Volume 7, No. 3, Fall 1996

General Announcements

The Department of Philosophy at the University of Montana has launched a new MA program in environmental philosophy to complement their existing graduate philosophy programs. Further information is available at the program's web site http//www.cep.unt.edu/other/montana.html.

The Environmental News Network provides on World Wide Web a Daily News service on the environment, with special rates for classes, and particularly useful for keeping up on current environmental affairs and legislative and regulatory issues. http://www.enn.com. A phone number is 208-726-3649. (Thanks to Jack Paxton.)

ActGreen is a daily bulletin, a listserv, over the Internet, providing up-to-date information on U. S. Congressional and government agency actions on environmental issues. To subscribe send to listproc@envirolink.org the one line message: "subscribe actgreen your name". The director of the list is Roger Featherstone. Address questions to rfeather@clark.net This is a project of Defenders of Wildlife, in conjunction with various environmentalist groups. (Thanks to Doug Daigle.)

Warwick Fox and Arne Naess are teaching a three-week course this fall at Schumacher College, "What is the New Paradigm? The Emerging Ecological World View." The theme is new paradigm thinking and Deep Ecology and how the values implicit in these approaches are important for the creation of a sustainable future. The psychology, ethics, politics, and cosmology of the emerging ecological world view. The course runs 29 September-29 October. Schumacher College is an international center for ecological studies, located at Dartington, Devon, UK.

International Petition on Global Climate Change. The World Council of Churches has initiated an international petition on global climate change, stating its alarm that so little has been done politically to address the impending danger. The petition is supported by Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant Christians. Those who sign ask their governments to take steps required to respond to the danger (1) by fulfilling their promise at the Rio Earth Summit to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000, (2) by establishing firm policy measures and adopting a binding international agreement that will achieve greater reductions in emissions after 2000, and (3) by initiating more forcefully public debate on the risks of climate change. There are differing versions of the petition for different countries. The U.S. effort is being coordinated by the Office of Environmental Justice, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A), 100 Witherspoon Street, Room 3069, Louisville, KY 40202-1396. Phone 502/569-5809. Fax 502/569-8116.

The Ecofeminist Newsletter has been published since 1990 as a network for ecofeminists, providing news of activities, publications, and related information. Published yearly, except in 1995, future issues will be on the world wide web. Contact Noël Sturgeon, Women Studies, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4007. Phone 509/335-1794. Fax 509/335-4377. Web site: www.wsu.edu:8080/~ecofem/index.htm

Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies invites papers for a special issue, "Intersections between Environmentalism and Feminism." They especially seek papers that stretch the bounds of present discussions within ecofeminist theory and document new examples of women's environmental activism. Submissions requested by December 1. The special issue editor is Noël Sturgeon. Contact: Frontiers, Wilson 12, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, 99164-4007. Phone 509/335-7268. Fax 509/335-4377.

Doctoral Degree and Professional Certification in Sustainable Development. The American Institute of Urban and Regional Affairs offers the Scholar-Practitioner Doctoral Degrees and/or Professional Certification in Sustainable Development. Either the Doctor of Science or the Doctor of Social Science may be earned. The S-PD is intended to prepare professionals in mid-and advanced career status for senior level assignments as scientists, planners, managers, and similar positions in agencies of government, industry, non-governmental organizations as well as for teaching, research and consulting positions in higher education. In addition to satisfying all requirements for the conventional doctoral degree, the Scholar-Practitioner Doctoral Degrees feature executive leadership and major project management skills that are intended to be institutionally interchangeable. Both the doctoral and professional certification programs employ computer technology for distance learning designed for practicing professionals. There are no Graduate Record Examination or on-campus residency requirements. Liberal credit for appropriate professional experience may be granted to meet the requirements for the doctoral degree. Qualified candidates from any nation may submit applications. Financial assistance and internships are available. Web Site: http://www.intr.net/susdev For program details contact Dr.Troyt B. York, President, AIURA. 19251 Dunbridge Way. Gaithersburg, Maryland. 2087. Fax: 301/948-4789. Phone: 301/948-4327

Earth Charter effort continues. The UNCED Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro failed to produce an intended Earth Charter, settling instead on the Rio Declaration. The effort to produce an Earth Charter has regained impetus, under the leadership of the Earth Council, a follow-up group to the UNCED Summit, based in Costa Rica and headed by Maurice Strong, and Green Cross International, with support from the government of the Netherlands. The Charter project hopes to create a "soft" law document that sets forth the fundamental principles of an emerging earth ethics, principles that include respect for human rights, peace, economic equity, environmental protection, and sustainable living. For a summary see Steven C. Rockefeller, "Global Ethics, International Law, and the Earth Charter," Earth Ethics 7(nos. 3 and 4, Spring/Summer 1996):1-6. The last section of this article contains a "Summary of Principles in International Development and Sustainable Development Law and Reports." This whole issue of Earth Ethics is related to the Earth Charter theme. A Rio + 5 Assembly convenes in Rio March 13-17, 1997, with about 400 representatives expected, at which time the Earth Charter will be considered.

Andrew Brennan will be visiting professor at the University of Oslo from October to December 1996. During that period, he will be teaching a unit on environmental philosophy. The course will be structured around the readings in Gruen and Jamieson, eds., Reflecting on Nature. Brennan also spent part of last year in Oslo, where he started collaborative research with cultural historian Nina Witoszek.

Cass Adams, the editor of an anthology entitled The Soul Unearthed, is touring the western US from September-November and would love any contacts for book reviews, bookstore signings, radio interviews, other speaking engagements, etc. Adams cofounded Men's Wilderness Retreats and has led ritual-based wilderness excursions for men in the mountains of Colorado and in the deserts of the Southwest. He has published several items on men's issues. Contacts: Email: jeannie@ossinc.net; or, the publisher's representative, Gene Hong, Tarcher/Putnam, 200 Madison Ave., 18th Floor, New York, NY 10016, 212-951-8581. For more on the book, see below.


CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS

Call for Papers: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 USA, Email: katze@admin.njit.edu.

--Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca.

--Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org.

APA: Eastern Division Program, Dec. 27-30, 1996, Atalanta GA:
ISEE Sessions. Session One: Author Meets Critics--Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Method in Ecology. Chair, J. Baird Callicott, University of North Texas; Speakers, Bryan Norton (Georgia Tech), Eric Katz (NJ Institute of Technology), Greg Cooper (Duke), Frank Golley (Georgia). Session Two: Author Meets Critics--Michael Zimmerman, Contesting Earth's Future. Chair, Ernest Partridge (Northland College); Speakers, Jonathan Maskit (Katholicke University of Luvven), Steven Vogel (Denison), Victoria Davion (Georgia), Harold Glasser (NJ Institute of Technology). Session Three: Author Meets Critics--David Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous. Chair, Eric Katz or Jack Weir; Speakers, Andrew Light (Montana), Irene Klaver (Montana State), Deane Curtin (Gustavus Adolphus).
Session of the North American Society for Social Philosophy. Chair, James Sterba; Speakers: Laura Westra (Windsor), "Environmental Risks, Rights, and the Failure of Liberal Democracy," and Eugene Hargrove (North Texas), "Environmentalism and Democracy."

APA: Central Division Program, 23-26 April 1997, Pittsburg, PA:
Session One: Panel on "Nature vs. Development?" Organized by Will Aiken; chaired by Laura Westra. Speakers: Holmes Rolston III, Colorado State University; David Crocker, University of Maryland; Will Aiken, Chatham College. Followed by brief business meeting. Session Two: "Recent Work in Environmental Ethics." Chaired by Laura Westra. Speakers: Sheri Collins-Shobanian, Arizona State University West, "A Proposal for Environmental Consumer Labelling: From Nutrition Facts and Fat Grams to Environmental Facts and Pesticide PPMs"; William McKinney, Southeast Missouri State University, "On the Seemingly Paradoxical Nature of the Phrase `American Environmental Regulations'"; Andrew J. Kerr, Divinity School, University of Chicago, "The Necessity of Metaphysics: Environmental Ethics and the Naturalistic Fallacy"; Teresa Kwiatkowska, University of Autonoma, Mexico City, "Beyond Uncertainty: Toward the Ethics of Belonging."

American Academy of Religion, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 23-26. A panel of religion and ethics scholars will discuss J. Baird Callicott's book, Earth's Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback. Panelists include: Mary Evelyn Tucker, John Grimm, Bill La Fleur, Heather Eton, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Bron Taylor, and Lois Ann Lorentzen.

Risk Assessment and Policy Association (RAPA), annual meeting, Washington, DC, 6-7 March 1997. The society focuses on ethical and policy questions on environmental risk. Commentators are still needed: Write to Kristen Shrader-Frechette, Philosophy Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33620-5550. Many famous speakers will be present, including George Brown of California and Theo Colborn of the World Wildlife Fund. Thirty topics will be presented; some are: "Burdens and Levels of Proof," "Informed Consent," "Risk and Public Participation," "Uncertainty and Risk," "Public Health and Risk Assessment.". A session entitled "Environmental Justice and Equality" will be chaired by Laura Westra and will focus on "Environmental Racism"; speakersare: Robert Bullard, Clark University of Atlanta; Clarice Gaylord, Office of Environmental Justice, EPA; Owens Wiwa, Nigeria; Laura Westra, University of Windsor.

The Mountain-Plains Philosophy Conference, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 26-28 September 1996, included a paper by Michael Coste, "Environmental Takings, Environmental Regulation, and Property: A Lockean Perspective." Coste is at Front Range Community College, Fort Collins, Colorado.

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its annual meeting at the University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, CANADA, from 6-9 June 1997. Abstracts are due no later than 15 January 1997. To be accepted for the SCB program, abstact submissions must fit rigid style guidelines. For more information, see the Society for Conservation Biology Newsletter, 3, no. 3 (September 1996), or contact Jack Weir j.weir@morehead-st.edu (address below) or Phil Pister phildesfish@telis.org.

CALL FOR PAPERS. "Global Ecological Integrity: The Relation Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics," 24-28 June 1997, Firenze and Cortona, ITALY. Plenary Speakers will include: Allan Holland, John Lemmons, David Pimentel, Mark Sagoff, Dale Jamieson, James Sterba, Ernest Partridge, and Robert Goodland. Conference fee of $100 includes breaks and a trip to Assisi. Contact: Laura Westra, Philosophy Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4, CANADA. Fax 905-738-4421.

Robin Attfield gave an address: "Evolution, Theodicy and Value" to the annual conference of the Science and Religion Forum, 9-11 September 1996, at High Leigh, Hoddesdon, Herts. England. This was a joint conference with the British Ecological Society. Mary Midgley chaired the session. Other speakers included R. G. (Sam) Berry, on stewardship; C. A. Russell on the balance of nature, Judy Turner on a paleoecological interpretation of Genesis 2, and Stephen R. L., Clark, who criticized evolutionism and defended the rationality of anti-evolution revelationists.

The Ethics Working Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) was among the sponsoring bodies of the recent conference on "Ethics, Development and Global Value", organized by Nigel Dower at Aberdeen from June 25-28. The other sponsoring bodies were the Centre for Philosophy, Technology and Society, University of Aberdeen, the Department of Philosophy, University of Aberdeen, the International Development Ethics Association, and the Development Ethics Study Group of the Development Studies Association. There was a series of meetings on the International Development/Environment Interface. Robin Attfield (UK) made a presentation to this section on "Responsibility for the Global Environment," while Laura Westra (Canada) addressed another section on "Development and Environmental Impact Assessment: The Case of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni." Other speakers on environmental themes include Sheelagh O'Reilly (UK): "Towards an Ethic of Sustainability: An Attempt to Unite Development and Environmental Ethics"; Teresa Kwiatkowska-Sztazschneider (Mexico) "Lesson from the Crisis: How to Use the Environment and Who should Benefit From It"; Asunscion Lera-Lee (USA) "Rescuing Rawls for Sustainable Development"; David Braine (UK) "The Principles of International Order as They Relate to Development and the Preservation of the Environment"; Alejandro I. Herrera (Mexico) "Ecodevelopment and Progress: Some Moral Guidelines"; Ulrich Lolke (Germany) "Parental Care as a New Paradigm for Development? Homage to Henry Odera Oruka"; Nigel Dower (UK) "Global Citizenship and the Good Life." (Thanks to Robin Attfield.)

CALL FOR PAPERS. The Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World will hold its annual conference from 10-15 August 1997 at the YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, CO. The general theme is "Authenticity, Autonomy and Authority: Problems of Meaning in the Contemporary World," although papers are welcome on any topic related to contemporary philosophy. For more information or to submit a proposal, contact: Prof. Craig Hanks, Program Co-chair, Philosophy Department, 332MH, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA, Email: HANKSJ@EMAIL.UAH.EDU, PH 205-890-6555; or Prof. Sharon Hartline, Program Co-chair, Department of Philosophy, Radford University, Radford, VA 24142 USA, PH 703-831-5213.

"Global Ethics for the Twenty-First Century." 1-3 Oct. 1997. Melborne, AUSTRALIA. Arne Naess, Elmar Altavar, Robert Bullard, John Dryzek, David Harvey, Val Plumwood, Oran Young, Vandana Shiva, and others. Contact: Nicholas Low, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, AUSTRALIA.

AAAS, 13-18 Feb. 1997, Seattle, WA, has accepted a session from ISEE, entitled "Ecological Integrity and Societal Well-Being." Co-organized by James Karr, University of Washington, and Laura Westra, University of Windsor. Other speakers include: Reed Noss, William Reese, Orie Loucks, Caroline Madden.

Midwest Political Science Association, 10-12 April 1997, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL. A panel on "Political Theory and Environmentalism" will be chaired by John M. Meyer, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Presenters will be: Jane Bennett (Goucher College), "Bruno Latour, Henry Thoreau, and the Finesse of Nature/Culture," Langdon Winner (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), "Technology, Globalism and Environmental Conflict: The Worldview of `Third World Resurgence,'" Kerry H. Whiteside (Franklin and Marshall College), "Systems Theory and Humanism in Continental Ecologism." Harlan Wilson (Oberlin College) and John M. Meyer (UW-Madison) will serve as discussants. For more information contact: John Meyer, Dept. of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1050 Bascom Mall, Madison, WI 53706. Email: JMEYER@polisci.wisc.edu.

The International Association of Bioethics will be held 22-24 November 1996 at the Parc 55 Hotel in San Francisco. We are hoping to hold a session of the "Environmental Biothics" interest group. Please reply to us at this e-mail address: 72113.1610@compuserve.com with ideas and expressions of interest in participating. What would you like to hear a session on? What would you like to present? We will circulate ideas to the mailing list of the "Environmental Ethics" section members. Roughly 50 people have expressed interest in the section so far. Also, any ideas which you would like to discuss can be sent to this address. We will reflect items to the membership by e-mail. Other comments and questions can be sent to this address also. Andrew Jameton and Jessica Pierce, University of Nebraska Medical Center, organizers, "Environmental Biothics" section of the International Association of Bioethics.


ISSUES

Paying the bill for America's copper. Perhaps the most ethically pregnant legacy of mining in this country is a 600-acre toxic lake--a mile wide and a quarter-mile deep--known as the "Berkeley Pit" outside Butte, Montana. In 1982, pumps that removed water from this human-made cavity were shut off. As groundwater seeped through sulphur-permeated bedrock, the Pit became a "mammoth chemical transformer, a highly dynamic, self-perpetuating machine yielding ever-increasing amounts of hazardous soup." Increasing by over a million gallons a day, the 28 billion gallon mixture is acidic enough to liquefy steel and contains poisonous minerals, including copper, cadmium and arsenic. The surface water entering from above could be controlled, but the groundwater seeping in from below (half the flow) cannot. Thus the after-effects, of what was excavated in one generation, will be felt for hundreds of generations, as there is no foreseeable end to this generation of toxic water. In an article that won't leave your views of mining unperturbed, author Edwin Dobb says
"Regarding the use of such limited resources as timber, energy and metals, public debate has become so fragmented that it obscures the connections that tie all Americans to places like the Berkeley Pit, thereby precluding well-considered, honest responses to uncomfortable questions they raise about desire and complicity, capitalism and modern culture."
"Almost three tons of ore is needed to produce enough gold for one small wedding band, and 76 percent of that gold refined throughout the world in 1995 was used to make exactly that--jewelry."
"When bills come due for the metals the country consumes, the costs are not apportioned according to use; they are paid in Butte, and in places like Butte."
". . . [this story] contradicts some of our most cherished beliefs: that history is necessarily progressive; that any problem is fixable, given enough good will and technical ingenuity; and, closest to home, that it is possible to consume immense quantities of raw materials without creating ethical and environmental dilemmas of immense consequence. Not one of these notions will survive the corrosive waters of the Berkeley Pit."
See Edwin Dobb, "Pennies From Hell," Harpers, October 1996, pp. 39-54.

