sympathetic to the idea that there is value in nature apart from the life of humans and animals. Though Rolston and Taylor disclaim being panpsychists, it is hard to make sense of their claims without moving toward panpsychism, or at least broadening our conception of the distribution of sentience. Even for the panpsychist, however, where it is not the welfare of individual organisms that is in question, but the alleged value of units such as total ecosystems, species, or terrains, appeal must be mainly to aesthetic value. For even if there is a world of inner feeling in nature, we must remain so ignorant of its character, except when it rises to the animal or human level, that we cannot do very much about it. The best answer to the question of the human role in nature lies in a special sense of oneness with the wider system of things which humans can obtain when away from human restrictions, even though nature is just as much there in much of the apparently humanized world. Sprigge is emeritus in philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
--Powell, Frona M., "The Public Trust Doctrine: Implications for Property Owners and the Environment," Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 5 (July 1997):30-. The application of public trust doctrine in the current debate over the extent to which government may regulate private property to protect the public environment.
--Gorelick, Steve, "Big Mac Attacks: Lessons from the Burger Wars," The Ecologist 27 (Sept. 1997):173-.
--Shaoul, Jean, "Mad Cow Disease: The Meat Industry is Out of Control," The Ecologist 27 (Sept. 1997):182-. Both the UK Conservative and the New Labour governments have been more concerned with defending the interests of a powerful and inherently unhealthy meat industry than with protecting the health of the British public.
--Retallack, Simon, "God Protect Us from Those Who `Protect the Skies.'" The Ecologist. 27 (Sept. 1997):188-. The Montreal Protocol celebrated its tenth anniversary last September. Initially hailed as a landmark in environmental protection, what actually emerged was an agreement as ridden with holes as the ozone layer it was designed to protect.
--Goldsmith, Edward, "Scientific Superstitions: The Cult of Randomness and the Taboo on Teleology," The Ecologist 27 (Sept. 1997):196-. To make sense of modern science requires the postulation of a number of totally unrealistic dogmas, among them the randomness of life processes and hence their purposelessness.
--Runkle, Deborah, and Granger, Ellen, "Animal Rights: Teaching or Deceiving Kids," Science 278 (5 September 1997):1419. Editorial claiming that animal rights groups focus on children, educating the next generation against the use of animal in research, and that the research community needs to be vocal to counter this misinformation with better information. Various letters in response are in subsequent issues of Science.
--Lash, Jonathan, "Towards a Sustainable Future," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):83-.
--Robinson, Nicholas A., "Attaining Systems for Sustainability through Environmental Law," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):86-.
--Reitze, Jr., Arnold W., "Population, Consumption, and Environmental Law," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):89-.
--Kosloff, Laura H., "Climate Change Mitigation and Sustainable Development," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):93-.
--Dernbach, John C., "Population Control and Sustainable Industry," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):101-.
--Jackson, Thomas C., "Lessons from the Endangered Species Wars, " Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):105-.
--Myers, Robert, Ruark, Greg, and Backiel, Adela, "Developing an Enduring American Agriculture," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):110-.
--Redick, Thomas P., "Biotechnology, Biosafety and Sustainable Development," Natural Resources and Environment 12 (Fall 1997):114-.
--Steinberg, Theodore, "Do-It-Yourself Deathscape: The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in South Florida," Environmental History 2(Oct. 1997):414-.
--Hou, Wenhui, "Reflections on Chinese Traditional Ideas of Nature," Environmental History 2(Oct. 1997):482-.
--Morishima, Gary S., "Indian Forestry: From Paternalism to Self-Determination," Journal of Forestry 95(Nov. 1997):15-.
--Sloan, Gail L., and Welton, Bill, "Haskell Indian Nations University: Holistic Education in the Natural Resources," Journal of Forestry 95)Nov. 1997):37-.
--Tang, S. M., and Montgomery, D. R., "Forest Harvest Patterns and Landscape Disturbance Processes," Landscape Ecology 12(Dec. 1997):249-.
--Collier, Ute, "Sustainability, Subsidiarity and Deregulation: New Directions in EU Environmental Policy," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):1-.
