Volume 8, No. 2, Summer 1997

General Announcements

Ramachandra Guha has been Indo-American Community Chair Visiting Professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Guha maintains that the poor of the world are environmentalists, although this environmentalism has to be understood differently from the environmentalism of those in middle and upper classes. Scholars have often failed to see the environmentalism of the poor, because it is more motivated by social issues and survival, and may not appear to be what Western scholars are looking for when they think of environmentalism. Five salient features of the environmentalism of the poor are (1) social as well as environmental issues are addressed. (2) Protestors use hands on, direct methods of protest, such as tree hugging and hunger fasts. (3) Issues of the indigenous ideology of social justice are addressed. (4) Women play essential roles due to the division of labor, which makes them more aware of environmental degradation. (5) The issue deals critically with economic development, with environmental welfare as a dimension of this. Guha spoke March 10, at the University of Georgia, making these points. Guha is the author of The Unquiet Woods Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya (University of California Press, 1990), and of "Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation A Third World Critique," Environmental Ethics 11(1989)71-83.

The Global Ecological Integrity Project took place in Cortona, Italy, June 20-25, 1997. Prof. Laura Westra thanks all participants. Special thanks are expressed to Dr. Anthony J. McMichael, author of Planetary Overload, and to Dr. Roberto Bertollini, Director of the Rome office of WHO, for their participation and offers of continued interaction with the project. A follow-up meeting for those who could not attend the Cortona conference was convened in Washington, DC, by Don Brown (U.S. EPA office), and Jim Karr, Robert Ulanowics, Don Brown, and Laura Westra attended, with David Pimentel, still recovering from hip surgery, available by phone. The next meeting of the Integrity Project is tentativlely scheduled for late June 1998 at the offices of the World Bank in Washington, DC. Many thanks are expressed to Robert Goodland for his offer of the World Bank facilities. The Integrity Project will also have a day at INTECOL, in Firenze, Italy, July 19-25, and more details will be available later from Prof. Westra (who is ISEE Secretary).

Art Culture Nature (ACN) is a recently founded association for the study of the arts and the environment. It seeks to bring together artists and teachers in the fine and performing arts; environmentalists and educators (K through college) in the humanities, sciences, and social sciences; and philosophers (!) interested in the connections between the arts and environmental studies. There is a newsletter, Watersheds, an annual conference, an email network, and a Website. Annual membership is $10.00. Contact: Jeanne Whitney, Secretary, ACN, Department of History, Salisbury State University, 1101 Camden Ave., Salisbury, MD 21801-6860; jxwhitney@ssu.edu.

The Amur River Program of the Socio-Ecological Union has won a distinguished service award from the Society for Conservation Biology. The Amur River Program works to safeguard the highly diverse and increasingly threatened biota of the Amur River basin of eastern Russia and northeast China. The Amur is the eighth longest river in the world, and the longest without a dam on its main stem. Eastern steppes, boreal forest, and East Asian broad-leaf forests mix within the basin, forming one of the world's most unusual and best preserved wildlands, harboring many Red List species, such as the Amur tiger and red-crowned crane. For decades, political tensions restricted intensive development in the region, and allowed the indigenous Udyge and Nanai peoples to maintain their lands and lifestyles. On-going political changes, economic pressures, and river development plans now threaten this resource-rich area. Since 1991, the Russian Socio-Ecological Union, in partnership with other national and international organizations, has been developing the Amur Program to combine sustainable economic development with the conservation of biodiversity. Its activities have included the establishment of core protected areas; protection of rare species; development of sustainable agriculture and other environmentally sound land use practices; participation in regional planning efforts; targeted environmental education programs; support for inventory and research in the region; encouragement of cooperation on conservation issues among Russia, China, Mongolia, and other countries of East Asia; support for the creation of new local NGOs; and liaison between international and local conservation groups. These activities have been carried out under extremely difficult political and economic circumstances, and the future of the region remains uncertain. The Amur Program has, however, brought a measure of hope and attention to the region, and to those working to conserve it.

The American Birding Association's Code of Birding Ethics is a statement intended to guide the personal behavior of those watching and interacting with birds. Copies of the Code of Birding Ethics can be obtained from the ABA at PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934-6599, (800) 850-2473 or (719)578-1614, Fax: (800) 247-3329 or (719)578-1480, e-mail: member@aba.org

The first issue of a new journal, Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion, is now available. Contents of Vol.1, No.1:

--Tucker, Mary Evelyn, "The Emerging Alliance of Ecology and Religion"

--Dwivedi, O.P., "Vedic Heritage for Environmental Stewardship"

--Szerzynski, Bronislaw, "The Varieties of Ecological Piety"

--Witoszek, Nina, "Arne Naess and the Norwegian Nature Tradition"

Further details from the Editor, Clare Palmer, University of Greenwich, or from the publishers: White Horse Press, 10 High Street, Knapwell, Cambridge CB3 8NR, UK. tel/fax 01954 267527, or 1 Strond, Isle of Harris HS5 3UD, UK. tel/fax 01859 520204. Or visit the White Horse Press website:


The Journal of Social Issues had a special issue on "Psychology and the Promotion of a Sustainable Future," edited by Doug McKenzie-Mohr and Stuart Oskamp, Vol. 51, no. 4 (Winter 1995). Twelve articles, including the 1994 Society address by Stuart Oskamp, "Apply Social Psychology to Avoid Ecological Disaster." Included is an article by John B. Cobb, Jr., "Toward a Just and Sustainable Economic Order." Available from Plenum Press (New York, London).

Animal Conservation: A Journal of Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics, a new journal, calls for papers. The journal is published for the Zoological Society of London. There are several editors: in the U.K.: Dr. Michael W. Bruford, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, UK., In the U.S.: Dr. John L. Gittleman, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Liberty Tree Alliance is an alliance of websites with environmental concerns. The address:


There are more than sixty contributors, with links to these sites. For example: media watch, capitol hill, op-ed features (Bill McKibben is current), population, climate change, forests, biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, growing coffee, campus activities, and more.

The Animal Rights Resource Site is at:


This site provides information for those exploring issues involved in animal rights as well as vegetarianism and veganism. Vivisection, animal research, genetic engineering, animal liberation, and more. With links to many other sites.

The World Bank website is:


The site is huge, and contains lots of useful information, but only if you can find it. Those familiar with the bank, its workings, and vocabulary can use the site more effectively.

The Greenpeace Biodiversity Campaign website is:


There is news from Greenpeace forest campaigns. Another site with links to forest campaign groups is:


The Internet's first environmental broadcast network has launched "RAINBOW HALL"--the first Virtual Reality nature art gallery on their ECOVISION Website at:


ECOVISION's "VISION QUEST" area has a KIDS button which invites kids of all ages to submit suggestions on what they can do to help earth's environment. ECOVISION was designed as a fully integrated educational broadcast network targeted toward "netizens" of all ages, but particularly youngsters in urban areas who don't get out of the city much. ECOVISION features environmental programs, news, minute by minute worldwide environmental updates on important ecology and environmental issues, as well as music and video programming designed to attract viewers who have the betterment of Earth's environment at heart. ECOVISION, c/o SAVE OUR WETLANDS, INC., P.O. Box 750478, New Orleans, Louisiana 70175. Phone: (504) 524-1271. Contact ECOVISION Webmaster Bob Vernon at (510) 754-8833.

Ethics, Place and Environment: A Journal of Geographical Ethics is a peer-reviewed forum for scholarly research on all aspects of geographical and environmental ethics. Each issue includes mainline papers (research articles), short contributions (e.g., commentaries, reports, etc.), and reviews. A U. S. contact is William S. Lynn, Review Editor, Department of Geography, University of Minnesota, 414 Social Science, Minneapolis, MN 55455. 612/625-6080 (office); 624-1044 (fax); Email: lynn0003@tc.umn.edu; http://www.geog.umn.edu/geo-ethics. The editor is Tim Unwin, Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, England TW20 0EX, +44(0)1784 44364, +44(0)1784 477260 (fax), t.unwin@vms.rhbnc.ac.uk. Another contact is Jim Proctor, Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106, USA, 805/893-8741, 805/893-3146 (fax), Email: jproctor@geog.ucsb.edu.

M.A. in Earth Literacy Accredited. Saint Mary-of-the-WoodsCollege, Indiana, announces the accreditation of its M.A. in Earth Literacy. Earth Literacy at SMWC fosters the capacity to understand the natural world in order to ensure sustainability of the planet as a habitat for life. A body of knowledge which impacts one's world view and way of life, Earth Literacy is interdisciplinary, drawing upon learnings from the natural and social sciences, philosophy, spirituality, the arts and humanities. The Program is for women and men who care about and advocate for planetary concerns. It is designed for persons who are, or plan to be, engaged in developing a sustainable and just earth community through works such as environmental agencies, earth ministries, agricultural work, or education. The 36 credit Program includes 24 credits of course work and 12 credits of internships and projects. Its flexible format is for those whose work or family responsibilities prevent full-time study. Interdisciplinary core courses ground learners in the multifaceted area of Earth Literacy. Each core course is anchored in a 5-day on-campus residency which promotes community building and collaborative learning. Preparative and follow-up work which surround these residencies allow course work to be completed at home with assistance from faculty advisors. Practica, electives and an integrating project provide an opportunity to focus on the specific content and skills desired by an individual. For more information, contact Mary Lou Dolan CSJ, Earth Literacy Office, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods, IN 47876; Tel: 812-535-5160; mldolan@woods.smwc.edu

Popular Textbook in Second Edition. The second edition of The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book (Wadsworth) will be available in August. Editors Don VanDeVeer and Christine Pierce (North Carolina State, Raleigh) have incorporated numerous suggestions from instructors using the book. The revision is significant. There are 29 new readings and new sections on Fututre Generations, Sustainability, and Corporate Responsibility. New "Sidelights" include: Obstacles to Reasoned Discussion, On Mt. Mitchell, Overpopulation or Over Conscumption, Let's Transform the Military, A Resistance Movement of One's Own. Also new are an internet environmental resources section, glossary, and a geological timechart. This edition is in paperback and hopefully not as expensive as other Wadsworth titles. Contact Wadsworth for an instructor's exam copy at 1-800-423-0563.

Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff, UK) visited Prague from May 21-24, 1997, at the invitation of Dr. Oleg Susa. Attfield addressed the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic on Christian Attitudes to Nature. Several of those present requested bibliographical information about this subject, on which little has been done in that country. A version of the same address was also presented to the Prague Unitarians. Dr. Susa welcomes contacts with foreign scholars with expertise in the social philosophy of evironmentalism. His address is: Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Jilska 1, 11000, Praha 1, Czech Republic.


20th WORLD CONGRESS OF PHILOSOPHY, Boston, August 10-16, 1998:

Holmes Rolston is organizing the ISEE session or sessions at the World Congress of Philosophy in Boston, August 10-16, 1998. Send paper or panel proposals to him as soon as possible. Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526. There is also an official Congress section, Philosophy and the Environment, and this section is co-chaired by Robin Attfield and Peter Kemp. One section there has, as invited speakers, Robin Attfield, Holmes Rolston, and John Passmore. International papers are especially encouraged for the ISEE sessions. There is a Congress website at http://web.bu.edu/WCP/ in four languages.

The general theme for the Congress is: Paideia: Philosophy Educating Humanity.

Individuals may participate by submitting papers for sections (over 40 sections, on various philosophical topics), proposing round tables, and/or holding poster sessions. Criteria for papers: ten pages (3,000 words), 3 copies doublespaced with 1.5 cm margins, twenty-line abstract, due by September 1st, 1997. Papers should indicate the section to which they are submitted.

Blocks of rooms are reserved at the Marriott Hotel and Westin Hotel, which are in Copley Square, Boston. Room prices are from US $149 single, to $183 quadruple. Registration is $175 before 1 Jan 1998; $200 thereafter. Contact: American Organizing Committee, 745 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02215 USA; Tel: 01-617-353-3904; Fax: 01-617-353-5441; Email: paideia@bu.edu

My Voice is an online interactive journal on the World Wide Web. The journal will have 3 round table sessions at World Congress. Proposals are requested, including proposals from students. The journal will award up to three persons with paid registration to the Congress and three days of lodging. Details at website: http://www.society-of-toe.org

Call for Papers: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:

-Eastern Division: February 1st

-Central Division: September 1st

-Pacific Division: September 1st

For specific dates and locations, see "Events" (below).

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa Florida 33620 USA; Tel: 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept); Fax: 813-974-5914. For the December 1999 meeting: Two sessions are being planned: recent important books on environmental ethics, and submitted papers. Please send proposals and papers as soon as possible.

--Submit Central Division proposals to Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca

--Submit Pacific Division proposals to Prof. James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, Stockton California 95204 USA; Email: Jheff@aol.com

The journal Ethics and the Environment is soliciting contributions for a forthcoming special issue on "Sustainable Development and the Environment." Clark Wolf will be the guest editor. Papers are welcome on issues that can begin to bridge the gap between work on human/economic development and the companion field of environmental ethics. Possible topics might include con cepts of sustainability, economic environmental protection, ecofeminism and human development, population growth and environmental protection, resource scarcity and environmental degradation, sustainability and intergenerational justice, environmental racism, international agreements and environmental protection, environmental protection and the plight of indigenous peoples, and human rights and the environment. Please send papers to Dr. Clark Wolf, Guest Editor, Ethics and the Environment Special Issue, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1627. Email inquiries to: mfreer@uga.cc.uga.edu

An introductory Workshop on Environmental Ethics for environmental scientists and professionals will held at the University of North Texas from 26-28 September 1997. Workshop leaders include Gene Hargrove, Baird Callicott, and Frank Golley (University of Georgia). Field trips are planned to Blacklands Prairie and Post Oak Eastern Cross Timbers. $200 registration fee. Contact: Center for Environmental Philosophy, University of North Texas, POBox 310980, Denton, TX 76203-0980; Tel: 940-565-2727; Fax: 940-565-4448; Email cep@unt.edu

The American Sociological Association will meet at the Sheraton Centre in Toronto, Canada, August 9-13, 1997. Robert Bullard is organizing a session on "Environmental Racism" on August 9 from 12:30 to 1:45.

The Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World will hold its annual conference from 10-17 August 1997 at the YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, CO. The general theme is "Authenticity, Autonomy and Authority: Problems of Meaning in the Contemporary World." Papers and activities related to the environment include: Jeff Jordon (University of Delaware), "A New Argument for Vegetarianism"; Forrest Wood (University of Southern Mississippi), "Hunting: Three Views"; Jack Weir (Morehead State), "Utilitarianism, Animals and the Environment"; John Clark (Loyola, New Orleans), "The Future of Social Ecology." Patricia Thompson (Lehman College, SUNY), discussion of her book, Environmental Education for the Twenty-first Century; Holmes Rolston (Colorado State) will lead a field trip and discussion. The full program can be seen at:


Program Co-chairs are: Craig Hanks (University of Alabama in Huntsville) and Sharon Hartline (Radford University).