Rehabilitation of the diversity/stability hypothesis. Ongoing research by G. David Tilman (University of Minnesota) provides additional support for this controversial ecological thesis. In Tilman's studies, greater diversity in experimental ecosystems produced greater productivity (biomass), more nutrient retention, increased drought tolerance, enhanced resistance to disease, as well as, increased predictability. Lower diversity led to increased insect predation and more invasions of weeds. See Elizabeth Culotta, "Exploring Biodiversity's Benefits," Science 273 (23 August 1996): 1045-46.

Spreading allergies with genetically engineered foods. Confirming what critics have contended for some time, researchers have shown that transferring proteins between foods can also transfer allergic reactions. Soybeans, modified with genes from Brazil nuts to produce a more nutritious protein, also produced proteins that set off serious allergic reactions in people sensitive to Brazil nuts. Critics charge that voluntary Food and Drug Administration guidelines are insufficient adequately to regulate this potentially dangerous industry. See Warren E. Leary, "Genetic Engineering Can Spread Allergies," New York Times (3/14/96).

Would evolution repeat itself? Re-enactment of the origin of a species has provided evidence that evolution is perhaps much more repeatable and predictable than some think. Varying the mating regime of the ancestors of a hybrid plant species (the Anomalous Sunflower) and then mapping the genes of offspring four generations later produced surprisingly similar genomes, suggesting that chance had not played a major role in the evolution of this species. One proposed account for the similarity is that certain combinations of genes consistently work much better together than others and thus are likely to show up in surviving offspring. Evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould of Harvard, the champion of the notion that a replay of evolutionary history would likely produce drastically different results (including the absence of humans), downplays the significance of this study. He suggests that there could be predictability at a detailed level--such as the evolution of a species of sunflower--while unpredictability continues at a larger scale where species interact with each other in changing environments. In a wholesale replaying of life, he suggests, sunflowers themselves may not even reappear. See Carol Yoon, "First Ever Re-creation of New Species' Birth," New York Times (5/7/96): B5.
Poisoning gulls to protect terns and plovers. Managers of a Cape Cod national wildlife refuge are planning to kill thousands of herring and great black-backed gulls to protect endangered roseate terns and piping plovers. The gulls will be fed bread laced with a poison that causes kidney failure. "This is a calm death....The gulls pretty much fold up their wings and go into a coma." Animal rights advocates are arguing that these steps are unnecessary because gull populations are already on the decline and the plover population has grown slightly. Associated Press, "Refuge to Kill Off Thousands of Pesky Gulls," Charleston Post and Courier (5/9/96): A6.

Shooting wolves, restoring nature, and respect for individual animal life. How should we weigh the conflicting values of respect for individual animal life and concern for preserving and restoring endangered species and ecosystems? The following offers an attempt to take all these values seriously.
Within the last several years, gray wolves have been reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park. This has harmed and disrupted the lives of those wolves captured and transported from Alberta. Families were broken, stress was increased, and the wolves' lives were likely put in greater danger.
I support this policy. Returning wolves to Yellowstone after systematically exterminating them from the Park is of greater moral importance than is either the disruption of the lives of these wolves or the costs for Montana and Wyoming ranchers. Reintroduction is an act of restitutive justice to the wolf species, and over the long run, it will help restore the wildness of Yellowstone. Species and ecosystem restoration values are typically more weighty than are important values involved in the lives of individual animals (including human animals).
After one of these wolves killed a sheep on a local ranch, the Park Service transported the wolf to another section of the Park. This policy is acceptable, because this rancher's economic interests are morally significant as well.
The wolf, however, returned and killed another sheep. This time the Park Service shot and killed the wolf. This policy is not acceptable. Appropriate respect for this wolf and for the value of her life should have led the Park Service to take this wolf back to Alberta. It was not the wolf but the Park Service that made the mistake, and so the Park Service should pay, not the wolf.

Thus even while giving priority to concerns for restoration of species and ecosystems, we can and should take seriously the moral significance of individual animal lives and welfare, especially when we have involved ourselves with the fate of these animals. (Contributed by Ned Hettinger, Philosophy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424; Phone 803-953-5786, 803-883-9201 Home; Fax 803-953-6388; Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu.)

Yellowstone more precious than gold. In a major victory for environmentalists, there will be no gold mine just north of Yellowstone National Park. "President Clinton's announcement yesterday (August 12, 1996) that a Canadian company has agreed to abandon plans to build a huge gold mine near the border of Yellowstone National Park is a victory for the environment. ... The agreement is a tribute to persistent efforts by Mr. Clinton's Government and environmental groups, chiefly the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, to get the company to reverse course. ... It is finally a belated act of corporate wisdom by the company itself. ... The Narrow escape at Yellowstone underscores the urgency of reforming the 1872 Mining Act [passed the year Yellowstone was created]. ... The perfect ending to the saga of the Yellowstone mind would be to get this law reformed." New York Times, August 13, 1996. One notable feature of the effort was the combination of the grassroots Greater Yellowstone Coalition with the National Park Service.

The US Postal Service has released 15 postage stamps featuring endangered species. The stamps were released in a ceremony 3 October 1996 at the San Diego Zoo, also marking the 80th year of the zoo.

Old growth redwood on private lands to be harvested. The largest remaining unprotected old growth redwood, 5,400 acres on a 45,000 acre Headwaters Forest tract, is owned by Pacific Lumber Company, based in Humboldt, California. The company was bought out by Maxxam Corporation of Houston, Texas, a company owned by Charles Hurwitz, in a hostile takeover in 1985. Hurwitz failed in the sixth largest savings-and-loan collapse in American history, at a cost to American taxpayers of $ 1.8 billion. Following the collapse, and with many debts, Hurwitz took over Pacific Lumber Company and has increased redwood logging threefold. Environmentalists have proposed a "debt-for-nature" swap that would acquire the Headwaters Forest in exchange for relieving all or part of Hurwitz's S&L debt. Hurwitz has planned to log the area this fall. At least 5,000 citizens assembled on California's North Coast Sunday, September 15, to protest plans to log the Headwaters Forest. Between 300 and 400 protesters were arrested. A number of lawsuits have been brought against Pacific Lumber, including one involving the endangered marbled murrelet.

Leghold traps in Colorado? There is a public referendum in the November election in the state of Colorado, on banning leghold kill traps, kill snares, and poisons, with exceptions for rodents, birds, public safety, and crop or livestock damage that cannot be alleviated by nonlethal methods. Similar laws have been enacted in Arizona and Florida. Some 60 countries worldwide have prohibited the animal trapping that is the target of this legislation.


RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS

--Inquiry, Vol. 39, no. 2 (June 1996), is a special issue on "Arne Naess's Environmental Thought," and was guest edited by Andrew Light and David Rothenberg. Papers in the volume are Harold Glasser, "Naess's Deep Ecology Approach and Environmental Policy"; John Clark, "How Wide is Deep Ecology?"; Michael Vincent McGinnis, "Deep Ecology and the Foundations of Restoration"; Knut A. Jacobsen, "Bhagavadgita, Ecosophy T, and Deep Ecology"; Deane Curtin, "A State of Mind Like Water: Ecosophy T and the Buddhist Traditions"; David Rothenberg, "No World but in Things: The Poetry of Naess's Concrete Contents"; Andrew Light "Callicott and Naess on Pluralism." The volume was compiled as a tribute to Naess's 85th birthday. The single-issue price is US $ 36.00 plus postage. Orders may be placed directly at ala@scup.no.

--The International Centre for Human and Public Affairs in the Netherlands has several new publications on "Biotechnology Regulation and Public Debate":
--Schomberg, Ren von, ed., Contested Technology Ethics, Risk and Public Debate. Tilburg, The Netherlands: International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, 1996. 265 pages, index. ISBN 90-802139-2-6. Dfl 59,- (Dutch guilders). New discursive procedures for technology assessment are introduced and reflected within the framework offered by critical theories such as Ulrich Beck's analysis of the `risk society,' Jrgen Habermas's theory of communicative action, and Anthony Giddens's approach to late modernity. The papers collected for this volume address the following themes: contested technology: the social-philosophical dimension; public debate and technological innovation, ethics of risk assessment and implications for the legal system. Contributors include Wolfgang van den Daele , Fritz Gloede, Ruth McNally, and Peter Wheale.
--Dommelen, Ad van, ed. Coping with Deliberate Release The Limits of Risk Assessment. Tilburg, The Netherlands: International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, 1996. 256 pages, index. ISBN 90-802139-4-2. Dfl 69,- (Dutch guilders). The fifteen chapters of this volume are the concerted attempt of internationally distinguished authors from Europe, the United States and Japan to map promises and perils in the emerging social and political landscape of modern biotechnolo gy. The limits of risk assessment in relation to the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms are addressed with regard to the `Scientific Backgrounds' (Part I), the `Regulatory Practice' (Part II), and the 'Political Conditions' (Part III). Contributions by Philip Regal, Sheldon Krimsky, Christine von Weizscker, Les Levidow, and others.
--Wheale, Peter, ed. The Social Management of Biotechnology: Workshop Proceedings. Tilburg, The Netherlands: International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, 1996. Dfl 29,- (Dutch guilders). This volume of collected papers is designed to inform, stimulate and engage all those interested in the emerging biotechnological age. Topics covered in the text include the ethical questions raised by the creation of transgenic farm animals, the morality of genetic experimentation on animals, the controversy surrounding the patenting of genetic material and of the transgenic animals themselves, and the ethical implications of engineering transgenic animals for the sole purpose of transplanting their organs into humans (xenografting). Also considered are the environmental hazards, public policy issues, and the political implications of modern biotechnology and genetic engineering.
Ordering Information: Send check or money order payable to ICHPA (Internationa Centre for Human and Public Affairs, or transfer to Postbank account 4307323; address: Pastoor Smitsstraat 25 5014 RH Tilburg, The Netherlands; Phone/Fax +31-13-5360751; Email: R.vonSchomberg@kub.nl.

--Finnish Academy. "Ecopolis" is a multidisciplinary research project sponsored by the Finnish Academy. Three books have recently been published, and can be ordered from: Email lapintie@arc.tut.fi.
--Lapintie, Kimmo, and Aspegren, Marjo, eds. Ecopolis Papers: Housing and Environment, No 1. University of Tampere, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, 1996. In this collection of papers, the researchers of the Ecological City (Ecopolis) Project introduce different levels of problematic in ecological planning and research.
--Lapintie, Kimmo, ed. Paradise Lost: Rationality, Freedom, and Ecology in the City. Housing & Environment, No 2. University of Tampere, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, 1996. Lapintie, an architect and philosopher, and also leader of the Ecopolis project, discusses the meaning of the introduction of the ecological terminology and paradigm in planning discourse, and the establishment of the sustainable development ideology in planning methodology. He argues that the basic problem of both ecology and ecological planning is that they heavily lean on traditional paternalistic attitudes.
--Kjellberg, Seppo, ed. Environmental Values in Finnish Community Planning. Housing & Environment No 3. University of Tampere, Department of Social Policy and Social Work,1996. The writer is a social ethicist who argues that in city planning discourses, "sustainable development" in a narrow, technical sense is mainly supported by official planning, whereas an existentially holistic understanding of the integration of life often is supported by citizens' movements.

--The Science of the Total Environment 184, Nos. 1-2 (17 May 1996) is a speical issue on "Ethical and Philosophical Issues in Environmental Epidemiology" and was guest edited by Colin Soskolne and Roberto Bertollini. Philosophers with articles in the issue include: Holmes Rolston III, Laura Westra, Dale Jamieson, Earl R. Winkler, and Andrew Light.

--Turpin, Jennfier and Lois Ann Lorentzen, eds., The Gendered New World Order: Militarism, the Environment, and Development. New York: Routledge, 1996. 264 pages, Hardback and paper. Ecological security seems increasingly precarious and battles over land and models of economic development now lead to military conflicts. This volume addresses the compelling issue of how gender connects the global problems of militarism, underdevelopment, and environmental decay. Scholars from around the world make connections between such seemingly disparate issues as refugees, polluted waters, bombed villages, massive dam projects, starving children, deforestation, nuclear arms buildup, and the rights of women.

--Rehmann-Sutter, Cristoph. 1996 Leben Beschreiben: Ueber Handlungszusamme, "Hange in der Biologie." Wurzburg: Konigshausen & Neumann, 1996. 392 pages. SFr. 70.90. In German. The first part of the book deals with molecular biology as a paradigm of modern scientific description of living nature, and tries to analyze hidden pre-thoeretic (moral) decisions in its specific approach. The second part is a discussion of Aristotle's biology in the context of moral philosophy based on the dichotomy between "poiesis" and "praxis" (Nichomachean Ethics). The third part draws a trans-functionalistic description of life as organic practice: processes are in themselves the goal of being lived.

--Adams, Cass, ed. The Soul Unearthed: Celebrating Wildness and Personal Renewal Through Nature. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher and G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1996. ISBN 0-87477-838-7. 288 pages, paperback, $14.95. A collection of stories, essays and poetry by well-known writers about the transformative power of wilderness experience. Included are selections from: Robert Bly, Delores LaChapelle, James Swan, Terry Tempest Williams, Joan halifax, Roderick nash, Michael Roads, John Stokes, Jim Nollman, Deena Metzger, John Seed, John Daniel, Brenda Peterson, Matthew Fox, Michael J. Cohen, Joseph Bruchac, Steven Foster, Maxine Kumin, and others. Tarcher/Putnam, 200 Madison Ave., 18th Floor, New York, NY 10016, 212-951-8581.

--DesJardins (Des Jardins), Joseph R. Environmental Philosophy. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997. 288 pages. A second edition of a widely-selling introductory text. Added in the second edition are sections on moral pluralism, cost-benefit analysis, sustainable economics, environmental justice, environmental racism, social ecology, and ecofeminism. The work of Callicott, Goodpaster, Bullard, and Rachel Carson is discussed more extensively than in the first edition. The sections on intrinsic/instrumental value and on ecology have been reworked for the sake of clarity and accuracy. Translations of this work into Korean and Chinese are pending. Des Jardins is in philosophy at The College of Saint Benedict/St. Johns University, St. Joseph. MN.

--Newton, Lisa H., and Dillingham, Catherine K., eds. Watersheds: Classic Cases in Environmental Ethics. 2nd edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997. 272 pages. New to this edition: case on toxic wastes from nuclear weapons facilities; case on worldwide population growth and its consequences; case on pesticide use and the green movement; case on over-exploitation of fisheries; case on property rights. Newton and Dillingham are both at Fairfield University.

--Westra, Laura, and Lemons, John, eds. Perspectives on Ecological Integrity. Boston, London, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. 279pp. Recently, concepts of ecological integrity have been proposed to facilitate enhanced protection of biological and ecological resources against the threat of human activities. The promotion of ecological integrity as a basis for public policy and decision making stems from scientists and others concerned about the threats of human activities to ecosystems and species, and from philosophers attempting to derive a more suitable ethic to guide the relationships between humans and the nonhuman environment. Although ecological integrity has been proposed as a norm for public policy and decision making, the concept is relatively new and therefore the underlying scientific and philosophical rationales have not been developed fully. This book offers a number of perspectives that are intended to stimulate and inform future discussion concerning the importance and consequences of ecological integrity for science, morality, and public policy. The audience of this work will include environmental professionals, whether academic, governmental, or industrial, or in the private consultancy sector. It is also suitable as an upper level reference text. Contributors include James Karr, Ellen Chu, James Kay, Eric Schneider, Reed Noss, Robert Ulanowicz, Henry Regier, Robert Goodland, Herman Daly, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, S. O. Funtowicz, Jerome Ravetz, Mark Sagoff, D. Martin Fleming, D. L. DeAngelis, W. F. Wolf, Peter Miller, David Pimentel, Joel Reichart, Patricia Werhane, James Nations, Ray Cesca, J. Angus Martin, and Thomas Lacher, Jr., Laura Westra, and John Lemons.

