Volume 8, No. 1, Spring 1997

General Announcements

Greening the College Curriculum A Guide to Environmental Teaching in the Liberal Arts, edited by Jonathan Collett and Stephen Karakashian (Washington, DC Island Press, 1996) has been selling quite well (2500 copies in the first six months). The book was chosen by Choice as one of the outstanding academic books of 1996. Detail on the contents in Newsletter vol. 6, no. 3, or in the ISEE Master Bibliography, on website or disk.

The Department of Philosophy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, maintains an environmental ethics website at:


There is an introduction to environmental philosophy amd various other sources. The material is in English as well as in Swedish.

Seminar on Environmental Values and the Environmental Ethics and Public Policy Program, at Harvard University, maintain an environmental website at:




(Note that there is no "www" in these addresses; this is the formal style of address.)

There are subject bibliographies in environmental ethics, such as: a reference list of course sources on environmental ethics; a bibliography on the environmental crisis and Western Civilization (featuring the Lynn White controversy); a bibliography on the ethics of biological invasion, the ecology and ethics of colonialism; and a bibliography on the ethics of altruism, biological and social aspects of selfless behavior. A contact is Timothy C. Weiskel. Email: tweiskel@div.harvard.edu

The Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, is pleased to announce the appointment of Omar Dahbour to a position in international ethics. Dr. Dahbour is currently a member of the Department of Philosophy at Ohio University and will assume the position at CSU in August 1997. His field of particular interest is the principle of national self determination. He is the editor of Philosophical Perspectives on National Identity, a special issue of the Philosophical Forum, Fall/Winter 1996-97, as well as co-editor of The Nationalism Reader, Humanities Press, 1995. He has a PhD in philosophy from the City University of New York and also a PhD in history from the University of Chicago.

A listserve on environmental theology is: ecotheol@mailbase.ac.uk. To join, send to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk (not the ecotheol address), the command:

join ecotheol yourfirstname yourlastname

The listserv has the goal of enabling academic discussion of environmental issues from theological and ethical perspectives. Contributions are welcome from various academic disciplines. The listserv is organized by Ian Tilsed, a doctoral student at the University of Exeter, researching theological and ethical approaches to the world population problem, and also a computing development officer with the University of Exeter Library and Information Service. Email I.J.Tilsed@exeter.ac.uk

The East is green. Vist the website:


This website features the environmentally friendly values laid down over many centuries in India, which continue today aa part of the living legacy of India.

The University of Aberdeen, Scotland. The Department of Philosophy and the Centre for Philosophy, Technology and Society offer a new master's degree in philosophy and technology. One of the options is "Technological Issues in Environmental Ethics and Aesthetics." The degree course takes one year. Contact Professor Gordon Graham, Centre for Philosophy, Technology, and Society, University of Aberdeen, The Old Brewery, Old Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3UB, UK. Email: cpts.abdn.ac.uk

Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge is a group that will be supporting major conferences for educators and religious leaders, in Seattle (April 1977), in Claremont (November, 1997), Chicago (Spring 1988), New York (October 1998). There is also a conference in Assisi, Italy, July 1997. Contact the Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L St., NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone 202/778-6133. Fax 202/778-6138. Email: CRLE@aol.com

Earth Sabbath. Some 51,000 resource packets with a study guide, It's God's World: Christians, the Environment and Climate Change, went to Christian congregations in the U.S., under the auspices of the Eco-Justice Working Group of the National Council of Churches, for use in promoting environmental concern and justice. The March mailing was timed primarily for the Sunday nearest Earth Day (April 20), and is also relevant for the Environmental Sabbath in June.

The Society of American Foresters has officially established a "Philosophy Working Group" to stimulate forester interest in the field of the philosophy of forest science and policy. A group has been working informally in this area for several years, presenting programs at the annual SAF conventions, with another scheduled for the Memphis convention this fall. Contact Margaret and Bill Forbes. Email: forbesm@harborside.com

Jane Lubchenco, ecologist from Oregon State University, is the current president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. That office honors eminent scientists, who hold the office one year. Lubchenco led the Ecological Society of America to its notable mission statement giving priority to research leading to a sustainable biosphere. She appears in the videotape produced by the Union of Concerned Scientists and the National Religious Partnership for the Environment, "Keeping the Earth: Religious and Scientific Perspectives on the Environment" (see Newsletter, Winter 1996). She will be the opening keynote speaker at the Society for Conservation Biology annual conference in Vancover in June.

Gary Meffe has been named editor of Conservation Biology, replacing Reed Noss. Meffe is the author of Principles of Conservation Biology, a principal text in he field, and is Senior Ecologist at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. He is noted for his interests in conservation biology, ecosystem management, aquatic ecology, and evolutionary biology. He is on the editorial advisory board of Environmental Ethics.

Amphibian and Reptile Conservation is a new journal. Contact Craig Hassapakis, 2255 North University Parkway, Suite 15, Provo, UT 84604-7506. Email: ARC@byu.edu

Organization and Environment is a new journal devoted to discussion of the social roots and consequences of environmental problems. The aim is to develop new perspectives on organizations and organizing, perspectives that encourage environmentally sensitive reflection, inquiry, and practice. The editors are: John Bellamy Foster, University of Oregon; John M. Jernier, University of South Florida; and Paul Shrivastava, Bucknell University. Papers to: John M. Jernier, College of Business, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33520-5500. Phone 813/974-1757. Fax 813/974-3030. Sage Publications is the publisher.

Landscape and Urban Planning invites both subscriptions and papers. This is an international journal of landscape ecology, landscape planning, and landscape design. They ask for papers in environmental psychology, conservation biology, and ethical and policy issues posed by nature and human use of land. The editor-in-chief is J. E. Rodiek, College of Architecture, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843-3137. The publisher is Elsevier Science.

Democracy and Nature: The International Journal of Politics and Ecology. This journal explores such areas as the philosophy of ecology; the state and an ecological society; ecology , labor, and class; feminism and ecology; socialism and ecology; nationalism and the new world order; green economics; science and technology, to advance the twofold goal of an inclusive democracy and a sustainable, ecological society. Papers invited. The journal was formerly called Society and Nature. Aegis Publications, P. O. Box 637, Littleton, CO 80160-0637. This is the journal of the Institute for Social Ecology, P. O. Box 89, Plainfield, VT 05667. 802/454-8493

The Syllabus Project, the most comprehensive and up-to-date source of information concerning course offerings in environmental philosophy and environmental ethics, is being supported by the International Society for Environmental Ethics, the Center for Environmental Philosophy, the Philosophy Documentation Center, and the Philosophy Department at Bowling Green State University. The materials can be accessed on the World Wide Web at:


The project's goal is to collect information from throughout the world about what courses are taught, by whom, in which colleges and universities, and to make this available on website for teachers, administrators, students, prospective grad students, and so on. All teachers of such courses are requested to send copies of their syllabuses, course materials, Resumé, etc., preferrably by Email (disks should be text/ASCII only). As a last resort, send a paper-mail copy. If your syllabuses are accessible electronically, please send the location (URL) so they can be linked to the Project website. Send the information and materials to: Robert Hood, Department of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0222; Email: rhood@bgnet.bgsu.edu. Another contact is: J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-6496; Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu. The project was proposed by Callicott and is being implimented by Hood. The materials can also be accessed, along with the ISEE Newsletter, at the ISEE website homepage:


Holmes Rolston will give the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in November 1997. The Gifford Lectures in the four classical Scottish universities date from 1885 by endowment of Lord Gifford. Lecturers have included philosophers, theologians, physicists, astronomers, biologists, chemists, neurologists, historians, anthropologists, psychologists, and those from other disciplines. The original endowment was for lectures in natural theology, broadly conceived, which over the century has been expanded to include the broad spectrum of modern philosophical trends, as these bear on metaphysics, ethics, cosmology, and theology. Past Gifford lecturers have included, among others: William James, John Dewey, Henri Bergson, Arnold Toynbee, Karl Barth, Reinhold Niebuhr, Herbert Butterfield, Hans Driesh, J. S. Haldane, Werner Heisenberg, Arthur Eddington, Richard Dawkins, Carl Sagan, Hilary Putman, Niels Bohr, Michael Polanyi, Alfred North Whitehead, Albert Schweitzer, and Paul Tillich.

Rolston plans a series, "Genes, Genesis, and God," which deals with the question of genetic creativity over evolutionary history and its relationship to human cultural creativity, especially in science, ethics, and religion. Evolutionary history is interpreted as the genesis of natural value, which is conserved, enriched, and distributed over time. Such values in nature can and ought to be conserved, enriched, and appreciated by humans using their capacities for science, ethics, and religion.

Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Rolston will travel during the summer 1997 to Siberia and Lake Baikal to look conservation issues. Not to neglect his home in the Rocky Mountains, he also plans a horse packing trip in the Bob Marshall Wilderness complex in Montana.


Holmes Rolston will be organizing the ISEE session or sessions at the World Congress of Philosophy in Boston, August 10-16, 1998. Send paper or panel proposals to him by August 1, 1997 (a whole year ahead!, but this is what the Congress organizers ask), although if there is space later papers may be accepted. Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526. There is also an official Congress section, Philosophy and the Environment, and this section is chaired by Robin Attfield, with a co-chair yet to be announced. International papers are especially encouraged. There is a Congress website at http://web.bu.edu/WCP/ in four languages.

Call for Papers: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:

-Eastern Division: March 1st
-Central Division: September 1st
-Pacific Division: September 1st

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Professor Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CPR 259, Tampa Florida 33620 USA; Ph 813-974-5224 (Office), 813-974-2447 (Dept.); Fax 813-974-5914.

--Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca

--Submit Pacific Division proposals to Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, Stockton California 95204 USA; Email: Jheff@aol.com

APA: Central Division Program, 23-26 April 1997, Pittsburg, PA:

Session One: Panel on "Nature vs. Development?"  Organized by Will Aiken; chaired by Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary. Speakers: Holmes Rolston III, Colorado State University; David Crocker, University of Maryland; Will Aiken, Chatham College. Followed by brief business meeting. Session Two: "Recent Work in Environmental Ethics." Chaired by Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary. Speakers: Sheri Collins-Shobanian, Arizona State University West, "A Proposal for Environmental Consumer Labelling: From Nutrition Facts and Fat Grams to Environmental Facts and Pesticide PPMs"; William McKinney, Southeast Missouri State University, "On the Seemingly Paradoxical Nature of the Phrase 'American Environmental Regulations'"; Andrew J. Kerr, Divinity School, University of Chicago, "The Necessity of Metaphysics: Environmental Ethics and the Naturalistic Fallacy"; Teresa Kwiatkowska, University of Autonoma, Mexico City, "Beyond Uncertainty: Toward the Ethics of Belonging."

On April 4-6, 1997, the Darden School and the Olsson Centre for Applied Ethics hosted the "Ruffin Lectures in Business Ethics," on the topic "Environmental Challenges to Business." Keynote speakers included Kristin Shrader-Frechette, William McDonough, Carolyn Merchant, Edward Freemand, Paul Shrivastava, and Mark Sagoff. Commentators included George Brenkert, Bryan Norton, Laura Westra, Ernest Partridge, and others. Tom Regan chaired Mark Sagoff's session. Patricia Werhane organized the conference, which was held in Charlottesville, VA,.

Before attending the Ruffin Lectures Mark Sagoff gave a paper on "Choices, Challenges, and the Environment in the 21st Century" at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

The Risk Assessment and Public Policy Society (RAPA) held its biennial international meeting from March 6-7, 1997, in Alexandria, VA. Kristin Shrader-Frechette is the new president of RAPA. Participants were from Europe, Africa, and Asia as well as the US and Canada. One plenary session featured Dr. Owen Wiwa of Nigeria. Wiwa addressed problems engendered by multinational corporations in less developed countries, and he commented on the death of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the part played by Royal Dutch Shell Oil in the actions of the ruling military dictatorship in Nigeria.

The American Association of Geographers has a Values, Ethics, and Justice Specialty Group (VEJSG), part of a Geography/Ethics Project (GEP), that asks two questions: What is the place of ethics in geography? What is the place of geography in ethics? The group sponsored several sessions at their annual meeting in Fort Worth, Texas in April. These included sessions with multiple papers on:

--Ethics, Modernity, and Difference; Rethinking Identity, with a paper by David Slater on "Power and the Ethics of Development"

--Geography as Moral Practice, with a paper by David Smith on "Geography and Moral Philosophy: Some Common Ground"

--Rethinking Identity: Constructing Race, Ethnicity, and the Indigenous in Geographic Research

--Normative Terrains of Geography: Ethics in Practice

--Reciprocal Surveillance/Reciprocal Obligations: Continuing Dialogue on the Ethics of Geographical Research Among American Indians

--Scales of Justice; The Ethics and Justice of Water Resources Management

--Philosophical Backgrounds of Sustainable Development.

Many other papers. This is a quite impressive effort by geographers to include moral issues in their discipline. Further information is available at


Also contact James Proctor. Email: jproctor@geog.UCSB.EDU. Proctor teaches geography at UC Santa Barbara.

The Center for the Study of World Religions at Harvard University is running a series of conferences in late fall 1997 and spring 1998 on "Religions of the World and Ecology." The series at various times focuses on indigenous traditions, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Taoism. Contact Center for the Study of World Relgions, Harvard University. Phone 617-495-4495

The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its annual meeting at the University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA, from 6-9 June 1997.

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World will hold its annual conference from 10-17 August 1997 at the YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, CO. The general theme is "Authenticity, Autonomy and Authority: Problems of Meaning in the Contemporary World," although papers are welcome on any topic related to contemporary philosophy. Contacts: Prof. Craig Hanks, Program Co-chair, Philosophy Department, 332MH, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA, Email: HANKSJ@E-MAIL.UAH.EDU, Ph 205-890-6555; or Prof. Sharon Hartline, Program Co-chair, Department of Philosophy, Radford University, Radford, VA 24142 USA, Ph 703-831-5213.

"Global Ethics for the Twenty-First Century." 1-3 Oct. 1997. Melborne, AUSTRALIA. Arne Naess, Elmar Altavar, Robert Bullard, John Dryzek, David Harvey, Val Plumwood, Oran Young, Vandana Shiva, and others. Contact: Nicholas Low, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, AUSTRALIA.

The 2nd International Congress on Ethnobotany will be held 12-17 October 1997 in Merida, Yucatan, MEXICO. Proposals are needed by 15 May 1997. Contacts: M. C. Jose Salvador Flores Guido, Presidente del Comite Organizador, Apdo. Postal 4-116, Itzimna, Yucatan, Mexico, Telf (99)-460333, Fax (99)-460332, Email: fguidfo@tunku.uady.mx; Juan Manuel Rodriguez Chavez, UNAM-Cd. Universitaria, Email: etnocon@hp.fciencias.unam.mx; Montserrat Gispert, Fac de Ciencias, UNAM-Cd. Universitaria, Email: mgic@hp.fciencias.unam.mx; Internet: ETNO97@TUNKU.UADY.MXHTTP://WWW.UADY.MX/~ABURGOS/INDEX.HTML

CALL FOR PAPERS: The interdisciplinary journal, Population and Environment, is soliciting contributions for a forthcoming special issue on "Roots of Environmental Neglect." Reviews of prevailing viewpoints (e.g., the comparative importance of population, affluence, depletion of natural resources, new technologies, ideology, ethics, social domination, anthropocentrism, biocentrism) are welcome. Equally welcome are contributions which seek to integrate and reconcile these viewpoints, or which seek to enrich this debate by grounding it in such disciplines as history, philosophy, political science, psychology, anthropology, economics, biology, literature, and archeology. Please send papers, in duplicate, to Dr. Moti Nissani, Guest Co-Editor, Interdisciplinary, Studies Program, 5700 Cass Ave., Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202,
USA; Email: mnissani@juno.com; Fax (313) 577-8585; Tel.: (810) 543-0536 (home & message).


Endangered fly creates controversy. The Delhi Sands flower-loving fly is the only fly on the U.S. endangered species list. In order to protect its rare habitat of inland dunes, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is requiring officials in Southern California to move the footprint of a new hospital (at an alleged cost of $4 million) and to rethink a planned massive industrial development (that is supposed to create 20,000 jobs over 5 years). Critics are charactering the issue as "jobs versus flies" and casting aspersions at the fly and its habitat. The reporter describes the fly as "a creature that spends most of its life underground, living as a fat, clumsy, enigmatic maggot." Says a State Senator, "I'm for people, not for flies." The habitat, says another official, is "a bunch of dirt and weeds. I can't take a citizen out there without them becoming outraged." Some claim that the FWS was considering slowing interstate traffic through the dunes to a crawl during the fly's summer mating season, "lest at fly become a glop on an unsuspecting motorist's windshield." The entomologist responsible for getting the fly listed as endangered in 1993 says the fly "is spectacular . . . If you see one flying around you don't soon forget it." The fly is an inch long and is able to hover like a hummingbird above flowers using a long straw for a mouth to extract nectar. The geology and biology professor who wrote the recovery plan for the fly says "It's a fly you can love. It's beautiful. Nothing is too wonderful to be true in the world of insects." Females of the species telescope their bodies three inches into the sand to deposit a clutch of eggs. The Delhi Sands is the largest remaining sand dune system in the Los Angeles basin, a unique environment that supports not only the fly but also rare and precious flowers, pocket mice and butterflies. This case raises the issue of species egalitarianism and illustrates the argument strategies of both Endangered Species Act opponents and proponents. See William Booth, "Developers Wish Rare Fly Would Buzz Off," Washington Post (4/4/97) A1.