"Global Ethics for the Twenty-First Century." 1-3 Oct. 1997. Melborne, AUSTRALIA. Arne Naess, Elmar Altavar, Robert Bullard, John Dryzek, David Harvey, Val Plumwood, Oran Young, Vandana Shiva, and others. Contact: Nicholas Low, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, AUSTRALIA.

The 2nd International Congress on Ethnobotany will be held 12-17 October 1997 in Merida, Yucatan, MEXICO. Proposals are needed by 15 May 1997. Contacts: M. C. Jose Salvador Flores Guido, Presidente del Comite Organizador, Apdo. Postal 4-116, Itzimna, Yucatan, Mexico, Telf (99)-460333, Fax: (99)-460332, Email: fguidfo@tunku.uady.mx; Juan Manuel Rodriguez Chavez, UNAM-Cd. Universitaria, Email: etnocon@hp.fciencias.unam.mx; Montserrat Gispert, Fac de Ciencias, UNAM-Cd. Universitaria, Email: mgic@hp.fciencias.unam.mx; Internet:


The interdisciplinary journal, Population and Environment, is soliciting contributions for a forthcoming special issue on "Roots of Environmental Neglect." Reviews of prevailing viewpoints (e.g., the comparative importance of population, affluence, depletion of natural resources, new technologies, ideology, ethics, social domination, anthropocentrism, biocentrism) are welcome. Equally welcome are contributions which seek to integrate and reconcile these viewpoints, or which seek to enrich this debate by grounding it in such disciplines as history, philosophy, political science, psychology, anthropology, economics, biology, literature, and archeology. Please send papers, in duplicate, to Dr. Moti Nissani, Guest Co-Editor, Interdisciplinary, Studies Program, 5700 Cass Ave., Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA; Email: mnissani@juno.com; Fax: (313) 577-8585; Tel.: (810) 543-0536 (home & message).


Rio Plus Five falls flat. A meeting in New York City of 180 countries and 44 heads of state convened to assess progress in meeting goals of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit was marked by charges that the North was refusing to honor aid commitments to poorer countries of the South and criticism of the U.S. for refusing to agree to specific targets for reducing emissions of CO2, the major greenhouse gas. The leaders failed to agree on a final political statement expressing global resolve to fight pollution. Some developing countries were blocking the agreement to protest the West's failure to honor aid commitments. Fierce criticism was directed at the U.S. for refusing to go along with a European proposal to reduce CO2 emissions by 15 percent below the world's 1990 output by the year 2010. At a meeting in Denver of the major industrial powers the previous week, French President Jacques Chirac said "The Americans are great polluters when it comes to carbon dioxide. The average American emits three times the amount of carbon dioxide pollution as the average Frenchman." (Overall, the U.S. produces a quarter of world's greenhouse gases.) The Clinton administration is suggesting that the European goal may not be realistic and says it will propose specific targets to be included in a global warming treaty to be signed at an international meeting scheduled for December in Kyoto, Japan. See Jody Warrick, "U.N. Summit Reaches an Ineffectual End," Washington Post (6/28/97) A3; and Peter Baker and Paul Blustein, "Discord on Pollution Strains United Front as Summit Concludes," Washington Post (6/23/97): A1.

CITES approves limited trade in ivory. The U.N. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) downgraded the protected status of elephants in three southern African nations, allowing some trade in ivory for the first time in nearly a decade. The ban was put in place in 1989 after rampant poaching had reduced the elephant population by 50% during the 1980s. Since the ban, the African elephant population has grown from 50,000 to 60,000. Zimbabwe, Namibia, and Botswana will use the moneys from selling an annual quota of their ivory stockpile to fund "sustainable use" conservation and development programs in communities affected by the elephant's protected status. The U.S. opposed the lifting of the ban. Reflecting a widespread sentiment, one African official described the decision as "a victory for African sovereignty and their right to the utilization of their natural resources in a sustainable manner without dictation from the industrialized countries." Japan's and Norway's request to lift hunting and trade restrictions on commercial whaling was turned down. See Lynne Duke, "Limited Trade in Ivory Approved," Washington Post (6/20/97): A16. For a provocative editorial supporting the lifting of the ban, see Wendy Marston, "The Misguided Ivory Ban and the Reality of Living with Elephants," Washington Post (6/8/97): C2.

Critics of environmental education making headway. Critics who charge that much environmental teaching is biased are fighting back with a new book and with industry-sponsored seminars on environmental education. Michael Sanera's "Facts Not Fear: A Parent's Guide to Teaching Children About the Environment" makes the case that many who teach about the environment are engaged in advocacy rather than instruction and that environmental education in general is teaching children slogans and dogma, rather than getting them to think critically about the environment. Companies are presenting seminars that promote industry-developed classroom materials. One brochure produced by Exxon touted the advantages of gasoline powered over electric vehicles. In response to these criticisms, Arizona has abolished mandatory environmental study in public schools and turned control of funds for environmental education over to loggers's and cattlemen's associations. See Jody Warrick, "Whose Shade of Green?" Washington Post (4/21/97): A1.

Arch destroyed by vandals. Eye of the Needle, a white sandstone arch viewed by thousands who float the Missouri River each year, was destroyed over Memorial Day weekend by vandals. Two stunted columns were all that was left of the graceful arch located in a remote wilderness area of Montana. One outfitter worries that "people may start out on a hike or a float with intentions to harm, but the forest or rivers tend to change their attitude along the way. It scares me to think that people now intrude upon the wilderness and manage to keep their rage intact." The Bureau of Land Management, which administers the area, is considering restoring the arch, but one official points out that "there is a downside to that. . . . We don't want to convey the message that every time there is some vandalism of a natural formation . . . we'll come along and fix it later on." Another official suggests that even if the arch is put back together again, there is no way to bring back what the vandals destroyed: "It wouldn't be the same." See Mark Matthews, "Arch Vandals Tear Open Eye of Needle Formation," Washington Post (6/7/97): A1.

Fish hatcheries do more harm than good? With the notable exception of Montana--which stopped stocking its streams and rivers in the 1970s--most western states are heavily dependent on fish hatcheries to supply fish for an economically and politically powerful sport fishing industry. But a growing body of evidence suggests that fish hatcheries may do more harm than good. Reliance on catchable trout production often leads to a loss of genetic diversity and the spread of disease. Whirling disease, first discovered in Colorado in 1987, is now found in many of the state's premier trout rivers and in about 1/2 of the state's hatcheries. One study suggests that hatchery fish were contributing to a decline in the Northwest's troubled wild-salmon stocks. Critics favor shifting from producing fish for recreation to protecting fish habitat and declining species. They think building more and more hatcheries is not likely to make up for ecological damage caused by dams, timber cutting, industrial pollution, and other destructions of fish habitat. See Tom Kenworthy, "Fish Hatcheries Caught Between the Wisdom and the Politics of Stocking," Washington Post (12/1/96): A3.

Fish farming: Now like Livestock Production. Many believe that the fish they eat once swam free. To be sure, fish continue to be caught in nets and lines, but the number of fish raised on farms has doubled in the last decade. About 10% of the fish sold today in the U.S. was farm-raised, and 50% of the shrimp comes from farms. Salmon, hybridized striped bass. sturgeon, catfish, and trout are most likely to be farm raised. Tuna, cod, flounder, or swordfish are not. Some of the farmed fish are "made-to-order designer products" "fine-tuned to appeal to the restaurant trade and home consumer." Salmon farmers increase fat content to make salmon extra fatty (as sushi chefs prefer); they withhold fat to make salmon extra lean (for smoked fish); and they add fatty acids to improve the nutritional value of the fish. They augment the feed with pigments to give it the brilliant orange color consumers expect. Striped bass farmers control the amount and type of oil in the feed to adjust the level of fishiness. Fish farmers even use antibiotics and other drugs to treat illness. There are also concerns about water pollution from aquaculture. Norway, the pioneer of salmon farming, has closed fjords to swimming because of high concentrations of fish wastes. See Mark Bittman, "Today's Fish: Straight From the Farm," New York Times (9/18/96): B1.

Long-line fishing: Almost as bad as drift nets. Drift nets are 30-mile long walls of fine mesh that catch nearly everything that they contact. Drift nets have been banned because of their devastation of marine life. Now technologically sophisticated long-line fishing is also proving to be quite damaging. Typical long-lines are between 20 and 40 miles long, though some stretch to 80 miles. Each of these lines carries thousands of hooks; large ships put out tens of thousands of hooks at once. Some vessels have systems that bait the hooks and remove the catch automatically, and many are outfitted with satellite tracking, sonar, and radar. Thousands of these ships are now roaming the seas. Though more discriminating than drift nets in what they catch, long-liners are being blamed for the deaths of many non-targeted species, including pilot whales, common dolphins, and various surface-feeding sea birds that grab the baited hooks before they sink and then get dragged under water. The most notable of these is the wandering albatross, the largest bird in the world with an eleven-foot wing span. It can fly over 500 miles a day at 50 miles per hour. Other species of albatross are hooked as well, and one study concludes that more than 40,000 are being killed by long-liners each year in the southern Pacific. Scientists are also worried that this high-technology fishing will deplete such target fish populations as tuna, sharks, and swordfish. For example, long-liners are responsible for the decline in Atlantic swordfish, whose numbers are at only 58% of the minimal viable population size. The populations of reproducing adults is only 2-3% of its un-fished size. See William K. Stevens, "Long-Line Fishing Seen as Damaging to Some Fish and to the Albatross," New York Times (11/5/96): B5. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger for the New York Times and Washington Post stories.)

ECO-OK COFFEE. In the past 20 years, almost half of the old rain-forest-like coffee plantations have been replaced by high-yield, sun-grown farms. The old way provided habitat for neotropical migratory birds. Since 1980, bird populations have dropped alarmingly: for example, Baltimore orioles have declined 20-25%, wood thrushes 40%, golden-winged warblers 50%. Other factors, too, are involved. Costa Rica has launched an "ECO-OK" project to identify shade-grown coffee to consumers. Perhaps some of the old farms can be saved, and some birds, too. See Alexandra Marks, "Environmentalists Target Java-Drinkers to Save Birds," The Christian Science Monitor 89 (10 July 1997): 3.

Idaho wolves and native Americans. The return of the wolves to Yellowstone is much heralded, but less noticed is the return of the wolves to central Idaho, now under the charge of the Nez Perce native American tribe there. When pro-wolf federal and anti-wolf state interests disagreed, the tribe stepped in and took over sole responsibility for wolf recovery. A tribal spokesman, Jaime Pinkham, says "We are both trying to find our way home. In a sense you might call it a recovery mirror; and as the wolf comes back, it is a reflection of the tribe's strength." Brief story in Audubon, May-June 1997.

Native Americans and endangered species. Leaders of the 555 Indian tribes in the U.S. signed an agreement with the Clinton administration on June 5, 1997, that gives them greater power over the protection of endangered wildlife on their own reservations. The agreement averts the threat of a bitter, costly court battle that has been shaping up between tribes and the U.S. federal government over enforcement of the 24-year old Endangered Species Act. Tribal leaders have long argued the federal government has no authority to endorce the law on reservations, which are claimed to be sovereign nations in their own right. Federal officials have countered that they have an obligation as trustees of the 95 million acres of Indian land to protect natural resources on those reservations on behalf of the tribes. Indians claim they protect the plants and animals better than the non-Indians, though this is sometimes disputed.

Logging Suspended in Daniel Boone National Forrest (Kentucky). The U.S. Forest Service has temporarily suspended almost all logging on the Daniel Boone National Forrest as a result of a ruling by U.S. District Court Judge Karl Forester. The ruling blocked only a proposed sale of timber from 200 acres near the Red River Gorge. All commerical logging is prohibited in the Gorge. Judge Forester, in a sharply worded decision, ruled that the Forest Service had violated the Endangered Species Act by not giving top priority to protecting the endangered Indiana bat; violated the National Forest Management Act by drawing up policies without obtaining public comment; and violated the National Environmental Policy Act by failing to prepare an environemtnal impact statement before deciding to sell the trees. Although the ruling applied only to this particular sale, the Forest Service decided to suspend all logging since they had followed standard Forest Service procedure for this sale. They are considering appealing the decision to the 6th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals. The Forest Service is being represented by Kelly Mofield, an attorney for the U.S. Department of Justice. The suit was brought by Kentucky Heartwood, an environmental activist organization that opposes all timber sales on national forests and that has filed lawsuits against virtually every sale on the Boone. The ban will result in about 100 workers losing their jobs. Timber sales from the Boone are only 5% of state's total. Also, since government agencies do not pay local taxes, the Forest Service voluntarily gives 25% of the gross from all sales on the Boone to the counties where the timber is located. See Holly E. Stepp, "Logging Suspended in the Boone," Lexington Herald-Leader, 17 June 1997, pp. A1, A6.

Development Threatens Adirondack State Park, New York. Four years ago socialite Mary Lou Whitney inherited 51,000 acres inside Adirondack State Park. The Park is a patchwork of private and public lands, comprising 6 million acres, the largest park in the lower 48 states. Whitney plans to devolop 15,000 acres into exclusive, luxury homes known as "great camps." The Sierra Club is appealing to Whitney to abandon the project, and to the state to buy the land. To express your support of purchasing the property, write: Gov. George Pataki, Executive Chamber, State Capitol, Albany, NY 12224. Story in The Planet, July/August 1997, p. 8. For more information, contact Chris Ballantyne, Sierra Club Northeast Office, Tel: 518-587-9166; Email: chris.ballantyne@sierraclub.org

Postmodern Temple or Santa Fe Art? Documentary filmaker and conceptual artist Adam Jonas Horowitz is constructing "Stonefridge" in Santa Fe, NM. When he saw several abandoned refrigerators at a landfill, he thought of Stonehenge. His idea was to weld several together, making metal monoliths, and then placing them in a circle, like the prehistoric megaliths. In May 1997, the city granted permission. The artist will fire up his welder as soon as he has twenty or so fridges. An Associated Press story described the project as "a postmodern, post-apocalyptic temple to waste and consumerism." Horowitz hopes folks laugh when they see it and remember it when they take out their trash. "But I also hope they will think about their part as consumers, their role in the consumer society. I think my goal as an artist and filmmaker is to try to establish connections between this technological world and the natural world." Story in The Christian Science Monitor 89 (14 July 1997): 14.


Following are some introductory articles in environmental ethics. More detail is available under the separate bibliographic entries for each in the ISEE Master Bibliography, on website or disk.

--Callicott, J. Baird, "Environmental Ethics: Overview" in Warren Thomas Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev. ed., vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1995), pages 676-686.

--Callicott, J. Baird, "The Search for an Environmental Ethic," in Tom Regan, ed., Matters of Life and Death: New Introductory Essays in Moral Philosophy, 3rd edition (New York: McGraw Hill, 1993. Earlier editions were in 1980 and 1986, first published by Random House and Temple University Press. The version in the 3rd edition is the most up-to-date.

--Callicott, J. Baird, "Environmental Ethics" in Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, eds., Encyclopedia of Ethics, in 2 vols, Vol. I, A-K (New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1992), pages 311-315.

--Clark, Stephen R. L., "Environmental Ethics," pages 843-868 in Byrne, Peter and Houlden, Leslie, eds., Companion Encyclopedia of Theology (London: Routledge, 1995).