--Callicott, J. Baird, and da Rocha, Fernando J. R. Earth Summit Ethics: Toward a Reconstructive Postmodern Philosophy of Environmental Education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996. 248 pages. Paperback $19.95, hardcover $59.90. This book is an outgrowth of the Porto Alegre, Brazil, conference of 1992, immediately preceding the UNCED Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The Conference aim was to put the Earth Summit in philosophical perspective, influence its outcome, and chart a new course, linking environment and ethics through university education. Contributors:

--J. Baird Callicott and Fernando J.R. da Rocha, "Ethics, University, and Environment"
--Jose Lutzenberger, "Science, Technology, Economics, Ethics, and Environment"
--Nicholas M. Sosa, "The Ethics of Dialogue and the Environment: Solidarity as a Foundation for Environmental Ethics"
--Peter Madsen, "What Can Universities and Professional Schools Do to Save the Environment?"
--Andrew Brennan, "Incontinence, Self-Deception, Shallow Analysis, Myth-making, and Economic Rationality: Their Bearing on Environmental Policy"
--Catherine Larrere, "Ethics, Politics, Science, and the Environment: Concerning the Natural Contract"
--Holmes Rolston, III, "Earth Ethics: A Challenge to Liberal Education"
--John Lemons, "University Education in Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection"
--J. Baird Callicott, "Benevolent Symbiosis: The Philosophy of Conservation Reconstructed."

--Hargrove, Eugene C. Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Denton, TX: Environmental Ethics Books, 1996. 229 pages. Paper, $ 14.95. A reprint of the 1989 edition by Prentice-Hall. Well known for its far-ranging investigation of the intellectual history of environmental attitudes, and for its aesthetic arguments as an foundation of environmental ethics. Hargrove is in philosophy at the University of North Texas and is the editor of the journal Environmental Ethics.

--Weston, Anthony. A Practical Companion to Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. The closing section of this small book is "The Expanding Circle," ethics extended to animals, to the enormous creativity, complexity, and depth of the rest of the world, the nonhuman, the other-than-human, the more-than-human" (p. 80). Weston is in philosophy at Elon College, North Carolina.

--Callicott, J. Baird. "Moral Monism in Environmental Ethics Defended." Journal of Philosophical Research 19 (1994): 51-60. "In dealing with concern for fellow human beings, sentient animals, and the environment, Christopher D. Stone suggests that a single agent adopt a different ethical theory--e.g. Kant's, Bentham's, Leopold's--for each domain. Ethical theories, however, and their attendant rules and principles are embedded in moral philosophies. Employing Kant's categorical imperative in this case, Bentham's hedonistic calculus in that, and Leopold's land ethic in another, a single agent would therefore have either simultaneously or cyclically to endorse contradictory moral philosophies. Instead, I suggest that different and sometimes conflicting duties and obligations are generated by an agent's membership in multiple moral communities. Peter Wenz, Gary Varner, Andrew Brennan, Anthony Weston, and Eugene Hargrove, among others, variously misunderstand either what is at issue in the monism versus pluralism debate in environmental ethics or my suggested communitarian alternative to the sort of pluralism that Stone recommends." Callicott is in philosophy at the University of North Texas.

--Woods, Mark J. "Rethinking Wilderness." PhD thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, Fall 1996. An examination some of the more important criticisms of wilderness coming from environmental philosophy, ecology, and environmental history. The legal-political practice of wilderness preservation reveals paradoxes about how wilderness is preserved. Recent work in ecology leads us to question whether wilderness can be preserved. Philosophical and historical critiques cast doubt on whether there is any such thing as wilderness to be preserved. We are forced to re-examine the metaphysical and scientific underpinnings and moral values of wilderness, but the arguments advanced against it are all found to be wanting. Three questions steer the discussion: 1. What is wilderness? 2. Why does wilderness have value? 3. How should wilderness be protected? Dale Jamieson was the principal advisor; James Nickel, John Fisher, and Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University) also served on the committee, also Charles F. Wilkinson (University of Colorado Law School).

--Australian Wilderness. French's Forest, NSW 2086: National Book Distributors and Publishers, 1995. 160 pages. ISBN 1 86436 051 8. Coffee table book, the Australian wilderness in all its glory.

--Kuchar, Catharine Brockman. "An Expansion in the Recognition of Rights: Where Will Nature Find Its Place?" Master of Theological Studies thesis, Emory University, Candler School of Theology, Atlanta, GA, 1996. The basic assumption of this thesis is underscored in the idea that the notion of "human rights" has been expanded over history, from the Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights, the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and so on. Working from Roderick Nash's work, The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics, a next logical step in history might seem to be an expansion toward the environment. Unlike Nash and other advocates of the rights of nature, however, the argument is made that the fundamental understanding of "rights" is inappropriate when looking for a way to protect the environment. Such talk cannot be transposed to the natural world. Three alternative, value-based approaches to placing "moral boundaries" around the environment are humanistic, naturalistic, and theocentric value. In humanistic values, based on relation to human welfare, the inherent values of nature become lost. Naturalistic value is guided by intrinsic value, but this approach fails to recognize the special role and enormous responsibility of humans in the equation. Theocentric value moves the measure of value from humankind and/or the natural world to God. The best hope for nature is found in the affirmation of its dignity and in an overdue understanding of our own special role as stewards on this planet. Thesis advisors were Jon Gunnemann and Richard Bondi. Address: Catharine Brockman Kuchar, 510 Valley Brook Crossing, Decatur, GA 30033.

--Thompson, Gary L.; Shelley, Fred M.; and Wije, Chand, eds. Geography, Environment, and American Law. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1996. The rapidly growing interface between geography and the American legal system resolving problems associated with land use, water resources, mineral development, and related issues. Geography as a useful framework for analyzing complex human-environmental challenges. Thompson is in geography at the University of Oklahoma, Shelley in geography and planning at Southwest Texas State University, Wije is a dean for research at Austin Community College, Texas.

--Plumwood, Val. "Human Vulnerability and the Experience of Being Prey." Quadrant, March 1995, pp. 29-34. Quadrant is an Australian literary and academic magazine (46 George St., Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, a Melbourne suburb, ISSN 033-5002. Reflections on her attack by a crocodile in Kakadu National Park, Australia, on February 5, 1985. Plumwood was attacked while canoeing, and rolled three times as the crocodile attempted to drown her. She reached a steep, muddy bank with a paperbark tree with low branches, and made several efforts to escape. "As I leapt again into the same branch, the crocodile again propelled itself from the water, seizing me once more, this time round the upper left thigh." Escaping at great ordeal, she later reflects, "The human species has evolved not only as predator, but also as prey, and this has very likely given us capacities to scent danger which we cannot now recognise or account for." She contrasts aboriginal and colonial attitudes toward nature, masculine bias in extensive media coverage of her attack, and reflects over the conquest of nature and human vulnerability. "The illusion of invulnerability is typical of the mind of the colonizer; and as the experience of being prey is eliminated from the face of the earth, along with it goes something it has to teach about the power and resistance of nature and the delusions of human arrogance. In my work as a philosopher, I now tend to stress our failure to perceive human vulnerability, the delusions of our view of ourselves as rational masters of a malleable nature."

--Fox, Warwick. "A Critical Overview of Environmental Ethics." World Futures (Amsterdam) 46 (1996): 1-21. A general introduction to, and a critical overview of, environmental ethics. There are three main human-centered or anthropocentric or instrumental value approaches: the unrestrained exploitation and expansionism approach, the resource conservation and development approach, and the resource preservation approach. There are three main nonanthropocentric or intrinsic value approaches: the sentience or animal liberation approach, the life approach, and the holistic integrity approach. Each is examined in terms of both rational foundations and practical consequences. Two of the latter approaches, the life approach and the holistic integrity approach, are based on flawed rational foundations. All three approaches suffer from a range of highly objectionable practical consequences and none of these approaches is comprehensive enough in scope to deal directly with the full range of environmental problems with which people are concerned on a day-to-day level. Despite the negative conclusions, understanding these arguments should serve as a positive stimulus to the development of better approaches. Fox is associated with the Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.

--White James E., ed. Contemporary Moral Problems. 5th ed. Minneapolis, MN: West Publishing Co., 1997. Chapter 8 is "Animals and the Environment": Peter Singer, "All Animals Are Equal"; Bonnie Steinbock, "Speciesism and the Idea of Equality"; Tom Regan, "The Case for Animal Rights"; Mary Anne Warren: "Difficulties with the Strong Animal Rights Position"; William F. Baxter, "People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution": William Godfrey Smith (now William Grey), "The Value of Wilderness"; Christopher D. Stone, "Should Trees Have Standing?"; Karen J. Warren, "The Power and Promise of Ecological Feminism"; problem cases, suggested readings. White is at St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN.

--Reichenbach, Bruce R., and Anderson, V. Elving. On Behalf of God: A Christian Ethic for Biology. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1995. 348 pages. Paper. With a section on environmental ethics. "Conservation of the tropical forests must include measures to control human population growth, to find family-sustaining jobs for the disenfranchised rural poor, and to curb the developed world's exploitation of the developing world's resources." Any environmental ethic must tie into "a broader ethic that considers social, economic, political and spiritual problems and obligations." Reichenbach is in philosophy at Augsburg College, Minneapolis. Anderson, now retired, taught genetics at the University of Minnesota.

--Scotland's Hills and Mountains: A Concordat on Access, with commentaries by Andrew Raven, A. R. Gillingham, and Nick Kempe. John Muir Trust Journal and News (Edinburgh), no. 21, July 1996, pp. 18-24. The rights and responsibilities of hillwalkers and climbers regarding access to the Scottish hills and mountains is addressed in this concordat, launched by the Scottish Agriculture and Environment Minister and signed last January by various parties. At issue is increasing pressure for public access to the often privately held Scottish lands, including whether current access without the explicit consent of the owner involves trespass under existing law. The Concordat comes in the face of commitment of the Labour Party in England and Wales to access legislation, where trespass laws are more harsh, and the question whether such legislation is necessary in Scotland or can be addressed by voluntary agreement. "Freedom of access is a moral right and freedom of movement is recognised by the United Nations as a fundamental human right: if it is to mean anything, in this overregulated and frantic society in which we live, it should include the freedom to enjoy the hills and mountains and not be restricted to use of public roads" (Nick Kempe, p. 24). Compare the "everyman's right" of the Scandinavian countries.

--Berry, Wendell. Another Turn of the Crank. Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1995. $ 18.00 109 pages. The title reflects Berry's feelings about how long he has been arguing his case against expansionist capitalism's social and environmental effects, now some 30 years, and how idiosyncratic his case appears to some. Essays on economics, medicine, the meaning of family, agriculture, forestry, education, and the state of American democracy. Small communities and the places they occupy are threatened by the construction of a global economy. Because such an economy makes it possible for the products of any region to be undersold by the product of another region, it makes the moderate, stewardly use of arable land unlikely. Private people, farm families, cannot afford to work this way. As a result, growing food, managing fuel and manufacturing all will be done by large corporations. And these, Berry says, are not interested in the good health--economic or natural or human--of any place on earth. Berry teaches English at the University of Kentucky and is also a farmer there.

--Goodin, Robert E.; Pateman, Carole; and Patemen, Roy. "Simian Sovereignty." Draft paper. Sovereignty never amounted to much, morally speaking. Now it is not even what little it used to be. By the standards now prevailing, the great apes are as deserving of something like "sovereign prerogatives"--the right to organize and control their own collective lives within a patch of land protected by international law from foreign incursion--as are other serious claimants to sovereign status in the world today. The great apes are, in all the ways that matter, just as deserving of the protection of the international community as any other of the territorially-based communities that we dub "nation-states." Goodin is in philosophy and political theory at the Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra. Carole Pateman and Roy Pateman are in political science at UCLA. Contact Robert E. Goodin, Philosophy, RSSS, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200. Fax 61 6 249 3294. E-mail: goodinb@coombs.anu.edu.au

--Westra, Laura. "Ecosystem Integrity, Sustainability, and the `Fish Wars.'" Wild Earth, Summer 1996, pp. 66-69. The cod population in Newfoundland waters crashed in 1992, a result of overfishing for decades. In 1995, haddock (turbot) populations declined, due to overfishing beyond the 200 mile limit in the Grand Banks off the coast of Newfoundland, resulting in dispute to the point of violence between Canadians and Spanish fishing crews. Westra argues that such problems can be best addressed through an ethics of ecosystem integrity, from which strict regulations and reduced quotes follow. Westra is in philosophy at the University of Windsor, Ontario.

--Westra, Laura. "Environmental Integrity, Racism, and Health." The Science of the Total Environment 184 (1996): 57-66. Environmental degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global warming; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. Westra is in philosophy at the University of Windsor, Ontario.

--Chadwick, Douglas H. "A Place for Parks in the New South Africa." National Geographic 190, no. 1, pp. 2-41. Conservationists in South Africa hope to preserve a balance between the nation's magnificent wildlife and a rapidly expanding human population desperate for land. Still, South Africa holds the best hope on the continent for the conservation of wildlife.

--Light, Andrew. "Callicott and Naess on Pluralism." Inquiry 39, no. 2 (June 1996): 273-94. The monism-pluralism debate in environmental ethics, first, as it has most recently been advanced by J. Baird Callicott in his "Moral Monism in Environmental Ethics Defended," Journal of Philosophical Research 19 (1994). Light assesses Callicott's claim that his communitarianism (combined with a limited intertheoretic pluralism) is sufficient to get the advantages of pluralism advocated by, among others, Stone, Weston, Brennan, Varner, and Hargrove. The author argues that Callicott's claims get us no further in taking up what could be the more important question in the monism-pluralism debate: how do we achieve a compatibilism among ethical theories which will inform better environmental practices? The paper argues, further, that Arne Naess, whose work has heretofore been excluded from the mainstream discussion of this issue, has all along understood the heart of the monism-pluralism question. All involved in the monism-pluralism debate would do well to look at what Naess has to say.
--Soskolne, Colin L., and Light, Andrew. "Towards Ethics Guidelines for
Environmental Epidemiologists." The Science of the Total Environment 184, nos. 1-2 (May 1996): 137-47. Over the past 5 years, several epidemiology organizations have published draft ethics guidelines for epidemiologists in general, without regard to sub-speciality. The authors review these various guidelines and extract the most salient of their principles to formulate a unified set of ethics guidelines for environmental epidemiologists.

--Blumm, Michael C. "Salmon Law and Policy in 1995: A Brief Overview." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 651.

--Johnson, Timothy A. "Coping with Change: Energy, Fish, and the Bonneville Power Administration." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 589. Johnson, an attorney with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), explores the significant challenges facing BPA in light of increased industry competition following the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and uncertain salmon recovery costs following recent court decisions. Johnson concludes that BPA's new market-oriented philosophy, in concert with the Clinton Administration's recent cap on BPA's salmon recovery expenditures, will enable BPA effectively to compete in the power market and continue to satisfy its statutory environmental and power obligations.

--Axline, Michael. "Forest Health and the Politics of Expediency." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 613. In the summer of 1995, Congress attached a now-notorious salvage logging rider to an emergency appropriations bill. Axline criticizes the salvage logging rider as poor policy and a violation of proper Congressional procedure. Recognizing the dual needs for a sound Northwest economy and healthy national forests, Axline concludes that the salvage logging rider fails to achieve either objective and may instead frustrate both of them.

--Casavant, Ken. "Salmon Recovery Plans: Some Fundamental Choices." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 663.

--Hemmingway, Roy. "Restructuring the Northwest Power System." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 669.

--Ray, Charles. "1995 River Operations Under the Endangered Species Act: Continuing the Salmon Slaughter." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 675.

--Nockles, Joan M. "Katie John v. United States: Redefining Federal Public Lands in Alaska." Environmental Law 26, no.2 (1996): 693. Nockles analyzes the Ninth Circuit's majority and dissenting opinions in Alaska v. Babbitt, the official name for what is referred to in Alaska as the Katie John dispute. She argues that the majority opinion should have held that waters in which the United States holds a navigational servitude are "federal public lands" to which the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act's rural subsistence priority must attach. Absent that finding, she concludes that an administrative solution will rectify the court's errors.

--Light, Andrew. "On Hand's End: Contextualizing the Problem of Nature and Technology." Research in Philosophy and Technology15 (1995): 165.

--Furrow, Dwight. "The Discomforts of Home: Nature and Technology in Hand's End." Research in Philosophy and Technology 15 (1995): 169.

--Abram, David. "Nature at Arm's Length." Research in Philosophy and Technology 15 (1995): 177.

--Rothenberg, David. "Feet on the Ground: Responses to Hand's End." Research in Philosophy and Technology 15 (1995): 191.

--Abram, David; Light, Andrew; and Wenz, Peter. "Discussion of David Rothenberg's Hand's End." Research in Philosophy and Technology 15 (1995): 199.