Mammal cloning stirs ethics debate. Scottish scientists took a mammary cell from a 6 year-old adult sheep, starved it of nutrients in order to turn off the genes that made it specifically a mammary cell, and then fused this undifferentiated cell with a sheep egg cell whose own DNA had been removed. The result was a sheep genetically identical to the adult donor of the mammary cell. A week later, scientists in Oregon revealed they had produced a pair of rhesus monkeys from cloned embryo cells. Some of the possible uses of this new technology include: Producing cloned herds of prized livestock (excellent meat or milk producers), cloning genetically-altered animals whose human-protein coated organs won't be rejected when transplanted, and cloning humans for various reasons. The cloning work might also help in developing techniques to turn specific genes on and off in order to correct genetic diseases or to genetically enhance people or animals. President Clinton quickly banned federal funding of human cloning research and asked the National Bioethics Advisory Commission to produce a report by June assessing the legal and ethical implications of human cloning research. No U.S. law prohibits human cloning. The scientist who led the team that cloned the sheep said that there is no reason in principle why humans couldn't be cloned, but that "all of us would find that offensive." Others argue that there are times where human cloning might be acceptable. For example, a couple whose baby was dying might want literally to replace the child, or infertile couples desiring children might want to use cloning to insure that their children have good genes. Clinton's view is that "Each human life is unique, born of a miracle that reaches beyond laboratory science. I believe we must respect this profound gift and resist the temptation to replicate ourselves." Bioregional writer and neo-Luddite Kirkpatrick Sale says that "if cloning of human embryos is possible...it will happen." He points to "the technological imperative that is inevitable in a culture built on the myth of human power and the cult of progress." To support this assertion, he quotes two of the developers of the atomic bomb: "When you see something that is technically sweet you go ahead and do it" (Robert Oppenheimer) and "Technological possibilities are irresistible to man . . . . If man can go to the moon, he will. If he can control the climate, he will" (John von Neumann). See Kirkpatrick Sale, "Ban Cloning? Not a Chance" New York Times (3/7/97): A35. See also Gina Kolata, "With Cloning of a Sheep, the Ethical Ground Shifts," New York Times (2/24/97): A1. For a useful discussion of the ethical issues, see Jessica Mathews, "Post-Clone Consciousness," Washington Post (3/7/97): A19. For helpful details on the science involved, see Rick Weiss, "Lost in the Search for a Wolf Are Benefits in Sheep's Cloning," Washington Post (3/7/97): A3. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger for this.)

Environmentalism gains ground in Chile. As evidenced by a hit television series that takes as its theme the conflict between Chile's economic growth (the highest in Latin America) and protection of its "once-bountiful natural resources," Chile has South America's strongest and most broad-based environmental movement. "The ideology that growth will solve all our problems just isn't credible anymore; there has been too much damage to the environment and human welfare." For example, during the winter, the smog in Santiago (the capital) is so bad that hundreds of school children are hospitalized with respiratory ailments. There are 150 grass-roots environmental groups in Chile. "Billions of dollars in new investments, involving major foreign companies, are now hung up by administrative, legal and even physical challenges mounted by local citizens groups, environmental groups or a combination of the two." Conama, the country's environmental protection agency, was established in 1989 but hasn't had real regulatory authority until recently. Chile's president Eduardo Frei says that Conama won't approve projects that fail to meet the country's new environmental standards (ones he claims are the most rigorous in Latin America), but once a project is approved by Conama, he says "he won't permit people to halt development for environmental reasons." Conama's executive director says the agency tries to strike a balance, but "the absolute first priority of this country is achieving a growth rate which allows us to bring low-income groups out of poverty" (thus embracing the assumption that economic growth will solve the poverty problem). There are currently about 40 lawsuits against the agency, many relying on a clause in the Chilean constitution guaranteeing every citizen a right to a clean environment. The reporter of this article defines deep ecology as a view "which calls for preservation at all costs." See Jonathan Friedland, "Green Chile: Across Latin America, New Environmentalists Extend Their Reach," The Wall Street Journal (3/26/97): A1.

Roughing it in the wilderness? How much high-technology is appropriate? A hunter was deep in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness on the Montana-Idaho border, when his prengant wife back home went into labor two weeks early. He requested, and got, a helicopter to airlift him out, to a chartered plane to be preesent for the birth, though he might have ridden out on horse. Others protest that this is both illegal and inappropriate, not a life-threatening situation. A Boy Scout became separated from his troop in the Pecos Wilderness in New Mexico. State police spotted him from a helicopter, but were denied permission to pick him up, since there was a Forest Service Trail Crew nearby. But the Crew did not find him until the next day, unharmed. There was an outcry for his safety. Cellular phones are common in the wilderness, as are global positioning units, and soon to follow are fax machines, and e-mail. Is wilderness a place that should retain "its primeval character and influence"? Story by Jim Robbins in New York Times, January 13, 1977.

Primates and disabled persons. In an exchange of letters in the New York Times, a defense of chimpanzees, gorillas, and organutans by Paola Cavalieri, co-editor with Peter Singer of The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity (London: Fourth Estate, 1993) produced a response by Jonathan Marks and Nora Ellen Groce (in anthropology and public health at Yale University), which, though appreciating concern for the apes, deplored comparing disabled persons with them. "There is an ominous undercurrent to the Great Ape Project that bears noting. In their zeal to humanize the apes, activists have begun to draw analogies between humans with disabilities and nonhuman primates. . . . 'They can reason and communicate at least as well as some of the children and disabled humans to whom we accord rights.' Is this relevant? Is this even true? All too frequently individuals with disabilities have been misjudged and their abilities underestimated. It is a perverse sense of morality indeed that seeks to blur the boundary between apes and people by dehumanizing those for whom human rights are often the most precious." Cavalieri's letter is February 10, 1997. Marks and Groce's response is February 18, 1997. (Thanks to Katherine Sye, Arlington, VA.)

Tasty shrimp and third world environmental degradation. Greenpeace took a full page New York Times ad on February 20, 1997 to warn seafood lovers of the real price of their cheap shrimp, a million acres of ecologically sensitive coastal areas decimated. The demand for shrimp is skyrocketing. Half the world crop is sold in the U.S., grown on shrimp farms that require destroying coastal areas, such as mangrove forests, and disrupting local economies. Such farms destroy themselves in a few years in their own pollution, and the farmers move on to destroy new areas. "Please consider the environmental destruction and human misery that goes into producing each plate of farmed shrimp. Is it worth the price?" (Thanks to Lee Speer, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University.)

Debt relief policy change for World Bank. The world's most influential financial institutions, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, have reversed previous policy and endorsed an initiative to help ease the debt burden of the world's poorest countries. In the past both organizations, though they might reschedule loans, did not attempt to reduce debt. The HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) progam will spend $ 500 million the first year, and up to $ 2 billion in an unspecified period of time. Particuarly effective in changing the Bank's policy were criticisms by NGO's, who, bank officials said, called their attention to the details of suffering and hardship that they could not ignore. Anyone who thinks NGO's criticism cannot affect the big economic institutions ought to investiate what happened here. Story in Christian Century, November 6, 1996.

Grizzly bear recovery plan fails in court. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan, under suit by the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund and twenty other conservation groups, was rejected in a U.S. District Court by Judge Paul Friedman. The plan did not adequately address habitat protection on the various kinds of land the bear occupies, such as public versus private ownership, timber cutting, food supplies. The method used to estimte grizzly populations is arbitrary and capricious. The plan has an unjustified reliance on Canadian grizzlies repopulating depleted U.S. populations. The Forest Service must prepare a better plan. This is the first endangered species recovery plan that has been successfully challenged in court, a victory both for the grizzly, and a precedent for future such challenges.

The Battle for Midway. Midway Atoll is an important refuge for wildlife, a rest stop for green sea turtles, endangered Hawaiian monk seals, and at least two million sea and shore birds. It is especially famous for the Laysan albatross. The Island is 1,200 miles northwest of the Hawaiian Islands, a two-square mile dot in the vast Pacific. Long a strategic naval base, and the site of one of America's decisive naval victories in World War II, the Navy has left the island to the care of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who find it expensive to maintain. In a recently worked out agreement, an ecotourism partnership between Midway Phoenix Corporation and the Wildlife Service permits tours there, to use ecotourism to make conservation on the island possible. This is a unique public/private partnership that can potentially serve as a model for others. Contact Barbara Maxfield, USFWS, 808/541-2749.

High Stakes: The United States, Global Population and Our Common Future is the Rockefeller Foundation report on the effectivenness of 30 years of U.S. leadership in international population assistance. The impact of cuts in such funding in recent years has been dramatic. At a time when the largest generation in history is about to reach child-bearing age, the U.S. has backed away from a 30-year commitment to international family planning and population programs. This also comes at a time when the effectiveness of family planning programs has been increasingly well documented, with more than 50 percent of couples in developing countries now using some form of contraception. In January 1996, Congress cut funding by 35 percent. Because of complex spending restrictions, only 13 percent of appropriated funds was actually released in fiscal year 1996. Under the fiscal year 1997 appropriations, it appears that no money will flow to international family planning until the second half of the year. The report is available from the Rockefeller Foundation, 420 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10018-2702. Fax 201/529-1119, and reference the project # 603.

One Thousand Yellowstone Bison Killed. In Yellowstone National Park, nearly 1,000 bison have been killed, more than at any other time since the turn of the century, in the continuing controversy over bison migrating out of the park. The snow pack is nearly double the normal and record numbers of bison are moving to lower elevations in search of food. With this kill, plus winter starvation, from an estimated 3,400 bison last fall, below 2,000 remain. Montana and Wyoming livestock authorities insist that bison be killed, for fear they will transmit brucellosis to cattle (which the bison originally caught from cattle). Environmentalists say the problem would be much alleviated if cattle were taken off adjacent National Forest lands, and bison permitted to move there, with some assistance in fencing on private lands. Story in Greater Yellowstone Report (Quarterly Journal of the Greater Yellowstone Coalition), Winter, 1997.

Yellowstone National Park now has 52 wolves in seven established packs. During 1996, 11 new pups were born in 6 litters. For all of Greater Yellowstone in 1996, six sheep were killed, all by one wolf, which was captured and moved to a holding pen. The largest wolf known to be in the Park, a 140 pound alpha male, was found shot to death and dumped into the Madison River southwest of Bozeman, Montana, in early February. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is seeking the person or persons responsible. For information on Yellowstone wolves:

http://www.gomontana.com/Business/bearman/w_update.html or


Microbial biodiversity. Recent studies, using DNA analysis, have found that there is staggering diversity among the microbes, who seem to outdo the insects considerably in their numbers of species. Also microbes may be more endemic to particular areas and microhabitats than previously thought, and more disrupted by pollution and oilspills. Robert F. Service, "Microbiologists Explore Life's Rich, Hidden Kingdoms," Science 275(21 March, 1997):1740-1742.


University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. Charles Birch, now retired, was a biologist here, still lives in the area, and continues an interest in conservation. Denise Russell is in the Department of General Philosophy, and is the editor of a new journal entitled Animal Issues, which is open to ecological input. The first issue is due out soon. Val Plumwood is in the Research Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences. She is currently Visiting Ecofeminist Scholar for 1997 at Murdoch, and also will be at the Universty of Montana (USA) for the first half. In 1983, Plumwood taught the first course in Sydney in environmental philosophy at Macquarie University, subsequently also teaching the course at the University of Sydney, Department of General Philosophy. Her paper, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat," is in the first issue of Animal Issues (University of Sydney), and "Anthrocentrism and Androcentrism : Parallels and Politics" is in the second issue of Ethics and the Environment, from the University of Georgia.

The University of Western Sydney has a large Social Ecology program, with many interested students writing interesting theses. Contacts are Stuart Hill, the professor in charge, or John Cameron. Cameron recently organized a conference on the Sense of Place, held in the beautiful Blue Mountains, just west of Sydney.

Macquarie University, Sydney. N.S.W. James Kohen in biology has a recent book, Australian Aboriginal Impacts (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 1995).

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, N.S.W. Bruce Anthony is finishing a PhD thesis entitled, "Toward the Recognition of a Necessary of a Necessary Environmental Value."

University of Queensland, St. Lucia (Brisbane), Australia. The Department of Philosophy offers an advanced undergraduate course, "Philosophy of Technology and Environment," which addresses central themes in environmental ethics. William Grey and Roger Lamb have teaching and research interests in the area. Some themes are also included in the advanced undergraduate course, "Ethical and Social Issues". Topics in environmental philosophy are also popular for honors students in the Department, and for honors seminars. Three PhD students are addressing themes in environmental philosophy and are being supervised wholly or partly by the Department. William Grey also gives occasional lectures in other departments to introduce some of the central ethical and philosophical issues, for example, in courses in Natural Resource Management, and Management Studies.

Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. Christi Favour teaches an undergraduate course in environmental ethics.

Griffith University, Brisbane. John Forge has supervised an honors thesis by Elizabeth Saxon in environmental philosophy. The National Institute for Law, Ethics and Public Affairs, located at Griffith, has a research focus group on environmental ethics. This group is planning a conference on sustainable development and is attempting to secure grants to fund research in environmental ethics.

Sunshine Coast University College, Maroochydore South, Queensland. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts, is the International Society of Environmental Ethics contact person for Australia. His book, Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration (Routledge) will be released fall 1997. Elizabeth Baker has taught environmental studies, with a strong interest in environmental ethics. Environmental and Planning Studies is a strong area within the Bachelor of Arts program, and Environmental Science is a strong area within the Bachelor of Applied Science program. In 1998 a course in Practical Ethics will be offered in the BA with a component of environmental ethics.

James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. James Cook has no philosophy department as such, though one is being proposed. Rosamund Thorpe is on the Philosophy Steering Committee, with an interest in environmenal ethics and conservation. Baird Callicott spent a term here, and there is strong environmental interest. Ecopsychology is an interest of the Psychology Department, and Elizabeth (Eshana) Bragg received her doctorate in this area last year.

University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W. Tony Lynch is teaching environmental ethics. See his "Deep Ecology as an Aesthetic Movement," Environmental Values 5(1996): 147-60. Robert Elliot and William Grey were formerly here and taught environmental ethics.

Australian National University, Canberra ACT. In the Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Philosophy, Richard Sylvan was here until his death in 1996. Robert Goodin has some interest in the area, with a recent paper asking whether primate groups might have rights parallel to those of nation states or ethnic groups.

Charles Sturt University, Albury, N.S.W. Although there is no specialization in environmental ethics, Michael Lockwood, lecturer in Resource Management, Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation, and Heritage, School of Environmental and Information Sciences, has an interest in the field. See his "End Value, Evaluation, and Natural Systems," Environmental Ethics 18(1996): 265-78. The Johnstone Centre is one of the five research centres of Charles Sturt University. It is an interdisciplinary centre of teaching and research with five diverse, but interrelated program areas which focus on the management of ecosystems and protected areas: ecosystem conservation; ecologically sustainable development; ecotourism; ecosystem informatics; and cultural heritage. There are 22 academic staff members; the three who have the most interest in environmental ethics are: (1) Michael Lockwood, who teaches resource management and environmental economics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. His main research interest is in understanding the ways in which people value natural areas. (2) Jim Birckhead is an anthropologist whose research interests include contemporary applications of indigenous knowledge and land management practices, issues of cultural representation, and cultural identity. (3) Allan Curtis is a social scientist who is interested in the relationship between environmental ethics and the conservation of biodiversity on private property.

LaTrobe University, Melbourne, Vic. Janna Thompson and Freya Mathews both teach environmental ethics in the Department of Philosophy. A number of graduate students are working on theses on environmental philosophy and ecopsychology. Mathews edited Ecology and Democracy (London: Frank Casss, 1996), which was earlier a special issue of Environmental Politics (vol. 4, no. 4, 1995). Mathews also teaches a class in ecology and feminism. Mathews is editing a special issue to appear in early 1999 of the new journal, Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion, on Australian perspectives on environmental philosophy. Some of the ecophilosophers, students, and activists who attended a gathering in the rainforests out of Lismore in northern New South Wales late last year have started a network called Earth Philosophies Australia that will have a website and a newsletter. They are also organizing bush schools, to combine experiential and philosophical modes of learning. The first is to be held in the southwest of Western Australia in May 1997. David Tacey, who teaches ecopsychology, is based in the School of English at LaTrobe. He and Mathews are currently proposing a Masters by coursework in Ecological Studies. This course will have a strong philosophical focus, and will include subjects entitled Ecophilosophy, Ecopsychology, and Social Ecology. If approved, it will become the core of a wider graduate program in Ecological Studies. Outside their universities, Freya Matthews (LaTrobe) and Kate Rigby (Monash) coordinate an ecophilosophy discussion group in Melbourne that meets monthly and is open to anyone with an interest in the area.

Monash University, Melbourne, Vic. Peter Singer and Karen Green teach in Philosophy here. Robyn Eckersley teaches Green Politics in the School of Politics. Kate Rigby teaches a course on ecology and spirituality in the Department of German Studies. A strong Environmental Science program, headed by Frank Fisher, is within the Geography Department.

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. The Geography Department has a strong program in Environmental Studies. It includes a course on Environmental Ethics taught by Brian Scarlett of the Philosophy Department. John Dryzek is in the Politics Department. Nicholas Low, in the Faculty of Architecture, Building, and Planning, is organizer for a major conference, Environmental Justice, Global Ethics for the 21st Century, to be held at Melbourne, 1-3 October 1997.

Swinburne University, Melbourne, Vic. Arran Gare is here. He wrote Postmodernism and the Environmental Crisis (Routledge, 1995), and his latest book is Nihilism Inc.: Environmental Destruction and the Metaphysics of Sustainability (Sydney: Eco-Logical Press, 1996). Gare teaches the third-year subject "Environmental Philosophy" and also the two core units on cultural and social theory of the honours year for humanities and politics students. These subjects give a major place to environmental philosophy, and some students choose to focus on environmental philosophy in their dissertations. Recently a student completed a dissertation on "Heidegger, Ricoeur and the Environmental Crisis." An incoming PhD student has the topic "Overcoming the Awareness/Action Pathology and Commencing the Dialogue on the Possible Future." This thesis will be related to Gare's defence of polyphonic grand narratives and retrospective path analysis as a way to project an environmentally sustainable civilization.

Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. Purosottoma Bilimoria teaches environmental ethics.