--Wendy Donner, "Inherent Value and Moral Standing in Environmental Change," pages 52-74 in Hampson, Fen Osler, Reppy, Judith, Earthly Goods: Environmental Change and Social Justice (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1996). A summary and critique of animal rights/welfare ethics, the land ethic, deep ecology, and ecofeminism.

--Palmer, Clare, "A Bibliographic Essay on Environmental Ethics," Studies in Christian Ethics (Edinburgh) 7(1994):68-97. Thorough and useful survey of the main literature and position, through 1994.

--Fox, Warwick, "A Critical Overview of Environmental Ethics," World Futures (Amsterdam) 46(1996):1-21.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World," in F. Herbert Bormann, and Stephen R. Kellert, Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), pp 73-96. Reprinted in Lori Gruen and Dale Jamieson, eds., Reflecting on Nature: Readings in Environmental Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) pp. 65--84. Reprinted in Earl R. Winkler and Jerrold R. Coombs, eds., Applied Ethics: A Reader (London: Blackwell, 1993), pp. 271-292. Reprinted in Donald VanDeVeer and Christian Pierce, eds., The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy, Ecology, Economics (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1994), pp. 88-93, 485-492.


Reminder: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not indexed here, but are included in the annual update on disk and on the website.

--Tucker, Gene M. "Rain on a Land Where No One Lives: The Hebrew Bible on the Environment." Journal of Biblical Literature 116, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 3-17. This is the Presidential Address delivered 23 November 1996 at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature in New Orleans, Louisiana. The article is exegetical and in response to the deluge of materials resulting from Lynn White's "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis." Tucker' footnotes to that literature are especially helpful. Tucker concludes that the biblical texts, as with all biblical interpretation, contain both problems and possibilities. All of the Hebrew traditions assume that human beings are both in and of the world, and that humans have a distinctive place in creation. Some texts attack hierarchical structures, and some emphasize humankind's identification with the rest of the world. Their is distinction is that humans are "the ones addressed by God (Job) or speak to God (Psalm 104)" (p. 16). Tucker is Prof. of Hebrew Bible at Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

--Curnutt, Jordan. "How to Argue For and Against Sport Hunting." Journal of Social Philosophy 27, no. 2 (Fall 1996): 65-89.

--Oksanen, Markku and Marjo Rauhala-Hayes, eds., YmpäristÖfilosofia (Environmental Philosophy) (Helsinki: Gaudeamus Books/Oy Yliopistokustannus Finnish University Press Ltd., 1997). 350 pages. An anthology in Finnish. Chapter I: History of Western Attitudes, readings from Lynn White, John Passmore, Robin Attfield, Eugene Hargrove. Chapter II: Constructing Environmental Ethics: Aldo Leopold, Arne Naess, Richard Routley, Joel Feinberg, Kenneth Goodpaster. Chapter III: Value of Nature, Value of Human Beings. Holmes Rolston, Paul Taylor, Janna Thompson, John O'Neill, Thomas E. Hill, Jr., Donald VanDeVeer. Oksanen is a graduate student in philosophy at the University of Turku, Finland. Rauhala-Hayes, also a graduate student there, is a researcher at the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health in Finland, also with some graduate work at the City University of New York.

--Birnbacher, Dieter, ed., Ökophilosophie. Ditzingen, Germany: Philipp Reclam jun. Stuttgart, Reclams Universal-Bibliothek, 1997. A German anthology in environmental ethics, featuring translations of articles originaly in English. Bill Devall, "The Deep Ecology Movement"; Timothy L. S. Sprigge, "Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature"; Paul W. Taylor, "The Ethics of Respect for Nature"; Robin Attfield, "Biocentrism, Moral Standing and Moral Significance"; David Ehrenfeld, "The Arrogance of Humanism"; Nicholas Resher, "Why Preserve Endangered Species?"; Alan Randall, on economics as an approach to environmental policy; Dieter Birnbacher, on nature; Holmes Rolston, "Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?" Birnbacher teaches philosophy at the University of Dusseldorf.

--Goldin, Owen, and Kilroe, Patricia, eds., Human Life and the Natural World: Readings in the History of Western Philosophy. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 1997. (Broadview Press, P. O. Box 1243, Peterborough, Ont. K9J 7H5, Canada; 3576 California Road, Orchard Park, NY 14127 USA) With distributors in the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Twenty-seven readings from classical philosophers or theologians (sometimes literary figures or scientists), from Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, through Thomas Aquinas, Francis of Assisi, René Descartes, to John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Engels, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. "Although the environmental problems that have rekindled interest in these issues have only recently taken center stage in Western intellectual and political discourse, the general issues to which philosophical reflection on these issues leads are not new. Indeed, they are among the oldest of philosophical questions, questions to which philosophers must continually return" (p. ix) Looking into figures of the past reveals how our own thought has been shaped, and sometimes those who see an idea first see what it most clearly amounts to. "Current debates in the field of environmental philosophy contain echoes, developments, and distortions of [these classical] positions. In order to better understand the roots of these critical debates, we must turn to the study of their historical sources" (p. xix). Goldin is in philosophy at Marquette University. Kilroe is in anthropology and linguistics at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

--vanWyck (van Wyck), Peter C., Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing Human Subject. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. Deep ecology encounters contemporary social and cultural theory. van Wyck claims critically to expose deep ecology's essentialist and foundationalist commitments involving the Enlightenment, modernity, systems theory, anthropocentrism, the figure of wilderness, the trope of the primitive, and the imagined promise of posthistoric primitivism. Deep ecology (and much of contemporary environmental thought) has remained blind to the lessons (and possibilities) of contemporary social and poststructural theory. Haraway's figure of the cyborg and situated knowledges, Deleuze's conception of an image of thought, Foucault's panopticon, Trinh on ethnographic authority, Lingis on the "other," Torgovnick and Clastre on the primitive and power, and Vattimo's "weak thought"--all with a view to a better understanding of the human subject in environmental philosophy. van Wyck is a doctoral candidate at McGill University.

--Costanza, Robert, and twelve others. "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital." Nature 387(15 May 1997):253-260. The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. The authors have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calaculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$ 16-54 trillion (1012) per year, with an average of US$ 33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainities, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$ 18 trillion per year.

Costanza admits his group's numbers are "back-of-the-envelope" estimates, but says they are close enough to help set ecosystem usage taxes. Also in this issue is a commentary by Stuart L. Pimm, "The Value of Everything," Nature 387(15 May 1997):231-232. A summary is Wade Roush, "Putting a Price Tag on Nature's Bounty, Science 276(16 May 1997):1029. Some complain that the numbers are worthless; other say the study is important, no matter what the numbers, as they are relatively huge. Another study, by David Pimentel, came up with only $ 3 trillion by comparison.

--Hiebert, Theodore, The Yahwist's Landscape: Nature and Religion in Early Israel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 210 pages. $ 45. The Yahwist is the so-called J strand of the Pentateuch in the Hebrew Bible, favoring the divine name Yahweh. A study of nature in early Hebrew religion. Hiebert claims that previous scholars have illegitimately rent asunder what the Bible presents as a seamless whole: nature and history as a single reality. The Hebrew patriarchs were farmers rather than wandering nomads as usually portrayed, and the arable land of the Palestinian hills country stands at the center of J's theology, a religion of the earth. The garden of Eden is not so much a mythic paradise as a cultivated valley oasis. Agriculture is the archetypal human vocation, not some romanticized pastoral nomadism. Humans are to care for and cultivate the garden Earth.

--Reila, Heiki, Teoloogiline keskkonnaeetika ja inimkeskne traditsioon. Mónede uudsete keskkonnaeetika lähete vórdlev analüüs (Environmental Ethics and the Tradition of Anthhropocentrism. A Comparative Analysis of Some New Approaches in Contemporary Theological Ethics Confronting Environmental Problems) (in Estonian). University of Tartu, Estonia, Master's Thesis, 1996. Three approaches are featured: (1) stewardship, chapter 2, with Ronald Preston and James Gustafson as examples; (2) Christian ecofeminism (chapter 3), with Rosemary Radford Reuther and Sallie McFague as examples; and (3) the reverence for life (Chapter 4), with Andrew Linzey as an example. The three are critical of classical Christianity on grounds of (1) the dominion of man, (2) androcentrism, and (3) speciesism. There is a discussion of anthropocentrism versus non-anthropocentrism, and an argument that Christianity has been mostly anthropocentric. There is a need to shift to a more complicated ethics, based on biological and ecological knowledge. The advisor was Jaanus Noormägi. Reila is a Lutheran pastor at Vandra, Estonia (Address: Heiki Reila, Vändra EE 3461, Estonia).

--Scriven, Tal, "Wrongness, Wisdom, and Wilderness: Toward a Libertarian Theory of Ethics and the Environment." Albany: State University of New York Press, 1977. 232 pages. A libertarian theory of social ethics that can support welfare, reverse discrimination, and environmental preservation; biocentrism, Nietzschean perspectivism, and laws requiring Good Samaritanism; and utilitarianism, the social contract theory, and legal moralism--all at the same time. The principle of utlity should be understood, in judging social policy, through the application of the principle of harm, or wrongness. Nothing logically prevents a well-constructed libertarianism from supporting environmental ethics, with positions at least as radical as biocentrism, although he finds deep problems with going as far as ecocentrism and its postmodern variants. Scriven teaches philosophy at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.

--Nida-Rümelin, Julian, and Dietmar v. d. Pfordten, eds., Ökologische Ethik und Rechtstheorie (Ecological Ethics and Rights Theory). Baden-Baden: Nomos. 1995. 399 pages. ISBN 3-7890-4114-9.

--Nutzinger, Hans, ed., Naturschutz-Ethik-Ökonomie (Nature Protection--Ethics--Economics) . Marburg: Metropolis. 1996. 205 pages. ISBN 3-89518-123-4.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, Huanjing lunli xue: Dui ziranjie de yiwu yü ziranjie de jiazhi (Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World), trans. Wang Ruixiang, and ed. Huang Daolin. Taipei, Taiwan: National Institute for Compilation and Translation, 1996. Address: 247 Chou Shan Road, Tapei, Taiwan, R.O.C. ISBN 957-00-8564-9. A Chinese translation of Rolston's Environmental Ethics (Temple University Press).

--Cahn, Matthew A., Environmental Deceptions: The Tension Between Liberalism and Environmental Policymaking in the United States. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995. 179 pages. The tensions between individual liberty (my rights, my property) and the common good. Thoughtful analysis.

--Kearns, Laurel, "Saving the Creation: Christian Environmentalism in the United States," Sociology of Religion 57(no. 1, 1996):55-70. In the mid 1980's, religious environmental activism in the United States increased dramatically. Based on field study of this emerging movement, Kearns proposes three models or ethics of Christian-related eco-theology: Christian stewardship, eco-justice, and creation spirituality. As a portrait of the boundaries of this movement, Kearns focuses in detail on Christian stewardship and creation spirituality. She then examines religious environmentalism through the cultural shift/change frameworks of W. G. McLoughlin, Ann Swidler, Ronald Inglehart, James Beckford, and Roland Robertson (analysts of social change, especially of meaning shifts). Of particular interest is the synoptic, holistic, global perspective transcending the privatized self and the individual state, also the non-doctrinal character of the religious consciousness. With a bibliography. Worth reading. Kearns is at The Theological School, Drew University, Madison, NJ.

--Dunn, James R., and Kinney, John E., Conservative Environmentalism. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1996. 275 pp. Environmentalism from the right: Chapters: Agriculture and Soil. Forests, Trees, and Floral Diversity. Wildlife. Water and Water-Related Resources. Sanitation and Disease. The Environment, Rich and Poor (Chapter 7). A sample from Chapter 7: America's environmental problems are usually measured in parts per million, billion, or trillion, often impossible to measure and the public must be told of their existence. They are mostly media events. The Third World's environmental problems are desperate and the poor, hungry, and diseased feel them every day. Morale: Conserve (and improve) our way of life; fix theirs. Chapters, continued: Wealth and the Environment Quantified. Sustainable Development versus Resource Multiplication. Politics and the Environment. Causes of Public Confusion. Regulations and Environmental Priorities. The Cultural-Environmental War. Toward a Better Environment. Thirty-one Environmental Principles. Principle 31, with emphasis: Virtually every human activity we see as needed to imrove the environment is opposed or not acknowledged by leftist environmentalism. (p. 241). Toward a Better World for Future Generations. A bibliography is divided into "Left-Compatible or Liability Culture Books" (such as Rachel Carson and Al Gore), and "Conservative-Compatible or Asset Culture Books" (such as Gregg Easterbrook). Some extracts will make useful class readings and discussion material. Dunn was a longtime professor of environmental geology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, now a consultant. Kinney is an environmental consultant and engineer.

--Davis-Berman and Berman, Dene S., Wilderness Therapy: Foundations, Theory, Research. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1994. 282 pages. $ 26.00 paper. The definitive analysis of the idea that wilderness experience can have therapeutic value. The authors discuss cultural orientations toward wilderness and wilderness ethics, trends in resesearch and the different orientations of outdoor programs ranging from mental helath to enrichment. Theories informing wilderness therapy, and the importance of those theories for basic research, as well as for program development and evaluation. Two chapters contain practical suggestions for wilderness therapy programs. The authors ask for increasing professionalization of the field, including such measures as accreditation of programs and certification of leaders. Much of the focus is on the usefulness of such programs for troubled youth. Two themes are that the least restrictive environment provides the best forum for confronting psychological problems, and that outdoor environments generally make the conseqences of actions less ambiguous and more immediate, both favorable to therapy. Both authors are mental health professionals.

--Pinkson, Tom, "Soul of the Wilderness: Wilderness Wisdom to Save our Souls--and the Planet," International Journal of Wilderness 3(no. 1, 1997):4-5, 48 On the summits, in the desert, the forest, the ocean, we most easily can see that we humans are but a small part of the whole, compared to the vast cyclic rhythms of creation. Pinkson is a psychologist, Sausalito, CA.

--Kutty, Krishnan, "India: A Wildlands and Recreation Overview," International Journal of Wilderness 3(no. 1, 1997):6-7. India is home to about one third of the known life forms of the world. In colonial India, all forests, wildlife, and other natural resources were the property of the crown. Since independence, there has been meaningful involvement of rural people in the stewardship of wildland, natural, and reforested areas. There were 45 national parks in 1960; there are 450 today. The only areas similar to the American concept of wilderness are in the Himalayas, increasingly visited both by internationals and Indians, often with adverse environmental impact. Kutty is from Bangalore, and runs the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) program in India.

--Clark, Kendall, and Susan Koxacek, "How Do Your Personal Wilderness Values Rate?" International Journal of Wilderness 3(no. 1, 1997):12-13.

--Burde, John, and Michael Legg, "Wilderness and Natural Areas in Eastern North America," International Journal of Wilderness 3(no. 1, 1997):14-17.