--Jokinen, Pekka, "Agricultural Policy Community and the Challenge of Greening: The Case of Finnish Agri-environmental Policy," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):48-.
--Buhrs, Ton, and Bartlett, Robert V., "Strategic Thinking and the Environment: Planning the Future in New Zealand," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):72-.
--Swaffield, Simon, "Sustainable Management and the Pastoral Ideal," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):101-.
--Tranger, Bruce, "Environmentalism and Education in Australia," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):123-.
--Schreurs, Miranda A., "Japan's Changing Approach to Environmental Issues," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):150-.
--Smith, Mick, "What's Natural? The Socio-political (De)construction of Nature," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):164-.
--Takeik, Milton, "Modernisation and its Lost Horizons," Environmental Politics (Summer 1997):173-.
--Hurtado, L. W., "Enchanted, Created, or Cosmic Accident? `Nature' and Being Human in the 20th Century," Crux 19(June 1993):18-27. Crux is a journal published by Regent College, Vancouver, BC. An enchanted world, a created world, or a random world--any of these views can be seen as demanding or justifying a positive ecological ethic. Ill-informed accounts by each of the others is not helpful. The biblical view of the world and the role of the human species in it has received a disproportionate share of such vilification in the recent environmental debate. Hurtado argues for corrections to widely circulated but misleading understandings of the monotheist position. Hurtado teaches New Testament at New College, University of Edinburgh.
--Dower, Nigel. "Biotechnology and the Third World," CPTS Ends and Means 1 (Autumn 1996): 26-31. This is a journal published by the Centre for Philosophy, Technology, and Society, Aberdeen (Scotland) University, also available as an electronic journal. Several issues are identified regarding biotechnology and the third world: (1) Import substitution, (2) promotion of new genetically engineered seeds or animals which creates dependency in farmers using them, marginalizes farmers who do not, and threatens biodiversity, (3) Northern dominance in the global economy, reinforced by the patent system, (4) expropriation of genetic material from the Third World and then the return of it with value-added to the Third World. Dower is in philosophy at the University of Aberdeen.
--Dobkowski, Michael N., and Wallimann, Isidor, eds. The Coming Age of Scarcity: Preventing Mass Death and Genocide. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997. 384 pages. $ 35.00. Fourteen articles. If present trends persist, such as population growth, loss of land resources, increased energy consumption, and limited energy resources, then the world's population cannot be sustained. The result will be ecological catastrophes, scarcity, social conflicts, and threats to human life, including the potential for mass death.
--Lemons, J.; Westra, L.; and Goodland, R., eds. Ecological Sustainability and Integrity: Concepts and Approaches. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. ISBN 0-7923-4909-1. Chapters by L. Caldwell, K. Shrader-Frechette, J. Baird Callicott and K. Mumford, D. Pimentel, J. Lemons, J. Sterba, P. Miller, R. Goodland, L. Westra, and others.
--Partridge, Ernest. "On the Possibility of a Future Global Environmental Ethic." In Viewpoints. The Wisconsin Institute, 1995.
--Partridge, Ernest. "Posterity and the Strains of Commitment." In Creating a New History for Future Generations, edited by Kim and Dator. Kyoto: Institute for the Integrated Study of Future Generations, 1995.
--Partridge, Ernest. "Environmental Justice and `Shared Fate': A Contractarian Defense of Fair Compensation." Human Ecology Review 2, no. 2 (Spring 1996).
--Dower, Roger; Ditz, Daryl; Faeth, Paul; Johnson, Nels; Kozloff, Keith;
and MacKenzie, James. Frontiers of Sustainability: Environmentally Sound
Agriculture, Forestry, Transportation, and Power Production. Washington,
DC: Island Press, 1997. Tables, figures, index. 415 pages. $ 34 U.S. paper.
ISBN 1-55963-546-0. The authors are researchers at the World Resource Institute,
and their essays build on the recommendations of the President's Council
for Sustainable Development. All analyses are new and interdisciplinary.