University of Tasmania, Hobart. Peter Hay, Centre for Environmental Studies, teaches a class in environmental values, and surveys the main options in environmental philosophy. Kate Crowley, Department of Government (until recently Political Science), is interested in environmental ethics in the policy context. She includes some lectures on environmental ethics in two courses: Australian Environmental Policy (undergraduate second/third year level), and Asian Work and Environment (undergraduate second/third year level). Crowley also teaches a fourth-year honors course, Environmental Politics and Policy, and supervises MA and PhD research degrees. The University is currently developing a new Bachelor of Arts degree with specialization in Natural Areas and Wilderness). Further details are available at http://www.utas.edu.au/docs/humsoc/political_science/polsci/KC.html. At the University of Tasmania's Centre for Environmental Studies, Warwick Fox was a National Research Fellow (1988-91) and an Australian Research Fellow (1991-96) (both fellowships were funded by the Australian Research Council). Fox's most recent paper, "A Critical Overview of Environmental Ethics,"is in World Futures 46 (1996): 1-21. Presently seeking an academic position, he can be contacted c/o The Centre for Environmental Studies; University of Tasmania; Hobart, Tasmania 7000; Australia, or at: Warwick.Fox@geog.utas.edu.au.

University of Adelaide, Adelaide, S.A. Sandra Taylor, in Environmental Studies, is interested in ecofeminism.

Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, S.A. Lawrence Johnson, Department of Philosophy, teaches a course in Environmental Philosophy, plus another one for Honours Students. He also gives a shorter lecture series in various environmental studies topics.

University of Western Australia, Perth, W.A. Andrew Brennan, Department of Philosophy, supervises postgraduates in environmental philosophy, including at present two overseas students: (1) Mauro Grün, from Brazil, is working on ethics and environmental education. Following the approach of Gadamer, he argues that environmental education is an area of silence in the secondary and university curriculum. This silence is due partly to the fact that the curriculum is shaped by Cartesian assumptions and by the general modernist project of forgetting the traditions into which we are born. The proposed solution is to reinstate memory and come to terms with the past in the way recommended by Gadamer. (2) Norva Lo, from Hong Kong, is working on moral standing and ecofeminism. She argues that many contemporary ecofeminists face a problem over avoiding two positions: ecological egalitarianism, on the one hand, which gives insufficient grounds for making decisions when the interests of different parties are in conflict, and conventional moral-value hierarchies, on the other hand, which according to most ecofeminists are too anthropocentric. She is working from a close study of the work of Val Plumwood and others to see if a critical ecofeminism can be formulated in such a way that conflicts of interest in environmental and animal ethics can be resolved. A proposal is pending at UWA for Brennan to teach in the Resource Policy Analysis course for the Faculty of Agriculture. If that eventuates, Brennan will share the teaching of the core subject in Natural Resource Management with an agricultural economist. At UWA, there is also a consortium of geographers, resource economists and a Brennan as a philosopher who are about to engage on a detailed study of the economics and ecology of energy generation in an isolated West Australian town (Esperance). Among other things, they will be considering whether an operationalised definition of sustainability can provide a new way of looking at economic "externalities" associated with the production, distribution and use of energy in sensitive areas. Brennan also spends some time each October in Brussels teaching an environmental ethics unit to students in the MSc programme in Human Ecology at the Free University of Brussels (VUB).

Murdoch University, Perth, WA. Jeff Malpas and Peta Bowden, faculty in the Department of Philosophy, School of Humanities, presently have two postgraduates working on environmental ethics. Also, Stephan Millett recently finished a dissertation, supervised by Jeff Malpas, on autopoesis and environmental ethics. In the Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP), Patsy Hallen has been teaching an Environmental Ethics course since 1981. At present ISTP has eleven PhD students working on issues in environmental philosophy, on such topics as green economics, connections between deep ecology and Buddhism, philosophy of technology, and environmental ethics. The Institute is the home for Murdoch's Visiting Ecofeminist Scholar, a biannual appointment. Carolyn Merchant was the inaugural Scholar in 1991, followed by Sheila Mason Mullett in 1993, Karen Warren in 1995, and Val Plumwood in Spring 1997. Vandana Shiva will come in 1999. Ecofeminism has been taught at Murdoch since 1991 and currently there are four PhD students working in this area. Hallen is a member of the Earth Philosophies Australia network and is organizing the first Bush Seminar, in May 1997 in the southwest of Western Australia. Janice Dudley of the Politics Program teaches a course in Green Politics. The University also has a strong Environmental Science Program.

(This summary was prepared by the Editors with the help of some fifteen philosophers and others in Australia. Thanks to all the contributors, and please accept our apologizes for any errors.)


Reminder Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not indexed here, but are included in the annual update on disk and on the website.

"Sharpe Studies in Environmental Ethics" is a new series of books published by M. E. Sharpe, and designed to provide contemporary introductions to classic problems, current developments, and emerging domains of inquiry. The series editor is James E. Huchingson, Dept. of Religious Studies, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199.

Ecosystem Health is a journal, since March 1995, publishing interdisciplinary studies in the environmental sciences, applied ecology, economics, landscape architecture and planning, natural resource management, public health, and environmental policy. The publisher is Blackwell Science, and the editor is David J. Rapport, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

--American Journal of Theology and Philosophy Vol. l8, no. l (January l997). A special issue on Eco-justice and the Environment. Jerome A. Stone, guest editor. Articles include: "Ecojustice and the Environment" by Jerome A. Stone; "The Post-World War II Eco-justice Movement in Christian Theology" by J. Ronald Engel; "Ecology, Justice and Christian Faith" by Joan Gibb Engel; "Ecofeminism: First and Third World Women" by Rosemary Radford Ruether; "Sense of Place: What Does it Mean to be Human?" by Yi-fu Tuan; "Ecological Spirituality" by Holmes Rolston III; "The Challenge of a World Environmental Ethic" by J. Baird Callicott; and "Baird Callicott's Ethical Vision: Response to Baird Callicott" by Cristina L. H. Traina. Copies are available for $l5.00 from Tyron Inbody, Editor, UTS, l8l0 Harvard Blvd., Dayton, OH 45406.

--The Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, Vol. 23 (1996) is a special issue on animals and sport. Articles: "Rodeo and Recollection--Applied Ethics and Western Philosophy" by Bernard E. Rollin; "Sports and Speciesism," by Maurice L. Wade; and "The Killing Game: An Ecofeminist Critique of Hunting," by Marti Kheel. The JPS is published annually for the Philosophic Society for the Study of Sport (PSSS) by Human Kinetics, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076.

--Light, Andrew, and Katz, Eric, eds. Environmental Pragmatism. New York: Routledge, 1996. 352 pp. Notes. Index. $65.00 cloth; $19.95 paper. By applying classical American pragmatist thought to the environment, this anthology defines and develops the pragmatic approach (methodology or strategy). The approach is more a method of inquiry and problem-solving than a position (or theory). Generally, the search for a single comprehensive theory is rejected in favor of conceptual pluralism, on the grounds that commitment to a theory can (and often) hinders problem-solving and policy formulation, adoption, and implementation. The volume is likely to become the classic statement of the pragmatist environmental approach. Contributors include such important pragmatists as Bryan Norton, Anthony Weston, and Larry Hickman (the Director of the Dewey Center at Southern Illinois University). Light is in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Montana. Katz is in Philosophy at New Jersey Institute of Technology. Contributions to the volume are:

--Light, Andrew, and Katz, Eric. "Introduction: Environmental Pragmatism and Environmental Ethics as Contested Terrain." Pages 1-20.

Part One: Environmental Thought and Classical American Philosophy

--Parker, Kelly A. "Pragmatism and Environmental Thought." Pages 21-37.

--Rosenthal, Sandra B., and Buchholz, Rogene A. "How Pragmatism Is an Environmental Ethic." Pages 38-49.

--Hickman, Larry A. "Nature as Culture: John Dewey's Pragmatic Naturalism." Pages 50-72.

--Santas, Ari. "The Environmental Value in G. H. Mead's Cosmology." Pages 73-83.

--Norton, Bryan G. "The Constancy of Leopold's Land Ethic." Pages 84-102.

Part Two: Pragmatist Theory and Environmental Philosophy

--Norton, Bryan G. "Integration or Reduction: Two Approaches to Environmental Values." Pages 105-38.

--Weston, Anthony. "Before Environmental Ethics." Pages 139-60.

--Light, Andrew. "Compatibilism in Political Ecology." Pages 161-84.

Part Three: Pragmatist Approaches to Environmental Problem

--Thompson, Paul B. "Pragmatism and Policy: The Case of Water." Pages 187-208.

--Schiappa, Edward. "Towards a Pragmatic Approach to Definition: 'Wetlands' and the Politics of Meaning." Pages 209-31.

--Castle, Emery N. "A Pluralistic, Pragmatic and Evolutionary Approach to Natural Resource Management." Pages 231-50.

--Rothenberg, David. "Laws of Nature vs. Laws of Respect: Non-violence in Practice in Norway." Pages 251-65.

--Varner, Gary E.; Gilbertz, Susan J.; and Peterson, Tarla Rai. "Teaching Environmental Ethics as a Method of Conflict Management." Pages 266-82.

Part Four: Environmental Pragmatism: An Exchange

--Weston, Anthony. "Beyond Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics." Pages 285-306.

--Katz, Eric. "Searching for Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism and Despair in Environmental Ethics." Pages 307-18.

--Weston, Anthony, and Katz, Eric. "Unfair to Swamps: A Reply to Katz; Unfair to Foundations: A Reply to Weston." Pages 319-24.

--Light, Andrew. "Environmental Pragmatism as Philosophy or Metaphilosophy? On the Weston-Katz Debate." Pages 325-38.

--Ferré, Frederick. Being and Value: Toward a Constructive Postmodern Metaphysics. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996. Works Cited; Name Index; Subject Index. 406 pp. $24.95 paper. Ferré is Research Professor of Philosophy at the University of Georgia and a pioneering scholar in environmental philosophy. He has published several books and numerous articles. Ferré was for many years the editor of the journal Research in Philosophy and Technology, and he was co-founder of the Faculty in Environmental Ethics at the University of Georgia.

Being and Value is Volume One of a triology with the overall title Philosophy and Value. Volume Two is currently in press and is entitled Knowing and Value: Toward Constructive Postmodern Epistemology. It should be available in early 1998. Volume Three is currently being written and is titled Living and Value: Toward Postmodern Ethics, Religion, and Social Ecology. All three volumes will be published SUNY Press in the series "Constructive Postmodern Thought," edited by David Ray Griffin, a process theologian and philosopher at Clarement Graduate School (California).

Ferré's trilogy is arguably the first sustained attempt to create a truly comprehensive environmental philosophy--epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, and all. Ferré's main philosophical mentor in the project is Alfred North Whitehead. Although many philosophers and environmentalists have agreed that Whitehead's process philosophy is conducive to a strong, constructive environmental ethic (and environmental philosophy generally), Ferré in these volumes is the first philosopher to develop the process position in its ecological fullness. The project is no easy task, and philosophers and environmentals alike owe a debt of gratitude to Ferré. Guided by the concept of ecological relatedness, Ferré develops what he calls an "ecological worldview." His metaphysic and epistemology have been shaped almost as much by the environmental scientists Eugene Odum and Frank Golley as by Whitehead. The trilogy draws out the implications of an environmental (ecological) philosophical worldview. Starting with the ancient Greek sense of kosmos (a value-laden concept) and working through the modern metaphysical problematic (the loss of mind, purpose, and value in nature), Volume One offers an ecological answer to the problematic. Then, Volume Two works through the modern epistemological problematic (the epistemological gap caused by the alienation of mind from nature), and, again, offers an ecological answer. Finally, Volume Three will be a direct examination of value--of ethics, religion, environment, and what Ferré calls "social ecology." Volume Three will include analyses of the kinds of technology and other institutions needed for an ecologically benign (postmodern) world.

Parts One and Two of Being and Value (Volume One of the triology) are re-examinations of classical Greek philosophy ("Premodern Metaphysics") and modern philosophy ("Modern Metaphysics") in light of contemporary postmodern ecological consciousness. (What is missing in the volume is the Medievel era, which Ferré may be saving for Volume Three since the Medievel era was dominated by philosophy of religion. Although the Medievel era has been widely rejected by Enlightened Modern and contemporary analytic and continental philosophers, the postmodern viewpoint may allow the era to be seen anew without these biases.) Part Three ("Postmodern Metaphysics") will be of special interest to environmentalists and philosophers alike. It is here that Ferré is at his best in constructing a postmodern, Whiteheadian ecological view of reality. Reality is deeply, pervasively ecological: namely, it is interconnected, organic, personalistic, and kalogenic (Ferré's term for the universe's tendency to generate value). The deepest and highest intrinsic value, Ferré argues, is experiential--the relatedness of actual entities to one another. Reality is "panexperiential," that is, personalistic and intersubjective all the way down, and all the way up. Value is not fabricated inside subjective minds that are evolutes from inert matter; rather, all of reality--the very fabric of being itself--is by its very nature laden with values. The volume is courageously comprehensive and epistemically persuasive, at a time when few philosophers or environmentalists have the knowledge or critical ability to construct such a position.

--Throop, Bill. "Humans and the Value of the Wild," Human Ecology Review 3, 1 (Autumn 1996): 3-7. Throop teaches philosophy at Green Mountain College in Vermont.

--Hettinger, Ned. "Enhancing Natural Value?" Human Ecology Review 3, 1 (Autumn 1996): 8-11. There is widespread skepticism among those with deep commitments to the natural world about the idea that humans can improve upon nature. While it seems obvious that humans can alter nature to better serve human uses, it is far from clear that humans can improve nature in non-utilitarian ways. Can human beings enhance intrinsic natural value? Perhaps the strongest reason for skepticism about this possibility is the value that many see in the "wildness" of nature, understood as the extent to which

a natural system has not been humanized. Alleged human improvements of nature humanize nature and thus degrade it in terms of wildness value. This idea of valuing and preserving relatively pristine nature for its wildness value has been severely criticized for instituting a false and harmful human/nature apartheid that provides no positive role for humans in the natural world. Critics suggest that we must move beyond preservationism and learn to integrate humans into nature, celebrating humanity's creative potential with respect to nature. This paper explores if and how human participation and involvement in nature might be seen as enhancing, rather than degrading, intrinsically-valuable natural systems. Hettinger teaches philosophy at the College of Charleston.

--Green, Karen. "Freud, Wollstonecraft, and Ecofeminism: A Defense of Liberal Feminism," Environmental Ethics 16 (1994): 117-134. Green teaches philosophy at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

--Green, Karen. "Two Distinctions in Environmental Goodness," Environmental Values 5 (1996): 31-46. Green teaches philosophy at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

--Varner, Gary. "The Takings Issue and the Human-Nature Dichotomy," Human Ecology Review 3, 1 (Autumn 1996): 12-15. Environmentalists are sometimes criticized for implausibly separating human beings from nature. However, in the debate between the "wise-use" and environmental movements, it is the proponents of "wise-use," not the environmentalists, who implausibly divide human beings from nature. The "wise-use" movement calls for landowners to be compensated whenever environmental regulations reduce the economic value of their land. However, a well-established principle of Constitutional law is that compensation is not required if the regulations prevent harm to others. Insofar as they can plausibly be construed as preventing harm to others, then, environmental regulations can be enforced without running afoul of the just compensation clause of the Fifth Amendment. Varner argues that while the public trust doctrine of U.S. common law can be extended to cover ecological processes on which the long-term well-being of the nation and its people depend, environmentalists must do a better job of articulating how this is so. In doing so, environmentalists will show that the wise use movement's position depends on an implausible separation of humans from the ecosystems on which they depend. Varner teaches philosophy at Texas A&M University.

--Weir, Jack. "Poverty, Development, and Sustainability." Acorn: The Journal of the Gandhi-King Society 8, no.2 (1995): 17-22. Using ideas from Tolstoy and Gandhi, Weir argues that sustainable development is a euphemism for Westernization and Capitalistic materialism and greed. The formulation of a new, nonanthropocentric environmental philosophy will likely not solve the world's environmental problems because the problem is at bottom one of human greed and finitude (which are often called "spiritual" problems).

--Weir, Jack. "Unnecessary Pain, Nutrition, and Vegetarianism." Between the Species 7, no.1 (Winter 1991): 13-26. After an analysis of the concept and principle of unnecessary pain, meat-eating is examined in light of nutritional and socio-cultural factors. The paper concludes that vegetarianism is good but not strictly obligatory.

Sapontzis, Steven F. "Reply to Weir: Unnecessary Fear, Nutrition, and Vegetarianism," Between the Species 7, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 27-32.

--Weir, Jack. "Response." [A Response to Steven F. Sapontzis, "Reply to Weir: Unnecessary Fear, Nutrition, and Vegetarianism," Between the Species 7, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 27-32]. Between the Species 7, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 33-35.

--Visvader, John. "Natura Naturans: Remarks on the Nature of the Natural," Human Ecology Review 3, 1 (Autumn 1996): 16-18. "We need to understand both the 'natural' and the 'wild' in such a way that we can imagine giving more to the world around us that the gift of our mere absence." Visvader teaches philosophy at the College of the Atlantic.

--Krebs, Angelika, ed. Naturethik. Grundtexte der gegenwärtigen tier- und ökoethischen Diskussion (Ethics of Nature: Fundamental Texts Discussing Contemporary Animal and Ecological Ethics). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. April 1997. 400 pages. ISBN 3-518-28862-8. This reader brings together basic readings on the intrinsic value of nature both from the English-speaking and the German-speaking discussion. By translating ten influential English papers it makes them available to a wider German-speaking audience. By including seven important German texts, it attempts to overcome the somewhat imperialistic influence that the English-speaking ethics of nature tends to exert in international philosophical circles. This anthology is only the second systematic reader in German on the ethics of nature, the first having been Dieter Birnbacher's Ökologie und Ethik (Stuttgart, 1980, with articles by Fraser-Darling, Tribe, Rock, Birnbacher, Feinberg, Spaemann, and Passmore). The book has two sections. In the first section on animal ethics Peter Singer, Tom Regan and Ursula Wolf argue for the moral status of animals, while Raymond Frey, Jürgen Habermas and Ernst Tugendhat argue against it. The second section on environmental ethics has Paul Taylor, Stephen Clark, Hans Jonas, Arne Naess, J. Baird Callicott and Holmes Rolston on the "pro" side, and William Frankena, Bernard Williams, Martin Seel, Friedrich Kambartel and Angelika Krebs on the "contra" side.