--Hammitt, William E., and William M. Rutlin, "Achieved Privacy in Wilderness," International Journal of Wilderness 3(no. 1, 1997):18-24. Opportunities for solitude and privacy are characteristics supposed to distinguish wilderness from other types of outdoor recreation. Whether this is so, in a study in Elliott Rock Wilderness in the southeastern U.S. Hammitt teaches forest resources at Clemson University, Rutlin was a graduate research assistant in the study.

--Richard, Wildred E., "The International Appalachian Trail," International Journal of Wilderness 3(no. 1, 1997):33-38. An extension of the Appalachian Trail running north another 435 miles into Canada, in New Brunswick and Quebec, is now being worked out. Richard is a wilderness guide and adjunct professor of geography at the University of Southern Maine.

--Sippola, Anna-Lisa, Pirho Alaraudanjoki, Bruce Forbes, and Ville Hallikainen, eds., Northern Wilderness Areas: Ecology, Sustainability, Values. Rovaniemi, Finland: Arctic Centre, University of Lapland (P. O. Box 122, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland), 1995. 438 pages. $ 30. One emphasis is that what seems a remote wilderness to outsiders was home to various aboriginal peoples and other residents. Such regions are now frequently under threat by development interests; the threats are unevenly distributed but the impact can be heavy. 44 authors.

--Myers, Norman, on the challenge side, and Vincent, Jeffrey R. and Panayotou, Theodore on the distraction side, "Consumption: Challenge to Sustainable Development ... or Distraction," Science 276 (4 April, 1997):53-57. Myers maintains that the problem triad of population, environment, and development is now being joined by consumption, and that first world standards of escalating consumption cannot be extended to the rest of the world, nor even maintained in the first world. Vincent and Panayotou reply that there are no inherent limits to consumption, so long as there is substitutability and recycling. Countries with high consumption also have better environmental quality, lower pollution levels, and so on. Eastern Europe, the most polluted environment in the world, was a low-consumption society. Third World nations, with dramatic environmental degradation can also be low-consumption societies. Myers replies that the Vincent and Panayotou scenario depends on markets, overlooks market externalities, and the gross inequities in who benefits from marketed consumption, and cannot be extrapolated to a global range. Myers is an environmental consultant, at Oxford University. Vincent and Panayotou are at the Harvard Institute for International Development.

--Thurston, Harry, "Last Look at Paradise?" (Galápagos Islands), International Wildlife 27(no. 3, May/June 1997):12-21. The primordial world of the Galápagos is under siege from people. In the past thirty years, he number of people who reside on the islands has risen seven-fold, putting pressures on the vulnerable wildlife. The government in Ecuador faces a tough battle trying to preserve the unique animals while responding to citizens' demands for an improved standard of living. Newcomers from the mainland have a gold-rush mentality that would exploit wildlife rather than protect it. Many disregard protection laws and are overfishing the islands' rich oceans. About 50,000 tourists come each year, but do little harm because Ecuador manages tourists closely.

--Owens, Mark and Delia, "Can Time Heal Zambia's Elephants?" International Wildlife 27(no. 3, May/June 1997):28-35. Poaching's legacy. Though illegal slaughter for ivory has all but ended, young elephants are still paying a biological toll. Young elephants learned from older individuals in their groups where to find food and water. By killing mature elephants, poachers created a new society of younger elephants lacking such knowledge. Their ability to bounce back has been impaired. In the study area, poachers had wiped out 93% of the elephants, leaving many unnatural social groupings.

--Fisher, Jonathan, "To Ban or Not to Ban?" (Ivory) International Wildlife 27(no. 3, May/June 1997):36-37. Nations are meeting in June to consider whether to continue the international ban on the sale of ivory, enacted in 1989. The ban has been quite effective. In the 1980's poachers slaughtered more than 70,000 elephants annually, a mortality 20 times what the continent-wide elephant population could sustain. The ban cut poaching by 90%. African elephants live in 35 countries. Some nations want to trade legal ivory, especially Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, and Malawi. Ivory trade, they say, will generate income for conservation and it is cultural imperialism for developing nations to impose their standards on developing nations. Ban advocates reply that it is impossible to tell legal from illegal ivory, that legal sale will return the illegal sale, that conservation funds in often corrupt governments will fail to be so used, and that the impetus for banning ivory originally came from the African nations, is supported by the majority of them, and that the pro-trade nations themselves are just as guilty of forcing their views on others.

--Kleiman, Devra G., Allen, Mary E., Thompson, Katerina V., Lumpkin, Susan, eds. Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. 550 pp. This reflects the many changes that have occurred in zoo philosophy and practice in the past several decades. The editors have organized 52 chapters written by specialists that cover the basic principles of husbandry, nutrition, exhibiting animals, population management for conservation, behavior, reproduction, and research. Four appendices provide valuable information on available literature, management regulation, inventories and studbook, and inter-zoo breeding loans.

--Sinclair, A.R.E., Arcese, Peter, eds. Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. 680 pp. $90 cloth, $34 paper. Follows a previous Serengeti, with twenty years of research by leading scientists and provides a sophisticated study of the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa, home to one of the largest and most diverse populations of animals in the world. There are studies of the ecosystem at every level from the plants at the bottom of the visible food chain, to the many species of herbivores and predators, to the system as a whole.

--Brown, James H. Macroecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. 270 pp. $42.50 cloth, $15.95 paper. Brown proposes a radical new research agenda designed to broaden the scope of ecology so that it can address questions on much larger spatial and temporal scales. Much ecological research is narrowly focused and experimental, providing detailed information that cannot be used to generalize from one ecological community or time period to another. Brown draws on data from many disciplines to create a much broader picture with greater potential for generalization.

--Twumbarima (Twum-Barima), Rosalind, Campbell, Laura B. Protecting the Ozone Layer through Trade Measures: Reconciling the Trade Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and the Rules of the GATT. Geneva: United Nations Environmental Program - Environment and Trade, # 6, 1994. 116 pp. An overview of the history of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the necessity and effectiveness of the Protocol's trade measures, and the measures for consistency with the trade rules of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. The monograph also examines possible mechanisms for settling disputes which may arise as a result of the interpretation and implementation of the Protocol's trade measures.

--Kummer, Katharina. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes at the Interface of Environment and Trade. Geneva: United Nations Environmental Program - Environment and Trade, # 7, 1994. 93 pp. Topics covered include the international transfer and regulation of the transfer of hazardous wastes; environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes and sustainable industrial activity; and reconciling environmental and economic aims in the context of hazardous waste management.

--Wirth, David A. The Role of Science in the Uruguay Round and NAFTA Trade Disciplines. Geneva: United Nations Environmental Program - Environment and Trade # 8, 1994. 68 pp. The presence and integrity of scientific support is a principal touchstone for determining the legitimacy of many national regulatory efforts aimed at assuring environmental integrity or safeguarding public health. The paper highlights the quiescent issues at the interface between science and governmental regulatory policies that are raised by the emphasis on scientific validity in the Uruguay Round and the NAFTA.

--Nilsson, A. Ultraviolet Reflections: Life Under a Thinning Ozone Layer. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley and Sons, 1996. 152 pp. £ 14.99. The effects of increasing UV radiation on people, plants, and animals. Nilsson takes the reader on a journey from the Antarctic ozone hole to the Arctic birch forest to see how plants and microbes will fare against increasing UV radiation. He raises questions about the evolution of our immune system and uncovers scientific controversy over the causes of eye diseases.

--Eden, S. Environmental Issues and Business: Implications of a Changing Agenda. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley and Sons, 1996. 200 pp. £ 25. cloth. Details the dimensions of the business response to environmental issues by taking a critical interdisciplinary social science perspective. Eden catalogues the pressures put upon businesses to take up environmental responsibilities, and then assesses those activities in terms of company culture, communication, and influence on the environmental agenda. The author examines the diversity of business activities and the statutory environmental legislation to which they are subject and evaluates the impact of these activities according to policy developments and the restoration of public confidence.

--Buckingham-Hatfield, S., Evans, B. Environmental Planning and Sustainability. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley and Sons, 1996. 196 pp. £ 35, cloth. The authors argue that national environmental planning is reactive, ad hoc, and hence they call for a wider-ranging refocusing, so that environmental planning can be based on reliable and consistent data collection, equitable public participation, and well-debated understanding of sustainability. They also argue that the challenge offered by the U.N. through its Agenda 21 program and by European policies should result in a rethinking, not only concerned with how we plan to achieve environmental sustainability, but also about the contexts in which we should do so.

--Klarer, Jurg, Moldan, Bedrich. The Environmental Challenge for Central European Economies in Transition. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley and Sons, 1997. 300 pp. £ 45, cloth. The authors outline the state of the environment in Central and Eastern Europe since the decline of Communist rule with attention given to air and water pollution, land management and nature conservation, and the consequences of environmental degradation such as human health, biodiversity losses, and economic damage. Secondly they outline the causes of environmental degradation and discuss the failure of the Communist regime to address environmental issues and compare this to the failure of mixed capitalist economies. They analyze the present policies in place within the countries and the developments likely to unfold in Eastern Europe in the future, as well as the social and economic factors use to facilitate these changes.

--Daily, Gretchen C., ed. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 416 pp. $49.95 cloth, $24.95 paper. Scientists from a variety of disciplines examine the character and value of ecosystem services, the damage that has been done to them, and the consequent implications for human society.

--Baskin, Yvonne. The Work of Nature. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 288 pp. $25 cloth. Baskin examines the threats posed to humans by the loss of biodiversity, distilling the work of the world's leading ecologists. She explains the practical consequences of declining biodiversity on ecosystem health and function.

--Simberloff, Daniel, Scmitz, Don C., Brown, Tom C., eds. Strangers in Paradise: Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 480 pp. $50 cloth, $29.95 paper. An examination of the Florida severe exotic species problems and of the ongoing efforts to eradicate or manage introduced species covering millions of acres of land and water.

--Porter, Douglas R. Managing Growth in America's Communities. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 215 pp. $29.95 paper. The author describes the regulatory and programmatic techniques that have been most useful, obstacles to be overcome, and specific strategies that have been instrumental in achieving successful growth management programs. Also included are informational sidebars written by leading experts in growth management.

--Story Earth: Native Voices on the Environment. San Francisco, CA: Mercury House, 1993. First published in the Netherlands as Het verhaal Aarde by In de Knipsheer Publishers for Bridges Books, Amsterdam, 1992. No editor is named. 200 pages. Stories from indigenous peoples, and by indigenous authors, on six continents, from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Easter Island, Egypt, Finland, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Lesotho, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, and the United States. The nature of the global crisis and changes we must make in the way we view the world. Only by turning away from the industrial view of the Earth as a resource to be consumed, and only by listening to the lessons of traditional cultures that have for centuries maintained a sustainable relationship to the Earth can we cure the damage that Western civilization has wrought. Originally published with a subsidy from the Dutch Environment Ministry.

--Conca, Ken, Alberty, Michael, and Dabelko, Geoffrey D., eds. Green Planet Blues: Environmental Politics from Stockholm to Rio. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. Ecology and the structure of the international system. Prospects for international environmental cooperation. From ecological conflict to environmental security. Ecological justice.

--Causey, Cindy Ubben. Cherish the Gift: A Congregational Guide to Earth Stewardship. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1996. Earth stewardship. Incorporating environmental concerns into religious education, church property, worship, fellowship, in the nursery, with children, youth, camping and retreats, publicity. Tips for homes. Causey is a senior copy chief with JC Penny Catalog and chairs the Catalog Environmental Committee at JC Penny. Judson is a Baptist press.

--Westra, Laura. "Ecosystem Integrity and the `Fish Wars.'" Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health 5(1996):275-282. The problem of fisheries and aquatic ecosystems in Canada have been analyzed primarily from the standpoint of the conservation of these resources, without much emphasis on the value of aquatic ecosystems for themselves, including their life-support function, vital to all the biota therein. This represents a purely anthropocentric approach, that is flawed from the standpoint of sustainability practically and theoretically. Without entering into the anthropocentrism debate, this study indicates the apparent conflict between theoretical legislative and regulative aims, and most forms of "management principles," even when these are presented in their most enlightened forms. Starting with the examination of a recent Canadaian case, the failure of present management practices is outlined, even when these are democratically chosen and support worthwhile social goals. The Canadian "fish wars" example shows clearly why the ethics of integrity provide better guidelines for public policy, as such ethics alone take as primary biological and ecological objectives. Westra teaches philosophy at the University of Windsor, Ontario.

--Hardin, Garrett. The Social Contract Press has a Garrett Hardin Reprint Series, with a number of his books, previously otherwise out of print. 316 1/2 E. Mitchell St., Petoskey, MI 49770. 800/352-4843.


--Ryan, Maura A., and Todd David Whitmore, eds., The Challenge of Global Stewardship: Roman Catholic Responses. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997. 288 pages. $ 15.00 ppaer. Among other contributors, John Kavanaugh maintains that it is only by developing the capacity to experience the moral claims exerted on us by all living things that we develop the habits of responsible existence in community. George Weigel on the population problem. Bryan Massingale on the problem of "human welfare ecology."

--Adede, Andronico O., "The Treaty System from Stockholm (1972) to Rio de Janiero (1992)," Pace Environmental Law Review 13 (no. 1, 1995):33-48. A "new breed" of treaty began to appear in this period, which tries to incoporate new concepts and concerns aimed at bringing about sustainable development. These include inter-generational equity, common but differentiated responsibility, caution against allowing a lack of scientific evidence to serve as a pretext for inaction, the polluter-pays principle, duties of co-operation and exchange of scientific information, trade and the environment, sovereignty and the environment, and the role of non-governmental organizations and local communities in the negotiation and implementation of environmental treaties. Above all, the "new breed" of treaties address, in greater detail, arrangements for both the transfer of funds to combat environmental problems and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies. Furthermore, they take into account the interest of developing counties to ensure their participation in both the negotiation and governance of such treaties. Adede is with the Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, New York.

--Grzybowski, Donald M., et al, "A Historical Perspective Leading Up to and Including the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks," Pace Environmental Law Review 13 (no. 1, 1995): 49-74.

--Hodas, David, "The Climate Change Convention and Evolving Legal Models of Sustainable Development," Pace Environmental Law Review 13 (no. 1, 1995):75-96. The Climate Change Convention is intimately and necessarily linked to UNCED goals of sustainable development because it provides the specific parameters around which the concept of sustainable development can have meaning and be concretely implemented. Hodas is at the Widener University School of Law.

--Krasnova, Irina O., "Post-Rio Treaties: Implementation Challenges," Pace Environmental Law Review 13 (no. 1, 1995):97-110. Implementation problems are now arising with regard to many environmental treaties. Krasnova is in environmental law at the Moscow Juridical Institute, Moscow.

--Robinsoin, Nicholas A., "Colloquium: The Rio Environmental Law Treaties" IUCN's Proposed Covenant on Environment and Development," Pace Environmental Law Review 13 (no. 1, 1995):133-189. Robinson is in environmental law at Pace University School of Law, and is on the IUCN Commission on Environmental Law.

--Tinker, Carherine, "A `New Breed' of Treaty: The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity," Pace Environmental Law Review 13 (no. 1, 1995):191-218. From a legal standpoint, there are a number of theoretical questions underpinning the language of the Treaty which remain unanswered and unanalyzed, which may plague efforts to interpret or implement the Convention. Tinker is in law, Chapman University School of Law, Orange, CA.