Much-needed rules and measurements are presented regarding progress toward
sustainability for the U.S. The book is aimed at environmental professionals;
business people who work in agriculture, forestry, transportation, and power
production; students; and federal, state, and local policymakers.
VIDEOTAPES AND MULTIMEDIA
--Women's Network on Health and Environment, Exposure: Environmental
Links to Breast Cancer. With an accompanying Education Resource Action Guide.
1997. 50 minutes. Timely, responsive and urgently needed, Exposure can play
a major role in raising awareness around the little understood, long-term
connections between environment, health and disease prevention. Presented
are strategies for dealing with current, unacceptable environmental health
conditions and for generating the social and political changes needed for
a cleaner, safer world. Features Bella Abzug, Sharon Batt, Rosalie Bertll,
Devra Lee Davis, Eva Johnson, Vuyiswa Keyi-Ayema, Diana Matherly, Matushka,
Olivia Newton-John, Susan Love, Ana Soto, and Carlos Sonnenschein. Cost:
$ 32.07 Canadian, for Individuals; $ 106.92 Canadian, for Institutions.
Please add shipping and handling: Canada $6, USA $8, other nations $10.
Available from: The Women's Network on Health and the Environment, 736 Bathurst
Stret, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2R4 CANADA; Tel. 416-516-2600; Fax 416-531-6214.
--February 22-24, 1998. Judaism and the Natural World. Conference at the Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions. Contact Lawrence E. Sullivan, Center Director, 42 Francis Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Tel. 617/495-4495. Fax 617/496-5411. Or Steven Shaw, Convener, Department of Community Education, Jewish Theological Seminary, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. Tel. 212/678-8996. Fax 212/678-8947.
--February 26, 1998. "ETHICS and the EARTH: Environmental Justice and the Philosophy of Nature." One-day conference at Lewis University, Romeoville, IL 60446 (near Chicago and northwestern Indiana). Students and general public invited. See Conferences above.
--March 25-28, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Pacific Division. Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, CA. See Conferences above.
--April 3-5, 1998. Earth Day colloquium, University of North Texas in Denton. Speakers include: Holmes Rolston, J. Baird Callicott, Eugene C. Hargrove, Tom Birch, Eric Katz, and Max Oelschlaeger. For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove at Dept. of Philosophy, UNT, P O Box 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel:940-565-2727; Fax:940-565-4448; Internet: firstname.lastname@example.org and www.cep.unt.edu
--April 6-12, 1998. American Ornithologists' Union. Joint annual meeting of several societies. St. Louis, MO. Contact: Bette Loiselle, Dept of Biology, University of Missouri-St Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St Louis, MO 63121, Tel: 314-516-6224, Email: email@example.com; WWW: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/
--April 16-19, 1998. Christianity and Ecology. Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Environmental ethics grounded in religious traditions and linking the transformative efforts of the world's religions to the larger international movements toward a global ethics for a humane and sustainable future. Contact Mary Evelyn Tucker, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837. 717/524-1205.
--April 18-19, 1998. King's College London, Strand Campus. The Centre for Philosophical Studies is hosting a conference on the theme "Philosophy of the Environment." For more information, see Conferences above.
--May 6-9, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Central Division. Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL. See Conferences above.
--May 20-25, 1998. The 9th Annual Environmental Writing Institute. Bitterroot Valley in Montana, USA. This year's Director will be naturalist and writer Rick Bass. The Institute is co-sponsored by the University of Montana's Environmental Studies Program and the Teller Wildlife Refuge, Inc. For more information, contact: Hank Harrington, Environmental Studies Program, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 USA; Tel 406-243-2904; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Website: http://www.umt.edu/ewi/EWIPAGE.HTML
--May 27-28, 1998. The Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas, 8th Annual Conference, and the Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities. University of Ottawa. A session is being planned on "Asethetics of Nature in Hybrid Spaces." Contact: Prof. Thomas Heyd, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4 CANADA; Email: email@example.com
--May 27-31, 1998. Society and Resource Management, Seventh International Symposium. University of Missouri-Columbia. Papers, symposia, etc., invited. Contact: Sandy Rikoon, Rural Sociology, 108 Sociology Bldg., University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. Tel. 573/882-0861 Fax: 573/882-1473.