--Schmidt, Karen F., "Green Education Under Fire," Science 274 (December 13, 1996):1828-30. Conservative critics contend that teachers and texts are feeding children biased and incomplete scientific information about the health of the planet, but advocates say the charges are overblown. Some complain about math texts with word problems about deforestation or fossil fuel use. Some complain the education is flaky: "Recycling is good for the planet." Some complain children are being fed doomsday visions. Some complain children are being made to feel guilty about the American lifestyle, with energy use for hot tubs compared with that in the third world. Environmental advocates reply that their materials are more balanced than the conservative ones, and that education needs to face up to the environmental crisis. The U. S. National Education Act of 1990 is up for renewal this year, and under debate. Short, provocative article could be used in class to stimulate discussion on teaching values and science and advocacy.

--Eco-Justice Working Group of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., Faith-Based Environmental Justice Resources for Youth and Children. An 18-page bibliography with a variety of resources, including audiovisual ones, for children and youth, all currently in print. With ordering information. Compiled and edited by Tina B. Krause. $ 2.50 from Environmental Justice Resources, National Council of the Churches, P. O. Box 968, Elkhart, IN 46515. 800/762-0968 or 219/264-3102.

--Duda, Mark Damian, Bissell, Steven J., Young, Kira C., "Factors Related to Hunting and Fishing Participation in the United States," Transactions of the 61st North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 1996, pp. 324-337. Findings of a three year study, said to be the most exhaustive review, data collection, and analysis of any nationwide study of hunting and fishing to date. Hunting, and, to a slightly lesser degree, fishing are primarily acctivities that can be understood as sociological phenomena centered on and about the American family. Biological considerations are of importance, but wildlife and fishery management programs that focus on the resource itself, rather than the hunter and the angler, will not promote continued utilization, but may contribute to the decline in participation and reduced satisfaction. Duda and Young are with Responsive Management, Harrisonburg, Virginia; Bissell with the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

--Hart, Stuart L., "Beyond Grening: Strategies for a Sustainable World," Harvard Business Review 75(no. 1, Jan./Feb. 1997):66-76. In the 1960's and 1970's, corporations were in a state of denial about their impact on the environment. But today many companies have accepted their responsibllity to prevent pollution. What they need to do now is help create a sustainable global economy. The drive toward sustainability is an absolute imperative for human survival. It also represents one of the biggest challenges--and opportunities--for individual companies in the history of commerce. Emerging economies cannot afford to repeat the mistakes of Western development. Hart teaches corporate strategy and directs the Corporate Environmental Management Program at the University of Michigan Business School. It is interesting to see an author like this taking his terminology from Vandana Shiva (p. 76).

--Magretta, Joan, "Growth Through Global Sustainability: An Interview tih Monsanto's CEO, Robert B. Shapiro," Harvard Business Review 75(no. 1, Jan./Feb. 1997):79-88. Shapiro claims: The need for environmentally sustainable products will soon create a major strategic discontinuity for the world's enterprises. Recognition of this discontinuity is transforming Monsanto's thinking about growth. Although a closed sustem like the earth cannot support an unlimited increase of material things, it can withstand exponential growth of information. Hence two design principles have been incorporated into new product development at Monsanto: substituting information for "stuff" and replacing products with services.

--Mitcham, Carl. Review of Abram, David, The Spell of the Sensuous. Science 275(1997):174. "A truly original work by a philosophical anthropologist and practitioner of participatory ethnology."

--Drolette, Dan, "Wide Use of Rabbit Virus Is Good News for Native Species," Science 275(1997):154. A virus deliberately and recently released is having dramatic results killing Australia's introduced European rabbits. Showy groundsel has returned, and, unexpectedly, the numbers of western grey kangaroos are increasing. A dozen rabbits were released in the 1840's and now there are 300 million. The response in recovered vegetation is impressive. A virus introduced in the 1950's lost its effectiveness. Some fear the virus may jump species, but there is no evidence of this so far. Feral cats, also a pest, which fed on the rabbits, may also have been reduced, and it does not seem that the cats are switching prey to native species.

--Palmer, Clare. Animal Liberation, Environmental Ethics and Domestication. OCEES Research Paper No. 1. Oxford: Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, 1995. 25 pp. A new taxonomy of human-animal relationships. A number of animals with which we most commonly interact "fit only very uneasily into either the category of "wild" or "domestic." We need categories for captive wild animals, scavenging animals, and feral animals, for example. Categories in terms of varying degrees of dependence on human beings are more adequate than those in terms of an unwritten contract of the kind proposed by Stephen Budiansky and endorsed with some qualification by Baird Callicott. At the same time, the different relationships we enjoy with animals of different categories may justify more variation in the way we treat them than would be allowed by the universalizing ethical theories of Regan and Singer.

--Vira, Bhaskar, Rights, Property Rights and their Protection: Implications for the Analysis of Environmental Policy. OCEES Research Paper No. 2. Oxford: Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, 1995. 35 pp. A survey of the theoretical basis of the concepts of "rights" and "property." Nine possible varieties of property right, dealing with possession, use, consumption, management, etc. This plurality of property rights is important in many cases of environmental conflict, where, for example, villagers' traditional rights to gather fuel-wood conflict with government-granted timber concessions. In the application of property rights to the environment, it is difficult to construe existence value in such way that it could be the subject of a property right.

--Brown, Neville, The Impact of Climate Change: Some Indications from History, AD 250-1250. OCEES Research Paper No. 3. Oxford: Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, 1995. 59 pp. The effects of climate change on human history over the past 2,000 years. Recent developments in the interpretation of ice cores, pollen records and glacial movements, together with the possibility of interpolation using the climatic models now being used to predict the consequences of global warming, have greatly increased the data available for climate and history studies. Nevertheless reconstructions of how climate changes affected the movements of peoples remain speculative. Brown is both a meteorologist and a historian.

--Freeden, Michael, Green Ideology: Concepts and Structures. OCEES Research Paper No. 4. Oxford: Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, 1995. 31 pp. Ideologies are "decontesting" devices that "attempt to confer cultural and conventional legitimacy on particular, narrow understandings of each of the political concepts they employ." The core concepts of green discourse involve the human-nature relation, nature preservation and variants of holism, together with an emphasis on appropriate human lifestyles. The "indeterminacy" of green core concepts allows them to weave in and out of an unusually wide range of political traditions. There are conservative and liberal-individualist components in contemporary green political thought. The equation of protective interventionism with ecofascism should be rejected as trite. "What the scholar of ideologies can do is to delineate, however roughly, the semantic field within which debate takes place."

--Gare, Arran. Nihilism Inc.: Environmental Destruction and the Metaphysics of Sustainability. Sydney: Eco-Logical Press, 1996. This work attempts to explain the failure of humanity effectively to confront the global environmental crisis, and thereby to reveal what is required to overcome it. The destruction of the environment on a global scale is the legacy of the expansion and domination of the world by European civilization, a civilization that is inherently destructive and implicitly nihilistic. Ecocide is characterized as applied nihilism. Environmentalists have failed because they have not fully appreciated the nature of this civilization, an appreciation that requires an understanding of the history and dynamics of European culture and its offshoots from Ancient Greece to the present. The first part of the book analyzes the origins and dynamics of Western civilization to reveal the origins of nihilism and to show how in the modern world nihilism has come to be embodied by instititions and individuals, while the second part is devoted to analyzing Marxism, Russian culture and the Soviet Union as a failed alternative to Western culture. These analyses reveal the need for a radical cultural transformation, a transformation which can only be effected on the foundation of a new metaphysics. The final part offers the required metaphysics--a revised version of process philosophy reformulating and integrating the insights of Hegel and those inspired by him--to clear the way for the creation of an environmentally sustainable civilization. Gare teaches philosophy at Swinburne University, Melbourne.

--Greider, William. One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997. Although the rapid spread of free market capitalism has created many pockets of propserity, the world economy has spun out of control and is heading for a cataclysmic fall. There are three ominous, converging trends. First, the world will soon be awash in surplus goods. Profitability depends on producing goods where wages are too low for workers to purchase these goods, and selling where wages are high, but there will not be enough well-paid workers to buy these goods. Second, there is the rapid, constant flow of money across borders, with those who control this flow having more power than governments, and insisting on high returns where these will not be possible. Third the planet cannot sustain rapid industrialization for the masses in under-developed countries without irreparable environmental damage. The losers in the global economy--those earing rock bottom wages, those who suffer when growth slows, those who live with the worst effects of environmental degradation--far outnumber the winners. Nevertheless, Greider suggests much can be done, and he is generally pro-growth. Reviewed by Jeffrey E. Garten in Harvard Business Review, January/February 1997.

--Hampson, Fen Osler, and Reppy, Judith. Earthly Goods: Environmental Change and Social Justice. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1996. 263pp. The book covers four major themes. The first series of authors lay out alternative frameworks for evaluating social justice from different philosophical perspectives:

--Henry Shue, "Environmental Change and the Varieties of Justice"

--Wendy Donner, "Inherent Value and Moral Standing in Environmental Change," see separate entry.

--Will Kymlicka, "Concepts of Community and Social Justice"

--Iain Wallace and David Knight," Societies in Space and Place"

The second series of authors discuss the role of the state and of substate actors in the international policies of the environment:

--Christian Reus-Smit, "The Normative Structure of International Society"

--Joseph Camilleri, "Impoverishment and the National State"

--Smitu Kothari, "Social Movements, Ecology and Justice"

Third, two authors take up the question of the role of science in framing the debate on global environmental change and the use of science as a resource by various actors in actual negotiations:

--Sheila Jasanoff, "Science and Norms in Global Environmental Regimes"

--Steven Yearley, "Campaigning and Critique: Public-Interest Groups and Environmental Change"


--Peter Timmerman, "Breathing Room: Negotiations on Climate Change" The last article provides an account of international negotiations in which the themes of the previous chapters are developed and used to argue for the centrality of social justice in reaching desirable outcomes. Hampson teaches politics at Carleton University; Reppy is in science and technology studies at Cornell University.

--Donner, Wendy. "Inherent Value and Moral Standing in Environmental Change," pages 52-74 in Hampson, Fen Osler, and Reppy, Judith, Earthly Goods: Environmental Change and Social Justice (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1996). Donner criticizes the animal rights/welfare theories of Tom Regan and Peter Singer; the land ethic of Aldo Leopold and J. Baird Callicott; deep ecology; and the ecofeminism of Karen Warren, Val Plumwood, and others. Regan and Singer do not have an environmental ethic, only an ethics for using the environment to satisfy the preferences of sentient animals, including humans. Of Callicott's land ethic: "The result is an uneasy mixture that neither quells the concerns of critics nor provides clear guidelines for cases of conflict" (p. 61). "Thus there are serious problems with the land ethic: an analysis of value that does not support the value claims of the theory; a lack of guidance on how weighings of very different elements are to be carried out; and decisions that are troubling at best, horrifying at worst" (p. 65).

Of ecofeminism: "Consensual decision is ... welcome when it works. But when consensus does not work, and we are faced with genuine and painful conflict, then ecofeminism provides little guidance in particular cases if the conflicting claims are all seen as being of equal value" (p. 69). "Can one who has serious concerns for the well-being of the environment trust the human capacity to care more than the human capacity to reason and value? (p. 70). Deep ecology has an unworkable concept of a self indistinguishable from the environment. Environmental ethics needs a concept of self-in-relationship. "There is no fusion of two into one but a complement of two entities acknowledged as separate, different, independent, yet in relationship" (quoting Karen Warren) (p. 74). Donner teaches philosophy at Carleton University in Ottawa.

--Cunningham, Carol, and Joel Berger. Horn of Darkness: Rhinos and Desperate Conservation in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

--Miller, Brian, Richard Reading, and Steve Forrest, Prairie Night: Black-Footed Ferrets and the Recovery of Endangered Species. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. $ 34.95.

--Berger, Joel, and Cunningham, Carol, "Is Rhino Dehorning Scientifically Prudent?" Pachyderm 21(1996):60-68.

--Mangel, M. et al., "An Interdisciplinary Examination of Carnivore Reintroductions." In J. L. Gittlleman, Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, pp. 296-336. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.

--MacNally, R. C., Ecological Versatility and Community Ecology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 435 pages. $ 69.95. A theory of specialist versus generalist species, the generalists having more versatility in using resources available in various ecosystems. This gives insight into community ecology and offers a conceptual framework for doing research on species of special concern.

--Wright, R. Gerald, ed., National Parks and Protected Areas: Their Role in Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1996. 480 pages. $ 54.95. National parks are becoming an integral part of preservation efforts on the national and local levels, not as islands of conservation but as integrated into their surrounding ecological and cultural landscapes. Wright is a research biologist for the National Biological Service.

--Caughley, Graeme and Anne Gunn, Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1995. 448 pages. $ 44.95. The logic and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of species extinctions and declines. The success of previous recovery efforts and methods of improving or reversing the plight of endangered species worldwide. Issues of population dynamics, risk assessment, and wildlife management, balanced against social and cultural pressures such as economics and legislation.

--Cohen, Michael. Reconnecting with Nature. 1995. Contact Project NatureConnect, P. O. Box 1605, Friday Harbor, WA 98250. Phone 360/378-6313. Email: nature@pacificri.net. 262 pages. $ 19.50. "An integration of ecology and psychology that lets thoughtful sensory contacts with Earth catalyze wellness, spirit and responsbility."

--Zimmerer, Karl S. Changing Fortunes: Biodiversity and Peasant Livelihood in the Peruvian Andes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996. $ 45.00 cloth. Management of plant and animal genetic resources in the context of existing agricultural practices.

--Samways, Michael J., "The Art of Unintelligent Tinkering," Conservation Biology 10(1996):1307. Will the new self-manipulating human genome slow the natural evolution of biodiversity? Genetic engineering is likely to have unanticipated consequences, whether we are tinkering with other genomes or with our own. "Perhaps the looming issue is how to build into our new genome an environmental ethic." Samways is in zoology at the University of Natal, South Africa, and has written on the ethics of insect conservation.

--Theology & Public Policy has a special double issue (Summer and Winter, 1996): The Ethics of Population, Consumption, and Environment. There are two general articles and several case studies, with commentaries. Contact: Churches' Center for Theology and Public Policy, 4500 Massachusetts Avenue,. N.W., Washington, DC 20016-5690. 202/885-8648.

--Hessel, Dieter, and Nash, James A. "Interlocked Trends Shaping the 21st Century," Theology & Public Policy, A Special Issue on the Ethics of Population, Consumption, and Environment 8, nos. 1&2 1(996): 6-16. The interlocked trends are demographic trends, economic trends, ecological trends, and technological factors.

--Hessel, Dieter. "Ecumenical Ethics for Earth Community," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):17-29. The ecumenical movement worldwide and in the U.S. spanning more than three decades has acquired a normatively rich understanding of "just, sustainable, and participatory society," and the imperatives of "justice, peace, and the integrity of creation." This ethical perspective has theological roots in visions of Creation's Sabbath, the Kingdom of God, and a flourishing Earth Community.

--Gudorf, Christine E. "Finding the Sources of Hope: Women and Development," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):30-41.

--Bratton, Susan Power. "Plight of the Female Farmers: Land Ownership/Tenure," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):42-56.

--Martin-Schramm, James, Hoffstedt, Kirsten. "Consuela's Dilemma: Ethics, Refugees, and Immigration Policy," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):57-61, with commentary by James A. Nash. Consuela Ramirez is a pediatrician and president of the Florida chapter of the American Medical Association involved in a commission required to cut social services to illegal immigrants.

--Hunt, Douglas B. "What's in the Cup? Issues of Responsible Consumption," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):70-79.

--Eaton, Heather. "Rwanda: Survival of the Dominant," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):80-93. Poverty in Rwanda and the pressure on natural resources, with reference to the mountain gorillas endangered there.

--Ruether, Rosemary Radford. "Theological-Ethical Reflections on the Cases," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):94-100.

--Clugston, Richard M. "An Agenda for Action," Theology & Public Policy 8(nos. 1&2, 1996):101-112.

--Daly, Herman E. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996. "Although there is an emerging political consensus on the desirability of something called sustainable development, this term--touted by many and even institutionalized in some places--is still dangerously vague. Apparent agreement masks a fight over what exactly `sustainable development' should mean--a fight in whcih the stakes are high" (p. 1). Part I. Economic Theory and Sustainable Development. Part II. Operational Policy and Sustainable Development. Part III. National Accounts and Sustainable Development. Part IV. Population and Sustainable Development. Part V. International Trade and Sustainable Development. Part VI. Two Pioneers in the Economcs of Sustainable Development (Frederick Soddy and Nicholas Georgescu-Rogers). Part VII. Ethics, Religion, and Sustainable Development (Biblical economics and the sustainable economy, and how to move from religious insight to ethical principle and public policy). Anything written by Herman Daly is worth reading by philosophers (as well as by economists and everybody else). Daly is in economics at the University of Maryland.

Anyone who doubts the clout of establishment economics should read Daly's note about the history of his manuscript. Solicited by MIT, it was accepted by MIT Press; five reviewers said publish it. But a distinguished economist on their advisory committee killed it, after a contract had been issued (p. 225).

--Hornocker, Maurice, "Siberian Tigers," National Geographic 191 (no. 2, February 1997):100-109. Time is running out for the world's largest cat. Reeling from the double punch of poachers and habitat loss, only a few hundred survive. While zoos work to maintain the tiger's genetic diversity, Russian and American scientists are pooling their efforts to save this magnificent creature from extinction.