--Daly, Herman E., "Allocation, Distribution, and Scale: Towards an Economics that is Efficient, Just, and Sustainable," Ecological Economics 6(1992):185-193. The practical policy of issuing tradeable permits for depletion and pollution requires for its implementation the clear separation of the three basic economic goals of efficient allocation, equitable distribution, and sustainable scale. Economic theory needs to catch up with policy in recognizing that scale issues cannot be reduced to either allocation or distribution. Daly is at the School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland.

--Pace, Norman R., "A Molecular View of Microbial Diversity and the Biosphere," Science 276(1997):734-740. "Microbial organisms occupy a peculiar place in the human view of life. Microbes receive little attention in our general texts of biology. They are largely ignored by most professional biologists and are virtually unknown to the public except in the contexts of disease and rot. Yet, the workings of the biosphere depend absolutely on the activities of the microbial world. Our texts articulate biodiversity in terms of large organisms: insects usually top the count of species. Yet, if we squeeze out any one of these insects and examine its contents under the microscope, we find hundreds of thousands of distinct microbial species. A handfull of soil contains billions of microbial organisms, so many different types that accurate numbers remain unknown. We know so little about microbial biology, despite it being a part of biology that looms so large in the sustenance of the planet." "Members of some of these lineages are only distantly related to known organisms but are sufficiently abundant that they are likely to have an impact on the chemistry of the biosphere." One interesting development: There now appears to be a flourishing subterranean life, a biological world not based on photosynthesis; some even speculate that most of the biomass on Earth is subterranean. Pace is in microbial biology at the University of California, Berkeley. See also Richard A. Kerr entry.

--Kerr, Richard A., "Life Goes to Extremes in the Deep Earth--and Elsewhere?" Science 276(1997):704-704. Life has been discovered up to 2.8 kilometers under the surface of the earth (in Virginia), as well as half a kilometer beneath the deep ocean floor, the latter associated with hydrothermal vents. It has also been found 1.5 kilometers below the Columbia Plateau in bare salt rock. This leads to much speculation about extensive underground life, largely microbial. In underground life, metabolism may be quite slow, and nutrients quite scarce.

--Kitcher, Philip, The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. 381 pages. The ethical and social issues raised by the Human Genome Project. The hopeful possibilities of molecular genetics for improving medical care, also the implications of genetic testing for insurance and employment discrimination. The impact of ideas about genetic destiny on philosophical assumptions about human life and freedom. Combines scientific knowledge, moral sensibility, and philosophical analysis on the unsettling questions raised by the rapidly increasing information about our genes. Kitcher is in philosophy at the University of California at San Diego.

--Trefil, James S., Are We Unique: A Scientist Explores the Unparalleled Intelligence of the Human Mind. New York: Wiley, 1997. 242 pp. Trefil claims that animal minds are not only different in degree of intelligence but in the kinds of consciousness they are capable of. Also, despite the achievements of computer designers, no computer of any kind will ever be able to replicate the human intelligence. Trefil teaches physics at George Mason University and is science commentator for National Public Radio.

--Sagoff, Mark, "On the Value of Endangered and Other Species," Environmental Management 20(no. 6, 1996):897-911. Two frameworks--utilitarian and Kantian-are used by society to make decisions concerning environmental management, and, in particular, species protection. The utilitarian framework emphasizes the consequences of choices for prior preferences. A perfectly competitive market, on this model, correctly values environmental resources. The Kantian approach identifies rules appropriate to recognized situations given the identity of the decision maker. It relies on democratic political processes and institutions to provide the means by which citizens determine the identity of their community--its moral charactrer and aspirations--and match appropriate rules to recognized situations. Markets do not fail in any general way in measuring the economic value of plants and animals. Market prices, in general, correctly represent the marginal or exchange value of species. If society legistates against extinction, this must be understood as an exercise in Kantian decision making in view of the moral value of species, not as an attempt to "correct" a market failure or to promote social welfare or utility. Sagoff is at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland.

--Sagoff, Mark, "A Noneconomic View of the Value of Biodiversity," in Gary Meffe and C. Ron Carroll, Principles of Conservaiton Biology (Sunderland, MA: Sinaur Associates, 1997). A box essay.

--Moulton, Michael P., Wildlife Issues in a Changing World. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997. 352 pages. Includes discussion of accidentally or deliberately introduced exotic wildlife, increasingly a problem on contemporary landscapes. Moulton is at the University of Florida.

--Dobson, A., J. P. Rodriquez, W. M. Roberts, and D. S. Wilcove, "Geographic Distribution of Endangered Species in the United States," Science 276 (January 24, 1997):550- . Species listed by the federal government are distributed in regional "hot spots." "The amount of land that needs to be managed to protect currently endangered and threatened species in the United States is a relatively small proportion of the land mass." With several replies in Science 276 (April 25) objecting that the "hot spots" approach is biased and does not adequately represent desirable conservation priorities, including one letter by all three editors of Conservation Biology (David Ehrenfeld, founding editor; Reed F. Noss, editor; and Gary K. Meffe, incoming editor) that the report is likely to be misused if protection is granted to these "hot spots," and development allowed elsewhere without attention to conservation priorities on the landscape as a whole.

--Meffee, Gary K., and C. Ronald Carroll, and contributors, Principles of Conservation Biology, 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer and Associates, 1997. 729 pages. 155 pages longer than the first edition in 1994, with more focus on ecosystem management, also with a chapter on becoming more effective in the policy press. More on the marine environment. Two dozen new box essays. The chapter on "Conservation Values and Ethics" continues by J. Baird Callicott. Box essays by Holmes Rolston, III, "Our Duties to Endangered Species"; Susan P. Bratton, "Monks, Temples, and Trees: The Spirit of Diversity"; Roderick Frazier Nash, "Discovering Radical Environmentalism in Our Own Cultural Backyard: From Natural Rights to the Rights of Nature." Meffee is the incoming editor of Conservation Biology. Carroll is at the Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia.

--Choudry, Enamul, and Charles Senseman, "The Relevance of Environmental Ethics for Policy Ethics: Why Anthropocentric and Ecocentric Considerations Matter," Indiana Academy of Social Sciences Proceedings, 1994, George C. Roberts, ed. Indianapolis: Indiana Academy of Social Sciences, 1994.

--Pimentel, David, Pimentel, Marcia, eds. Food, Energy, & Society. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1997. 2nd ed. Individuals and nations as they face the inevitable dilemma of how everyone can be fed, given the limits of land, water, energy, and biological resources.

--Jachtenfuchs, Markus. International Policy-Making as a Learning Process? The European Union and the Greenhouse Effect. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. 232 pp. $67.95. A study of policy making in a major field, climate change, and of a major player, the EU, and a contribution to social theory. Policy-making is treated in terms of learning, a perspective that sheds light on inter-relationships neglected by standard interest-oriented approaches.

--Farthing, Stuart M., ed. Evaluating Local Environment Policy. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1997. 208 pp. $ 46.95. Lessons from environmental auditing for and appraisal of the development of local environmental policy, environmental planning, bus-based park and ride towards sustainability, coordinating facility provision and new housing development, and case studies, among others.

--Teixeira, Maria Gracinda C. Energy Policy in Latin America: Social and Environmental Dimensions of Hydropower in Amazonia. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. 368 pp. $76.95. A criticism of the policy of energy producion in Brazilian Amazonia focusing on the dramatically accumulated social and environmental debt resulting from the way Amazonia rivers have been utilized to provide hydropower and to sustain an export oriented industrial economy.

--Bridges, Olga, Bridges, J.W. Loosing Hope: The Environment and Health in Russia. 288 pp. $68.95. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. An account of the various environmental factors that have resulted in the appaling deterioration of public health in Russia over the past 5-8 years and of the political, legal, technical and economic measures being taken to remedy the situation.

--Lofstedt, Ragnar E., Sjostedt, G., eds. Environmental Aid Programmes to Eastern Europe: Area Studies and Theoretical Applications. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. 240 pp. $67.95. This book combines a series of case studies within large theoretical sections to identify the mistakes that have been made in the field of environmental aid. It uses this to examine how these Eastern European nations can improve their environmental aid program overall.

--Hjelmar, Ulf. The Political Practice of Environmental Organizations. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. 160 pp. $63.95. This concise (and overpriced) book investigates why and how environmental organizations have had a considerable impact on the environmental policies which seem to dominate life today.

--Langpickvance (Lang-Pickvance), Katy, Manning, Nick, Pickvance, Chris, eds. Environmental and Housing Movements: Grassroots Experience in Hungary, Russia, and Estonia. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1997. A detailed comparative picture of environmental and housing movements in Hungary, Russia, and Estonia over the period 1991-1994.

--Xie, Jian. Environmental Policy Analysis: A General Equilibrium Approach. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. 176 pp. $51.95. An applied model based on the general equilibrium approach used to analyze the impacts of environmental policies on the economy and the environment. Also applies the model to estimate the impacts of several pollution management alternatives in China.

--Winter, Gerd, ed. European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1996. 464 pp. $39.95 paper, $89.95 cloth. Addressing law students and professionals, sixteen outstanding lawyers have joined in a project to investigate the core concepts of environmental law in Europe.

--Placter, Harald. "Functional Criteria for the Assessment of Cultural Landcapes," Chapter 34 in Droste, Bernd von; Plachter, Harald, and Rössler, Mechtild, eds., Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value (Jena, Germany: G. Fischer-Verlag, 1995), pages 393-404. In English. Cultural landscapes result from the interaction of humans and nature. Landscapes are often characterized by their structural or material features, but they can as well be characterized by their functional features and the way these are interrelated, such as nutrients or energy supplied, which is a more ecosystemic approach. This also reveals the degree to which the natural qualities of self-regulation and self-development may still be present on a culturally modified landscape. Placter is professor for natural conservation at the University of Marburg, Germany.

--Bartas, Jeanne-Marie, "Aquaculture: An Overview," Part I in Vegetarian Journal, May/June 1997, pages 20-26, Part II in Vegetarian Journal July/August 1997, pages 17-22. The environmental and ethical ramifications of the raising of fish and other marine and aquatic animals, including such issues as water usage, genetic engineering, drugs, effluent and wastes control, and global environmental impacts. Bartas is a researcher at The Vegetarian Resource Group, and specializes in environmental chemistry.

--Lawton, John H. and Robert M. May, eds., Extinction Rates. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. pp. 248. $ 23. A wide-ranging introduction to the qualitative and quantitative methods required to make predictions about extinction.

--Leopold, Aldo. Aldo Leopold's Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995. 249 pages. Selected early writings of Leopold, edited and with interpretive comments by David E. Brown and Neil B. Carmony. Earlier published as Aldo Leopold's Wilderness (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1990).

--Cavanaugh, Michael, "Global Population Equilibrium: A Model for the Twenty-First Century," Zygon 32(1997):163-174. A global population in equilibrium can serve as an organizing model, or scientific myth, both as a plausible description of reality and a goal with a compelling normative status. Few deny that, unless humans stabilize their population, our world will face serious problems before the year 2050, and a consensus about this can unite persons in many cultures, and also join scientific and theological perspectives.

--Kay, Charles E., "Yellowstone: Ecological Malpractice," special issue of PERC Reports (502 S. 19th Ave., Suite 211, Bozeman, MT 59718), vol. 15, no. 2, June 1995. The "natural regulation" of elk in Yellowstone National Park has disastrously failed. Overpopulating elk are destroying the park, adversely affecting not only vegetation, but bear, beaver, and other wildlife. "The simple truth is that ungulate populations will not internally self-regulate before having had a serious impact on vegetation. Elk and bison never historically overgrazed Yellowstone or other national parks because hunting by Native Americans kept ungulate numbers low, promoting biodiversity." Park officials have repeatedly biased research and suppressed this fact. Kay teaches political science, with training in wildlife biology, at Utah State University. This study is forthcoming as a book.

--Kay, Charles E., "Aboriginal Overkill: The Role of Native Americans in Structuring Western Ecosystems." Human Nature 5(1994):359-398. Kay maintains that Native Americans historically kept the ecosystems of the (now) American landscape in a structure maximixing biodiversity. Forthcoming as a book from Oxford University Press.

--Dobson, Andrew, Conservation and Biodiversity. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1995. 256 pages. $ 32.00. A broad overview of the scientific issues in preserving biodiversity.

--Gowdy, John M. and Sabine O'Hara, Economic Theory for Environmentalists. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1995. 192 pages. $ 40. The theory of the consumer. The theory of the firm. General equilibrium and welfare economics. Pareto optimality and perfect competition. Market failure. From supply and demand to social and ecological context.

--Edwards, Victoria. Dealing in Diversity: America's Market for Nature Conservation. Cambridge, 1995. 182 pp. This book examines the "market" for conservation of natural areas in the U.S. considering the efforts of both profit and non profit organizations.

--Norton, Tony W., and Stephen R. Dovers, eds. Ecology and Sustainability of Southern Temperate Ecosystems. Canberra, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization), 1994, 133 pages. Australia's southern temperate forest ecosystems, the science and management of their conservation.

--Olney, P. J. S., Mace, G. M., and A. T. C. Feistner, eds., Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. London: Chapman and Hall, 1994. 517 pages. $95.00. Reintroduction and captive breeding.

--Miller, Ronald I., ed., Mapping the Diversity of Nature. London: Chapman and Hall, 1994. 218 pages. $ 60. Mapping the elements of diversity, with an example of the rare species of Madagascar. Remote-sensing of tropical habitat availability for a nearctic migrant, the wood thrush. Using maps for the conservation of large mammals around the globe. Mapping the global distribution of species. A continental conservation mapping program.

--Power, Thomas Michael, Extraction and the Environment: The Economic Battle to Control our Natural Landscapes. Washington; Island Press, 1995. 350 pages. The quality of the natural landscape is an essential part of a community's permanent economic base and should not be sacrificed to short-term goals. Case studies from ranching, mining, and timber industries.

--Rosenzweig, Michael L., Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 458 pages. Evolutionary speciation in space and time, with a view to setting an agenda for diversity research in conservation.

--Vecsey, Christopher and Robert W. Venables, eds., American Indian Environments: Ecological Issues in Native American History. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1994. 236 pages. $ 16.00. Earlier published in 1980. Native American religions and the environment. Indians as ecologists. Justifying dispossession of the Indian. Navajo natural resources. Federal, state, and tribal sovereignty. And more.

--Wagner, Frederic H., Ronald Foresta, R. Bruce Gill, Dale R. McCullough, Michael R. Pelton, William F. Porter, and Hal Salwasser, Wildlife Policies in the U.S. National Parks. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995.

--McDonagh, Sean. The Greening of the Church. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1990.

--Uhl, Christopher. "Natural Resource Management in the Brazilian Amazon," Bioscience 47(no.3, 1997):160. An integrated research approach.

--Goodwin, J.P., Bartlett, Dale, Fox, Camilla. "Opening the Cages: Freedom from Fur Farms," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):22. J. P. Goodwin chronicles the Animal Liberation Front's direct action campaign, while Dale Bartlett and Camilla Fox discuss how the fur trade is targeted on other fronts.