--June 3-6, 1998. Aesthetics of Bogs and Peatlands. Third International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics. Ilomantsi, Finland. This continues a series of very successful conferences organized by Yrjo Sepanmaa of the University of Joensuu and author of The Beauty of Environment. The conferences are held in appropriate natural settings. Contact: Marjaliisa Pehkonen, Summer University of North Karelia, PL 111, 80101, Joensuu, Finland. Fax 358 13 251 2035. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
--June 8-11, 1998. The 9th Global Warming International Conference & Expo (GW9). Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST). Contact: Prof. Sinyan Shen, Chair, International Program Committee, Global Warming International Center (GWIC) USA, PO Box 5275, Woodridge IL 60517 USA; Tel: 630-910-1551; Fax: 630-910-1561. See Conferences above.
--July 13-16. 1998. Society for Conservation Biology. Annual Meeting. Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. For information, contact: Prof. George McKay, Email: email@example.com; or Prof. R. Frankham, SCB98 Program Chair, School of Biological Sciences, Macquarie Univesity, Sydney, NSW, 2109 Australia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Fax: +61 2 9850 9237 Attention: SCB 1998 Program. Website: http://www.bio.mq.edu.au/consbio/
--August 10-16, 1998. 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Copley Place, Boston, MA, USA. See Conferences above.
--August 23-28, 1998. "Philosophy and Ecology: Greek Philosophy and the Environment." Samos, Greece. Organized by Prof. K. Boudouris, University of Athens. Sponsored by the International Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy (IAGP) and its US affiliate (SAGP-USA). Contacts: Prof. Tom Robinson, Philosophy Dept., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, CANADA; Tel: 416-978-2824; Fax: 416-978-8703; Email: email@example.com; and Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, address below.
--September 18-20, 1998. Workshop for environmental scientists and professionals. University of North Texas in Denton. Speakers will include J. Baird Callicott, Eugene Hargrove, and John Lemons (University of New England). For more information, contact Prof. Hargrove at Dept. of Philosophy, UNT, P O Box 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel:940-565-2727; Fax:940-565-4448; Internet: firstname.lastname@example.org and www.cep.unt.edu.
--September 28-30, 1998. Society for Ecological Restoration, Austin, Texas. Abstracts are due March 15th and can be sent by an electronic form at http://www.phil.unt.edu/ser/call.htm; or by Email to email@example.com; or by mail or Fax to David Mahler, Chair, Program Committee, SER 1998, 4602 Placid Place, Austin, TX 78731 USA; Tel: 512-458-8531; Fax: 512-458-1929.
--May 23-27, 1999. Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. University of Montana, Missoula. Includes wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science. Changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. Call for papers. Natural Resource Management Division, Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. 406/243-4623. 888/254-2544 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. www.wilderness.net
INTERNET ACCESS TO THE ISEE Newsletter
Back issues of ISEE Newsletters have been moved to the University of North Texas website at:
Newsletters can be searched using the FIND feature on Windows or other software. Newsletters can be Emailed to your local address.
The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, including 1996 update, is available. The Bibliography is available in WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) which is easily translated into a Macintosh format (also for WordPerfect in Macintosh, if desired). If you do not use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in three parts, A-F, G-O and P-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel: 970-491-6315 (office); Fax: 970-491-4900; Email: email@example.com Send $5 to Rolston.
Access via Internet: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:
The site has a search engine, by name and keyword. Files and search results can be e-mailed to your local e-mail address. The preceding require only ordinary website and e-mail capacities. The bibliography has recently also been placed in PDF files at the same website. This requires an Adobe Acrobat Reader, with which the three files (A-F, G-O, and P-Z) can be downloaded to your local computer. With a PDF brower, the files can be read on line, though this requires a fast computer for convenience.
THE SYLLABUS PROJECT
Course offerings, syllabuses, instructor's vitae, etc., from around the world are accessible at the following Website:
The project's goal is to collect information from throughout the world about what courses are taught, by whom, in which colleges and universities, and to make this available on website for teachers, administrators, students, prospective grad students, etc. Materials are submitted by the instructors. Many interactive links to environmental sites, home pages, universities, etc.