--Nash, Roderick, "Soul of the Wilderness: A Wilderness Ethic for the Age of Cyberspace," International Journal of Wilderness 2 (no. 3, December, 1996):4-5.

--Kennedy, Roger, "Managing Wilderness in Perpetuity and in Democracy," International Journal of Wilderness 2 (no. 3, December, 1996):6-9. Kennedy is Director of the U.S. National Park Service.

--Johnson, Randy, "Grandfather Mountain--A Private U.S. Wilderness Experiment," International Journal of Wilderness 2 (no. 3, December, 1996):

10-13. Johnson was, until recently, backcountry manager on Grandfather Mountain, in North Carolina.

--Cole, David N., "Wilderness Recreation in the United States--Trends in Use, Users, and Impacts," International Journal of Wilderness 2 (no. 3, December, 1996):14-18. Vistor evaluations of wilderness conditions and their management preferences have been highly stable over time. The vast majority of visitors are extremely satisfied with their wilderness visits and rate trip quality as very good.

--Featherstone, Alan Watson, "Regenerating the Caledonian Forest: Restoring Ecological Wilderness in Scotland," International Journal of Wilderness 2 (no. 3, December, 1996):36-41, 47.

--Munson-Boyers, Laurel, "Wilderness Progress in Namibia," International Journal of Wilderness 2 (no. 3, December, 1996):42. Wilderness in a developing country, one with 35 to 40% unemployment, 30 to 40% illiteracy, and also with spectacular and silent expanses of wildlands. A symposium was held there with 100 participants on wilderness designation in Africa.

--Raymond, Lee R., "Climate Change: Don't Ignore the Facts," The Lamp 78 (no. 3, Fall 1996): 2-3. The Lamp is the Exxon publication sent to shareholders. "Achieving economic growth remains one of the world's critical needs.... Precipitous, poorly considered action on climate change could inflict severe economic change on industrialized nations and dramatically change your way of life. Those who say otherwise are drawing on bad science, faulty logic or unrealistic assumptions. We must reject policies that will clearly impose a heavy burden of costs but offer benefits that are largely speculative and undefined." Good, short, industry-view piece sure to provoke discussion in class. Couple it with Wilkinson, Rick, "Living with Tigers," immediately following in that issue. Dixon is Chairman, Exxon Corporation.

--Wilkinson, Rick, "Living with Tigers," The Lamp 78 (no. 3, fall 1996):4-5. The Lamp is the Exxon publication sent to shareholders. Can we learn from myth and mystery to live once more in harmony with them before they are gone. Exxon, whose symbol is the tiger, has established a Save the Tiger Fund, with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

--Brams, Steven J., and Taylor, Alan D. Fair Division: From Cake-Cutting to Dispute Resolution. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1996. Mathematics and algorithms for conflict resolution, such that all parties are maximally satisfied. With two persons, it is easy. Cutting a cake, you cut, I choose. With three persons and more variables, it is harder. With multiple parties and many variables, there are still procedures. All parties list in secret all the disputed items and rank order them. A mediator can use a procedure called "adjusted winner," and Brams and Taylor demonstrate mathematically that any allocation resulting will be both maximally equitable and what they call "envy free," that is, disputants will be maximially satisfied that they got the best outcome they could under the circumstances. The procedure has been used in divorce settlements, in business disputes, and retrospectively on the 1978 Camp David agreement between Egypt and Israel. A major difficulty is that scheming parties can anticipate the other parties' rankings and skew the results. There are many possibilities for the resolution of environmental disputes. Brams is in political science at New York University. Taylor is a mathematician at Union College, Schenectady, NY.

--Campbell SueEllen. Bringing the Mountain Home. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997. "The desire for wildness is an elemental force, like gravity, like magnetism." "A deeply loved landscape holds us fast to the planet. Drawn to one wild place, to a small lily-splashed lake in the Rockies, I'm drawn to all wild places." A narrative of what landscape means to the author, recalling especially her walks in the Rockies. "I realized I was taking two walks at once." "One was intensely personal and immediate, my body, senses, memories moving through a specific and extraordinary place and moment. The other was shared, my own experience formed by my culture, by other, earlier visitors to wild places, by circumstances, attitudes, assumptions, words, even emotions I had no part in creating but had somehow absorbed myself." Campbell teaches English at Colorado State University.

--Snyder, Gary. "Nature As Seen from Kitkitdizze Is No 'Social Construction,' Wild Earth 6(1996):8.

--Sahn, Jennifer. "Knowledge That Binds: The Orion Society," Wild Earth 6(1996):26.

--Waller, Donald. "Wilderness Redux," Wild Earth 6(1996):36.

--Sessions, George. "Reinventing Nature? The End of Wilderness?," Wild Earth 6(1996)46.

--Stark, Bennett. "Uncommon Ground Needing to be Re-trodden," Wild Earth 6(1996):53.

--Vonhof, Sarah. "Green Confusion," Wild Earth 6(1996):57.

--Willers, Bill. "The Trouble With Cronon," Wild Earth 6(1996):59.

--Wu, Ken. "Eco-Forestry or Protected Status?" Wild Earth 6(1996):62.

--McCloskey, Michael. "Conservation Biologists Challenge Traditional Nature Protection Organizations," Wild Earth 6(1996):67.

--Grumbine, R. Edward. "Using Biodiversity as a Justification for Nature Protection," Wild Earth 6(1996):71.

--Nelson, Michael. "An Annotated Table of Contents of the Great New Wilderness Debate," Wild Earth 6(1996):81.

--Takacs, David. The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 500pp. $35.95. Takacs analyzes what biodiversity represents to the biologists who operate in broader society on its behalf, drawing on in-depth interviews with the scientists most active today in the mission to preserve biodiversity, including Peter Raven, Thomas Lovejoy, Jane Lubchenco, and Paul Ehrlich. He also looks at the work of twentieth-century forerunners of today's conservation biologists--Aldo Leopold, Charles Elton, Rachel Carson, David Ehrenfeld--and points out their contributions to the current debates. He takes readers to Costa Rica, where a group of scientists is uning biodiversity to remake nature and society. An extended section profiles the thoughts and works of E.O. Wilson.

--Freese, Curtis H. Harvesting Wild Species: Implications for Biodiversity. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 704pp. $65 cloth, $29.95 paper. Freese draws together a diverse group of authorities to discuss the conditions under which commercial use may act as a conservation tool. Presenting fifteen case studies from around the world--in areas ranging from fisheries and forestry to non-timber forest products and trophy hunting--the discussion explores the link between sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Freese's aim is to raise awareness among environmentalists, policy makers, funding agencies, students, and researchers of the use of economic incentives in conservation efforts.

--Brechin, Steven R. Planting Trees in the Developing World. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. 280pp. $48.50. Brechin draws upon organizational sociology to explain why three internationaal organizations--the World Bank, the Foresty Department of the Food and Agriculture Organizations, and CARE, USA--perform so differently while promoting rural development forestry projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

--Zimmerman, Michael. Science, Nonscience, and Nonsense. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. pp. $25.95. Zimmerman begins by showing just what science is--how the criteria of skepticism and falsibiability distinguish it from pseudo-science and mysticism. He offers intelligent, entertaining, and sometimes scathing analyses of bad science--from lottery "systems" and creationism to graphologists and homeopaths, from food and product safety scams to outright scientific fraud. In each case he shows exactly what to watch for--how the most outrageously false claims often contain a grain of truth, and how valid scientific findings may be distorted or selectively quoted to serve the ends of government, business, or special interest groups. Zimmerman is the dean of the College of Letters and Science and professor of biology at the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh (and therefore is not the philosopher Michael Zimmerman who writes in environmental ethics).

--Scatterwaite, David; Hart, Roger; Levy, Caren; Mitlin, Diana; Ross, David; Smit, Jac; Stephens, Carolyn. Published in association with UNICEF. The Environment for Children: The Environmental Hazards that Threaten Children and Their Parents. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1996. 192pp. £12.95 paper, £29.95 cloth. Focusing on urban environments, this book analyses the health hazards threatening children and the range of impacts they can have, and explains what can be done to provide safe and healthy environments for children. The books looks at conditions in a range of cities in the developing world, as well as pollutants and other health problems affecting children in the North.

--Pugh, Cedric, ed. Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanisation. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1996. 224pp. £16.95. This provides an overview of the major environmental issues in Third World cities such as poor sanitation and water quality, air pollution and hoursing problems. It looks at the broad economic context behind the problems and examines the conceptual issues of sustainability infrastructure and health programs, as well as assessing environmental appraisal methods.

--Stanners, David, Bourdeau, Phillipe, The European Environment Agency, eds. Europe's Environment: The Dobris Assessment. London: Earthscan Publications Lts., 1995. 712pp. £47. This provides a comprehensive guide to the state of the environment in 46 countries and is based on data from a wide range of sources. It is a unique source of information on Europe's cities by examining all the pressures, such as energy, transport, tourism, air, and water, on a highly urbanised continent.

--Demeny, Paul, McNicall, Geoffrey, eds. The Earthscan Reader in Population and Development. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1996. 288pp. £19.95. This selection of essays cuts through the technical literature to provide an accessible guide to the complex issues surrounding population and development. It is a sourcebook for development studies, sociology, geography and environmental courses.

--Lutz, Wolfgang, ed. The Future Population of the World: What Can We Assume Today? London: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1996. 500pp. 50cloth, £24.95paper. An analysis of the components of population change--fertility, mortality and migration--and translates them into projections for 12 world regions. The projections by the world's leading demographers, are the first explicity to take into account the possible environmental limits to growth.

--Comstock, Gary L., "Theism and Environmental Ethics." In Quinn, Philip L. and Charles Taliaferro, eds., A Companion to Philosophy of Religion, pp. 505-513. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997. Theistic metaphysical beliefs that construe God as enemy, owner, and redeemer of nature seem to incline more to an anthropocentric environmental ethic while those that see God as nature's husband, embodiment, or identity seem to lean more to ecocentrism. However, there seems to be little in the way of necessary or logical entailment between one's view of God and one's environmental ethics. The psychological dependence may run in exactly the opposite direction; our intuitions about the environment may do more to shape our views of God than our intuitions about God do to shape our attitudes to nature. Comstock is in philosophy at Iowa State University.

--Ackerman, Diane. A Slender Thread. New York: Random House, 1997. A meditation on the interconnection of the human and natural worlds. The form is a quasi-journal that blends her observations on nature, as seen through Ackerman's garden windows, with her observations on human nature, as seen through her volunteer work at a local crisis center. Ackerman is also the author of The Rarest of the Rare, a look at endangered species, and A Natural History of the Senses, an effort to catch emotion and sensory beauty in words.

--Carder, Al C. Forest Giants of the World Past and Present. Markham, Ont: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1994. 208pp. $55 cloth. An authoritative record of the world's super trees, past and present, and other striking and remarkable trees. Covers 140 species. Excellent photographs. The tallest? It's difficult to be sure, because some crowns have broken off, and many of the tallest were cut before reliable records were kept. Principal candidates: Mountain ash, Eucalyptus regnans in Australia; California coastal redwoods, Sequoia sempervirens; Douglas-Fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, in the Pacific Northwest, all about 400 feet. The oldest? Trees over 1,000 years are difficult to date reliably, often the inner core has rotted. Probably Bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva, 4,900 years, in the Western United States. In these forest giants "beauty and goodness abide in good measure and will ever-increasingly strengthen, commensurate with time" (p. 169).

--World Resources Institute, the International Institute for Environment and Development, and the World Conservation Union. World Directory of Country Environmental Studies. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, Publications Department, 1996. 250pp. $24.95. This annotated bibliography provides information on the content and availability of hundreds of studies of environmental and natural resource conditions around the world. Covering OECD Countries, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and developing countries, the Directory provides an abstract and cites the title, author, publication date, and sponsoring and collaborating organizations and indicates how the document may be found.

--Dower, Roger, Ditz, Daryl, Faeth, Paul, et al. Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute, 1997. 415pp. $35.00 paper. The authors examine environmental performance and trends in four key economic sectors: agriculture, electricity generation, transportation, and pulp and paper manufacturing. They map out the implications of potentially dangerous developments and detail methods for reducing or managing these threats without inhibiting American technical and economic prowess.

--Repetto, Robert, Rothman, Dale S., Faeth, Paul, Austin, Duncan. Has Environmental Protection Really Reduced Productivity Growth? Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute, 1996. 46pp. $14.95 paper. This report shows how the conventional measure of productivity growth misrepresents the industrial process by taking into account only pollution abatement costs and ignoring pollution damages averted.

--Repetto, Robert. Jobs, Competitiveness, and Environmental Regulation: What are the Real Issues? Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute, 1995. 60pp. $12.95 paper. Repetto shows how greater use of market incentives in regulatory policy, reduction of economically unwarranted subsidies, better use of cost-benefit analysis in regulatory decision-making, and other measures could help the United States protect the environment with far greater economic efficiency.

--Bryant, Dirk A. Beyond the Frontier: The Last Wild Forests. Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute, 1997. 25pp. $14.95 paper. The dramatic decline of original pristine forest and the status of the large remaining tracts. Full-page, full-color maps ranks country by country the perilous state of the world's forests today and provide systematic, easily comparable forestry profiles for Oceania, Asia, Europe and Russia, South America, North and Central Americal and Africa. The work also analyzes threats to the world's remaining forest areas and explains how to reverse these trends.

--Sizer, Nigel. Profit Without Plunder: Reaping Revenue From Guyana's Tropical Forests Without Destroying Them. Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute, 1995. 46pp. $14.95 paper. This report, developed at the request of Guyana's President, Dr. Cheddi Jagan, explains how the country can reap revenue from its forests without destroying them. Identifying seven key steps Guyana can take for sustainable forestry management, author Nigel Sizer provides both concrete proposals for immediate and long-term action and a comprehensive analysis of the country's forestry programs to date.

--Bradley, Theresa. Fiscal Restructuring Programs: The Environmental Factor. Washington, D.C.: World Resource Institute, 1997. 50pp. $14.95 paper. Concrete examples of how fiscal structures--taxes, public sector pricing, and subsidies--can be revised to generate environmental benefits, economic efficiencies, and government revenues simultaneously. In-depth case studies of Poland, India, and Mexico demonstrate the potential power of these reforms.

--ONeill (O'Neill), John, Hayward, Tim, eds. Justice, Property, and the Environment: Social and Legal Perspectives. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 200pp. $59.95 cloth. The first part of this book considers the questions about justice raised by a number of environmental crises. The second part examines the ramifications environmental conflicts have for the political theory of property and markets. The third part considers the implications of these and other developments of environmental law.

--Soper, Kate, What Is Nature? Culture, Politics and the Non-Human. Cambridge, MA: Blackwells's, 1995. The politics of nature; the demarcations drawn through the concept and its currently contested status. An encounter between "nature-endorsing" and "nature-skeptical" perspectives, the one associated with the ecological advocacy of nature and the request to respect and conserve it, the other with a post-structuralist focus on the "cultural construction" of nature. Soper hopes to pose the question of nature anew in ways that allow for a resolution of these contrary impulses. Soper is at the University of North London.

--Beck, Roy, The Case Against Immigration. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996. The moral, economic, social, and environmental reason for reducing U.S. immigration back to traditional levels.

--Bouvier, Leon F. and Lindsey Grant, How Many Americans? Population, Immigration, and the Environment. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995. 192 pages. $ 12.00. The population of the United States has tripled within this century, and our overconsumption of resources is a leading cause of many international environmental problems including acid rain and global warming. Stabilizing the size of the American population is crucial, for our own sakes amd the sake of the planet. Lowering immigration levels is necessary to achieve environmental sustainability. Bouvier is a demographer, former Vice-President of the Population Reference Bureau and an adjunct professor at Tulane University.

--Weiner, Myron. Global Migration Crisis: Challenge to State and Human Rights. New York: Harper Collins, 1995. 253 pages. $ 23.50. Immigration issues are much different in the present than they were in the past. As world populations rise, population and migration issues will become increasingly important--more and more linked to issues of national defense and social welfare.

--House, Adrian. The Great Safari: The Lives of George and Joy Adamson. New York: William Morrow Co., 1993. Studying lions in Kenya, Joy Adamson wrote Born Free, the story of a lioness that the couple raised and then set free, which became a celebrated film in the 1960's. Both Adamson's were later murdered. Their life was hectic, their marriage included. She treated her staff with contempt, and was killed by a former employee in January 1980. He was shot in August 1989 trying to recover his Land-Rover, hijacked by Somali bandits, his effort saving the lives of people in the hijacked vehicle. They had become old Europeans, no longer welcome and reminded too many of the old colonial days. But they loved lions, brought international attention to Africa's wildlife problems and made significant contributions to East African conservation programs. House was a longtime friend of both Adamsons.

--Groves, Juliam McAllister. Hearts and Minds: The Controversy Over Laboratory Animals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997. $49.95 cloth, $18.95 paper. Groves tries to look past the placards and sound bites to get to the intellectual and psychological reasons that people use to explain their positions. She discards worn generalizations and offers a nuanced portrait of people who are seriously engaged in reconciling their ethics and their behavior.

--Environmental Grantmaking Foundations 1996. Rochester, N.Y.: Environmental Data Research Institute, 1996. 900pp. $84 softcover. A comprehensive guide to 700 of the most significant independent, community, and company-sponsored foundations that give environmental grants. Each profile gives data to target the most likely sources of support; multiple indexes help to narrow the search.

--Berleant, Arnold. Living in the Landscape: Toward an Aesthetics of Environment. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997. 176pp. $25 cloth. Berleant explores new ways of thinking about how we live--and might live--in the landscapes that enfold us. "A significant contribution in a field that is only now coming into prominence" -- Allen Carlson. Bearleant is known for his earlier The Aesthetics of Environment and is professor emeritus of philosophy at Long Island University.

--Bavidge, Michael, and Ground, Ian. Can We Understand Animal Minds? New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. 192pp. $29.95 cloth. Analyzes the assumptions that underlie our thoughts about animals. Bavidge and Ground examine reasons for reluctance to attribute psychological states and capacities to animals, and focus on the expressive life of animals. This approach allows for the removal of obstacles that stand in the way of a proper sensitivity to the world as shared.