--Telecky, Teresa M. "The Smoke Screen of CAMPFIRE," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):17. Rich American trophy hunters use your tax dollars to kill African wildlife.

--Church, Jill Howard. "The Politics of Animal Research," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):31. The methods and motives of the nation's increasingly aggressive vivisection advocacy groups.

--Riffle, Dale, Brewer, Jim. "Animal Sanctuaries: A Labor of Love," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):28. The challenges of running a sanctuary.

--Masson, Jeffrey. "Animal Passions," The Animals' Agenda 17 (no.1, 1997):34. Jeffrey Masson explores animal emotions with Kim Sturla.

--Carter-Long, Lawrence. "Expanding the Circle," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):11. Building bridges and forming alliances can effect positive change.

--Ball, Matt. "On Being Vegan," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):19. Matt Ball cautions against vegans becoming joyless fanatics.

--Ryder, Richard. "Toward Kinship," The Animals' Agenda 17(no.1, 1997):44. "Speciesism and `Painism'," explains Richard Ryder, are the grounds for opposing animal exploitation.

--Bean, Michael J., Wilcove, David S. "The Private-Land Problem," Conservation Biology 11 (no.1, 1997):1.

--Hutchins, Michael, Wiese, Robert J., Willis, Kevin. "Captive Breeding and Conservation," Conservation Biology 11 (no.1, 1997):3.

--Lugo, Ariel E. "Old-Growth Mangrove Forests in the United States," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):11.

--Cade, Tom J., Woods, Christopher P. "Changes in Distribution and Abundance of the Loggerhead Shrike," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):21.

--Grumbine, R. Edward. "Reflections on "What is Ecosystem Management?" Conservation Biology 11 (no.1, 1997):41. Ten dominant themes of ecosystem management, described in a previous paper, reviewed on the basis of feedback from managers actively implementing ecosystem management. Key points include the importance of managing for ecological integrity, the need for social as well as scientific data, suggestions for implementing cooperation strategies and conservation partnerships, a pragmatic definition of adaptive management, and first steps toward changing the structure of natural resource organizations. Grumbine is at the Sierra Institute, University of Santa Cruz, CA.

--Brunner, Ronald D., Clark, Tim W. "A Practice-Based Approach to Ecosystem Management,"Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):48.

--Lewis, Dale M., Alpert, Peter. "Trophy Hunting and Wildlife Conservation in Zambia," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):59. Trophy hunting is generating significant benefits for residents of game management areas in Zambia, and how these benefits might be enhanced. With attention to CAMPFIRE.

--Berger, Joel, Ferguson, J.W.H. "Population Constraints Associated with the Use of Black Rhinos as an Umbrella Species for Desert Herbivores," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):69.

--Rachlow, Janet L., Berger, Joel. "Conservation Implications of Patterns of Horn Regeneration in Dehorned White Rhinos," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):84.

--Arita, Hector T., Figueroa, Fernanda, Santos-Del-Prado, Karina. "Geographical Range Size and the Conservation of Mexican Mammals,"

--Goerch, Jaqueline M. "Patterns of Rarity in the Birds of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):112.

--Grant, Peter R., Grant, B. Rosemary. "The Rarest of Darwin's Finches," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):119.

--Bingham, Bruce B., Noon, Barry R. "Mitigation of Habitat `Take': Application to Habitat Conservation Planning," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):127.

--Allendorf, Fred W., Bayles, David, Williams, Thomas H. "Prioritizing Pacific Salmon Stocks for Conservation," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):140.

--McCarthy, Michael A., Lindenmayer, David B., Drechsler, Martin. "Extinction Debts and Risks Faced by Abundant Species," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):221.

--Golodetz, Alisa D., Foster, David R. "History and Importance of Land Use and Protection in the North Quabbin Region of Massachusetts (USA)," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):127.

--Weeks, Priscilla, Packard, Jane M. "Acceptance of Scientific Management by Natural Resource Dependent Communities," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):236.

--Mauchamp, A. "Threats from Alien Plant Species in the Galapagos Islands," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):260.

--Carr III, Archie. "Archie Carr, Model Naturalist," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):264.

--Dudley, Joseph P. "Paleontological and Cultural Perspectives on Livestock Grazing in Southwestern Rangelands: Response to Brown and McDonald," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):267.

--Brown, James H., McDonald, William. "Historical and Cultural Perspectives on Grazing: Reply to Dudley," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):270.

--Salwasser, Hal, MacCleery, Douglas W., Snellgrove, Thomas A. "The Pollyannas vs. the Chicken Littles--Enough Already!," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):283.

--Morris, Douglas W., Heidinga, Lawrence. "Balancing the Books on Biodiversity," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):287.

--Callicott, J. Baird, and Mumford, Karen. "Ecological Sustainability as a Conservation Concept," Conservation Biology 11(no.1, 1997):32. Neither the classic resource management concept of maximum sustainable yield nor the concept of sustainable development are useful to contemporary, nonanthropocentric, ecologically informed conservation biology. As an alternative, we advance an ecological definiton of sustainability that is in better accord with biological conservation: meeting human needs without compromising the health of ecosystems. In addition to familiar benefit-cost constraints on human economic activituy, we urge adding ecological constraints. Projects are not choice-worthy if they compromise the health of the ecosystems in which human economic systems are embedded. Sustainability, so defined, is offered as an approach to conservation that would complement wildlands preservation for ecological integrity, not substitute for wildlands preservation. Callicott is in philosophy at the University of North Texas. Mumford is in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

--Topping Jr., John C., Qureshim Ata, Dabi, Christopher. "Building on the Asian Climate Initiative: A Partnership to Produce Radical Innovation in Energy Systems," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.1, 1996):4.

--Sherbinin, Alex. "Human Security and Fertility: The Case of Haiti," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.1, 1996):28.

--Feldman, David L., Wilt, Catherine A. "Evaluating the Implementation of State-Level Global Climate Change Programs," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.1, 1996):46.

--Sharma, Shalendra. "Building Effective International Environmental Regimes: The Case of the Global Environment Facility," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.1, 1996):73.

--McCarthy, John, Noor, Yus Rusila. "Bird Hunting in Krangkeng, West Java: Linking Conservation and Development," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.1, 1996):87.

--Wilkes, Angela. "An Economic Perspective on Climate Change Policies," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.1, 1996):117.

--Percival, Val, Homer-Dixon, Thomas. "Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict: The Case of Rwanda," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):270.

--Botcheva, Liliana. "Focus and Effectiveness of Environmental Activism in Eastern Europe: A Comparative Study of Environmental Movements in Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovakia, and Romania," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):292.

--Anderson, Lykke E. "The Causes of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):309.

--Alampay, Jose Gerardo A. "Revisiting Environmental Security in the Philippines," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):329.

--Barber, Jeffrey. "The Sustainable Communities Movement," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.3, 1996):338.

--Thompson, Peter, Strohm, Laura A. "Trade and Environmental Quality: A Review of the Evidence," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.4, 1996):363.

--Bernauer, Thomas, Moser, Peter. "Reducing Pollution of the River Rhine: The Influence of International Cooperation," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.4, 1996):389.

--Brush, Stephen B. "Valuing Crop Genetic Resources," The Journal of Environment and Development 5(no.4, 1996):416.

--Mckeand, Steve, Svensson, Jan. "Sustainable Management of Genetic Resources," Journal of Forestry 95(no.3, 1997):4.

--Watkins, Kevin. "Free Trade and Farm Fallacies: From the Uruguay Round to the World Food Summit," The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):244. Free trade is increasingly considered to be the best way of ending world hunger. The removal of trade barriers, it is argued, will allow countries to "reap the benefits of comparative advantage" and enable domestic consumption to be met more cheaply by less costly imported supplies. But while Southern countries have been obliged under the Uruguay Round of GATT to remove subsidies to their farmers, subsidies to Northern producers remain intact. Far from relieving hunger, liberalization is increasing food insecurity by throwing Southern producers into unequal competition with the heavily-subsidized, capital-intensive agricultural systems of the North. Millions of livelihoods will be lost as a result. An alternative trade agenda is urgently required--one that promotes greater food self-sufficiency in the South, with a focus on smallholder producers, and that accepts the need to restrict imports in the interests of tackling the underlying causes of hunger.

--Sexton, Sarah. "Transnational Corporations and Food," The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):256.

--"CGIAR: Agricultural Research for Whom?" The Ecologist 26 (no.6, 1996): 259. Off-farm agricultural research plays a central role in shaping the current and future direction of agriculture. Who controls that research and who sets its agenda is of critical importance for food security. Of particular concern is the influence exerted by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Under its direction, research has been geared towards intensive, industrialized method of production--at great cost to genetic diversity, the environment and poorer farmers in the South. Non-governmental organizations are pressing CGIAR to implement wide-ranging changes so as to restructure its research agenda and decision-making processes.

--deSelincourt, (de Selincourt) Kate. "Intensifying Agriculture--The Organic Way," The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):271.

--Steinbrecher, Ricarda A. "From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution: The Environmental Risks of Genetically Engineered Crops," The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):273. Many interest groups claim that an increasing world population cannot be fed unless genetically engineered crops are grown. Such crops, so the theory goes, will produce higher yields than conventional farming methods and have fewer adverse environmental impacts because the frequency, range and toxicity of weed-killer and pesticide applications will be reduced. Ecological risk assessments are said to indicate that several products can be grown safely on a wide scale. In fact, growing genetically engineered plants is likely to increase the use of herbicides and pesticides and to accelerate the evolution of "superweeds" and "superbugs". Crucially, major environmental risks are unpredictable effects and the unintended transfer of transgenes to plant relatives. Risk assessments are limited and have primarily been based on an outdated understanding of gene behavior.

--Hildyard, Nicholas, and Sexton, Sarah. "Too Many for What? The Social Generation of Food `Scarcity' and `Overpopulation,'" The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):282. Provisions of population and food supply which leave out the power relationships between different groups of people will always mask the true nature of food scarcity--who gets to eat and who doesn't--and lead to "solutions" that are simplistic, frequently oppressive and which, ultimately, reinforce the very structures creating ecological damage and hunger. Moreover, by degrading the environment, often irreversibly, the forces which are generating organized scarcity--the chief characteristic of "overpopulation" in the modern era--are inexorably undermining the capacity of the land to produce food. In doing so, they threaten to bring about conditions of absolute scarcity where even equitable economic and social arrangements may prove insufficient to prevent widespread human impoverishment.

--Bunyard, Peter. "Industrial Agriculture--Driving Climate Change," The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):290. Climate change is happening--that's official. Nonetheless, most agronomists argue that human societies can weather the storm without drastic changes to industrialized patterns of farming. Such claims, however, overestimate industry's contribution to climate change and underplay the impact of modern agriculture on climate. By degrading soils and changing patterns of land use, agriculture is disrupting the ability of climate to recover from the perturbations caused by greenhouse gas emissions. The change in rainfall patterns that accompany land degradation, especially in the drylands, is leading to increased water stress and, consequently, towards conditions where terrestrial vegetation may be losing its powers to modulate climate and thus prevent runaway global warming.

--Garnett, Tara. "Farming the City: The Potential of Urban Agriculture," The Ecologist 26(no.6, 1996):299. By the turn of the century, the majority of the world's people will live in cities and urban areas. In the South, growing one's own food in cities is already a thriving response by the poor to the problems of obtaining food in an era of structural adjustment. In the North, the imperative to grow one's own food seems less immediate. But the arguments in favor of urban agriculture on the grounds of community and health regeneration are compelling, particularly for those living on low incomes.

--Bocking, Stephen. "The Power Elite." Alternatives 23 (no.2, 1997): 14. The Bakun Dam will Flood 69,000 hectares of tropical forest, and displace thousands of people, to generate at great cost, electricity for which there is no immediate market.

--Abouchar, Juli A. "A Foot in the Door," Alternatives 23 (no.2, 1997): 28. Transnational corporations have always had access to international levers of power. Environmental groups are just now gaining some legal recognition and access.

--McDonald, David. "City Limits," Alternatives 23(no.2, 1997):28. New public-private partnerships for improving cities may not meet UN Habitat Conference expectaBAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD gas emissions.

--Gourlay, Laurie. "Temagami Diary," Alternatives 23(no.2, 1997):10. Ontario's government plans to open up for mining and logging 58 percent of one of the last stands of old growth pine.

--Burrell, David, Malits, Elena. Original Peace: Restoring God's Creation. Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1997. $6.95. A work of philosophical theology that places Christ at the meeting place between humans and their natural world. The authors take seriously what is traditionally called "fall-and-redemption theology", thereby taking exception to the works of some theorists who deny the importance of original sin.

--Crocker, David A., ed., Sustaining the Good Life: The Ethics of Consumption and Global Stewardship. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. 544 pp. $25 paper, $75 cloth. Two dozen eminent scholars from across the humanities and social sciences examine the causes, nature, and consequences of patterns of consumption. The essays frame the problem of consumption in a variety of ways, challenging readers to see the issue from new perspectives.

--Edelstein, Michael R., Makofske, Willaim J. Radon's Deadly Daughters: Science, Environmental Policy and Politics of Risk. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. 320 pp. $21.95 paper, $62.50 paper. The complex mix of social and scientific factors that have led to public and official misunderstanding of the geologic radon issue and how risk factors are surrounded by mythic beliefs that contradict scientific realities. Public perception of risk may fail to be motivated even by serious threats and the political and scientific influences behind environmental policy can seriously undermine an effective response.

--Hardwick, Susan Wiley, Holtgrieve, Donald G. Valley for Dreams: Life and Landscape in the Sacramento Valley. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1996. 344 pp. $24.95 paper, $67.50 cloth. Structured around four key themes--the environment, people, economy, and landscape--the book analyzes how this region's natural environment changed as successive groups and individuals made it one of the fastest growing and ethnically diverse rural areas in North America.

--Meyer, Judith L. The Spirit of Yellowstone: The Cultural Evolution of a National Park. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1996. 176 pp. $26.95 cloth. Meyer demonstrates how important the park's past was in shaping our contemporary perceptions of Yellowstone and identifies six major themes important to the Yellowstone experience. She argues that it is Yellowstone's persistent spirit of place that park managers should seek to preserve and to keep in mind alongside politics, economics, and science.

--Anderson, Terry L., Hill, Peter, J., eds. Environmental Federalism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. 225 pp. $22.95 paper, $57.50 cloth. The contributors provide a wide variety of strategies to challenge what they view as Washington's unsophisticated, ineffective, and harmful approaches. They provide a general framework for how states can regain control of their environmental destiny.

--Anderson, Terry L., Leal, Donald R., Enviro-Capitalists: Doing Good While Doing Well. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1997. 200 pp. $16.95 paper, $52.50 cloth. Demonstrating why Americans should turn to private entrepreneurs rather than the federal government to guarantee the protection and improvement of environmental quality, the authors document numerous examples of how entrepreneurs have satisfied the growing demand for environmental quality.