To submit materials, preferably via Email, contact: Robert Hood, Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0222; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The materials can also be accessed, along with the ISEE Newsletter, at the ISEE Website homepage:
ISEE BUSINESS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS
Election of ISEE Secretary. Ballots will be prepared and mailed in the near future.
Current Officers of ISEE (Executive Board):
President: Prof. J. Baird Callicott, Dept of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton Texas 76203 USA; Dept Tel: 817-565-2266; Email: email@example.com; term to expire end of academic year 1999-2000.
Vice-President and President-Elect: Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Dept of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa, Florida 33620 USA; Tel: 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept); Fax: 813-974-5914; Email: none; term to expire at the end of the academic year 1999-2000, when term as President begins.
Secretary: Prof. Laura Westra, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050; term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.
Treasurer: Ernest Partridge, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Website: www.igc.org/gadfly; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.
Newsletter Editor: Prof. Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Tel: 606-783-2785, 606-784-0046; Fax: 606-783-5346; Email: email@example.com
--Prof. Victoria Davion, Chair of the ISEE Nominating Committee, Dept of Philosophy, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA; Tel: 706-542-2827; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
--Prof. Alan Holland, Dept of Philosophy, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK; Fax: 44 (Country Code) (0) 524 (City Code) 846102; Email: A.Holland@lancaster.ac.uk
--Prof. Roger Paden, Dept of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 USA; Tel: 703-993-1265; Email: email@example.com
--Prof. Gary Varner, Dept of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College
Station, TX 77843-4237 USA; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ISEE NEWSLETTER PUBLICATION AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION
TO SUBMIT ITEMS FOR PUBLICATION:
Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor, of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this results in duplicated efforts. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred):
The parcel post address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).
Scholarly articles are not published. Very brief reports of research and publications will be considered. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Calls for Papers and Conferences should be limited to 150 words.
Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.
SOCIETY DUES, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND ADDRESS CHANGES:
U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: email@example.com
Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, renewals, new subscriptions, and address changes should be sent to these regional contact persons. The dues are used by the contact person to pay for duplication and mailing of the Newsletter.
If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Westra (address above).
NOTE: NEWSLETTERS WILL NOT BE MAILED TO ANYONE WHOSE DUES ARE NOT PAID FOR THE CURRENT YEAR.
REGIONAL CONTACT PERSONS AND CORRESPONDENTS
Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Tel. 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Australia and New Zealand
The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; Tel: 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax: 61 74 30 1111; Email: email@example.com
Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Tel: 519-253-4232; Fax: 519-973-7050.
China: Mainland China
Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.
Europe: Eastern Europe
The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Tel: 48 61 841-72-75 (24 hours) (home). Fax: 48 61 847-70-79 (8 am-3 pm) or 48 61 847-15-55 (24 hours). Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean
The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Tel: 31-20-5254530.
Pakistan and South Asia
Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Tel: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: email@example.com
KeeKok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Tel & Fax: +44 (0)161 275 3196. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dues are £6.50 UK.
United States of America
Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston South Carolina 29424 USA. Tel: 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax: 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu
Holmes Rolston, III, Dept of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA; Email: email@example.com; Tel: 970-491-6315 (Office); Fax: 970-491-4900.
Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bluilding, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).
The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email (preferred) or by disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Building, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on the Fax).
Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.
Enclosed are dues: ______________________. Annual dues are $15 U.S., $20 Canadian, £6.50 UK. Student dues are $10 U.S. or $10 Canadian. Members in other countries should send the equivalent of $15 U.S. ($10 U.S. for students), based on current exchange rates, to their regional contact person listed above, or to the ISEE Treasurer.
Name: _________________________________ Tel: (______)________
Position or Affiliation: ____________________________________________________
Address (Include Postal Code): _______________________________________________
SEND with Payment to: Regional Contact Person (address above); or
Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA;
Tel: 909-338-6173; Fax: 909-338-7072; Email: email@example.com