--Maser, Chris. Sustainable Community Development. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1997. 280pp. $39.95 paper. Maser presents a clear picture of a community-directed process of development based on human values, active learning, shared communication and cooperation within a fluid system that becomes shared societal vision both culturally and environmentally.

--Myers, Norman. Ultimate Security: The Environmental Basis of Political Stability. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996. 319pp. $14.95 paper. Environmental factors such as deforestation and global warming may result in conflicts and loss of stability in the decades ahead. Seven regional and five global case studies.

--Robinson, J. B., et al. Life in 2030: Exploring a Sustainable Future in Canada. 1996. 224pp. $19.95 paper. Rather than forecasting events, the authors backcast from what they would like to see happen in order to develop feasible, working alternatives for designing our future. Their prescriptions develop scenarios that allow for an appraisal of the changes required to achieve a sustainable society.

--Muchett, F.D. ed. Principles of Sustainable Development. 1996. 200pp. $49.95 cloth. Written for professionals involved in industries faced with environmental issues, this book brings together the collective thinking and experience of several individuals from different disciples. It includes a history and overview.

--Westra, Laura, and Robinson, Tom, eds. The Greeks and the Environment. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 1997. 184 pp. $21.95 paper, $52.50 cloth. A collection of original essays that reexamines the views of nature and ecology found in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, and Plotinus. Recognizing that these thinkers were not confronted with the environmental degradation that threatens contemporary philosophers, the contributors find that the Greeks nevertheless provide an excellent foundation for a sound theory of environmentalism. Westra is in philosophy at the University of Windsor. Robinson is in philosophy at the University of Toronto.

--Light, Andrew, and Jonathan M. Smith, eds. Philosophy and Geography I: Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997. 283pp. $22.95 paper, $57.50 cloth. The first of an annual volume. Light is in philosophy at the University of Montana and Smith in geography, Texas A&M University. The intersections of philosophy and geography on the issue of environmental ethics, environmental law, natural value, and conceptions of nature. Contents:

--Light, Andrew and Jonathan M. Smith, "Introduction: Geography, Philosophy, and the Environment" (pp. 1-13)

--Burch, Robert, "On the Ethical Determination of Geography: A Kantian Prolegomenon" (pp. 15-47)

--Katz, Eric, "Nature's Presence: Reflections on Healing and Domination" (pp. 49-61)

--Trachenberg, Zev, "The Takings Clause and the Meaning of Land" (pp. 63-90) --Westcoat, Jr., James L., "Muslim Contributions to Geography and Environmental Ethics" (pp. 91-116)

--Clark, John, "The Dialectical Social Geography of Elisée Reclus" (pp. 117-142)

--Spash, Clive L. and Adam M. Clayton "The Maintenance of Natural Capital: Motivations and Methods" (pp. 143-173)

--Paden, Roger, "Wilderness Management" (pp. 175-187)

--Steelwater, Eliza, "Mead and Heidegger: The Ethics and Theory of Space, Place, & Environment" (pp. 189-207)

--King, Roger, "Critical Reflections on Biocentric Environmental Ethics" (pp. 209-230).

--Gandy, Matthew, "Ecology, Modernity, and the Intellectual Legacy of the Frankfurt School" (pp. 321-254)

--Booth, Annie L., "Critical Questions in Environmental Philosophy" (pp. 255-273).

Forthcoming volumes in this series are: II. Public Space (October 1997); III. The Meaning of Place (submissions solicited); IV: Aesthetics of Everyday Life (submissions solicited).

--Kote-Nikoi, Nikoi. Beyond the New Orthodoxy: Africa's Debt and Development Crisis in Retrospect. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1996. 343pp. $76.95 cloth. A study of the political economy of debt and development in Sub-Saharan Africa.

--Gooneratne, Wilbert, Obudho, Robert A., eds. Contempory Issues in Development Policy: Perspectives from Eastern and Southern Africa. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 376pp. $76.95 cloth. Reiterates the importance of local and regional development in promoting recovery and growth in Africa. Gooneratne is with the United Nations Centre for Regional Development. Obundho is at the University of Nairobi.

--Pedersen, Poul Ove. Small African Towns: Between Rural Networks and Urban Hierarchies. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 200pp. $63,95 cloth. Investigates the development of small rural towns in Africa and their importance for rural economic development. Pedersen is at the Centre for Development Research, Denmark.

--Lundy, Patricia. Debt and Ecological Destruction. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 200pp. $9.95 cloth. Based on original research carried out during 13 months of fieldwork in Jamaica, this book examines the damage to the social environment and ecology of the island and also identifies a new social movement of community environmental groups. Lundy is at Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

--Xie, Jian. Environmental Policy Analysis: The General Equilibrium Approach. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1996. 164pp. $51.95 cloth. This is an applied model using the general equilibrium approach to analyze the impacts of environmental policies on the economy and the environment, and an application of the model to estimate the impacts of several pollution management alternatives in China. Xie is at Cornell University.

--Barrett, Alan, Lawlor, John, Scott, Sue, eds. The Fiscal System and the Polluter Pays Principle. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. 180pp. $59.95 cloth. The Irish fiscal system is examined to find out if polluters are taxed in a wy that makes them pay for their damage, or if they are being subsidised amd so effectively encouraged to pollute. The book also suggests possible improvements to the system. The authors are at the Economic and Social Research Institute, Ireland.

--Burch, David, and Rickson, Roy E., eds. Globalization and Agri-Food Restructuring: Perspectives from the Australasia Region. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1996. 366pp. $76.95 hardback. Contains 18 original papers which focus on the causes of agricultural transformation in the Australasia region, including the social and environmental impacts that result when transnational corporations restructure agrifood systems at the local, the regional, and the national and global level.

--National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. 1977 Directory of Birding Festivals. 30 pages. Some 80 premier events throughout North America celebrating birds, usually with field trips, such as seeing 20,000 sandhill cranes, or 300 bald eagles, or thousands of migrating hawks. Published by National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 1120 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036. 202/857-0166. Fax 202/857-0162. Also available at http://www.nfwf.org

--Moffett, Mark W., "Tree Giants of North America," National Geographic 191(no. 1, January 1997):44-61. New discoveries in the difficult-to-reach forest canopies of the Pacific Northwest. With brief remarks about the ethics of climbing, which damages the trees and the community of life in the canopies, whether done by scientists or for increasingly popular sport tree climbing.

--Hirsch, Eric and Michael OHanlon (O'Hanlon), eds. The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space. Oxford, UK: Clarendeon Press, 1995. Sense of place.

--Meinig. D. W., ed. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Sense of place.

--Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977. Sense of place.

--Halpern, Daniel, ed. On Nature: Nature, Landscape, and Natural History. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1987. Sense of place.

--Booth, Annie L., and Harvey M. Jacobs. Environmental Consciousness--Native American Worldviews and Sustainable Natural Resource Management: An Annotated Bibliography, no. 214. Chicago: Council of Planning Librarians, 1988. Booth is in environmental studies at the University of Northern British Columbia.

--Hecht, James L., "Good Intentions: The Mismanagement of Foreign Aid," Christian Century 113 (no. 32, November 6, 1996):1063-65. Good summary article on why U. S. foreign aid goes so wrong, failing of its humanitarian motives. Also, how misinformed most Americans are about it. When polled a large majority say that foreign aid is now too much, believing it to be about 15% of the federal budget, and that it ought to be no more than 5%, when in fact only 1% was spent. U.S. foreign aid is by far the least of any industrialized nation, in terms of percentage of GNP. Hecht teaches political science at Temple University.

--Wood, Forest, Jr. The Delights and Dilemmas of Hunting. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1997. 237 pages. Paper, $ 23.50. Cloth, $ 43.00. Arguments from both sides, with a focus on exactly what the arguments are. Chapters: I. The Case for Hunting. II. The Case Against Hunting. III. Leopold's Ethics of Hunting. IV. Political and Religious Factors of Hunting/Anti-Hunting. V. Responsibility, Challenge and the Future. Wood teaches philosophy at the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg.

--Allen, William H. "Traveling Across the Treetops," Bioscience 46(no.11, 1996):796. A crane's-eye-view of Panama's forest canopy yields biological surprises.

--Cohen, Warren B., Wallin, David O., Fiorella, Maria. "Two Decades of Carbon Flux from Forests of the Pacific Northwest," Bioscience 46(no.11, 1996):836. Estimates from a new modeling strategy.

--Alpert, Peter. "Integrated Conservation and Development Projects," Bioscience 46(no.11, 1996):845. Examples from Africa.

--Snow, Allison A., Palma, Pedro Moran. "Commercialization of Transgenic Plants: Potential Ecological Risks," Bioscience 47(no.2, 1997):86. Will evolutionary effects of engineered crops exacerbate weed and pest problems?

--Pimentel, David, Houser, James, White, Omar. "Water Resouces: Agriculture, the Environment, and Society," Bioscience 47(no.2, 1997):97. An assessment of the status of water resources.

--Waples, Kelly A., Stagoll, Clifford S. "Roundtable: Ethical issues in the Release of Animals from Captivity," Bioscience 47(no.2, 1997):115.

--Berkeley, Bill. "The `New' South Africa: Violence Works," World Policy Journal 13(no.4 1996):73.

--Wiebe, Robert H. "Humanizing Nationalism," World Policy Journal 13(no.4 1996):81.

--Coleman, William G., Mattice, Jack, Brocksen, Robert W. "Soule's Conservation Biology as the Foundation for Econometric Ecosystem Management," Conservation Biology 10(no.6, 1996):1494.

--Frankham, Richard. "Relationship of Genetic Variation to Population Size in Wildlife," Conservation Biology 10(no.6, 1996):1500.

--Ralls, Katherine, Demaster, Douglas P., Estes, James A. "Developing a Criterion for Delisting the Southern Sea Otter under the U.S. Endangered Species Act," Conservation Biology 10(no.6, 1996):1528.

--Press, Daniel, Doak, Daniel F., Steinberg, Paul. "The Role of Local Government in the Conservation of Rare Species," Conservation Biology 10(no.6, 1996):1538.

--Amilien, Caroline. "Are Countries Liable for Their Forestry Practices?" Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):6.

--Gallegos, Carl M. "Madagascar: Unrealized Potential in Natural Resources", Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):10.

--Schneider, Ingrid E., Burnett, Wesley G. "Jordan: Arid-Land Forestry," Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):16.

--Hansen, Robert, Emborg, Jens, Dalsgaard, Soren. "Denmark: The Public Nature of Private Forestry," Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):20.

--Ginsberg, Paul. "Israel: The Pastoral Approach," Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):25.

--Pellicane, Patrick J., Gutkowski, Richard M., Czarnock, Jacek. "Poland: Threatened and Neglected Forests," Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):29.

--Schelhas, John, Jantzi, Terry, Thacher, Tom. "Costa Rica: Meeting Farmers' Needs through Forest Stewardship," Journal of Forestry 95(no.2, 1997):33.

--Wilcox, Geoffrey L. "New England and the Challenge of Interstate Ozone Pollution Under the Clean Air Act of 1990." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 24, no.1 (1996): 1.

--Johns, B.G. "Responses of Chimpanzees to Habituation and Tourism in the Kibale Forest, Uganda," Biological Conservation 78(no.3, 1996):257.

--McFague, Sallie. Super, Natural Christians: How We Should Love Nature. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1997. 200pp. $15 paper. Reorienting our religious sensitivities from the "supernatural" to the "super, natural" can help us "see these earth others as we see the human others--as made in the imago dei--and therefore as both subjects in themselves and as intimations of God." McFague teaches theology at Vanderbilt Divinity School.

--Küng, Hans. A Global Ethic for Global Politics and Economics. London: SCM Press, 1997. 352pp. £14.95. A vision of a better world order, and ways in which this vision might be put into practice in politics and economics. Global politics and economics need a basic ethical orientation that is binding on all, and this is not so remote from reality that it will always remain a dream.

--Schneider, Stephen H., ed. Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 960pp in two volumes. $195. Accessible descriptions and illustrations of all of the essentials of meteorology. The many ecological and environmental issues that concern everyone on the planet. A picture of the past, present, and future of our global environment.

--Ackerman, Frank. Why Do We Recycle? Markets, Values, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1997. 180pp. $29.95 cloth, $16.95 paper. A blend of the economic and environmental arguments for recycling and waste reduction.

--Perkins, John H. Geopolitics and the Green Revolution: Wheat, Genes, and the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 400pp. $60. Explores the political ecology of wheat breeding in developed countries such as the U.S., India, Britain, and Mexico. Through a detailed study of the history of the Green Revolution, this work stimulates questions about the sustainability of agriculture and the future of human population growth.

--Kramer, Randall; Van Schaik, Carel; and Johnson, Julie, eds. Last Stand: Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 240pp. $39.95. Integrates ecological, economic and political perspectives on how best to manage tropical forests and their inhabitants, throughout the world.

--McClanahan, Young, Truman P. East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 480pp. $70. Draws on the expertise of leading ecologists, each intimately familiar with a particular set of East African ecosystems, to provide an in-depth and integrated account of the ecology, management, threats, and conservation of these diverse ecosystems. Each chapter analyzes a given ecosystem type, taking the reader through the basics of its ecology, its historical use (and misuse) by humans, and its prospects for conservation.

--Szaro, Robert C., Johnston, David W. Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes: Theory and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 808pp. $55. The scientific basis for understanding biodiversity, documenting with case examples of theory and concepts applied at differing scales. Examines policies that affect biodiversity conservation.

--Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Religion and the Order of Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 320pp. $18.95 paper, $65 cloth. Nasr argues that the devastation of our world has been exacerbated, if not actually caused, by the reductionist view of nature that has been advanced by modern secular science. He advocates the recovery of the truth that nature is sacred.

--Turco, Richard P. Earth Under Siege: From Air Polution to Global Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 544pp. $21.95 paper, $50 cloth. Based on the author's popular course at UCLA, this text introduces the non-science major to a basic understanding of how the physical environment surrounding us functions, and why human activities are affecting it, while simultaneously providing sufficient supporting details to hold the interest of science majors.

--Petersen, David, ed. A Hunter's Heart, Honest Essays on Blood Sport. New York: Henry Holt, 1997. 331 pages. $ 25.00. Conflicting sides on the issues. Contains, among several dozen contributions and extracts:

--Beck, Tom, "A Failure of the Spirit" (pp. 200-209), on the use of bait and dogs to hunt bears, a practice that is illegal in many states.

--Carter, Jimmy, "A Childhood Outdoors" (pp. 35-46)

--Causey, Ann S., "Is Hunting Ethical?" (pp. 80-89)

--Wallace, George N., "If Elk Would Scream" (pp. 96-101)

--Posewitz, Jim, "The Hunter's Spirit" (pp. 136-142)

--Abbey, Edward, "Blood Sport" (pp. 11-16)

and many more.

--Freudenberger, C. Dean, "Bridging the Gap: Sustainable Development More Fully Considered," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences) Bulletin 16 (no. 4, Fall 1996):14-21. In sustainable development, at global scales, we are addressing questions only recently entertained in the human imagination. We have no historical precedents to help us fathom the implications of our present crisis. We have to learn that we are interdependently related to the land and share with it a marvelous, mutually enhancing relationship. Injustice in any form ultimately erodes human communities and the ecosystems in which they are founded. Freudenberger teaches at Luther Seminary, St. Paul, MN.

--Davies, Terry, "Voluntary Incentives Are No Shortcut to Pollution Abatement," Resources (Resources for the Future), Winter, 1997, p. 18. Summary of an RFF study concluding that no shortcut will be found around the difficult taks of legislating a better pollution control system in the United States. Any incentives will have to be woven into regulatory law.

--Simpson, R. David, "Biodiversity Prospecting: Shopping the Wilds Is Not the Key to Conservation," Resources (Resources for the Future), Winter, 1997, pp. 12-15. Studies show that losses in biological diversity have little bearing on whether the next miracle drug will be found. There are so many wild plants and animals that can be used by researchers that sources of useful products are either so common as to be redundant or so rare as to make discovery unlikely. The reasons for saving biodiversity can include such uses, but need to emphasize even more how biodiversity provides the basic life support system for society, and the aesthetic, ethical, and spritual bbenefits. Simpson is an RFF fellow, writing a book in this area.

--Simpson, R. David, Sedjo, Roger A., and Reid, John W., "Valuing Biodiversity for Use in Pharmaceutical Research," Journal of Political Economy 104(1996):163-185.

--Line, Les, "Twilight of America's Grasslands," National Wildlife 35(no. 3, April/May 1997):20-29. Of the original tall-grass prairie, in most states only one or two percent survive, and a surprising amount of habitat and biodiversity has been lost in recent years. The current plight of grassland birds is the most neglected conservation problem in America. Even on agricultural lands that once supported such birds, new agricultural practices, such as earlier and more frequent mowing, are decimating the remaining birds.

--Revesz, Richard L. Foundations of Environmental Law and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 352pp. $19.95 paper, $45 cloth. A collection of 40 readings by lawyers, economists, environmentalists, and legal scholars, which introduce students to the major theoretical approaches in the field. A companion volume to case materials for use as a textbook for environmental law policy.

--Sherman, Thomas Fairchild. A Place on the Glacial Till: Time, Land, and Nature Within an American Town. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 244pp. $22. Sherman writes about the history of the life and land around his long-time home in Oberlin, Ohio, with the message that all time and nature abide within the rocks and soil, with connections, beauty, and meaning as deep as history and as broad as human understanding.

--Bridgman, Howard, Warner, Robin, Dodson, John. Urban Biophysical Environments. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 166pp. $22.95. An assessment of current and emerging environmental problems from a physical point of view. The authors take a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding and managing the impact of cities on the atmosphere, climate, surface water, and groundwater, soil, flora, and fauna, and ecosystems of Australia.