--Anderson, Terry L., Hill, Peter J., eds. Wildlife in the Marketplace. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1995. 208 pp. $22.95 paper, $57.50 cloth. Economists and wildlife experts challenge the prevailing idea that wildlife and markets are inimical to one another, arguing that markets can play an important role in preserving animal species and their habitat.

--Dovers, Stephen, ed. Australian Environmental History. Oxford, 1995. 288 pp. $35. This book explores past interactions between humans and the Australian environment and offers insights into current environmental debates.

--Istock, Conrad A., Hoffmann, Robert S., Storm Over a Mountain Island: Conservation Biology and the Mt. Graham Affair. Tucson: University of Arizona, 1995. 288 pp. $19.95 paper, $39.95 cloth. A comprehensive case study of the building of the controversial telescope on Mt. Graham, in Arizona, for scientists, land managers, policymakers, and environmnetalists who will face future ecological controversies.

--Jacobson, Susan K., ed. Conserving Wildlife: International Education and Communication Approaches. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. 312 pp. $22 paper, $45 cloth. Twenty-five exemplary education and communication programs from around the world that have contributed to the conservation of wildlife and the natural resources.

--Meyer, Carrie A. "Public-Nonprofit Partnerships and North-South Green Finance," The Journal of Environment and Development 6(no.2, 1997):123.

--Chasek, Pamela S. "The Convention to Combat Desertification: Lessons Learned for Sustainable Development," The Journal of Environment and Development 6(no.2, 1997):147.

--Tookey, Douglas L. "Sustainable Development in Laos: Prospects for a Green Future," The Journal of Environment and Development 6(no.2, 1997):170.

--Zebich-Knos, Michele. "Preserving Biodiversity in Costa Rica: The Case of the Merck-INBio Agreement," The Journal of Environment and Development 6(no.2, 1997):180.

--Barham, Elizabeth. "Social Movements for Sustainable Agriculture in France: A Polanyian Perspective," Society & Natural Resources 10(no.3, 1997):239.

--Hassanein, Neva. "Networking Knowledge in the Sustainable Agriculture Movement: Some Implications of the Gender Dimension," Society & Natural Resources 10(no.3, 1997):251.

--Carruthers, David V. "Agroecology in Mexico: Linking Environmental and Indigenous Struggles,: Society & Natural Resources 10(no.3, 1997):259.

--Juillet, Luc, Roy, Jeffrey, Scala, Francesca. "Sustainable Agriculture and Global Institutions: Emerging Institutions and Mixed Incentives," Society & Natural Resources 10(no.3, 1997):309.

--Escapa, Marta, Gutierrez, Maria Jose. "Distribution of Potential Gains from International Environmental Agreements: The Case of the Greenhouse Effect," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 33(no.1, 1997):1.

--Ahrens, W. Ashley, Sharma, Vijaya R. "Trends in Natural Resource Commodity Prices: Deterministic or Stochastic,"Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 33(no.1, 1997):59.

--Hochberg. Michael, Clobert, Jean, Barbault, eds. Aspects of the Genesis and Maintenance of Biological Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 336pp. $84. A collection of evolutionary and ecological perspectives in the study of biodiversity.

--Stokes, Edward. Hong Kong's Wild Places: An Environmental Exploration. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 196pp. $40. A journey through the towering peaks, grassy hills, wooded valleys, and coastal waters--revealing the varied life that survives among them in Hong Kong.

--Evans, Julian. A Wood of Our Own. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 176pp. $25. A forester's development, management, and enjoyment of his own patch of woodland.

--Chapman, David. Natural Hazards. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 192pp. $12. Potential answers to the questions concerning natural disaster preparedness and management.

--Brush, Stephen B., Stabinsky, Doreen, eds. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights. Washington: Island Press, 1996. Cultural or indigenous knowledge should be treated as a form of intellectual property, which enables such peoples to gain financially from sharing unique and useful knowledge, in order to increase economic return from biological resources maintained by peasants and tribal people. Brush is in community studies and development at the University of California, Davis. Stabinsky is in environmental studies at California State University-Sacramento.

--LeQuire, Stan L., ed., The Best Preaching on Earth: Sermons on Caring for Creation. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1996. 221 pages.

--Eaton, John, The Circle of Creation: Animals in the Light of the Bible. Valley Forge, PA: SCM Press, 1995. 116 pages.

--Vandermeer, John, Reconstructing Biology: Genetics and Ecology in the New World Order. New York: John Wiley, 1996. 478 pages. $ 35.00.

--Batisse, Michel. "Biosphere Reserves: A Challenge for Biodiversity Conservation and Regional Development," Environment 39(no.5, 1997):6. Biosphere reserves offer a way to combine conservation with local economic development. When linked as a world network, they create the possibility of a truly global approach to biodiversity research and preservation.

--Nakamura, Masahisa. "Preserving the Health of the World's Lakes," Environment 39(no.5, 1997):16. Although the current state of the world's lakes is fairly alarming, a concerted international effort could reverse the trend toward degradation.

--Krimsky, Sheldon. "Biotechnology Safety," Environment 39(no.5, 1997):27. Two recent reports on the regulation of biotechnology show too little concern about the harm novel organisms could do to the environment and human health.

--Dugatkin, Lee Alan. "The Evolution of Cooperation," Bioscience 47 (no.6, 1997): 355. Four paths to the evolution and maintenance of cooperative behavior.

--Vandermeer, John, and Perfecto, Ivette. "The Agroecosystem: A Need for the Conservation Biologist's Lens," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):591.

--Hutchins, Michael, Wiese, Robert, Willis, Kevin. "Priority-Setting for Ex Situ Conservation," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):593.

--Grant, C. Val, Winker, Kevin. "The Role of Taxonomy and Systematics," Conservation Biology 11 (no.3, 1997): 594. The organisms we seek to save need to be identifiable in the field, not just when dead in the laboratory.

--Orr, David W. "Architecture as Pedagogy II," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):597. The worst thing we can do to our children is to convince them that ugliness is normal (citing Rene Dubos). Where learning about conservation takes place, also teaches about conservation. One criteria is that beauty here must cause no ugliness somewhere else or at some later time. The experience of Oberlin College, where Orr teaches.

--Niemela, Jari. "Invertebrates and Boreal Forest Management," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):601.

--Pennock, David S., Dimmick, Walter W. "Critique of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit as a Definition for `Distinct Population Segments' under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):611.

--Jacobson, Susan K., Marynowski, Susan B. "Public Attitudes and Knowledge about Ecosystem Management on Department of Defense Land in Florida," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):770.

--Bartlein, Patrick J., Whitlock, Cathy, Shafer, Sarah L. "Future Climate in the Yellowstone National Park Region and Its Potential Impact on Vegetation," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):782. The changes that might result from global warming are difficult to predict but models indicate they will be as great or greater than those seen in the paleoecologic record during previous warming intervals, and will likely exceed the capacities of present species to adjust to them, resulting in communities without any analogue in present-day vegetation. The authors are in geography, University of Oregon.

--Norchi, D., and D. Bolze, Saving the Tiger: A Conservation Stragegy. WCS Policy Report Paper No. 3. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society (at the Bronx Zoo), 1995. Trade in tiger parts and continuing human pressures on tiger habitats are the primary factors responsible for declining tiger numbers. Key recommendations are improved law enforcement, relocating humans out of tiger habitat, building walls and other deterrents to keep local people and their cattle out of tiger reserves, policing against poachers, and conservation education of consumers of tiger products and local communities living near tiger habitat. There is insufficient political commitment to tiger conservation.

--Saberwal, Vasant K. "Saving the Tiger: More Money or Less Power?" Conservation Biology 11 (no.3, 1997): 815-17. Local communities near tiger reserves have great animosity toward state-initiated conservation programs. Decisions must be more local-level, and it is unreasonable to translocate people, who can rather be educated to live with tigers, as they already do with lions. Translocation programs, already associated with dams, do not work in India. Persons in the United States would not be translocated to save mountain lions. Compensation systems for those whose livestock are preyed upon are abused; fatalities from tiger attacks run into the hundreds annually. Saberwal is Indian, currently at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Stdies.

--Karanth, K. Ullas, and Madhusudan, M.D. "Avoiding Paper Tigers and Saving Real Tigers: Response to Saberwal," Conservation Biology 11(no.3, 1997):818-820. The situation is critical and urgent, and, while everyone hopes for local based-decisions, the social reform of existing practices comes quite slowly; by then tiger will be extinct. In the last 6-7 years there has been a sharp deterioration of wildland protection in India, with cutbacks of staff and resources, with dramatic increase in poaching, 200-400 killed annually for the traditional medicine trade. There is also a great increase in local hunting of the ungulates which are the tiger prey base. The tiger lives in areas characterized by rising human populations that are economically and politically marginalized, a situation not likely soon to change. India has a land area of over 3 million km2 and it is not unreasonable to set aside a few inviolate 500-1000 km2 sanctuaries, core conservations refuges that are part of a more extensive tiger conservation matrix. Lions are different, and there is no site in Asia where high density, productive tiger populations exist with high density agricultural and pastoral human occupation. Relocations should be voluntary, the present encroachments on tiger habitat are not sustainable, and are no long-term solution. The authors are with the Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangalore, India.

--Abram, David. "Returning to our Animal Senses," Wild Earth 7 (no.1, 1997): 7.

--Kaza, Stephanie. "Shedding Stereotypes," Wild Earth 7 (no.1, 1997): 11.

--Barlow, Connie. "Re-Storying Biodiversity by Way of Science," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):14. Sidebar: A Conversation with Edward O. Wilson.

--Manes, Christopher. "Contact and the Solid Earth," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):19.

--Mander, Jerry. "Technologies of Globalization," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):21.

--Fitzgerald, Kathleen. "A Homecoming for Wolves in the Northern Forest," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):61.

--Swanson, Frederick H. "Time Series Mapping of Utah's Wild Lands," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):64.

--Glassberg, Jeffrey. "North American Butterfly Association," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):69.

--Drengson, Alan. "Way of Wild Journeying," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):70.

--Wheeler, David. "Addressing Population and Immigration Bioregionally," Wild Earth 7(no.1, 1997):74.

--Lawrence, Patrick L. "Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the Great Lakes," Land Use Policy 14(no.2, 1997):119.

--"Criminal Prosecution and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: An Analysis of the Constitution and Criminal Intent in an Environmental Context," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 24(no.3, 1997):595.

--Larsen, David R., Shifley, Stephen R., England, Kristine. "Ten Guidelines for Ecosystem Researchers: Lessons from Missouri," Journal of Forestry 95(no.4, 1997):4.

--Bonnie, Robert. "Safe Harbor for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker," Journal of Forestry 95(no.4, 1997):17.

--Fedkiw, John. "The Forest Service's Pathway toward Ecosystem Management," Journal of Forestry 95(no.4, 1997):30.

--Covington, W. Wallace, Fule, Peter Z., Wagner, Michael R. "Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest," Journal of Forestry 95(no.4, 1997):23.

--Bouma-Prediger, Steven. The Greening of Theology: The Ecological Models of Rosemary Radford Ruether, Joseph Sittler, and Jurgen Moltmann. Atlanta: Scolars Press, 1996. 338pp. $35.95 cloth, $23.95 paper. Against the charge that the Christian tradition is ecologically bankrupt, the author demonstrates the intellectual and spiritual resources available within Christianity for addressing ecological issues.

--Derr, Thomas S., Nash, James A. Neuhaus, John. Environmental Ethics and Christian Humanism. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996. 144pp. $16.95 paper. Crossing swords with biocentrism, the animal rights movement, and ecofeminism Derr argues that Christian ethics requires an environmentalism that depends on good science for its practical judgments on compassion and a lively sense of justice for its social and economic policies, and on faithfulness to our God-given responsibilities as stewards of nature for its energy. James Nash and John Neuhaus offer critical responses to which Deer presents a rejoinder.

--Baer-Brown, Leslie, Rhein, Bob. Earth Keepers: A Sourcebook for Environmental Issues and Action. San Francisco: Mercury House, 1995.

--Proescholdt, Kevin, Rapson, Rip, Heinselman, Miron L. Troubled Waters: The Fight for the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. St. Cloud, MN: North Star Press, 1995.

--Utah Wilderness Coalition. Wilderness at the Edge: A Citizen Proposal to Protect Utah's Canyons and Deserts. Salt Lake City: Utah Wilderness Coalition, 1990.

--Robinson, Wade L. Decisions in Doubt: The Environment and Public Policy. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1994. 277pp. $39.95 cloth. Using examples from the area of waste management but touching also upon issues such as the ozone layer, contaminated foodstuffs, and asbestos removal, Robinson presents a new vision for rational decision-making on environmental issues. He points out faults in our old policy-making methodology and offers a rationale for a decision procedure based less on certainty but more adapted and adaptive to our times.

--Dycus, Stephen. National Defense and the Environment. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1996. 306pp. $19.95 paper. In a study of the issues raised when US military might collides with environmental laws, Dycus writes, "in preparing for a fight, we must not destroy the very thing we would fight to protect."

--Brown, Lester R. et al. State of the World 1996. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1997. $11.95 paper. This is the Worldwatch Institute Report on progress toward a sustainable society and is updated annually. Appearing in 27 languages this has become the world's most widely used public policy analysis in any field.

--Swanson, Timothy. Global Action for Biodiversity: An International Framework for Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 208pp. $61.50 cloth, $26.50 paper. This book describes the nature of the issues now before the international community, the gaps in the GBD Convention which remain to be filled, and the ways in which the international community can reach agreement on those gaps.

--Howe, Jim, McMahon, Ed, Propst, Luther. Balancing Nature and Commerce in Gateway Communities. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 165pp. $21.95 paper. Practical and proven lessons on how residents of "gateway communities"--the small towns and open spaces that surround national and state parks, and other public lands--can protect their community's identity while stimulating a healthy economy and safeguarding nearby natural and hisoric resources.

--Baden, John A., Snow, Donald, eds. The Next West: Public Lands, Community, and Economy in the American West. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 272 pp. $45 cloth, $22.95 paper. The writers reflect on what has gone wrong in the region, and point the way to a Next West based on the renewal of Jeffersonian democracy, experiments in local and supra-local control of public lands, and the use of markets to replace the political allocation of natural resources.

--Schoonmaker, Peter, vonHagen, Bettina, Wolf, Edward, eds. The Rain Forest of Home. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 447 pp. $50 cloth, $27 paper. The characteristics, history, culture, economy, and ecology of the U. S. coastal temperate rain forest.

--Dalal-Clayton, Barry. Getting to Grips with Green Plans. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 288 pp. $30 paper. This book assesses and compares green plans, or sustainable development strategies, carried out by industrialized countries.

--Grifo, Francesca, Rosenthal, Joshua, eds. Biodiversity and Human Health. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 399 pp. $50 cloth, $29.95 paper. Exploring the human health consequences of the loss of biological diversity, contributors discuss the uses and significance of biodiversity to the practice of medicine today and develop strategies for conservation of these critical resources.

--Wolf, Amanda. Quotas in International Agreements. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 224 pp. $35 paper. A critical examination of quotas as regulatory tools and as products of negotiation.