--Goodenough, Merry. "Public Participation in a State-Assumed Wetlands Permit Program: The Michigan Example." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 10, no.2 (1995): 221.

--Lacey, Henry B. "New Approach or Business as Usual: Protection of Aquatic Ecosystems Under the Clinton Administration's Westside Forests Plan." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 10, no.2 (1995): 309.

--McCullough, Edwin R. "Through the Eye of a Needle: The Earth's Hard Passage Back to Health." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 10, no.2 (1995): 389.

--McCloskey, Michael. "What the Wilderness Act Accomplished in Protection of Roadless Areas Within the National Park System." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 10, no.2 (1995): 455.

--Diekemper, Tracy A. "Abrogating Treaty Rights Under the Dion Test: Upholding Traditional Notions that Indian Treaties Are the Supreme Law of the Land." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 10, no.2 (1995): 473.

--Dunn, D. Kevin, and Wood, Jessica L. "Substantive Enforcement of NEPA Through Strict Review of Procedural Compliance: Oregon Natural Resources Council v. Marsh in the Ninth Circuit." Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 10, no.2 (1995): 499.

--Gandy, Matthew. "Crumbling Land: The Postmodernity Debate and the Analysis of Environmental Problems." Progress in Human Geography 20, no.1 (1996): 23.

--Jarosz, Lucy. "Working in the Global Food System: A Focus for International Comparative Analysis." Progress in Human Geography 20, no.1 (1996): 41.

--Hoggart, Keith. "All Washed Up and Nowhere to Go? Public Policy and Geographical Research." Progress in Human Geography 20, no.1 (1996): 110.

--Uvin, Peter. "Tragedy in Rwanda: The Political Ecology of Conflict." Environment 38, no.3 (1996): 110. Resource scarcity and a history of ethnic conflict came to a head in 1994, creating a political, social, and economic climate sadly well suited to the construction of extreme violence.

--Morgenstern, Richard D. "Environmental Taxes: Is There a Double Dividend?" Environment 38, no.3 (1996): 110. Even though environmental taxes do not always offer the dual benefits of less pollution and more government revenues, they may still be the best policy choice.

--"Chernobyl, 10 Years Later." Environment 38, no.3 (1996): 3. On the tenth anniversary of the accident at Chernobyl, a group of distinguished scholars and scientists offers some thoughts on the accident's legacy.

--Dwyer, Lynn E., and Murphy, Dennis D. "Fulfilling the Promise: Reconsidering and Reforming the California Endangered Species Act." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 735.

--Fort, Denise D. "State and Tribal Water Quality Standards Under the Clean Water Act: A Case Study." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 771.

--Menz, Fredric C. "Transborder Emissions Trading between Canada and the United States." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 773.

--Scott, Anthony, and Coustalin, Georgina. "The Evolution of Water Rights." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 821.

--Bada, Cheryl. "Federal Agency Management Plans Are `Ongoing' Actions under Endangered Species Act's Section 7: Pacific Rivers Council v. Thomas and Northwest Forest Resources Council." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 981.

--Mojtabai, Cyndi. "Arsenic and Old Lace: The EPA Should Not Have Approved a Water Quality Standard for Arsenic That Is Below Natural Background Levels in City of Albuquerque v. Browner." Natural Resources Journal 35, no.4 (1995): 997.

--Manus, Peter M. "The Owl, the Indian, the Feminist, and the Brother: Environmentalism Encounters the Social Justice Movements." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23, no. 2 (1996): 249.

--Taylor, Ericka. "The Undergraduate Experience-Exploration in Human Ecology." Human Ecology Forum 24 (Winter 1996): 5. The college is distinguished by its community contacts, extension programs, and land-grant mission to the state. New students are introduced to these and other aspects of the college through an expanded orientation program.

--Bradburd, Daniel A. "Toward an Understanding of the Economics of Pastoralism: The Balance of Exchange Between Pastoralists and Nonpastoralists in Western Iran, 1815-1975." Human Ecology Forum 24 (Winter 1996): 1.

--Meir, Avinoam, and Tsoar, Haim. "International Borders and Range Ecology: The Case of Bedouin Transborder Grazing." Human Ecology Forum 24 (March 1996): 39.

--Matzke, Gordon Edwin, and Nabane, Nontokozo. "Outcomes of a Community Controlled Wildlife Utilization Program in a Zambezi Valley Community." Human Ecology Forum 24 (Winter 1996): 65.

--OConnor (O'Conner), Martin, ed. Is Capitalism Sustainable? Political Economy and the Politics of Ecology. New York: Guilford Publications, 1994. 283 pages. Paperback $17.95.

--Leff, Enrique. Green Production: Toward an Environmental Rationality. New York: Guilford Publications, 1995. 168 pages. Paperback $16.95. Part of the Democracy and Ecology series published in conjunction with "Capitalism, Nature, Socialism: A Journal of Socialist Ecology."

--Luccarelli, Mark. Lewis Mumford and the Ecology Region: The Politics of Planning. New York: Guilford Publications, 1995. 230 pages. $26.95. Both historical and theoretical perspectives, the development of Mumford's thought on regional planning, focusing on his pioneering concept of an ecologically-based region. How he attempted to turn his ideas into reality through the Regional Planning Association of America.

Animal Law is the only law review exclusively devoted to animals and the law. It is in its second issue, is published by the Northwestern (Oregon) School of Law, and is sponsored by the Animal Legal Defense Fund. Address: Animal Law, 10015 S.W. Terwilliger Blvd., Portland, Oregon 97219 USA. Phone: 503/768-6798.

Camas: An Environmental Journal is published by the Environmental Studies Department, University of Montana, with a focus on the Northern Rocky Mountains. In addition to critical articles, the journal publishes poetry, photography, and artwork. Contact: Rick Stern, Editor, Environmental Studies Department, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.

Ecumene: A Journal of Environment, Culture, Meaning is published by geographers and others in the U.K., now in its third year. Sample articles in the April 1996 issue (vol. 3, no. 2): Sarah Green and Mark Lemon, "Perceptual Landscapes in Agrarian Systems: Degradation Processes in North-western Epirus and the Argolid Valley, Greece" (whether environmental changes are regarded as degradation at all is dependent on the perspectives with which such changes are regarded); Robin Doughty, "Not a Koala in Sight: Promotion and Spread of Eucalyptus" (on the transforming of native forests in India, Spain, Portugal, Chile, and Brazil into giant eucalyptus plantations. Eucalyptus is now grown in about 100 nations, for timber and pulp, one of the world's most successful plant migrants. But often there are substantial environmental losses in result, both to ecosystems and to local people.) Unfortunately, the journal is not cheap: $ 73 per year for individuals, $ 209 institutions. Editors are: Denis Cosgrove, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK, and James S. Duncan, Department of Geography, Syracuse University, USA.

--Linden, Eugene. "Global Fever." Time, July 8, 1996, pp. 56-57. Climate change threatens more than megastorms, floods, and droughts. The real peril may be disease. Bugs, germs, and other pests may thrive.

--Gorman, Christine. "What's It Worth to Find a Cure?" Time, July 8, 1996, p. 53. Animal rights versus AIDS research. Whose life is more precious? Box story.

--Merchant, Carolyn, ed. Ecology: Key Concepts in Critical Theory. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1994. 35 selections, reprints of previously published articles, organized in seven sections: (1) Critical Theory and the Domination of Nature, (2) Environmental Economics and Politics, (3) Deep, Social, and Socialist Ecology, (4) Ecofeminism, (5) Environmental Justice, (6) Spiritual Ecology, and (7) Postmodern Science. "Domination is one of our century's most fruitful concepts for understanding human-human and human-nature relationships. The theme of domination and its reversal through liberation unites critical theorists and environmental philosophers whose work spans the twentieth century. When the domination of nonhuman nature is integrated with the domination of human beings and the call for environmental justice, Critical Theory instills the environmental movement with ethical fervor" (p. 1). Merchant teaches environmental history, philosophy, and ethics in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley.

--Pennisi, Elizabeth. "Sorcerers of the Sea." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 236. Making microbes do our dirty work.

--Baker, Beth. "Building a Better Oyster." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 240. Scientists use biotechnology to produce a steady supply of a favorite seafood.

--Tangley, Laura. "Ground Rules Emerge for Marine Bioprospectors." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 245. Developers of natural products juggle potential profits and fairness.

--Radmer, Richard J. "Algal Diversity and Commercial Algal Products." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 263. New and valuable products from diverse algae may soon increase the already large market for algal products.

--Carte, Brad K. "Biomedical Potential of Marine Natural Products." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 271. Marine organisms are yielding novel molecules for use in basic research and medical applications.

--Baker, Beth. "Washington Watch: The Nation's Seed Bank Could Use Some Congressional Cash." Bioscience 46, no.4 (1996): 288.

--Arp, William, III; and Kenny, Christopher. "Black Environmentalism in the Local Community Context." Environment and Behavior 28, no.3 (1996): 267.

--Binney, Stephen E.; Mason, Robert; and Detweiler, John H. "Credibility, Public Trust, and the Transport of Radioactive Waste Through Local Communities." Environment and Behavior 28, no.3 (1996): 283.

--Davidson, Debra J., and Freudenburg, William R. "Gender and Environmental Risk Concerns: A Review and Analysis of Available Research." Environment and Behavior 28, no.3 (1996): 302.

--DeYoung (De Young), Raymond. "Some Psychological Aspects of Reduced Consumption Behavior: The Role of Intrinsic Satisfaction and Competence Motivation." Environment and Behavior 28, no.3 (1996): 358.

--Barro, Susan C.; Manfredo, Michael J.; and Peterson, George L. "Examination of the Predictive Validity of CVM (Contingent Valuation) Using an Attitude-Behavior Framework." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 111.

--Dearden, Philip; Chettamart, Surachet; and Tankanjana, Noppawan. "National Parks and Hill Tribes in Northern Thailand: A Case Study of Doi Inthanon." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 125.

--Corkran, Robert E. "Quality of Life, Mining, and Economic Analysis in a Yellowstone Gateway Community." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 143.

--Vandergeest, Peter. "Mapping Nature: Territorialization of Forest Rights in Thailand." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 159.

--Redifer, John., and Davis, Sandra. "Building Regimes in Groundwater Policy: Contaminating the Message." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 177.

--Bailey, Conner, and Pomeroy, Caroline. "Resource Dependency and Development Options in Coastal Southeast Asia." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 191

--Burnett, G.W.; Joulie-Kuttner, Regine; and wa Kang'ethe, Kamuyu. "A Willing Benefactor: An Essay on Wilderness in Nilotic and Bantu Culture." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.2 (1996): 201.

Stevens, Jane Ellen. "It's a Jungle in There." Bioscience 46, no.5 (1996): 314. Oral ecologists find the warm, moist human mouth a microhabitat in which benign creatures dominate and terrible ones lurk.

--Ostfeld, Richard S.; Jones, Clive G.; and Wolff, Jerry O. "Of Mice and Mast." Bioscience 46, no.5 (1996): 323. Ecological connections in eastern deciduous forests.

--Easter-Pilcher, Andrea. "Implementing the Endangered Species Act." Bioscience 46, no.5 (1996): 355. Assessing the listing of species as endangered or threatened.

--Cheever, Federico. "The Road to Recovery: A New Way of Thinking About the Endangered Species Act." Ecology Law Quarterly 23, no.1 (1996): 1.

--Mazza, Mia Anna. "The New Evidentiary Privilege for Environmental Audit Reports: Making the Worst of a Bad Situation." Ecology Law Quarterly 23, no.1 (1996): 79.

--Torres, Gerald. "Taking and Giving: Police Power, Public Value, and Private Right." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 1. A discussion of the relationship between property as a social artifact and law, and why this relationship is misunderstood. The political and narrative techniques used by property rights advocates and the current state of takings jurisprudence. Torres voices strong concern regarding the political and social values at stake in the struggle to define "property rights."

--Freyfogle, Eric T. "Water Rights and the Common Wealth." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 27. Freyfogle takes issue with the view that water marketing should be the primary tool to meet new needs for water in the West and to bring an end to the most environmentally damaging water uses. Recognizing that market reasoning only perpetuates the view that nature is merely a collection of resources, existing chiefly to serve human needs and easily shifted from place to place, Freyfogle encourages lawmakers to react by making the beneficial-use requirement a more meaningful construct.

--Poisner, Jonathan. "A Civic Republican Perspective on the National Environmental Policy Act's Process for Citizen Participation." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 53. Civic republicans advocate a model of democratic participation that requires broad public participation in a deliberative decision-making process to arrive at a "common good." Poisner advances this model by reviewing the citizen participation provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act and developing criteria that would enable citizens to take a more active role in fulfilling the Act's requirements.

--Schmidt, Robert J., Jr. "International Negotiations Paralyzed by Domestic Politics: Two-Level Game Theory and the Problem of the Pacific Salmon Commission." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 95. An in-depth look at the failed negotiations between Canada and the United States over the harvesting of Pacific salmon. Relying upon models of two-level game theory in the arena of international negotiations, Schmidt provides insight into the "why" of the current impasse and the "how" of resolving it. Schmidt concludes that resolution of the salmon allocation dispute between the United States and Canada may depend on first resolving domestic disputes between the State of Alaska and the States of Oregon and Washington.

--Blumm, Michael C. "Seven Myths of Northwest Water Law and Associated Stories." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 141. Blumm debunks seven common myths that have long hampered a full understanding of water rights allocation in the Northwest.

--Getches, David H. "Changing the River's Course: Western Water Policy Reform." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 157. With the Columbia River unable to support healthy salmon populations, Getches suggests that traditional instruments of water policy in the West--the beneficial use requirement of the prior appropriation doctrine and the idea of watershed management--can be reformed, with a community-based approach, to cure many of the Columbia's ills.

--Benson, Reed D. "A Watershed Issue: the Role of Streamflow Protection in Northwest River Basin Management." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 175. Benson examines how watershed protection efforts have become popular in the Northwest, as governments at all levels have found reasons to embrace them. He concludes that although these efforts promise a holistic approach to environmental problems, Western water law and politics may prevent them from addressing a key need of healthy watersheds: adequate instream flows.

--Crammond, James D. "Leasing Water Rights for Instream Flow Uses: A Survey of Water Transfer Policy, Practices, and Problems in the Pacific Northwest." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 225. A comprehensive review of instream water right leasing in the Pacific Northwest. Legal hurdles, combined with uncertainty over monitoring and enforcement of instream rights, limit lease opportunities in some watersheds, but lease markets are developing as parties gain experience and as information about opportunities, benefits, and results accumulate.
--Whidden, Shawna Marie. "The Hanford Reach: Protecting the Columbia's Last Safe Haven for Salmon." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 265. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River is home to the largest naturally spawning population of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Whidden discusses the factors that have contributed to the success of this species and compares the legal strategies and political opportunities for providing permanent protection to the Hanford Reach.

--Ellis, Joy. "Drafting from an Overdrawn Account: Continuing Water Diversions from the Mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 299. Ellis analyzes restrictions on diversions of mainstream Columbia River flows in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. She concludes that, while the moratoria recently imposed by the three states will contribute to the recovery of threatened and endangered salmon species, state agencies must do more to protect instream flow from further water appropriation activity.

--Austin, Susan A. "Tradable Emissions Programs: Implications Under the Takings Clause." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 323. Tradable emissions programs are an innovative, market-based alternative to the traditional command-and-control method of air pollution regulation. Austin explores whether tradable emissions programs could render the government vulnerable to a Fifth Amendment takings claim should subsequent government actions decrease or destroy the value of tradable emissions permits.

--Craig, Robin Kundis. "Of Fish, Federal Dams, and State Protections: A State's Options Against the Federal Government for Dam-Related Fish Kills on the Columbia River." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 355. Craig examines the possible means for states to bring claims against the federal government for dam-related fish kills. She explores the federal government's sovereign immunity and the interaction between the states' and federal government's interests in the Columbia River Basin. Craig argues in favor of a strict liability remedy against the federal government so that states may obtain damages for the fish kills.

--Morris, Douglas D. "Alabama-Tombigbee Rivers Coalition v. Department of Interior: Giving Sabers to a `Toothless Tiger,' the Federal Advisory Committee Act." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 393. Morris critiques the Eleventh Circuit's decision in Alabama-Tombigbee Rivers Coalition v. Department of Interior. With a review of the Federal Advisory Committee Act and the law of injunctions, Morris concludes that the court erred in enjoining agency consideration of information submitted by a committee that had acted in violation of FACA.

--Norris-York, Dover A. "The Federal Advisory Committee Act: Barrier or Boon to Effective Natural Resource Management." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 419. Norris-York analyzes the role of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the management of natural resources by reviewing pertinent case law and examining its application to the Department of the Interior's Rangeland Management Plan. Finding the status quo inadequate, Norris-York concludes with suggestions for achieving more meaningful public participation in natural resource management issues.

--Hatfield, Mark O. " Consensus in the Klamath." Environmental Law 26, no.1 (1996): 447. Senator Hatfield describes the success of a southern Oregon citizens' group in reaching solutions to natural resources issues in that region.

--Church, Jill Howard. "In Focus: How the Media Portray Animals." The Animals' Agenda 16, no.1 (1996): 24. How often the media portray animals (and their defenders) as violent and negative. For every program like "The Simpsons" that promotes animal rights, too many reinforce harmful attitudes. But viewers can help turn the tide.

--MacDonald, Mia. "AHIMSA With Attitude: An Interview With Maneka Gandhi." The Animals' Agenda 16, no.1 (1996): 30. Maneka Gandhi, a member of a famous family, describes what it's like to be an animal rights advocate and environmentalist in India. "I became the Minister for Environment and found the word `environment' was misspelled on the Ministry's letterhead!".

--Davidson, Davy. "Toward Kinship `Compassionate Communication.'" The Animals' Agenda 16, no.1 (1996): 40. Yelling anti-fur epithets at someone wearing a fur coat is often not effective. Although an angry confrontation may be cathartic for the activist, an empathetic approach offers a better change to convert someone. "Compassion is practical because it is the best method to open hearts and change minds." And it begins with self-acceptance.

--Markarian, Mike. "Bowhunting: Culling or Crippling?" The Animals' Agenda 16, no.1 (1996): 17.

--Polunin, Nicholas. "Editorial: Humans' Real Place on Earth." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 289.

--Gandhi, Indira. "A Politician's Views on Why We Are Not Saving Our World." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 290.

--Batisse, Michel. "New Prospects for Biosphere Reserves." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 367.

--Upreti, D. K. "Loss of Diversity in Indian Lichen Flora." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 361.

--Mukasa, Edward E. S. "Environmental Activities and Prospects in Uganda." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 368.

--Nkwanga, David. "The Uganda Biosphere Club." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 369.

--McCammon, Antony L. T. "Banking Responsibility and Liability for the Environment: What Are Banks Doing." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 297.

--Hilton, Michael J., and Manning, Sarah S. "Conversion of Coastal Habitats in Singapore: Indications of Unsustainable Development." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 307.

--Alam, Mohammed K.; Mirza, Muhammad R.; and Maughan, O. Eugene. "Constraints and Opportunities in Planning for the Wise Use of Natural Resources in Developing Countries: Example of a Hydropower Project." Environmental Conservation 22, no.4 (1995): 352.

--Geltman, Elizabeth Glass. "Recycling Land: Encouraging the Redevelopment of Contaminated Property." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 3.

--Nightingale, Paul C. "Negotiating Contracts for the Purchase and Sale of Contaminated Property." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 11.

--Italiano, Michael L.; Pomeroy, Christopher D.; and Torney, John R. "Environmental Due Diligence During Mergers and Acquisitions." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 17.

--Unterberger, Glenn L. "Let's Make a Deal: Transferring Pollution-Reduction Credits." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 28.

--Boman, Carol R. "Ethics and the Transactional Attorney: Confronting Reality in an Imperfect World." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 38.

--Freedman, William H., and Fu, Jacqueline C. "Environmental Issues Affecting Business Transactions in Taiwan." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 43.

--Wolfson, Paulette S.; Loyd, Melissa E.; and Hernandez, Monica Jara. "Mexican Environmental Regulations: How They Affect Your Business Decisions." Natural Resources and Environment 10, no.4 (1996): 48.

--Saunders, Todd. "Ecology and Community Design: Lessons from Northern European Ecological Communities." Alternatives 22, no.2 (1996): 24. Ten recommendations for community designers and others wishing to translate ecological community theory into practice.

--Gibson, Robert. "Two Proposals for Canadian Sustainable Communities." Alternatives 22, no.2 (1996): 23.

--Hancock, Trevor. "Three Canadian Efforts to Link `Healthy' and 'Sustainable.'" Alternatives 22, no.2 (1996): 21.

--Hancock, Trevor. "Healthy, Sustainable Communities: Concept, Fledging Practice, and Implications for Governance." Alternatives 22, no.2 (1996): 18. The well-being of the planet in the coming century will be decided to a significant degree by cities and their citizens.

--Newman, Peter. "Greening the City: The Ecological and Human Dimensions of the City Can Be Part of Town Planning." Alternatives 22, no.2 (1996): 10. Making our cities more liveable entails making them both greener and more convivial--an opportunity to revitalize a rich tradition from the pre-modern era.

--Adams, John. "Cost Benefit Analysis: The Problem, Not the Solution." The Ecologist 26, no.1 (1996): 2.

--Curtis, Mark. "The Ambiguities of Power: British Foreign Policy Since 1945." The Ecologist 26, no.1 (1996): 5. Britain's dealings with the Third World are generally assumed to be motivated by a desire to promoting democracy, human rights and economic well-being. However, a close scrutiny of Britain's foreign policy since 1945 reveals a very different story. Far from being benevolent, Britain has consistently contributed to economic and political oppression.

--Mitchell, Timothy. "The Use of an Image: America's Egypt and the Development Industry." The Ecologist 26, no.1 (1996): 19. USAID and other development agencies typically portray Egypt as the narrow valley of the River Nile hemmed in by the desert and crowded with rapidly-multiplying millions of inhabitants, a picture which enables Egypt's poverty to be ascribed to demography and geography. Such an image obscures the political and social inequalities that underlie Egypt's inability to feed itself. It also hides the role that USAID plays in the promotion of policies framed to support US domestic issues.

--Nagiecki, Janusz. "Bread and Freedom: Agriculture in Poland." The Ecologist 26, no.1 (1996): 13. During the Communist era, Poland's farmers successfully resisted efforts to collectivize agriculture. As a result, small, family farms are still the norm in Poland and chemical use is rare. But market liberalization now threatens to succeed where Communism failed. In the name of increased "efficiency", the government--following the advice of the World Bank, IMF and other development agencies--aims to displace the peasantry with large, specialized farms geared towards export.

--Zhang, Daowei. "State Property Rights Laws: What, Where, and How?" Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): 10.

--Bourland, Thomas R., and Stroup, Richard L. "Rent Payments as Incentives: Making Endangered Species Welcome on Private Lands." Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): 18.

--Adams, Paul W., and Hairston, Anne B. "Calling All Experts: Using Science to Direct Policy." Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): 27.

--Lautenschlager, R. A. "Identify the Specifics: A Biopolitical Approach for Establishing Research Priorities." Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): :31.

--Flick, Warren A.; Tufts, Robert A.; and Zhang, Daowei. "Sweet Home as Forest Policy." Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): 4. The U. S. Supreme Court Sweet Home Court Decision and its impact on forest policy.

--Kennedy, Elizabeth T.; Costa, Ralph; and Smathers, Webb M., Jr. "Economic Incentives: New Directions for Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Habitat Conservation." Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): 22.

--McKibben, Bill. "More Thoughts on Common Ground with Conservatives." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 7.

--Randorf, Gary. "An Arctic Dream--Torngat National Park." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 27.

--Stager, Curt. "Update on the Ecological Condition of Adirondack Lakes." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 29.

--Sheehan, John F. "Acid Rain Still a Scourge in Adirondacks." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 34.

--Mueller, Robert. "Central Appalachian Plant Distributions and Forest Types." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 37.

--Haupt, Lyanda. "Feathers and Fossils." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 44.

--Tokar, Brian. "Biotechnology vs. Biodiversity." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 50.

--Mills, Stephanie. "The Leopolds' Shack." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 56.

--Soulé, Michael E. "Are Ecosystem Processes Enough?" Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 61.

--Sayen, Jamie. "Limitations of Conservation Easements." Wild Earth 6, no.1 (1996): 77.

--McNally, Mary. "Indian Reservations, Solid Waste and Development: Some Difficult Choices." Environments 23, no.3 (1996): 1.

--Robinson, Dave W., and Twynam, Dave. "Alternative Tourism, Indigenous Peoples, and Environment: The Case of Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park, Nepal." Environments 23, no.3 (1996): 13.

--Han, Ke-Tang, and Sinha, Amita. "An Empirical Study of Feng-Shui in Landscape." Environments 23, no.3 (1996): 36.

--Woodley, Stephen. "A Scheme for Ecological Monitoring in National Parks and Protected Area." Environments 23, no.3 (1996): 50.

--Stefanovic, Ingrid Leman. "Interdisciplinarity and Wholeness: Lessons from Eco-Research on the Hamilton Harbour Ecosystem." Environments 23, no.3 (1996): 74.

--Wise, Steven M. "The Legal Thinghood of Nonhuman Animals." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23, no.3 (1996): 471.

--"Empowerment Lawyering: The Role of Trial Publicity in Environmental Justice." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23, no.3 (1996): 567.

--"The Federal Lead Poisoning Prevention Program: Inadequate Guidance for an Expeditious Solution." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23, no.3 (1996): 645.

--"Dump It Here, I Need the Money: Restoration Damages for Temporary Injury to Real Property Held for Personal Use." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 23, no.3 (1996): 699.

--Dixon, Thomas-Homer. "Strategies for Studying Causation in Complex Ecological-Political Systems." The Journal of Environment and Development 5, no.2 (1996): 132.

--Mumme, Stephen P., and Duncan, Pamela. "The Commission on Environmental Cooperation and the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment." The Journal of Environment and Development 5, no.2 (1996): 197.

--King, Dwight Y. "The Political Economy of Forest Sector Reform in Indonesia." The Journal of Environment and Development 5, no.2 (1996): 216.

--Mikosz, Jerzy. "Water Management Reform in Poland: A Step Toward Ecodevelopment." The Journal of Environment and Development 5, no.2 (1996): 233.

--Thomas, Jack Ward., and Huke, Susan. "The Forest Service Approach to Healthy Ecosystems." Journal of Forestry 94, no.8 (1996): 14.

--More, Thomas A. "Forestry's Fuzzy Concepts: An Examination of Ecosystem Management." Journal of Forestry 94, no.8 (1996): 19.

--Sedjo, Roger A. "Toward an Operational Approach to Public Forest Management." Journal of Forestry 94, no.8 (1996): 24.

--Poyck, Elizabeth A. "Environmental Indemnities: Drafting Out the Defects." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 4, no.1 (1996): 5. Recent case law interpreting environmental indemnities and the lessons to learn from these cases.

--Onsdorff, Keith A. "What the Weitzenhoff Court Got Wrong." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 4, no.1 (1996): 14. Even though ignorance cannot be bliss, the author argues that criminal jurisprudence should not penalize environmentally benign conduct.

--Terry, Lori A. "Clean Water Act Citizens Suits: Key Elements and Defenses." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 4, no.1 (1996): 19. Citizens suits are on the rise, and the author explains their key elements and defenses.

--Adeola, Francis O. "Environmental Contamination, Public Hygiene, and Human Health Concerns in the Third World: The Case of Nigerian Environmentalism." Environment and Behavior 28, no.5 (1996): 614.

--Corral-Verdugo, Victor. "A Structural Model of Reuse and Recycling in Mexico." Environment and Behavior 28, no.5 (1996): 665.

--Rosegrant, Mark W., and Livernash, Robert. "Growing More Food, Doing Less Damage." Environment 38, no.7 (1996): 6. Increasing agricultural output without inflicting further damage on the environment will require major changes in policy.

--Gujja, Biksham, and Finger-Stich, Andrea. "What Price Prawn? Shrimp Aquaculture's Impact in Asia." Environment 38, no.7 (1996): 12. While it generates enormous profits, the aquaculture industry exacts a steep environmental price on coastal landscapes.

--Atkinson, Giles, and Hamilton, Kirk. "Accounting for Progress: Indicators for Sustainable Development." Environment 38, no.7 (1996): 16. Green accounting would greatly benefit from linking physical and economic data in the national income accounts and expressing environmental changes in monetary terms.

--Potter, Clive. "Beyond Soil Conservation." Environment 38, no.7 (1996): 25. Current U.S. soil conservation programs are better at meeting political goals than environmental ones, according to this review of a report by the Office of Technology Assessment.

--Wiens, John A. "Oil, Seabirds, and Science." Bioscience 46, no.8 (1996): 587. The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

--Perfecto, Ivette; Rice, Robert A.; and Van Der Voort, Martha E. "Shade Coffee: A Disappearing Refuge for Biodiversity." Bioscience 46, no.8 (1996): 598. Shade coffee plantations can contain as much biodiversity as forest habitats.

--Power, Mary E.; Tilman, David; and Menge, Bruce A. "Challenges in the Quest for Keystones." Bioscience 46, no.8 (1996): 609. Identifying keystone species is difficult--but essential to understanding how loss of species will affect ecosystems.
--Baker, Beth, "Washington Watch: The Environment as Election Issue." Bioscience 46, no.8 (1996): 574.

--Sax, Joseph L. "Takings Legislation: Where It Stands and What Is Next." Ecology Law Quarterly 23, no.3 (1996): 509.

--Oesterle, Dale A. "Public Land: How Much Is Enough?" Ecology Law Quarterly 23, no.3 (1996): 521.

--Raymond, Leigh. "The Ethics of Compensation: Takings, Utility, and Justice." Ecology Law Quarterly 23, no.3 (1996): 577.

--Burdge, Rabel J. "Introduction: Cultural Diversity in Natural Resource Use Case Studies in Cultural Definitions of Resource Sustainability." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 337.

--Mountjoy, Daniel C. "Ethnic Diversity and the Patterned Adoption of Soil Conservation in the Strawberry Hills of Monterey, California." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 339.

--Richards, Rebecca T., and Creasy, Max. "Ethnic Diversity, Resource Values, and Ecosystem Management: Matsutake Mushroom Harvesting in the Klamath Bioregion." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 359.

--Lober, Douglas J. "Why Not Here? The Importance of Context, Process, and Outcome on Public Attitudes Toward Siting of Waste Facilities." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 375.

--Davis, Charles, and Ellison, Brian A. "Change on the Range?: Policy Reforms and Agenda Control." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 395.

--Freemuth, John. "The Emergence of Ecosystem Management: Reinterpreting the Gospel?" Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 411.

--Bunker, Stephen G. "Raw Material and the Global Economy: Oversights and Distortions in Industrial Ecology." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.4 (1996): 419.

--Pugh, Cedric. "Methodology, Political Economy and Economics in Land Studies for Developing Countries." Land Use Policy 13, no.3 (1996): 165.

--Grundy, K. J., and Gleeson, B. J. "Sustainable Management and the Market: The Politics of Planning Reform in New Zealand." Land Use Policy 13, no.3 (1996): 197.

--Robertson, W. A. "Sustainable Management and the Market in New Zealand." Land Use Policy 13, no.3 (1996): 213.

--Hunter, Malcolm, Jr. "Benchmarks for Managing Ecosystems: Are Human Activities Natural?" Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 695.

--Schmutz, Josef K. "Disciplinary Thinking in Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 698.

--Orr, David W. "Slow Knowledge." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 699.

--Winker, Kevin. "The Crumbling Infrastructure of Biodiversity: The Avian Example." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 703.

--Symanski, Richard. "Dances with Horses: Lessons from the Environmental Fringe." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 708.

--Briggs, John C. "Tropical Diversity and Conservation." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 713.

--Balmford, Andrew; Mace, Georgina M.; and Leader-Williams, N. "Designing the Ark: Setting Priorities for Captive Breeding." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 719.

--Van Dierendonck, Machteld C., and De Vries, Michiel F. Wallis. "Ungulate Reintroductions: Experiences with the Takhi or Przewalski Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Mongolia." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 728.

--Saberwal, Vasant K. "Pastoral Politics: Gaddi Grazing, Degradation, and Biodiversity Conservation in Himachal Pradesh, India." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 741.

--Cannon, John R. "Whooping Crane Recovery: A Case Study in Public and Private Cooperation in the Conservation of Endangered Species." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 813.

--Hambler, Clive, and Speight, Martin R. "Extinction Rates in British Nonmarine Invertebrates Since 1900." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 892.

--Gehrt, Stanley D. "The Human Population Problem: Educating and Changing Behavior." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 900.

--Noss, Reed F. "Conservation Biology, Values, and Advocacy." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 904.

--Barry, Dwight, and Oelschlaeger, Max. "A Science for Survival: Values and Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 905.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin. "Throwing out the Bathwater of Positivism, Keeping the Baby of Objectivity: Relativism and Advocacy in Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 912.

--Maguire, Lynne A. "Making the Role of Values in Conservation Explicit: Values and Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 914.

--Meine, Curt, and Meffee, Gary K. "Conservation Values, Conservation Science: A Healthy Tension." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 916.

--Tracy, C. Richard, and Brussard, Peter F. "The Importance of Science in Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 918.

--McCoy, Earl D. "Advocacy as Part of Conservation Biology." Conservation Biology 10, no.3 (1996): 919.

--Cowling, R. M., and Samways, M. J. "Predicting Global Patterns of Endemic Plant Species Richness." Biodiversity Letters 2, no.5 (1994): 127.

--Walker, Paul A., and Faith, Daniel P. "DIVERSITY-PD: Procedures for Conservation Evaluation Based on Phylogenetic Diversity." Biodiversity Letters 2, no.5 (1994): 132.

--Noss, Reed F. "Conservation or Convenience?" Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 921.

--Heinen, Joel T. "Status and Protection of Asian Wild Cattle and Buffalo." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 931.

--Clark, Tim W.; Paquet, Paul C.; and Curlee, A. Peyton. "Introduction: Special Section: Large Carnivore Conservation in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 936.

--Clark, Tim W.; Curlee, A. Peyton; and Reading, Richard P. "Crafting Effective Solutions to the Large Carnivore Conservation Problem." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 940.

--Noss, Reed F.; Quigley, Howard B.; and Paquet, Paul C. "Conservation Biology and Carnivore Conservation in the Rocky Mountains." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 949.

--Weaver, John L.; Paquet, Paul C.; and Ruggiero, Leonard F. "Resilience and Conservation of Large Carnivores in the Rocky Mountains." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 964.

--Kellert, Stephen R.; Black, Matthew; and Bath, Alistair J. "Human Culture and Large Carnivore Conservation in North America." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 977.

--Rasker, Raymond, and Hackman, Arlin. "Economic Development and the Conservation of Large Carnivores." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 991.

--Keiter, Robert B., and Locke, Harvey. "Law and Large Carnivore Conservation in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. and Canada." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1003.

--Mattson, David J.; Herrero, Stephen;and Pease, Craig M. "Science and Management of Rocky Mountain Grizzly Bears." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1013.
--Primm, Steven A. "A Pragmatic Approach to Grizzly Bear Conservation." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1026.

--Primm, Steven A.,and Clark, Tim W. "Making Sense of the Policy Process for Carnivore Conservation." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1036.

--Weber, William, Rabinowitz, Alan. "A Global Perspective on Large Carnivore Conservation." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1046.

--Clark, Tim W.; Paquet, Paul C., and Peyton, Curlee A. "General Lessons and Positive Trends in Large Carnivore Conservation." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1055.

--Haber, Gordon C. "Biological, Conservation, and Ethical Implications of Exploiting and Controlling Wolves." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1068.

--Forbes, Graham J., and Theberge, John B. "Cross-Boundary Management of Algonquin Park Wolves." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1091.

--Reed, Rebecca A.; Johnson-Barnard, Julia; and Baker, William L. "Contribution of Roads to Forest Fragmentation in the Rocky Mountains." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1098.

--Moehlman, Patricia D.; Amato, George; and Runyoro, Victor. "Genetic and Demographic Threats to the Black Rhinoceros Population in the Ngorongoro Crater." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1107.

--Hernandez, Hector M., and Barcenas, Rolando T. "Endangered Cacti in the Chihuahuan Desert: II. Biogeography and Conservation." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1200.

--Rodriguez, Jon Paul, and Rojas-Suarez, Franklin. "Guidelines for the Design of Conservation Strategies for the Animals of Venezuela." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1245.

--Forester, Deborah J., and Machlis, Gary E. "Modeling Human Factors That Affect the Loss of Biodiversity." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1253.

--Faith, Daniel P. "Conservation Priorities and Phylogenetic Pattern." Conservation Biology 10, no.4 (1996): 1286.

--Sinclair, Peter R. "Perceptions of a Fishery in Crisis: Dragger Skippers on the Gulf of St.Lawrence Cod Moratorium." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.3 (1996): 267.

--Phyne, John G. "Balancing Social Equity and Environmental Integrity in Ireland's Salmon Farming Industry." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.3 (1996): 281.

--Jentoft, Svein, and Sandersen, Hakan T. "Cooperatives in Fisheries Management: The Case of St. Vincent and the Grenadines." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.3 (1996): 295.

--Nugent, Rachel A.; Wellman, Katharine F.; and Lebovitz, Allen. "Developing Sustainable Salmon Management in Willapa Bay, Washington." Society and Natural Resources 9, no.3 (1996): 317.

--Symanski, Richard, and Pickard, John. "Rules by Which We Judge One Another." Progress in Human Geography 20, no.2 (1996):175.

--Watts, Michael. "Development III: The Global Agrofood System and Late Twentieth-century Development (or Kautsky Redux)." Progress in Human Geography 20, no.2 (1996): 230.

--Shine, R.; Harlow, P. S.; and Keogh, J. S. "Commercial Harvesting of Giant Lizards: The Biology of Water Monitors Varomus Salvator in Southern Sumatra." Biological Conservation 77, no.2 (1996): 125.

--Briese, D. T. "Biological Control of Weeds and Fire Management in Protected Natural Areas: Are They Compatible Strategies." Biological Conservation 77, no.2 (1996): 135.

--Christian, C. S.; Lacher, T. E.; and Burnett, G. W. "Parrot Conservation in the Lesser Antilles With Some Comparison to the Puerto Rican Efforts." Biological Conservation 77, no.2 (1996): 159.

--Laurance, W. F. "Catastrophic Declines of Australian Rainforest Frogs: Is Unusual Weather Responsible?" Biological Conservation 77, no.2 (1996): 203.

--Forman, R. T. T. Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 632 pages.

--Herndl, Carl J., and Stuart C. Brown, eds. Green Culture: Environmental Rhetoric in Contemporary America. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996.

--McLuhan, T. C. The Way of the Earth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994. 570 pages. Hardcover, $ 30.00. Six diverse cultures that show how different spiritual traditions world-wide have valued, perceived, and understood the earth. Extensive art and literature from Aboriginal Australia, Greece, Africa, South America, and Native North America, with the intent of displaying underlying unities in the belief systems and wisdom of the peoples of the world.

--Myers, Norman, and Kent, Jennifer. Environmental Exodus: An Emergent Crisis in the Global Arena. Washington, DC: The Climate Institute, 1995. 214 pages. About 25 million people have been uprooted for environmental causes, a number that exceeds the official total of 22 million refugees who have fled civil wars and persecution. Environmental refugees are those who are forced to leave traditional habitat that has been rendered temporarily or permanently unsuitable to support human life, usually through the depletion of water, soil, and forests. The primary exodus has been from portions of Africa's Sahel, India, China, Central America, and the Horn of Africa. Environmental breakdown rarely is the sole catalyst, but combines with poverty, repressive politics, and inequitable land tenure, in a struggle for the control of available resources. Commentary in: Douglas, David, "Environmental Eviction," Christian Century 113 (11-18 Sept. 1996): 839-41.

--Bratton, Susan Power. "Lopsided Justice and Eco-Realities for Women." CTNS (Center for Theology and Natural Science) Bulletin 16, no. 2 (Spring 1996): 18-27. Women's overall low status in the public sphere has limited their environmental representation. Environmental strategies must improve women's ability to participate in political and economic decision-making. We need some careful thinking by both women and men concerning ways in which we can develop more woman-inclusive environmental strategies. Bratton teaches in science, technology, and culture at Whitworth College, Spokane, Washington.

--Eldredge, Niles. Dominion. New York: Henry Holt, 1995. $ 25.00. A clearer understanding of our long evolutionary history can help us understand better who we humans are. Agriculture was a critical turning point, about 10,000 years ago, leading humans to believe that they could "step out of" local ecosystems and manage or dominate nature in human interests. Humans came to believe that they could escape the ecological laws of the planet established through many millennia of evolution. This view has gone unchallenged for 10,000 years and has now led us to the brink of ecological disaster. "Now we can see the beginnings of serious, lasting threats--to the global system, to ourselves--if the same course is pursued for much longer." "We have, at best, a few decades to a century to change our course." Eldredge is an invertebrate paleontologist at the New York Museum of Natural History.

--Godfrey-Smith, Peter. Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 324 pages. $ 50, cloth. The relationship between intelligence and environmental complexity. Philosophy of mind related to more general issues about the relations between organisms and environments. Godfrey-Smith is at Stanford University.

--Leal, Donald, R. "Community-Run Fisheries: Avoiding the Tragedy of the Commons." Bozeman, MT: PERC Policy Series, No. PS-7, September 1996. (Address: 502 South 19th Ave, Suite 211, Bozeman, MY 59715 USA. Phone 406/587-9591. Fax 406/586-7555). Fish populations in many coastal areas of the United States and Canada continue to decline, despite government regulations. Communities who mainstay is fishing appear powerless to control the tragedy of destructive overfishing. But such as tragedy of the commons is not inevitable, and there are many communities that have effectively protected their fishing territories and preserved fish for the future. Fishing areas can be protected from overfishing with minimal government involvement. Leal is the coauthor with Terry L. Anderson of Free Market Environmentalism.

--Kalechofsky, Roberta, ed. Rabbis and Vegetarianism: An Evolving Tradition. Marblehead, MA: Micah Publications, 1995. 104 pages. $ 10. Seventeen rabbis in brief essays enlist Biblical and Talmudic authority to justify their abstention from meat. Eden was vegetarian and in Isaiah's vision of a future peaceable kingdom, the lion, like the ox, will eat straw. Meat eating, though pervasive in Judaism, has been a concession to human weakness. Kalechofsky is president of Jews for Animal Rights.

--Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 15, no. 3 (September 1995), is a special issue on Green Psychology, edited by Robert Gifford. Included are:
--Axelrod, Lawrence J., and Suedfeld, Peter. "Technology, Capitalism, and Christianity: Are They Really the Three Horsemen of the Eco-Collapse?" pp. 183-95. An examination of the evidence for the frequent accusation that technology, capitalism, and Christianity, the three bases of modern Western Society, are root causes of environmental degradation. Although these three are associated with failures to protect the environment, label them as causal factors contradicts known facts. Axelrod and Suedfeld are in psychology at the University of British Columbia.
--Biel, Anders, and Garling, Tommy. "The Role of Uncertainty in Resource Dilemmas," pp. 221-33. Resource dilemmas entail a conflict between self-interests and the welfare of a group or society at large. Individuals with a pro-social orientation may act in the interest of the collective, but there are complications due to uncertainty. As the consequences are perceived to be uncertain, increasing uncertainty will be cooperation less consistent. Biel and Garling are in psychology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
--Reser, Joseph P. "Whither Environmental Psychology? The Transpersonal Ecopsychology Crossroads," pp. 235-57. Ecospychology and its relationship to psychology and environmental psychology, with particular attention to Theodore Rozak. The nature and role of the "self" as the ultimate target and agent of meaningful change. Ecopsychology in Australia, and indigenous "earth wisdom." The prognosis for the greening of psychology is explored. Reser is in psychology at James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
--Kaplan, Stephen. "The Restorative Benefits of Nature: Toward an Integrative Framework," pp. 169-82. Evidence pointing to the psychological benefits of nature has accumulated at a remarkable rate in a relatively short period of time. Natural environments are particularly rich in the characteristics necessary for restorative experiences. Kaplan is in psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
--Loehl, Craig. "Forest Response to Climate Change: Do Simulations Predict Unrealistic Dieback." Journal of Forestry 94, no.9 (1996): 13.

--Walker, Laurence C., and Spicker, Monica I. "Mountains of Magadan: American Foresters Scout Siberia." Journal of Forestry 94, no.9 (1996): 16.

--Curtis, Robert O., and Carey, Andrew B. "Timber Supply in the Pacific Northwest: Managing for Economic and Ecological Values in Douglas-Fir Forests." Journal of Forestry 94, no.9 (1996): 4.

--Binkley, Clark S.; Raper, Charles F.; and Washburn, Courtland L. "Institutional Ownership of US Timberland: History, Rationale, and Implications for Forest Management." Journal of Forestry 94, no.9 (1996): 21.

--Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Schaeffer, Roberto; and dos Santos, Marco Aurelio. "Are Hydroelectric Dams in the Brazilian Amazon Significant Sources of `Greenhouse' Gases?" Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 2.

--Young, Kenneth R. "Threats to Biological Diversity Caused by Local Cocaine Deforestation in Peru." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 7.

--Short, Frederick T., and Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy. "Natural and Human-Induced Disturbance of Seagrasses." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 17.

--Amilien, Caroline. "Conflicting International Policies in Tropical Timber Trade." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 29.

--Foote, A. Lee; Pandey, Sanjeeva; and Krogman, Naomi T. "Processes of Wetland Loss in India." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 45.

--Morton, Brian. "Protecting Hong Kong's Marine Biodiversity: Present Proposals, Future Challenges." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 55.

--Shyamsundar, Priya. "Constraints on Socio-buffering Around the Mantadia National Park in Madagascar." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 67.

--Farooquee, Nehal A., and Saxena, Krishna G. "Conservation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants in High Hills of the Central Himalayas." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 75.

--Ramlogan, Rajendra. "Environmental Refugees: A Review." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 81.

--Westing, Arthur H. "Ethics and Spiritual Values and the Promotion of Environmentally Sustainable Development." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--Laurance, William F. "Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Fragmented Communities." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--De Wael, Jos. "Ecological Aspects of Green Areas in Urban Environments, IFPRA World Congress." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--Hogg, Ian D. "Water Quality: Defining the Indefinable?" Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--Everett, Sue. "Ecology and Environmental Management on the European Scene." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--Rieley, Jack, and Page, Susan. "The Biodiversity, Environmental Importance, and Sustainability of Tropical Peat and Peatlands." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--Warren, John, and Stevens, David P. "The Role of Genetics in Conserving Small Populations." Environmental Conservation 23, no.1 (1996): 89.

--DeWitt, Calvin B. "Creation and God's Judgment." Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 48, no.3 (1996): 182.

--Hendricks, Brent. "Postmodern Possibility and the Convention on Biological Diversity." New York University Environmental Law Journal 5, no.1 (1996): 1.

--Fahsbender, John H. "An Analytical Approach to Defining the Affected Neighborhood in the Environmental Justice Context." New York University Environmental Law Journal 5, no.1 (1996): 120.

--Adams, Carol. Neither Man Nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. New York: Continuum Press, 1994.

--Braidotti, Rosi; Charkiewicz, Ewa; Hausler, Sabine; and Wieringa, Saskia. Women, the Environment, and Sustainable Development Worldwide. London: Zed Books, 1994.

--Diamond, Irene. Fertile Ground: Women, Earth, and the Limits of Control. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.

--Hofrichter, Richard. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. Philadelphia: New Society, 1993.

--Merchant, Carolyn. Earthcare: Women and the Environment. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

--Rosenwasser, Penny. Visionary Voices: Women on Power. San Francisco: Aunt Lute, 1992.

--Ruether, Rosemary Radford, ed. Women Healing Earth: Third World Women on Ecology, Feminism and Religion. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis, 1996.

--Warren, Karen, ed. Ecological Feminist Philosophies. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1996.

--Alaimo, Stacy. "Cyborg and Ecofeminist Interventions: Challenges for an Environmental Feminism." Feminist Studies 20, no.1 1994:133-52.

--Jacobs, Jane. "Earth Honoring: Western Desires and Indigenous Knowledges." In Alison Blunt and Gillam Rose, eds., Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies. New York: Guilford, 1994.

--Norgaard, Kari Marie. "Gender in the Cultural Lens: Ecological Feminism and the Enrichment of Human Ecology." Advances in Human Ecology, Vol. 5. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996.

--Rao, Brinda. "Dominant Constructions of Women and Nature in Social Science Literature." Capitalism, Nature, Socialism Pamphlet 2. New York: Guilford Publications, 1991.

--Sandilands, Catriona. "Lavender's Green? Some Thoughts on Queer(y)ing Environmental Politics." Undercurrents, May 1994, pp. 20-24.

--Lipschutz, Ronnie D., with Mayer, Judith. Global Civil Society and Global Environmental Governance: The Politics of Nature from Place to Planet. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1996. 320 pages. $18.95 paperback, $57.50 hardcover. Neither world government nor green economics can protect the global environment. Political action through community and place-based organizations and projects and people acting together locally can have a cumulative impact on environment quality that is significant, long lasting, and widespread.

--Kamieniecki, Sheldon, ed. Environmental Politics in the International Arena: Movements, Parties, Organizations, and Policy. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. Essays united by a common emphasis upon the linkage between internal and external political forces and institutions affecting environmental policy in nations and global regions.

--Shepard, Paul. Traces of an Omnivore. Washington, D.C.: Island Press,1996. 307 pages. $24.95 cloth. Countering the relativist, the skeptic, and the cynic, Shepard argues for a deeper appreciation of "primitive life".

--Geddes, Robert, ed. Cities in Our Future. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 200 pages. $22.50 cloth. Urban and regional planners, architects, urban designers, and other experts from across North America examine the impact of a city's growth and form on the ability of its citizens to achieve and maintain social equity and environmental health. Case studies of five North American metropolitan areas are presented with analyses of their physical terrain, design, planning, and development.

--Schoonmaker, Peter K.; Hagen, Bettina von; and Wolf, Edward C., eds. The Rain Forests of Home: Profile of a North American Bioregion. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 480 pages. $50 cloth, $27 paper. A diverse array of thinkers present a multilayered, multidimensional portrait of the coastal temperate rain forest and its people. Joining natural and social science perspectives, the authors provide readers with an understanding of the regions natural and human history, along with a vision of its future and strategies for realizing that vision.

--Smeloff, Ed, and Asmus, Peter. Reinventing Electric Utilities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 165 pages. $34.95 cloth, $16.95 paper. Through an in-depth case study of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, a once troubled utility that is now widely regarded as a model for energy efficiency and renewable energy development, the authors explore the changes that have occurred in the utility industry, and the implications of those changes for the future.

--Kohm, Kathryn A., and Franklin, Jerry F. Creating a Forestry for the Twenty-first Century: The Science of Ecosystem Management. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 576 pages. $50 cloth, $30 paper. Drawing upon the expertise of professionals in the field, here is an up-to-date synthesis of principles of ecosystem management and their implications for forest policy, after examining the current state of forestry and its relation to ecosystem management.

--Weeks, W. William. Beyond the Ark: Tools for an Ecosystem Approach. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 224 pages. $40 cloth, $20 paper. An overview of conservation and management issues featuring much practical information gleaned from a wide range of real-life projects. Guidance for those working to protect endangered natural resources.

--Samson, Fred B., and Knopf, Fritz L., eds. Prairie Conservation: Preserving North America's Endangered Ecosystem. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 432 pages. $50 cloth, $25 paper. A comprehensive examination of the history, ecology, and current status of North American grasslands. The historical, economic, and cultural significance of prairies, their natural history and ecology, threats, and conservation and restoration programs currently underway.

--Packard, Stephen, and Mutel, Cornelia, eds. The Tall Grass Restoration Handbook: For Prairies, Savannas, and Woodlands. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 432 pages. $50 cloth, $25 paper. A hands-on manual that provides a detailed account of what has been learned about the art and science of prairie restoration and the application of that knowledge to restoration projects throughout the world.

--McCullough, Dale R., ed. Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 432 pages. $55 cloth, $28 paper. Contributors describe what metapopulation thinking has been applied in specific situations and suggest the analysis required in given cases. Case studies of an array of vertebrate species illustrate nuances of metapopulation theory analysis and its practical applications.

--Yaffee, Steven L; Phillips, Ali F.; Frentz, Irene C.; Hardy, Paul W.; Maleki, Sussance M.; and Thorpe, Barbara E. Ecosystem Management in the United States: An Assessment of Current Experience. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 352 pages. $30 paper. A practical and comprehensive guide to ecosystem management efforts nationwide that meets the needs of practitioners and decisionmakers alike.

--Goodwin, Neva R.; Ackerman, Frank; and Kiron, David, eds. The Consumer Society. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 384 pages. $49.95 cloth, $24.95 paper. Brief summaries of what the editors judge to be the most important and influential writings on the environmental, moral, and social implications of a consumer society and consumer lifestyles. This is the second volume in the Frontier Issues in Economic Thought series.

--Costanza, Robert; Segura, Olman; and Martinez-Alier, Juan, eds. Getting Down to Earth: Practical Applications of Ecological Economics. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 463 pages. $38 paper. Scientists, managers, and national and international policymakers identify practical strategies for implementing sustainability based on ecological economic principles. Sample articles: Anil Gupta, "Social and Ethical Dimensions of Ecological Economics"; Susan S. Hanna, "Property Rights, People, and the Environment"; Tomasz Zylicz, "Will New Property Rights Regimes in Central and Eastern Europe Serve Nature Conservation Purposes?" Costanza is in environmental studies, University of Maryland. Segura is in economic policy at the National University of Costa Rica. Martinez-Alier is in economics at the Universitat Autonoma in Barcelona, Spain.

--Ackerman, Frank. Why Do We Recycle?: Markets, Values, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 180 pages. $29.95 cloth, $16.95 paper. The arguments for and against recycling, focusing on the debate surrounding the use of economic mechanisms to determine the value of recycling. Ackerman presents an alternative view of the theory of market incentives, challenging the notion that setting appropriate prices and allowing unfettered competition will result in the most efficient level of recycling.

--Hanna, Susan S.; Folke, Carl; and Maler, Karl-Goran. Rights to Nature: Cultural, Economic, Political, and Ecological Principles of Institutions for the Environment. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 288 pages. $29.95 paper. A nontechnical, interdisciplinary introduction to the systems of rights, rules, and responsibilities that guide and control human use of the environment. The role of property rights regimes in establishing societies that are equitable, efficient, and sustainable.

--Grifo, Francesca, and Rosenthal, Joshua, eds. Biodiviersity and Human Health. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. 350 pages. $50 cloth, $29.95 paper. An overview of the mechanics, background, and implications of voluntary certification programs. The history of certification, the development of an internationally agreed upon set of forest management principles, and the various certification programs currently underway.

--Thomas, David H. L. "Fisheries Tenure in an African Floodplain Village and the Implications for Management." Human Ecology 24, no.3 (1996): 287.

--Snyder, Katherine A. "Agrarian Change and Land-Use Strategies Among Iraqw Farmers in Northern Tanzania." Human Ecology 24, no.3 (1996): 315.

--Pichon, Francisco J. "Settler Agriculture and the Dynamics of Resource Allocation in Frontier Environments." Human Ecology 24, no.3 (1996): 341.

--Bellon, Mauricio R. "Landholding Fragmentation: Are Folk Soil Taxonomy and Equity Important? A Case Study from Mexico." Human Ecology 24, no.3 (1996): 373.

--Furze, Brian; DeLacy, Terry; and Birckhead, Jim. Culture, Conservation, and Biodiversity: The Social Dimension of Linking Local Level Development and Conservation Through Protected Areas. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996. 290 pages. $69.95 cloth. How social science understanding provides a framework for linking the complexities of local level development to the global economic, ecological, cultural and political frameworks.

--Meyer, William B. Human Impact on the Earth. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 248 pages. $69.95 cloth, $24.95 paper. At a level accessible to the educated lay reader, Meyer describes the changes human activities have produced in the global environment from 300 years ago to the present day. A comprehensive inventory of human impact in its varied forms on the oceans, atmosphere, and climate.

--Houghton, John T.; Filho, L.G. Meiro; Callender, B.A.; Harris, N.; Kattenburg, A.; and Maskell, K. Climate Change 1995--The Science of Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 584 pages. $90 cloth, $34.95 paper. This is the contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A comprehensive assessment of the detection, observation, and physical causes of climate change.

--Watson, R.T.; Zinyowera, M.C.; and Moss, R.H. Climate Change 1995--Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 890 pages. $95 cloth, $35.95 paper. In this report from Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the lead authors and contributors assess just how these changes will impact on earth systems, how the earth will adapt to the increase in greenhouse gases and what mitigation options are available.

--Bruce, J.; Hoesung, Lee; and Haites, E. Climate Change 1995--Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 608 pages. $74.95 cloth, $29.95 paper. This is the contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This work addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse climate change.

--Caldecott, Julian. Designing Conservation Projects. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 300 pages. $64.95 cloth. Many challenges are involved in protecting biodiversity in tropical terrestrial and coastal ecosystems, and conservation projects teach many practical lessons. Guidelines to help others design projects that are practical and effective, yet more complete and more robust than some of those designed in the recent past.

--Crawford, Ronald L., and Crawford, Don L. Bioemediation: Principles and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 400 pages. $90 cloth. The most serious and common environmental contaminants, and the recent application of bioremediation to polluted soil and water.

--Taylor, J. Edward, and Adelman, Irma. Village Economics: The Design, Estimation, and Use of Villagewide Economic Models. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 250 pages. $49.95 cloth. A new generation of villagewide economic modeling designed to capture relevant interactions when assessing the impacts of policy, market and environmental changes on rural economics in less-developed countries.

--Gould, Kenneth A.; Schnailberg, Allan; amd Weinberg, Adam S. Local Environmental Struggles: Citizen Activism in the Treadmill of Production. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 304 pages. $59.95 cloth, $17.95 paper. The authors critique the modern environmental mantra, "think globally, act locally," by analyzing the opportunities and constraints on local environmental action posed by economic and political structures at all levels. Three cases studies: a wetlands protection project, water pollution of the Great Lakes, and consumer waste recycling, demonstrate the challenges facing citizen-worker movements.

--Liss, Peter S., and Duce, Robert A., eds. The Sea Surface and Global Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 496 pages. $74.95 cloth. The first comprehensive review of the surface microlayer in a decade. The authors address the potential global marine impacts at the air-sea interface due to largescale atmospheric ozone depletion and industrial pollution.

--Walker, Brian, and Steffen, Will. Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 620 pages. $120 cloth; $44.95 paper. The early results of an international scientific research program designed to address what will happen to our ability to produce food and fiber, and what effects there will be on biological diversity under rapid environmental change and how these changes to terrestrial ecosystems will feed back to further environmental change.

--Fairhead, James, and Leach, Melissa. Misreading the African Landscape: Society and Ecology in the Forest-Savanna Mosaic. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 285 pages. $55 cloth, $19.95 paper. How the view that West African landscapes are degraded can be wrong. The inhabitants of landscapes may have enriched the land when scientists mistakenly believe that they have degraded it. A new framework of ecological anthropology and a challenge to old assumptions about the African landscape.

--McGrew, William C.; Marchant, Linda F.; and Nishida, Toshisada, eds. Great Ape Societies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 350 pages. $64.95 cloth, $24.95 paper. Comprehensive up-to-date syntheses of work on chimpanzees, baboons, gorillas, and orangutans, drawing on decades of international field work, zoo and laboratory studies.

--Northcott, Michael S. The Environment and Christian Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 280 pages. $59.95 cloth, $21.95 paper. The extent, origins and causes of the environmental crisis. The author claims to provide an important corrective to secular approaches to environmental ethics, including utilitarian individualism, animal rights theories and deep ecology. Northcott is at the University of Edinburgh.

--DeGrazia, David. Taking Animals Seriously. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 380 pages. $59.95 cloth, $18.95 paper. Whether equal consideration should be extended to animals' interests. The issues of animal minds and animal well-being examined with a mixture of philosophical analysis and empirical documentation.

--Perrings, Charles; Maler, Karl-Goran; Folke, Carl; Holling, C.S.; and Jansson, Bengt-Owe, eds. Biodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 348 pages. $54.95 cloth. The findings of a research program that brought together economists and ecologists to consider the causes and consequences of biodiversity loss. The main cause is incentives that encourage resource users to ignore the effects of their actions.

--Bliese, John R. E. "Richard M. Weaver, Russell Kirk, and the Environment." Modern Age 38 (1996): 148-58. Conservatives typically ignore environmental concerns, but Russell Kirk and Richard Weaver are prominent traditionalist conservatives who have addressed environmental issues. They reject materialism and argue that what civilization now needs most of all is the practice of self-restraint. They are perfectly willing to have fewer things in return for a healthy environment. They have a fundamental attitude of pious respect for nature as creation. Society is intergenerational and we have an obligation to sustainability. A traditionalist conservative should be horrified at what humans are now doing to the planet. "A traditionalist conservative should be an environmentalist and be foremost among all those who are trying to preserve our temporal home: our earth and all its wonder and all its splendor" (p. 157). Bliese teaches Communication Studies at Texas Tech University.

--Nassauer, Joan Iverson. "Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames." Landscape Journal 14, no. 2 (1995): 161-70. Many native ecosystems and wildlife habitats violate cultural norms for the neat appearance of landscapes in that they look "messy" and unkempt. Good landscape architecture can place these messy ecosystems in orderly cultural frames, that give "cues to care," like a neat white fence around a wildlife area. This makes them more culturally acceptable. Nassauer is in landscape architecture at the University of Minnesota.

--Brick, Philip, and Cawley, R. McGreggor, eds. The Land Rights Movement and the Renewal of the American Environmental Movement. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996. $ 62.50., cloth; $ 24, paper. Land tenure and environmental policy, especially in the Western United States.

--Thayer, Robert L. Grey World, Green Heart: Technology, Nature, and the Sustainable Landscape. New York: Wiley, 1994. Environmental degradation, human ecology, sustainable development.

--Noss, Reed. "Soul of the Wilderness: Biodiversity, Ecological Integrity, and Wilderness." International Journal of Wilderness 2, no. 2 (August 1996): 5-8. Wilderness, and natural areas in general, should be evaluated primarily in terms of their contribution to the broad goals of protecting and restoring native biodiversity and ecological integrity. Noss is the editor of Conservation Biology.

--Elliot, Wayne. "Wilderness in the New South Africa." International Journal of Wilderness 2, no. 2 (August 1996): 9-13. South Africa is redefining itself in the post-apartheid era. Currently eleven wilderness areas are protected by law. The principal challenges lie in developing uniform wilderness management standards, legislating a wilderness act, and enabling local communities such as those that exist in KwaZulu/Natal to manage and receive direct benefit from their adjacent wildlands. Elliot heads conservation in the Department of Nature Conservation, KawZulu/Natal, South Africa, and has been influential in incorporating blacks into wildlife conservation there.

--Ramphele, Mamphela. "Wilderness as a Resource for Healing in South Africa." International Journal of Wilderness 2, no. 2 (August 1996): 33-38. Wilderness offers a social leveling space that permits a healing process to occur even in the fractured South African society. Ramphele is an anthropologist and vice chancellor of the University of Cape Town.

--Manning, Robert E., and Valliere, William A. "Environmental Values, Environmental Ethics, and Wilderness Management: An Empirical Study." International Journal of Wilderness 2, no. 2 (August 1996): 27-32. A study of visitors to the Breadloaf Wilderness in Vermont. Both wilderness values and environmental ethics can be isolated and measured and are significantly related to wilderness purity. Manning teaches in natural resources at the University of Vermont, Valliere is a research assistant there.

--Meyer, Stephen M. "The Economic Impact of Environmental Regulation." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3, no.2 (1995): 4.

--Waltz, Daniel E. "Liability Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990: Just How Limited Is It?" Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3, no.2 (1995): 16. Understanding the subtleties of the OPA can help avert substantial penalties.

--Cicchetti, Charles J., and Sepetys, Kristina M. "Measuring the Effects of Natural Resource Damage and Environmental Stigma on Property Value." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3, no.2 (1995): 28. Recent cases point to a growing role for "stigma" in pursuing damages for declining property value.

--Lundmark, Thomas; and McNeece, John B., III. "State and Local Government Participation in Solving Environmental Problems at the U.S.-Mexican Border." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3, no.2 (1995): 37. Increasingly intense environmental problems at the U.S.-Mexican border have state and local governments seeking authority to engage in cross-border solutions.

--Ciampitti, Robert A., Jr. "Use of Experts: Proving the New Generation of Environmental Damages." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3, no.2 (1995): 48. The hurdle of proving nontangible injuries as a result of toxic exposure through the use of expert testimony.

--Hanson, John N.; and Walke, John D. "Continuing Environmental Violations and the Federal Statute of Limitations." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3, no.2 (1995): 58.

--Swanson, Timothy M., ed. The Economics and Ecology of Biodiversity Decline: The Forces of Driving Global Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 176 pages. $39.95 cloth. Economists analyze how economic growth predictably alters the earth, and ecologists consider how the drive for fitness and consequent population growth changes the globe. Both look at the institutional interface between humans and biosphere, and explain global change as the consequence of human noncooperation and conflict.

--Swanson. Timothy M., ed. Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Values of Medicinal Plants. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 285 pages. $59.95 cloth. A detailed analysis of the economic and scientific rationales for biodiversity conservation. The contributions form an interdisciplinary approach encompassing fields of study such as evolutionary biology, chemistry, economics and legal studies. The arguments are presented through the case study of medicinal plant use in the pharmaceutical industry.

--Turner, B. L., II; Clark, William C.; Kates, Robert W.; Richards, John F.; Mathews, Jessica T.;and Meyer, William B. Adams, eds. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere Over the Past 300 Years. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 729 pages. $44.95 cloth. "An highly laudable undertaking by geographers to put it all together. It will be used by all scholars, teachers, and students concerned with the environment and its management--or mismanagement--by humans everywhere on our planet."

--Frankel, Otto; Brown, Anthony H. D.; and Burdon, Jeremy J. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 113 pp. $27.95 paper. Conservation biology is faced with several controversial issues, such as the dichotomy between the preservation of individual species versus a broader focus on the environment, the relative importance to give to endangered species, the design and management of reserves and the drive for increasing agricultural productivity through plant improvement versus the drive to maintain traditional peasant varieties in cultivation.

--Sand, Peter H., ed. The Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements: A Survey of Existing International Instruments. New York: Cambridge University Press 1992. 548 pages. $150 cloth, $69.95 paper. Brings together thirteen major research papers commissioned for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992, providing an authoritative and detailed survey and analysis of the effectiveness of 124 existing international agreements and instruments to protect the environment.

--Ribot, Jesse C.; Magalhaes, Antonio Rocha; and Panagides, Stahis, eds. Climate Variability, Climate Change and Social Vulnerability in the Semi-Arid Tropics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 270 pages. $74.95 cloth. Rather than focus on the "impacts" that result from climatic fluctuations, the authors look at the underlying conditions that cause social vulnerability. By using case studies from across the globe, the authors explore past experiences with climate variability, and the likely effects of--and the possible policy responses to--the types of climatic events that global warming might bring.

--Wargo, John. Our Children's Toxic Legacy: How Science and Law Fail to Protect Us From Pesticides. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 400 pages. $30. Children are more heavily exposed to some pesticides than adults and are especially vulnerable to some adverse effects. Fundamental reforms of science and law are necessary to manage the distribution of risk and contain the health risks faced by children.

--Wheelwright, Jeff. Degrees of Disaster: Prince William Sound--How Nature Reels and Rebounds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 352 pages. $16 paper. The ecological effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on Prince William Sound. The complex story of a region where natural disturbance is normal. While the spill had toxic short-term effects, the author concludes that cleanup efforts probably perpetrated more damage than the oil did. Left alone, the Sound would have repaired itself quickly. Throughout the book the author illuminates the gap between the scientists's measurements of change and the public's understanding of disaster.


VIDEOTAPES AND MULTIMEDIA

Firing Line presented a two-part program (half-hour each) entitled "Environment and Property Rights," broadcast on 19 and 26 October 1996. Produced by South Carolina Educational TV, Firing Line is hosted by William F. Buckley, Jr. Panelists included: Pete Dupont, former governor of Delaware; Fred Krup, Executive Director of the Environmental Defense Fund; Malcolm Wallup, former Senator from Wyoming; Carl Pope, Executive Director of the Sierra Club; Wendy Lee Gram, former Chair of the US Commodities Futures Trading commission, former professor at Texas A&M Univrsity, whose husband is Senator Phil Gramm; and Eugene Linden, a contribution editor to Time magazine. The main topic discussed was the takings issue. For information about obtaining a videocassette, contact: Firing Line, 2700 Cypress St., Columbia, SC 29205 USA, 803-799-3449.


EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

Colorado State University, Department of Philosophy, seeks to fill the following position: Associate Professor of Philosophy, tenure-track, appointment with tenure can be considered when warranted by experience and qualifications. Established research program and a reputation as an excellent teacher required. AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION: International Ethics (including some of the following issues: global justice, development ethics, world hunger, human rights, conflict resolution) and one of the following: Contemporary Social and Political Philosophy, Contemporary Moral Theory, or Critical Theory. AREAS OF COMPETENCE: Some other area in Applied Ethics; Agricultural Ethics, Environmental Ethics or Medical Ethics preferred. Undergraduate, including introductory level, and graduate teaching and advising required. Successful candidate will be expected to help develop an interdisciplinary Public Policy Program. Teaching load: 5 courses per year with course reductions possible. Committee work required. Summer teaching available. Salary is competitive. Diversity candidates are strongly encouraged to apply. Complete dossier, including a comprehensive résumé, a statement of interest, and three current letters of recommendation, must be sent by November 18, 1996 to Michael Losonsky, Chair, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523. Telephone: 970 491 6734. Email: losonsky@lamar.colostate.edu. The search may be extended if a suitable candidate is not identified. Colorado State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.


EVENTS

1996

--Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 1996. Puebla, Mexico. Technology, Economic Development, and Sustainability. Ninth international conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology. An analysis of the proposals, parochial definitions, and problems related to "sustainable development," both theoretical and practical. Spanish, English, and simultaneous translation. Speakers include: Stanley Carpenter, Fernando Cesarman, Paul Durbin, Carl Mitcham, Manuel Molina, Emilio Munoz, Rocco Petrella, and Jose Sanmartin. A selection of the papers and presentations will be published in a special number of Ludus Vitalis, the Mexican journal devoted to the philosophy of the life sciences. Sessions on environmental ethics, women and development, biomedical technologies and the environment. Conference e-mail: filtec@xanum.uam.mx. Contacts: Jose Sanmartin: fax: (Spain) 34-6-386-4437; e-mail: sanmarti@vm.ci.uv.es; Raul Gutierrez Lombardo: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-661-1787; Paul Durbin, Department of Philosophy, University of Delaware, fax: 302-831-6321, e-mail: 18512@strauss.udel.edu.

--November 15, 1996. "Ecologies: Rethinking Nature/Culture--Interdisciplinary Conference for Graduate Scholarship" at Rutgers University. Contact: Vanessa A. Ignacio, CCACC/ICGS, 8 Bishop Place, New Brunswick, NJ 08903; PH 908-932-8426; Email: Mariposa@rci.rutgers.edu.

--Nov. 22-24, 1996. The International Association of Bioethics, Parc 55 Hotel in San Francisco. Session on Health and Environment.

--Nov. 23-26, 1996. American Academy of Religion, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

--Dec. 27-30, 1996. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division, Atlanta, GA.

1997

--Feb. 13-18,1997. AAAS, Seattle, WA. ISEE session entitled "Ecological Integrity and Societal Well-Being." Speakers: James Karr, Laura Westra, Reed Noss, William Reese, Orie Loucks, Caroline Madden.

--Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 1997. International Symposium on Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management in the Americas, Belize City, Belize. Held in Central America, this conference is hosted by the Colorado State University Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit of the College of Natural Resources, and also by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the University College of Belize. This conference is at the peak of the tourist season and you will have to plan early to attend. Contact: Jennifer Pate, Symposium Coordinator, Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; PH 970-491-7729; Fax 970-491-2255.

--March 6-7, 1997. Risk Assessment and Policy Association, Washington, DC.

--March 13-17, 1997. Rio + 5 Assembly, in Rio de Janeiro. An assembly monitoring the implementation of the sustainable development and environmental conservation efforts launched at the UNCED Earth Summit.

--April 23-27, 1997. American Philosophical Association: Central Division, Pittsburgh, PA.

--June 6-9, 1997. Society for Conservation Biology Annual Meeting, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, CANADA.

--June 24-28, 1997. "Global Ecological Integrity: The Relation Between the Wild, Health, Sustainability, and Ethics," Firenze and Cortona, ITALY.

--July 17-19, 1997. Second Biennial Conference of the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE), The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. "The Last Best Place." Featured writers and scholars: David Abram, Rick Bass, Shoko Itoh, Thomas J. Lyon, Joseph Meeker, David Robertson, Pattiann Rogers, Louise Westling, and Gary Snyder. Paper proposals, by January 15, 1997, to: John Tallmadge, President-Elect, ASLE, 6538, Teakwood Court, Cincinnati OH 45224. Phone: 513-681-0944; Email: jtall@interramp.com General information about the conference from ASLE Conference, Conferences and Institutes, Center for Continuing Education, Missoula MT 59812-1900. Phone: 406-243-4600; Email: cni@selway.umt.edu Conference Director: Hank Harrington. Further information about the conference is available on the ASLE World Wide Web Site: http://faraday.clas.virginia.edu/~djp2n/asle.html.

--Oct. 2-4, 1997. Environmental Justice: Global Ethics for the XXI Century. An international academic conference at the University of Melbourne. Papers invited. Contact Nicholas Low, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Phone: (3) 9344 6429. Fax (3) 9344 7458. E-mail: nick_low@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au.


INTERNET ACCESS TO BACK ISSUES OF THE ISEE Newsletter

Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter are available, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world via Gopher and World Wide Webb. The addresses are:

gopher.morehead-st.edu

http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html

Instructions for access via gopher:

At your local prompt, type and enter: gopher.morehead-st.edu
(Note: If your local computer system does not have Gopher access, you'll need to hunt around on Internet to find another server that provides free access to Gopher. Alternatively, your local system may be able to access the files via the WWW address.) Via Gopher, you will get the local menu (list of computer files) for Morehead State University (MSU). The basic plan now is to use the "Search," command to find the ISEE Newsletter files. Select:
Search MSU Gopher Server
You will get a window screen asking for "words to search for." Type and enter something resembling the following:
International Society for Environmental Ethics
Follow the prompts (they should be obvious) until you get the following screen:
1. About the ISEE Newsletter
2. 1990 Issues/
3. 1991 Issues/
4. 1992 Issues/
5. 1993 Issues/
6. 1994 Issues/
[etc.]
Select the number of the issues that you want and enter. The issues of the Newsletter will appear on the screen. You may then either read on your screen, or, better, at any point after the file has been retrieved, E-mail it to yourself (again, follow the prompts on the screen, entering your E-mail address). To quit, you will need to enter "q" for Quit. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (these particular issues of the Newsletter) to your E-mail address. The mailing only takes seconds. From your local electronic mailbox, you can then download the Newsletter file to your computer's internal memory or to a disk. Likely you'll get the file as a text-only (ASCII) file, which can then be retrieved into WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, or whatever word processing program you use.

Master Bibliography
The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, including 1995 update, will be ready in late February. This will cumulate the existing bibliography with all of the 1995 entries in the ISEE Newsletters. It is available in either WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) or in Macintosh format (also WordPerfect). If you don't use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in two halves, A-L and M-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler of the bibliography: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. PH 970-491-6315 (office); FAX 970-491-4900; E-mail rolston@lamar.colostate.edu. Send $5 to Rolston, stating whether you want the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disks.
Access via World Wide Web: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:

http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html

There is a search engine to search out entries by name and keyword, and these results can be E-mailed to your local computer.


ISEE BUSINESS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

Current Officers of ISEE

President:
Professor Mark Sagoff, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-5141 USA, Email: msagoff@puafmail.umd.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97.
Vice-President and President-elect: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Dept. of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97, when he becomes President.
Secretary: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca;term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.
Treasurer: Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Election of Vice-President and President Elect The Nominating Committee (Victoria Davion, Chair) has received several nominees and is preparing the ballot. The election will held by mail.

REPORT ON "ISEE NEWSLETTER SURVEY"

Prepared by Jack Weir, Editor
Of the aprroximately 700 Newsletters distributed to members, only 42 surveys were returned (this total included all those received after the deadline). The summary below follows the items in the survey. The survey was in the Spring 1996 issue (Vol. 7, no. 1). In what follows, responses are tabulated below the items.
1. Would you pay higher dues in order to keep the same quality and length? YES NO
29 8 [No response: 5]
How much? $5 $10 $15 $ 20
18 10 1
2. If the Newsletter must be shortened, what should be left out (or abbreviated)? Rate the following items based on the numerical scale indicated.
Scale:
0 = Of no value to me; leave it out.
2 = Of little use to me, but I like knowing it's there if I were to need it.
5 = I'd like it kept, but you can selectively shorten it.
8 = Please don't change this item very much!
10 = Absolutely essential to me; I'll not renew my membership if you leave it out.
[Note: This section is difficult to tabulate in a brief summary. What I've done is listed the number of individuals who rated each item "10."]
Items:
8 General Announcements
3 Issues
5 Reports on Various Regions of the World
14 Calls for Papers (Conferences, Books, Journals, etc.)
14 Pre-Conference Announcements
0 Post-Conference Reports
13 Bibliography and Annotations: Recent Articles
14 Bibliography and Annotations: Recent Books
4 Videos and Multimedia
2 Internet and Electronic/Computer Media
0 Graduate Programs, Theses, New PhDs
1 Employment Opportunities
[Comment: My general impression is that these numbers reflect the relative weightings. Three individuals assigned all items a scaled score of 8; one individual assigned all items a scaled score of 9.]
3. If necessary in order to keep costs down, would you like the Bibliography items to be published separately from the Newsletter? YES NO
17 18


4. If the Bibliography were made a separate publication, would you be willing to pay extra to get a hard copy of the Bibliography? YES NO
23 10
How much? $5 $ 10 $15
9 12 1
5. Do you have access to electronic media/computer/Internet services? YES NO
34 6
6. Regarding the items listed in #2 above, would you be willing for any of them to accessible only via electronic media/computer/Internet (no published paper copy)?
YES NO
18 20
7. Please circle the items in #2 above for which access only via computer/Internet would be acceptable to you.
The total number of times each items was circled is indicated:
2 General Announcements
4 Issues
5 Reports on Various Regions of the World
1 Calls for Papers (Conferences, Books, Journals, etc.)
1 Pre-Conference Announcements
5 Post-Conference Reports
9 Bibliography and Annotations: Recent Articles
9 Bibliography and Annotations: Recent Books
9 Videos and Multimedia
10 Internet and Electronic/Computer Media
11 Graduate Programs, Theses, New PhDs
9 Employment Opportunities

WRITTEN COMMENTS:
Many written comments were received. Some expressed concern that they had not been notified when their dues were arrears, and others said they had paid dues more than once for the same year. Many expressed dissatisfaction with "freeloaders."


ISEE Newsletter PUBLICATION AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION

TO SUBMIT ITEMS FOR PUBLICATION:
Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please do not send items to both Weir and Rolston since this often results in duplicated efforts and wasted time. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred), since this saves re-typing and avoids errors:
j.weir@morehead-st.edu
To send items via parcel post, the address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the FAX). Scholarly articles are not published. Brief reports of research and publications will be considered for publication. Brief accounts of "Issues" of philosophical importance will be considered. Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.

SOCIETY DUES, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND ADDRESS CHANGES:
U.S.: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org.
Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca.
Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. (The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, subscriptions, and addresses changes should be sent to these regional contact persons.)
If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Partridge (address above and below).


CONTACT PERSONS AND CORRESPONDENTS:

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept., College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA. PH 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. FAX 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu.
Peter List, Philosophy Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97332 USA. Email: listp@cla.orst.edu.
Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; PH 715-682-1355 (Office), 715-373-5735 (Home); Fax 715-372-5736; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org.
Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; Email: rolston@lamar.rolostate.edu; PH 970-491-6315 (Office); FAX 970-491-4900.
Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office); FAX 606-783-2678.

Canada

Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca; FAX 519-973-7050.

Australia and New Zealand

The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues of $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to: Prof. Robert Elliot, Dean of Arts; Sunshine Coast University College; Locked Bag 4; Maroochydore South, Qld 4558, AUSTRALIA; PH: 61 (country code) 74 30 1234; Fax: 61 74 30 1111; Email elliot@mail.scuc.edu.au.

Western Europe (Including U.K. and the Mediterranean)

The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. FAX: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Eastern Europe (Including the Former Soviet Union)

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address and phone: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND; PH 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 476461, ext. 280 (8 am to 3 pm). FAX 48-61-477079 (8 am-3 pm), 48-61-471555 (24 hours). Home address and phone: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND, PH 48-61-417275 (24 hours). Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: filozof@plpuam11.amu.edu.pl.

Africa


The contact person is Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); FAX: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

Mainland China

The contact person is: Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Pakistan and South Asia

The contact person is: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. PH (92) (521) (841593). FAX (92) (521) (841594). E-mail wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via E-mail where possible or disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:

j.weir@morehead-st.edu

Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, 103 Combs Building, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the FAX).