--Rosenzweig, Cynthia, Hillel, Daniel. Climate Change and the Global Harvest: Potential Impacts of a Greenhouse Effect on Agriculture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. The nature of predictable changes on the world's agricultural system caused by the so-called greenhouse effect. The aim is to educate students at the undergraduate level about how the climatic factors affecting agriculture may be modified in the future and what practical adaptations might be undertaken to prevent or overcome any possible adverse impacts on our ability to feed the world's population.

--Parkyn, L., Stoneham, R.E., Ingram, H.A.P. Peatlands: Conservation and Management. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Why should peatlands be conserved? How should this conservation be achieved? The current situation regarding peatlands and bogs and an agenda for their future survival.

--Dicastri (Di Castri), Francesco, Younos, Talal, eds. Biodiversity, Science and Development: Towards a New Partnership. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 668pp. $95. An anthology of 61 papers by international experts. A major review and synthesis of current thinking on biodiversity for scientists and policy-makers.

--Hanley, Nick, Shogren, Jason F., White, Ben. Environmental Economics: In Theory and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 480pp. $35 paper, $65 cloth. A guide to the most important areas of natural resource and environmental economics, including the economics of non-renewable and renewable resource extraction, the economics of pollution control, the application of cost-benefit analysis to the environment, and the economics of sustainable development. Key elements of economic theory, and how they can be applied to real-world problems.

--Aplin, Graeme, Mitchell, Peter, Cleugh, Helen, Pitman, Andrew, Rich, David. Global Environmental Crises: An Australian Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 344pp. $26.95. A disinctively Australian perspective on environmental priorities. In Australia, these are in many ways different from those in other parts of the world.

--Dovers, Stephen, ed. Australian Environmental History: Essays and Cases. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 288pp. $39. Three overview essays explore the nature of Australian landscapes, the ways in which they have been used and abused, and attitudes and perceptions about them. Seven case studies explore the history of the Australian human-environment interaction. Included are analyses of small districts, large regions, and national resource centers, from the great reefs to the arid center.

--Anderson, E. N. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 272pp. $25. A new way of thinking about humans and our place in the universe. Why do we treat our environment and its resources the way we do?

--Stone, Jerome A., ed. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 18(no. 1, January, 1997). Contains:

--Engel, J. Ronald, "The Post-World War II Eco-Justice Movement in Christian Theology: Patterns and Issues," pp. 9-19.

--Engel, Joan Gibb, "Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: Comments of a Comma Consultant," pp. 21-31. An analysis of a recently published bibliography, Peter W. Bakken, Joan Gibb Engel, and J. Ronald Engel, Ecology, Justice and Christian Faith: A Critical Guide to the Literature, finding anthropocentrism is old and new guises. "I see the eco-justice discourse needing a few well-placed commas. Generally speaking, nature is not on an equal footing with theology or social concerns in our literature.

--Ruether, Rosemary Radford, "Ecofeminism: First and Third World Women," pp 33-45.

--Tuan, Yi-fu, "Sense of Place: What Does It Mean to be Human?" pp 47-57.

--Rolston, Holmes III, "Ecological Spirituality," pp. 59-63.

--Callicott, J. Baird, "The Challenge of a World Environmental Ethic," pp. 65-79.

--Traina, Cristina L. H., "Baird Callicott's Ethical Vision: Response to Baird Callicott," pp. 81-87.

--Jesse, Jennifer G., Review of Seigfried, Charlene Haddock, Pragmatism and Feminism: Reweaving the Social Fabric. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 18(no. 1, 1997):91-97.

--Goldsmith, Emanuel S., Review of Marvin C. Shaw, Nature's Grace: Essays on H. N. Wieman's Finite Theism. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 18 (no. 1, 1997):97-100.

--Chapman, J. Harley, Review of Pinnock, Clark, The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 18(no.1, 1997):100-105.

--Taylor, David A. "Saving the Forest for the Trees: Alternative Products from Woodlands," Environment 39(no. 1, 1997):6. Local communities around the world have begun to develop markets for a diverse array of products from fruit to insecticides to cloth that make preserving rather than logging forests the priority.

--Segerstahl, Boris. "The Long Shadow of Soviet Plutonium Production," Environment 39(no. 1, 1997):12. Even though Russia's Mayak facility is no longer being used to produce nuclear weapons, the problems it has caused will plague the country for years to come.

--Eads, George C. "Envisioning our Automotive Future," Environment 39(no. 1, 1997):28. Policymakers and politicians need to place prospects for revolutionary changes in automobile design and fuel efficiency in context, according to this review of a report from the Office of Technology Assessment.

--Snyder, Gary. Mountains and Rivers Without End. Washington: Counterpoint, 1996. 176 pages. $ 20.00. A volume by the most celebrated environmental poet. Think of the earth turning under our feet as we walk, of arriving at mountains and rivers, so opposite from each other, never staying the same, ever before us. "I came to see the yogic implications of `mountains' and `rivers,'" writes Snyder in an afterword, "as a play between the tough spirit of willed self-discipline and the generous and loving spirit of concern for all beings: a dyad presented in Buddhist iconography as the wisdom-sword-wielding Manjurshi, embodying transcendent insight, and his partner, Tara, the embodiment of compassion, holding a lotus or a vase. I could imagine this dyad as paralleled in the dynamics of mountain uplift, subduction, erosion, and the planetary water cycle."

--Matthiessen, Peter. "The Last Wild Tigers." Audubon 99 (no. 2, March-April 1997):54-63, 122-25. There are now about 3,000 tigers in Asia, down from 100,000 at the turn of the century. Prospects for survival are not good, given the mix of escalating numbers of people, their demands on the environment, and the vicissitudes of governments in the regions the tigers inhabit. Matthiessen is a well-known wildlife conservationist.

--Reaka-Kudla, Marjorie L., Don E. Wilson, and E. O. Wilson, eds. Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. Washington: National Academy Press, 1996. 560 pages. $ 34.95. The sequel to E. O. Wilson, Biodiversity, published now almost a decade ago, and one of the more influential of the books of the last decade. 32 papers from a symposium by 47 authors. Part 1: what biodiversity is and why it is important. Part 2: how many species are there, and why we do not know. Other indices of biodiversity, such as molecular markers. Part 3: known and potential losses of species, again with much that we do not know. Part 4: taxononic groups of organisms of special interest. Part 5: search for solutions, new directions, and applications. Part 6: the institutional and information infrastructure of conservation.

Some new emphases are: electronic data collection and analysis, the proposed U.S. National Biodiversity Information Center, application of techniques from the human genome project to species identification and classification, the Gap Analysis Program of the National Biological Survey, the significant contribution of museum collections to identifying and categorizing species. Reaka-Kudla is in zoology at the University of Maryland, Don Wilson is at the Smithsonian Institution, and E. O. Wilson is in zoology at Harvard University.

--Perlman, Dan L., Adelson, Glenn. Biodiversity: Exploring Values and Priorities in Conservation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1997. 208pp. $36.95. The questions scientists and policy makers must address when assessing and making policy that influences the diversity of life forms. The aim is to cover the basic modular, statistical, and theoretical approaches to the subject while exploring the applications of these approaches through case studies.

--Lein, James K. Environmental Decision Making: An Information Technology Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1997. 288pp. $49.95. The aim of this book is to help decision makers find their way through the wide array of new technologies and often overwhelming amount of data now available, and to show them how to use this data for problem solving and management.

--Lemons, John, ed. Scientific Uncertainty and Environmental Problem Solving. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1996. 512 pp. $80. Four major classes of uncertainty are addressed: framing uncertainty, modeling uncertainty, statistical uncertainty, and decision-theoretical uncertainty. Contributors give specific guidelines for decision making within existing limitations.

--Perry, James. Water Quality: Management of a Natural Resource. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1996. 656pp. $64.95. A multi-disciplinary approach to the study of water by building on the foundations of water chemistry and hydrology and expanding to cover subjects such as preservation and biological diversity and ecosystem integrity, public health standards, international waterways and policy, and the preservation of water resources.

--Wright, R. Gerald, ed. National Parks and Protected Areas. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1996. 496pp. $54.95. Focusing on the role and value parks can play in studying and preserving diversity and natural resources, the chapters look into techniques such as evaluating the ecological suitability of lands for parks, restoration of park resources, management of visitor use and protection of biodiversity.

--Petts, Geoffrey, Calow, Peter, eds. River Restoration. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc., 1995. 232pp. $49.95. Fifteen UK and overseas experts contribute, covering the nature of rivers, river pollution, biological water quality assessment, water quality control, flow-allocation management and environmentally sensitive engineering.

--Cahn, Matthew Alan, O'Brien, Rory, eds. Thinking About the Environment: Readings on Politics, Property, and the Physical World. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. 312pp. $24.95 paper. The physical world, law and property, the green critique, and the future of the environment within the context of Western traditions.

--Hunter, Susan, Waterman, Richard W. Enforcing the Law: The Case of the Clean Water Acts. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. 262pp. $23.95 paper. Uses extensive EPA data to examine enforcement from the perspective of the enforcement personnel. It illuminates a process of pragmatic enforcement--that is, the way bureaucrats actually do their jobs.

--Power, Thomas Michael. Environmental Protection and Economic Well-Being: The Economic Pursuit of Quality. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996. 268pp. $24.95 paper. A critique of the "folk economics" that dominates economic development discussions. Power applies the theoretical and empirical results of economic research to local development issues, and analyzes economic development policy in the context of the "total economy," not merely in terms of commercial business activity.

--Matossian, Mary Kilbourne. Shaping World History: Breakthroughs in Ecology, Technology, Science, and Politics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997. 240pp. $22.95. A survey of humankind from earliest times to the present which focuses on four factors: climate, communication and transportation technology, scientific advances, and the competence of political elites.

--Pirages, Dennis C., ed. Building Sustainable Societies: A Blueprint for a Post-Industrial World. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. 372pp. $54.95 cloth, $24.95 paper. This collection of articles addresses the question whether the industrial model of human progress can be sustained in the long run. It analyzes the social political, economic, and environmental implications as well as potential solutions to the problem of resource-intensive growth.

--Glaeser, Bernhard. Environment, Development, Agriculture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1995. The concept of human ecology might be the ideal means for creating a unified theoretical construct that will enable "greenery" and development to complement, rather than cancel out, each other.

--Roberts, Adam. "The Trade in Drugs and Wildlife." The Animals' Agenda 16(1996):34. How smugglers victimize animals to maximize profits.

--Kalechofsky, Roberta. "Nazis and Animals: Debunking the Myth." The Animals' Agenda 16(1996):32. Refutes claims of Nazi benevolence toward animals.

--Sidamon-Eirstoff, Constantine. "New York-New Jersey Harbor: A Dredging Dilemma." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 4(1997):36. East Coast harbors must be dredged to allow use by modern container shipping. What do you do with the dredged material?

--Lundmark, Thomas. "Principles and Instruments of German Environmental Law.

Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 4(1997):43. A systematic overview of environmental law in Germany. Emphasis is placed on the so-called principles and instruments of environmental law.

--Bordelon, Mark. "California's Tiered Permitting Program for Treatment of Hazardous Wastes," Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 4(1997):59.

--Lambert, Dean P. "Crop Diversity and Fallow Management in a Tropical Deciduous Forest Shifting Cultivation System," Human Ecology 24(1996): 427.

--Casas, Alejandro, del Carmen, Maria, Caballero, Javier. "Plant Management Among the Nahua and the Mixtec in the Balsas River Basin, Mexico: An Ethnobotanical Approach to the Study of Plant Domestication," Human Ecology 24(1996): 455.

--O'Neill, Karen M. "The International Politics of National Parks," Human Ecology 24(1996):521.

--Frewer, Lynn J., Howard, Chaya, Shepherd, Richard. "Public Concerns in the United Kingdom about General and Specific Applications of Genetic Engineering: Risk, Benefit and Ethics," Science, Technology, & Human Values 22(1997):98.

--Masson, Philippe. "Sustainable Rural Development," Land Use Policy 14(1997):75.

--Gatto, Paola, Merlo, Maurizio. "Agriculture, Forestry and Global Warming," Land Use Policy 14(1997):76.

--Lippke, Bruce, Fretwell, Holly L. "The Market Incentive for Biodiversity," Journal of Forestry 95(1997):4.

--Garland, John J. "The Players in Public Policy," Journal of Forestry 95(1997):13.

--Shindler, Bruce, Neburka, Julie. "Public Participation in Forest Planning: Eight Attributes of Success," Journal of Forestry 95(1997):17.

--Schumaker, John R., O'Laughlin, Jay, Freemuth, John C. "Why Don't Federal Employees Use Alternative Dispute Resolution More Often," Journal of Forestry 95(1997):20.

--Ruhl, J.B. "An Environmental Rights Amendment: Good Message, Bad Idea," Natural Resources & Environment 11(1997):46.

--Bender, William H. "How Much Food Will We Need in the 21st Century?" Environment 39(1997):6. Focusing on the future demand for food rather than the supply suggests ways of feeding more people with less environmental damage.

--Brown Jr., George E. "Environmental Science Under Siege in the U.S. Congress," Environment 39 (1997): 12. The prominent role given to skeptical science during the 104th Congress's reassessments of U.S. environmental regulation raises profound questions about the value of peer review and the role science and scientists play in the formulation of public policy.

--Corral-Verdugo, Victor. "Introduction: Environmental Psychology in Latin America: Efforts in Critical Situations," Environment and Behavior 29 (1997): 163.

--Obregon-Salido, Francisco J., Corral-Verdugo, Victor. "Systems of Beliefs and Environmental Conservation Behavior in a Mexican Community." Environment and Behavior 29(1997):213.

--Wang, Hua. "Treatment of "Don't-Know" Responses in Contingent Valuation Surveys: A Random Valuation Model," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 32(1997):219.

--Percival, Robert V., Alevizatos, Dorothy C., eds. Law and the Environment: A Multidisciplinary Reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997. 464pp. $69.95 cloth, $29.95 paper. A comprehensive examination of society's multidisciplinary response to the difficult challenges posed by environmental problems.

--Staudt, Kathleen, ed. Women, International Development, and Politics: The Bureaucratic Mire. Updated and expanded edition. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997. 312pp. $24.95 paper. This new edition reflects the intensified interest in women's empowerment in developing countries demonstrated by the Beijing Conference.

--Mackinnon, John, with Photographs by Nigel Hicks. Wild China. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1996. 208 pp. $40. Wild China surveys the rich biological treasures of this country. It explores reserves where the Giant Panda is not protected, alpine meadows that are a botanist's wonderland of floral species, wetlands that are home to a million birds, turtle islands, and tigers' stalking grounds.

--Smith, Maureen. The U.S. Paper Industry and Sustainable Production: An Argument for Restructuring. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. 300 pp. $30. Smith shows how industrial and environmental analysis can be synthesized to clarify and produce solutions to the complex problems recyclers face with wastepaper connected to the issues addressed by forest advocates, as well as to the difficulties confronted by those involved with industrial pollution from the paper industry.

--Dauvergne, Peter. Shadows in the Forest: Japan and the Political Economy of Deforestation in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. 336pp. $45 cloth, $22 paper. Dauvergne examines Japan's effect on commercial timber management in Indonesia, East Malaysia and the Philippines. The book is one of the first to examine the environmental impact of Northeast Asian development on Southeast Asian resource management and to analyze the indirect environmental impact of bilateral state relations on the management of South Asian forest resources.

--Desimone, Livio D., Popoff, Frank. Eco-Efficiency: The Business Link to Sustainable Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. 264pp. $25. The principles of eco-efficiency with case studies of a number of international companies including 3M and the Dow Company. There is discussion of the value of partnerships--with other companies, business associations, communities, regulators, and environmental and other non-governmental groups.

--Schmidheiny, Stephan, Zorraquin, Federico J. L. Financing Change: The Financial Community, Eco-Efficiency, and Sustainable Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. 232pp. $20. Largely descriptive, rather than prescriptive, Financing Change is the first study to examine questions that will become increasingly important as populations escalate and the developing countries enter financial markets. These issues are examined in separate chapters covering the viewpoints of the financial market participants: company directors, investors and analysts, bankers, insurers, accountants, and raters.

--Baird, Robert M., and Rosenbaum, Stuart E., eds. Animal Experimentation: The Moral Issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1997. 182pp. $16.95 paper. A collection of 16 essays provides an introduction to the major normative, political, and cultural issues involved in the animal rights controversy. Contributors include: Carl Choen, Alan Freeman, J.A. Gray, Peter Harrison, Edwin Converse Hettinger, Betty Mensch, Tom Regan, Bernard E. Rollin, Richard Ryder, Richard Schwarz, Peter Singer, William Timberlake, Mary Anne Warren, Robert White, Robert Wright, and Steven Zak.

--Kamieniecki, Sheldon, Gonzalez, George A., Vos, Robert O., eds. Flashpoints in Environmental Policymaking: Controversies in Achieving Sustainability. Ithaca, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1997. $59.50. A contribution to public policy and natural resource issues. The likely "hot spots" of environmental policy, presenting alternative and often opposing points of view on the major controversies that are likely to be with us well into the next century.

--Harries, Karsten. The Ethical Function of Architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. 450pp. $45. Harries questions the premises on which architects and theorists have long relied--premises that have contributed to architecture's current identity crisis and marginalizations. He first criticizes the aesthetic approach, focusing on the problems of decoration and ornament. He then turns to the language of architecture. Harries also considers the relationship of building to the idea and meaning of dwelling. Architecture has a responsibility to community, but its ethical function is inevitably also political.

--Tallmadge, John. Meeting the Tree of Life: A Teacher's Path. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997. 220pp. $44.95 cloth, $18.95 paper. Tallmadge describes a young teacher's coming of age through wilderness adventures framed by the study of nature writing. His experiences in New England, Utah, Wyoming and Minnesota's canoe country help him discover what true teaching and personal survival really mean.

--Olsen, W. Scott, Cairns, Scott, eds. The Sacred Place: Witnessing the Holy in the Physical World. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1996. 360 pp. $49.95 cloth, $19.95 paper. With renewed urgency, serious writers are undertaking an un abashedly metaphysical discourse as they describe how the experience of standing near the hilltop, the stream bank, or the village park provides an empowering sense of encounter.

--Garrison, Philip. Waiting for the Earth to Turn Over: Identity and the Late-Twentieth-Century American West. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1996. 176pp. $39.95 cloth, $12.95 paper. Garrison's account of his slow accumulation of identity reveals how history and memory are interwoven as he shows us the remarkable landscape of the American West in a light both new to us and very, very old.

--Robertson, David. Real Matter. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997. 182pp. 39.95 cloth, $15.95 paper. Following the trail of some of America's famous nature writers--including Fitz Hugh Ludlow, John Muir, Mary Austin, Jack Kerouac, and Gary Snyder--Robertson seeks, through journal writing, literary criticism, and photography, "a secret at the heart of the universe." In his stories about these writers' mountain adventures and his own excursions, he discovers how important wilderness is to the framing of human narratives.

--Swimme, Brian. The Hidden Heart of the Cosmos: Humanity and the New Story. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 12pp. $15 cloth. Swimme takes a journey through the cosmos in search of the "new story" that is developing in answer to this age-old question. He shows that science can be a wisdom tradition, its lessons integral to our being and well-being.

--Weaver, Jace, ed. Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 185pp. $18 paper. These essays document a range of ecological disasters, including the devastating effects of mining, water pollution, nuclear power facilities, and toxic waste dumps. Such hazards are commonly located on or near Indian lands.

--McDonagh, Sean. Passion for the Earth: The Christian Vocation to Promote Justice, Peace and the Integrity of Creation. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 163pp. $14 paper. An analysis of how the world's economic system poisons the Earth and disrupts justice, peace, and the integrity of creation.

--Habito, Ruben L. F. Healing Breath: Zen Spirituality for a Wounded Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 125pp. $15 paper. Habito locates the sickness in human hearts that causes us to deal harshly with one another and with the Earth. His vision and method are proposed to counteract the effects of that sickness, to develop healing habits of mind and heart.

--Ruether, Rosemary Radford, ed. Women Healing Earth: Third-World Women on Ecology, Feminism, and Religion. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 175pp. $17 paper. Contributors are from South America, Central America, India, Philippines, Korea, and Africa.

--Rae, Eleanor. Women, The Earth, The Divine. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 150pp. $15 paper. Rae surveys the present situation of women and the basics of ecofeminism and explores the link between the oppression of women and the exploitation of nature.

--Gardner, Gerald T., Stern, Paul C. Environmental Problems and Human Behavior. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. The behavioral dimensions of global and regional environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, deforestation, air pollution, and water pollution. What does our knowledge of human behavior tell us about the causes of environmental problems and about strategies for solving them?

--Gifford, Robert. Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice. Second edition. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1997.

--Hannum, Hildegarde, ed. People, Land, and Community. New Haven, CT: New Yale University Press, 1997. 336pp. $35 cloth, $17 paper. Contributors of the E.F. Schumacher Society Lectures explore topics that range from agricultural reform to bioregional economics. They all, however, focus on the importance of sustainability, community, healthy and locally based economics of scale, education, the dignity of good work, and balance between human needs and the well-being of the natural world.

--Committee on Scientific Issues in the Endangered Species Act, National Research Council. Science and the Endangered Species Act. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995. 288pp. $39.95. This book analyzes concepts of species and how they have been interpreted for purposes of the ESA, examines conflicts between species when individual species are identified for protection, and assesses extinction risk and decisions under the ESA. It concludes with a look beyond the Endangered Species Act and suggests additional means of biological conservation and ways to reduce conflicts.

--Davies, J. Clarence, ed. Comparing Environmental Risks. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1996. 150pp. This volume explain the origins of comparative risk and the political context in which it is being put forward, its use in the US, the limitations that might reasonably be imposed upon it, and the way in which both "experts" and the lay public might participate in making risk comparisons.

--Student Conservation Association. The Guide to Graduate Environmental Programs. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1997. 384pp. $29.95 cloth, $16.95 paper. This presents in a single volume information on the various types of programs available across the full spectrum of environmental fields--the city and regional planning, environmental law, public policy, natural resources management, ecology, biological sciences, public health, architecture, and many others.


Animal Rights and Their Human Consequences. 28 minutes. Alan and Suzanne are committed to animal rights but their convictions are creating a dilemma. She is seven months pregnant and may have to decide whether or not to use drugs tested on animals if childbirth does not progress as exppected. Is their belief in animal rights a good enough reason to deny their child vaccinations? Is the use of animals for scientific purposes justifiable? The issue is debatged by an Antlican theologian, a research consultant with the Royal SPCA, and a Hindu physician. $89.95 from Films for the Humanities and Sciences, P. O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. 800/257-5126.

Oren Lyons: The Faithkeeper. 60 minutes. Native American Chief Oren Lyons, interviewed by Bill Moyers. The earth as sacred, the Great Law of Six Nations, which envisions humans and earth as one, and the importance of community, social and environmental, to Native Americans. Orens reveals spiritual prophecies made in the year 1799 that predicted environmental disaster. $ 89.95 from Films for the Humanities and Sciences, P. O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. 800/257-5126.

Risky Business: Biotechnology and Agriculture. 24 minutes. Produced by Moving Images Video Project. By Mark Dworkin and Melissa Young. Purchase $195. Rental $45. Thousands of plants and animals are being genetically engineered for longer shelf life, crops to tolerate more poison chemicals, and pigs so that their hearts can be transplanted into people. This video stimulates discussion about the effects of this new technology on farmers, our food supply, public health, and the environment. Order from Bullfrog Films, Box 149, Oley, PA 19547. 800/543-3764.


Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, has advertized, in Jobs for Philosophers, a position with AOS Greek Philosophy and AOC environmental philosophy preferred. The position is non-tenurable but renewable, at instructor level. Contact Richard Galvin, Chair, Department of Philosophy, TCU, Box 297250, Fort Worth, TX 76129.



--April 4-6, 1997. Ruffin Lecture Series, "Environmental Challenges to Business," Darden School, University of Virginia. Organized by Patricia Werhane. Speakers include: Kristen Shrader-Frechette, U of South Florida; William McDonough, UVA; Carolyn Merchant, U of California, Berkeley; R. Edward Freeman, UVA; Paul Shrivastava, Bucknell U; Mark Sagoff, U of Maryland.  Commentators include: Andrea Larson, UVA; George Brenkert, U of Tennessee; I. Mitroff, U of Souther California; Bryan Norton, Georgia Tech; Derry Habir, Jakarta; Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, U of Windsor; and Sandra Rosenthal and Rogene Buchholz, Loyola U of New Orleans.

--April 17-18, 1997. Conference on New Directions for Environmental Values, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

--April 23-27, 1997. American Philosophical Association: Central Division, Pittsburgh, PA.

--May 5-7, 1997. Cross-Cultural Protection of Nature and the Environment. Seminar at Hollufgaard, Humanities Research Center, "Man and Nature," Odense, Denmark. Speakers: Avner de-Shalit, Political Science, Hebrew University; Darrell Posey, Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, Oxford; Paul Richards, University College, London; Bryan Norton, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, and Toni Huber, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Further papers are invited. Contact Finn Arler, Humanities Research Center, Man and Nature, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, DK-5220 Odense SO, Denmark. Phone 45 65 95 94 93. Fax 45 65 95 77 66. Email: arler@humcenter.ou.dk

--June 4-9, 1997. Ethics and Natural Environmental Change: Recognising the Autonomy of Nature, Newfoundland. At St. John's June 4-5, at Corner Brook June 6-9. A two-day interdisciplinary symposium to be held during the Learned Societies Congress, St. John's, Newfoundland, June 4 and 5, 1997, followed by a three-day seminar and excursion in Corner Brook to discuss with local residents, scientists and environmental managers the effects of environmental change on a traditional resource-based society. The symposium will explore perspectives in contemporary environmental philosophy that deal with natural processes of environmental change. The seminar and excursion (June 6-9) will be based at Sir Wilfred Grenfell College in Corner Brook and in the nearby Gros Morne National Park. The Symposium will consist of formal papers and comments in the tradition normal for the Learneds Congress. Information about registration and accommodation can be obtained from learneds@morgan.ucs.mun.ca or


Details about the Symposium, Seminar and Excursion may be obtained from:

www.mun.ca/learneds/societies/calls_for_papers/ autonomy_call.

--A. R. Berger, 528 Paradise Street, Victoria BC V9A 5E2. Phone/fax (250) 480-0840. Email: arberger@beothuk.swgc.mun.ca

--T. Heyd, Department of Philosophy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P4. Phone: (250) 381-2239, Fax (250) 721-7511.

--June 6-9, 1997. Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, CANADA. Website: http://office.geog.uvic.ca/dept/announc/scb_page.html

--June 20-25, 1997. The conference on "Global Ecological Integrity: The Relationship Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics" will take place in Cortona ITALY. Sponsered by the SSHRC-Canada and the Institute of Anthropology, University of Firenza, ITALY. The first day will be devoted to "The Meeting and Role of Ecological Integrity" (speakers: Robert Ulanowicz, Mark Sagoff, Ernest Partridge, Alan Holland, Don Brwon, Silvio Funtowcz); Second day, "Integrity and Human Health"; invited speaker, Dr. A.J. McMichael "Ecological Footprints: New or Merely Larger Shoes?" (speakers Colin Soskolna, R. Bertollini (WHO), Paolo Vineis, Laura Westra, Joanne Ciull, Dale Jamieson); Third day: "Integrity and the City" (Speakers Wm. Reese, Philippe Crabbe, James Sterba, Will Aiken, Jack Manno, Ted Schrecker); Fourth day: "Integrity and Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries" (speakers Orie Loukes, Peter Miller, Robert Goodland, Matthais Kaiser, John Lemmons). Also many submitted papers and a fifth day devoted to European contributions. For information fax L. Westra (905) 738-4421; or phone (416) 494-2495.

--July 11-18, 1997. Spirituality and Sustainability, in Assisi, Italy. With a focus on current efforts since the Rio Earth Summit, including the Earth Charter process, on emerging ecologically sensitive religions and sciences, and grassroots sustainable development initiatives. Contact Richard M. Clugston, Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037. Phone 202/778-6133.

--July 17-19, 1997. Second Biennial Conference of the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE), University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. "The Last Best Place." Featured writers and scholars: David Abram, Rick Bass, Shoko Itoh, Thomas J. Lyon, Joseph Meeker, David Robertson, Pattiann Rogers, Louise Westling, and Gary Snyder. Paper proposals, by January 15, 1997, to: John Tallmadge, President-Elect, ASLE, 6538, Teakwood Court, Cincinnati OH 45224. Phone: 513-681-0944; Email: jtall@interramp.com General information about the conference from ASLE Conference, Conferences and Institutes, Center for Continuing Education, Missoula MT 59812-1900. Phone: 406-243-4600; Email: cni@selway.umt.edu Conference Director: Hank Harrington. Further information about the conference is available on the ASLE World Wide Web Site: http://faraday.clas.virginia.edu/~djp2n/asle.html

--August 10-17, 1997. Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World, Estes Park, Colorado, YMCA of the Rockies.

--September 28-30, 1997. People and Place: The Human Experience in Greater Yellowstone. Fourth Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park. Contact: Conference Registration, Yellowstone Association, P. O. Box 117, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190.

--October 1- 3, 1997. Environmental Justice: Global Ethics for the 21st Century. An international academic conference at the University of Melbourne. Papers invited. Arne Naess (University of Oslo) will open the conference. Contact Nicholas Low, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Phone: (3) 9344 6429. Fax (3) 9344 7458. Email: nick_low@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au. The conference is now posted on the Internet at: http://www.arbld.unimelb.edu.au/events/enjust.htm

--October 15-18, 1997. Society for Human Ecology, Local and Global Communities: Complexity and Responsibility. Bar Harbor, Maine. Ninth International Conference. Papers invited. Contact Melville Coté, Executive Director, Society for Human Ecology, c/o College of the Atlantic, 102 Eden Street, Bar Harbor, Maine 04906. Fax 207/288-4126. Phone 207-288-5015

--October 18-25, 1997. 6th World Wilderness Congress, Bangalore, India. Papers invited. For a symposium on Wilderness Designation, Management, and Research, contact in the U.S.: Alan Watson, Leopold Institute, 790 East Beckwith Ave., University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59801. Phone 406/542-4197. For a symposium on Wilderness Inventory: Approaches and Progress, contact Jonathan Miller, Director, Wilderness and Wild Rivers Unit, Environment Australia, G.P.O. Box 1567 Canberra, Australia 2601. Fax 61-6 217-2095. For a symposium on The Use of Wilderness for Personal Growth, Therapy, and Education, contact Dr. John Hendee, Director, Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Fax 208/885-2268. For a seminar on The Tiger Dilemma--Status, Review, and Recommendations, contact M.A. Partha Sarathy, Hamsini, 1, 12th Cross, Rajmahal, Bangalore, 650 080, India. Fax 91-80 334-1674. Previous conferences have been in South Africa, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Norway.

--November 11-14, 1997. National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Roanoke, Virginia. "Expanding Horizons: A Diversity of Views, A Diversity of Viewers. Contact: 540-231-5185.

--December 27-30, 1997. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division.


--May 27-31, 1998. Society and Resource Management, Seventh International Symposium. University of Missouri-Columbia. Papers, symposia, etc., invited. Contact: Sandy Rikoon, Rural Sociology, 108 Sociology Bldg., University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. Phone 573/882-0861 Fax 573/882-1473.

--August 10-16, 1998. World Congress of Philosophy. Boston. There will be an official section on "Philosophy and the Environment," of which Robin Attfield will be co-chair. ISEE will also organize one or more sessions, in the professional societies sections, of which Holmes Rolston will be the convener. See call for papers earlier.


--May 17-22, 1999. Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. University of Montana, Missoula. Includes wilderness values, policy, ethics, and science. Changing societal definitions of wilderness, wilderness management. There is a call for papers. 406/243-4623 or 888 (toll-free)/254-2544.


Back issues of ISEE Newsletters have been moved to the University of North Texas website at:


(These were formerly at Morehead State University, Kentucky, although accessible through the University of North Texas ISEE homepage). Newsletters can be searched using the FIND feature on Windows or other software. Newsletters can be Emailed to your local address.

Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics

Compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, including 1996 update, will be ready in February. This will cumulate the existing bibliography with all of the 1996 entries in the ISEE Newsletters. The Bibliography is available in WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) which is easily translated into a Macintosh format (also for WordPerfect in Macintosh, if desired). If you don't use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in three parts, A-G, H-Q and R-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Ph 970-491-6315 (office); Fax 970-491-4900; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu Send $5 to Rolston. If for some reason you wish only the update part for a current or recent year, specify that, at the same price.

Access via Internet: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:


The site has a search engine, by name and keyword. Files and search results can be e-mailed to your local e-mail address.


Current Officers of ISEE (Executive Board)

President: Professor Mark Sagoff, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland 20742-5141 USA, Email: msagoff@puafmail.umd.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97.

Vice-President and President-elect: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Dept. of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton Texas 76203 USA, Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97, when he becomes President.

Secretary: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca;term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.

Treasurer: Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland Wisconsin 54806 USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Newsletter Editor: Professor Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Ph 606-783-2785, 606-784-0046; Fax 606-783-2678; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida) has been elected Vice-President and President-elect. Her term will begin with the 1997-98 academic year and expire at the end of the academic year 1999-2000. Her term as President will begin with the academic year 2000-2001.



Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor, of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this results in duplicated efforts. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred):


The parcel post address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Ph 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Scholarly articles are not published. Very brief reports of research and publications will be considered. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Calls for Papers and Conferences should be limited to 150 words.

Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.


U.S.: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland Wisconsin 54806 USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org

Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca

Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, renewals, new subscriptions, and address changes should be sent to these regional contact persons. The dues are used by the contact person to pay for duplication and mailing of the Newsletter.

If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Partridge (address above and below).




Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Australia and New Zealand

The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; Ph 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax 61 74 30 1111; Email elliot@mail.scuc.edu.au


Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca; Fax 519-973-7050.

China: Mainland China

Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Europe: Eastern Europe

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address and phone: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND; Ph 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 476461, ext. 280 (8 am to 3 pm). Fax 48-61-477079 (8 am-3 pm), 48-61-471555 (24 hours). Home address and phone: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND, Ph 48-61-417275 (24 hours). Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: filozof@plpuam11.amu.edu.pl

Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean

The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. Fax 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Pakistan and South Asia

Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Ph (92) (521) (841593). Fax (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk

United Kingdom

Dr. Clare Palmer, University of Greenwich, School of Environmental Sciences, Rachel McMillan Building, Creek Road, Deptford; London SE8 3BW; UK; Phone 44 181 331 8223; Fax 44 181 331 8205; Email: C.A.Palmer@greenwich.ac.uk. Dues are £6.50 UK.

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept., College of Charleston, Charleston South Carolina 29424 USA. Ph 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu

Peter List, Philosophy Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon 97332 USA. Email: listp@cla.orst.edu

Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland Wisconsin 54806 USA; Ph 715-682-1355 (Office), 715-373-5735 (Home); Fax 715-372-5736; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA; Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu; Ph 970-491-6315 (Office); Fax 970-491-4900.

Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; Ph 606-784-0046 (Home Office); Fax 606-783-2678.


The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.

Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.

Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email (preferred) or by disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:


Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Building, Morehead State University, Morehead Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Ph 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).




Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.


Enclosed are dues: ______________________. (Annual dues are: $15 U.S.; $20 Canadian; £6.50 UK and Europe. Student dues are: $10 U.S. or Canadian, $15 foreign. Please send comparable amounts based on current exchange rates.)


Name ____________________________________________ Phone (______)________________


Position or Affiliation _______________________________________________________________


Address (Include Postal Code) ________________________________________________________



Email: ___________________________________________________________________________


SEND with Payment to: Regional Contact Person; or Prof. Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland Wisconsin 54806 USA.