--Lassonde, Louise. Coping with Population Challenges. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 224 pp. $61.50 cloth, $26.50 paper. This volume examines the Programme of Action adopted at the 1994 ICPD in Cairo in light of the challenges of past and present demographic change and their implications for action.

--Fowler, Alan. Striking A Balance. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 320 pp. $24.50. This is a guide to how non-govenmental organizations involved in international development can simultaneously increase the scale of their impact, diversify their activities, respond to long-term humanitairian crises, and improve their performance.

--Borja, Jordi, Castells, Manuel. The Local and the Global. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 320 pp. $35 paper. Urban geographers examine the possibilities for establishing a dynamic and creative relationship between the local and the global that will enable cities to remain the focus of social organization, political management and cultural expression.

--Stevens, Stan. Conservation through Cultural Survival: Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 320 pp. $22.95 paper. Contributors who have been actively involved in projects around the world provide in-depth accounts from Nepal, Australia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Honduras, Canada, and Alaska of some of the most promising efforts to develop protected areas where indigenous peoples maintain their rights to settlement and subsistence and participate in management.

--Ghimire, Krishna B., Pimbert, Michel P.,eds. Social Change and Conservation. 342 pp. $33.50 paper. Drawing on case studies from around the world contributors critically review current trends in protected area management and the prevailing concept of conservation, and show how the customary rights, livelihoods, well-being, and social cohesion of local people have been affected. The authors argue for a thorough overhaul of current conservation thinking and practice.

--Guerrer, Y; Alexander, N; Chase, J.; and O'Brien, M, eds. Values and the Environment: A Social Science Perspective. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. 256 pp.

--Westra, L., and Robinson, T. The Greeks and the Environment. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. Chapters by Anthony Preus, John Rist, Alan Holland, Madonna Adams and many others. Forward by Max Oelschlaeger.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, and Westra, L., eds. Technology and Values. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. 356 pp. A collection of reprinted articles; intended as a textbook.

--Westra, L., and Werhane, P., eds. The Business of Consumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. 360 pp. Original articles by Herman Daly, Robert Goodland, William Rees, Donald Brown, Mark Sagoff, Ernest Partridge, William McDongout, Laura Westra, Eric Freyfogle and many others.

--Taylor, Bron. "Earth First! Fights Back." Terra Nova 2, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 27-41. Examines the recent escalation of direct action resistance to logging, focusing on the campaigns at Cove-Mallard, Idaho, and Warner Creek, Oregon. Argues that given the record of government lawlessness in its administration of biodiversity-related environmental law, direct action resistance is morally justifiable and yet, grassroots activists must also redouble efforts to defend and strengthen environmental laws and increase citizen vigilance with regard to them. This latter endeavor is essential if activists are to force the government to employ the best science in its decision making and comply with its own statutory obligations.

--Taylor, Bron. "Earthen Spirituality or Cultural Genocide? Radical Environmentalism's Appropriation of Native American Spirituality." Religion 27 (1997): 183-215. The appropriation by non-Indians of Native American religious practices has become a highly contentious phenomenon. The present analysis focuses on the controversy as it has unfolded within the `Deep Ecology' or 'Radical Environmental' Movement in North America. Taking as its central case study Earth First!, the radical vanguard of this movement, it describes the diverse forms such borrowing takes, the plural American Indian and non-Indian views shaping the ensuing controversy, and the threats this controversy poses to a nascent and fragile Indigenous-Environmentalist alliance. Concluding reflections address the ethics of appropriation with the aim of reducing the tensions attending these phenomena.

--MacLeod, Alexander. "Rural Britons Defend Fox Hunt, `Way of Life.'" The Christian Science Monitor 89 (14 July 1997): 6. In a rally in London, 100 thousand country folk protested proposed laws against fox hunting, claiming that city dwellers know next to nothing about rural life.

--LaFranchi, Howard. "Sprouting of Young Party May Yield Earth-Friendlier Mexico." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (11 July 1997): 1, 6. Green party wins its first ever seats in Congress.

--"Vacation Trends." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (11 July 1997): 10-11. Interesting statistics on vacationing. "Outdoors" accounts for 17%, of which 85% is camping; "State/National Parks," 10%. Travel is a $460 billion industry in the U.S., the third largest. Americans will make 230 million trips this summer.

--Marks, Alexandra. "Environmentalists Target Java-Drinkers to Save Birds." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (10 July 1997): 3. Changes in coffee-growing methods are blamed for drops in migratory bird populations.

--Hopkins, Thomas D. "Clean Air's High Cost." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (10 1997): 15.

--Boxer, Baruch. "US and China Talk Environment, Not Just Trade." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (9 July 1997): 19.

--Nifong, Christina. "Traffic in the South Tests `Car Is King' Mentality." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (8 July 1997): 4. Plans to build trains and light-rail systems in cities from Atlanta to Houston to Los Angeles.

--Carlile, William H. "Underground Aquifers Are `Banks' for Southwestern Gold." The Christian Science Monitor 89 (8July 1997): 3.


--Caring for Creation. The Endangered Species Act is a Noah's Ark for our time. About 7 minutes. A plea from religious leaders to re-authorize the Endangered Species Act. Ismar Schorsch, Jewish Theological Seminary; Joan Campbell, National Council of Churches; Calvin DeWitt, AuSable Institute. Concludes with an appeal to write your congressional representatives. About $ 5 from Environmental Justice Resources, National Council of Churches, P. O. Box 968, Elkhart, IN 46515. 800/762-0965. 219/264-3102.



--July 11-18, 1997. Spirituality and Sustainability, in Assisi, Italy. With a focus on current efforts since the Rio Earth Summit, including the Earth Charter process, on emerging ecologically sensitive religions and sciences, and grassroots sustainable development initiatives. Contact Richard M. Clugston, Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone 202/778-6133.

--July 17-19, 1997. Second Biennial Conference of the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE), University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. "The Last Best Place." Featured writers and scholars: David Abram, Rick Bass, Shoko Itoh, Thomas J. Lyon, Joseph Meeker, David Robertson, Pattiann Rogers, Louise Westling, and Gary Snyder. Paper proposals, by January 15, 1997, to: John Tallmadge, President-Elect, ASLE, 6538, Teakwood Court, Cincinnati OH 45224. Phone: 513-681-0944; Email: jtall@interramp.com General information about the conference from ASLE Conference, Conferences and Institutes, Center for Continuing Education, Missoula MT 59812-1900. Phone: 406-243-4600; Email: cni@selway.umt.edu Conference Director: Hank Harrington. Further information about the conference is available on the ASLE World Wide Web Site: http://faraday.clas.virginia.edu/~djp2n/asle.html

--July 19-25, 1997. INTECOL, Firenze, Italy. Integrity Project will have a day. For more information, contact Prof. L. Westra (ISEE Secretary), address below.

--August 9-13, 1997. The American Sociological Association, Sheraton Centre, Toronto, Canada.

--August 10-17, 1997. Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World, Estes Park, Colorado, YMCA of the Rockies. See above.

--September 28-30, 1997. People and Place: The Human Experience in Greater Yellowstone. Fourth Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park. Contact: Conference Registration, Yellowstone Association, P. O. Box 117, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190.

--October 1- 3, 1997. Environmental Justice: Global Ethics for the 21st Century. An international academic conference at the University of Melbourne. Papers invited. Arne Naess (University of Oslo) will open the conference. Contact Nicholas Low, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Phone: (3) 9344 6429. Fax: (3) 9344 7458. Email: nick_low@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au. The conference is now posted on the Internet at:


--October 15-18, 1997. Society for Human Ecology, Local and Global Communities: Complexity and Responsibility. Bar Harbor, Maine. Ninth International Conference. Papers invited. Contact Melville Coté, Executive Director, Society for Human Ecology, c/o College of the Atlantic, 102 Eden Street, Bar Harbor, Maine 04906. Fax: 207/288-4126. Phone 207-288-5015

--October 18-25, 1997. 6th World Wilderness Congress, Bangalore, India. Papers invited. For a symposium on Wilderness Designation, Management, and Research, contact in the U.S.: Alan Watson, Leopold Institute, 790 East Beckwith Ave., University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59801. Phone 406/542-4197. For a symposium on Wilderness Inventory: Approaches and Progress, contact Jonathan Miller, Director, Wilderness and Wild Rivers Unit, Environment Australia, G.P.O. Box 1567 Canberra, Australia 2601. Fax: 61-6 217-2095. For a symposium on The Use of Wilderness for Personal Growth, Therapy, and Education, contact Dr. John Hendee, Director, Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Fax: 208/885-2268. For a seminar on The Tiger Dilemma--Status, Review, and Recommendations, contact M.A. Partha Sarathy, Hamsini, 1, 12th Cross, Rajmahal, Bangalore, 650 080, India. Fax: 91-80 334-1674. Previous conferences have been in South Africa, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Norway.

--November 11-14, 1997. National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Roanoke, Virginia. "Expanding Horizons: A Diversity of Views, A Diversity of Viewers. Contact: 540-231-5185.

--December 27-30, 1997. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division. Philadelphia Marriott, Philadelphia, PA.


--March 25-28, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Pacific Division. Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, CA.

--May 6-9, 1998. American Philosophical Association: Central Division. Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL.

--May 27-31, 1998. Society and Resource Management, Seventh International Symposium. University of Missouri-Columbia. Papers, symposia, etc., invited. Contact: Sandy Rikoon, Rural Sociology, 108 Sociology Bldg., University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. Phone 573/882-0861 Fax: 573/882-1473.

--August 10-16, 1998. 20th World Congress of Philosophy. Boston, MA, USA. An official section on "Philosophy and the Environment" will be co-chaired by Robin Attfield. ISEE will organize one or more sessions, in the professional societies sections, of which Holmes Rolston will be the convener. See Call for Papers above.


--May 17-22, 1999. Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. University of Montana, Missoula. Includes wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science. Changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. There is a call for papers. 406/243-4623 or 888 (toll-free)/254-2544.


Back issues of ISEE Newsletters have been moved to the University of North Texas website at:


(These were formerly at Morehead State University, Kentucky, although accessible through the University of North Texas ISEE homepage). Newsletters can be searched using the FIND feature on Windows or other software. Newsletters can be Emailed to your local address.


The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, including 1996 update, is available. The Bibliography is available in WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) which is easily translated into a Macintosh format (also for WordPerfect in Macintosh, if desired). If you do not use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in three parts, A-F, G-O and P-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel: 970-491-6315 (office); Fax: 970-491-4900; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu Send $5 to Rolston.

Access via Internet: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:


The site has a search engine, by name and keyword. Files and search results can be e-mailed to your local e-mail address. The preceding require only ordinary website and e-mail capacities. The bibliography has recently also been placed in PDF files at the same website. This requires an Adobe Acrobat Reader, with which the three files (A-F, G-O, and P-Z) can be downloaded to your local computer. With a PDF brower, the files can be read on line, though this requires a fast computer for convenience.


Course offerings, syllabuses, instructor's vitae, etc., from around the world are accessible at the following Website:


The project's goal is to collect information from throughout the world about what courses are taught, by whom, in which colleges and universities, and to make this available on website for teachers, administrators, students, prospective grad students, etc. Materials are submitted by the instructors. Many interactive links to environmental sites, home pages, universities, etc.

To submit materials, preferably via Email, contact: Robert Hood, Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0222; Email: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu.

The materials can also be accessed, along with the ISEE Newsletter, at the ISEE Website homepage:



Mark Sagoff, having completed his three-year term as ISEE president, writes to thank the members of the board, particularly Laura Westra, for their unfailing patience and help. He is indebted to Jack Weir and Holmes Rolston for their unflagging efforts in editing the Newsletter and to the members of the Nominating Committee for presenting an excellent slate of nominees for positions becoming vacant. Finally, Sagoff expresses gratitude and sends best wishes to the new officers of the Society: Baird Callicott, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Laura Westra, and Ernie Partridge. All's well that ends well, he says.

Current Officers of ISEE (Executive Board)

President: Prof. J. Baird Callicott, Dept of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton Texas 76203 USA; Dept Tel: 817-565-2266; Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1999-2000.

Vice-President and President-Elect: Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Dept of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa, Florida 33620 USA; Tel: 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept); Fax: 813-974-5914; Email: none; term to expire at the end of the academic year 1999-2000, when term as President begins.

Secretary: Prof. Laura Westra, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca;term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.

Treasurer: Prof. Ernest Partridge, Dept of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland Wisconsin 54806 USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Newsletter Editor: Prof. Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Tel: 606-783-2785, 606-784-0046; Fax: 606-783-2678; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Nominating Committee:

--Prof. Victoria Davion, Chair of the ISEE Nominating Committee, Dept of Philosophy, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA; Tel: 706-542-2827; Email: vdavion@uga.cc.uga.edu

--Prof. Alan Holland, Dept of Philosophy, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK; Fax: 44 (Country Code) (0) 524 (City Code) 846102; Email: A.Holland@lancaster.ac.uk

--Prof. Roger Paden, Dept of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 USA; Tel: 703-993-1265; Email: rpaden@gmu.edu

--Prof. Gary Varner, Dept of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4237 USA; Email: g-varner@tamu.edu



Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor, of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this results in duplicated efforts. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred):


The parcel post address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Scholarly articles are not published. Very brief reports of research and publications will be considered. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Calls for Papers and Conferences should be limited to 150 words.

Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.


U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca

Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, renewals, new subscriptions, and address changes should be sent to these regional contact persons. The dues are used by the contact person to pay for duplication and mailing of the Newsletter.

If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Westra (address above).




Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Australia and New Zealand

The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; Tel: 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax: 61 74 30 1111; Email: elliot@mail.scuc.edu.au


Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca; Fax: 519-973-7050.

China: Mainland China

Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Europe: Eastern Europe

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address and phone: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND; Tel: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 476461, ext. 280 (8 am to 3 pm). Fax: 48-61-477079 (8 am-3 pm), 48-61-471555 (24 hours). Home address and phone: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND, Tel: 48-61-417275 (24 hours). Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: filozof@plpuam11.amu.edu.pl

Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean

The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Pakistan and South Asia

Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Tel: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk

United Kingdom

Dr. Clare Palmer, University of Greenwich, School of Environmental Sciences, Rachel McMillan Building, Creek Road, Deptford; London SE8 3BW; UK; Phone 44 181 331 8223; Fax: 44 181 331 8205; Email: C.A.Palmer@greenwich.ac.uk. Dues are £6.50 UK.

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston South Carolina 29424 USA. Tel: 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax: 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu; Tel: 970-491-6315 (Office); Fax: 970-491-4900.

Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office); Fax: 606-783-2678.



The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.

Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.

Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email (preferred) or by disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:


Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Building, Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Tel: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax: 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).



Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.

Enclosed are dues: ______________________. (Annual dues are: $15 U.S.; $20 Canadian; £6.50 UK and Europe. Student dues are: $10 U.S. or Canadian, $15 foreign. Please send comparable amounts based on current exchange rates.)


Name __________________________ Phone (______)________________


Position or Affiliation _______________________________________________________________


Address (Include Postal Code) ________________________________________________________








SEND with Payment to: Regional Contact Person; or Professor Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA