Volume 7, No. 2, Summer 1996

General Announcements

Richard Sylvan has died of a heart attack at age 60 on June 16, 1996. The attack came while visiting a temple during a trip to Indonesia, in Bali. Sylvan was a colorful character who taught philosophy at Australian National University, Canberra, and wrote many papers in environmental philosophy, and, recently, a book co-authored with David Bennett, The Greening of Ethics. He was professionally a logician, best known for his articles with Meyer setting out a frame theory of relevant logic, and he also did historical and reconstructive work on Meinong (contained in his massive "Jungle Book"), and work on other deviant logics. In environmental ethics, his paper, "Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental Ethic?" (written under his earlier name Richard Routley) was perhaps the first paper in the field (Proceedings of the XVth World Congress of Philosophy, September 17-22, 1973, Varna, Bulgaria, vol. 1, Philosophy and Science, Morality and Culture, Technology and Man [Sofia, Bulgaria, 1973], pp. 205-10). John Passmore's Man's Responsibility for Nature was published in 1974. Sylvan is buried at his property, Nameless, outside of Gerringong at the edge of one of the forests he cherished, and overlooking the sea.

Call for Nominations for ISEE Vice-president/President Elect. Nominations (including self-nominations) for the next ISEE Vice-president/ President Elect should be sent to the Nominating Committee by September Ist, 1996. The person elected will take office on July 1st, 1997, when Prof. Callicott becomes President. Send nominations, including a 200-word biosketch (maximum) and a telephone number for the person nominated, to any member of the nominating committee. Deadline: Sept. 1st, 1996.

Members of the Nominating Committee
--Prof. Victoria Davion, Department of Philosophy, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA, E-mail: vdavion@uga.cc.uga.edu, PH 706-542-2827.
--Prof. Alan Holland, Lancaster University, UK.
--Prof. Roger Paden, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 USA, E-mail: rpaden@gmu.edu, PH 703-993-1265.
--Prof. Gary Varner, Department of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4237 USA, E-mail: g-varner@tamu.edu.

The Sierra Institute, a program through the University of California Extension, Santa Cruz, is offering three academic field courses for Winter 1997 in Chile, Belize, and Sonoran Arizona. The Chile program focuses on wildlife conservation in the central Andes. The Belize program takes a broad look at neotropical ecology and natural history. The Arizona offering focuses on ecology and environmental issues in the Sonoran desert. All three programs are unique in that they are backcountry-based (not field station) and are relatively inexpensive. Courses are for undergraduates pursuing degrees. For details, contact Sierra Institute, 740 Front St., Suite 155, Santa Cruz, CA, 95060; PH 408-427-6618.

Ethics and the Environment has appeared in its first issue, vol. 1, no. 1, Spring 1996. The editor is Victoria Davion and the journal, which will be a semi-annual, is launched by the Environmental Ethics Certificate Program of the University of Georgia. The publisher is JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut. In the first issue: J. Baird Callicott, "How Environmental Ethical Theory May Be Put Into Practice"; Frederick Ferré, "Persons in Nature: Toward an Applicable and Unified Environmental Ethics"; Simon Glynn, "Ethical Issues in Environmental Decision Making and the Limitations of Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA)"; Mary Midgley, "Sustainability and Moral Pluralism"; Kristin Shrader-Frechette, "Individualism, Holism, and Environmental Ethics."
Ethics and the Environment has a special subscription rate for ISEE members. The rate is $35.00 annually. To subscribe, please contact the publisher:
JAI Press Inc.
55 Old Post Road, No. 2
Greenwich, CT 06836

Environment, Culture, and Religion is a new journal, launched by The Whitehorse Press, Cambridge. The journal seeks to explore the environmental understandings, perceptions and practices of a wide range of different cultures and religious traditions. It advocates an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on contributions from a range of disciplines including anthropology, environmental studies, geography, philosophy, religious studies, sociology and theology. The editor is Clare A. Palmer, School of Environmental Studies, University of Greenwich, Creek Road, Deptford, London SE8 3BW, UK. Manuscripts are invited. A U.S. associate editor is Mary Evelyn Tucker, Bucknell University. For subscriptions contact The White Horse Press, 1 Strond, Isle of Harris, HS5 3UD, UK. Fax 44 1859 520204.

Organization and Environment is a new academic journal analyzing the social roots and consequences of environmental problems. In particular, it is aimed at developing new perspectives on organizations and organizing, perspectives that encourage environmentally sensitive reflection. Co-editors, John M. Jermier, College of Business, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5500, and Paul Shrivastava, Professor of Management, Bucknell University. Articles are invited.

Theological Foundations for Environmental Ethics is the title of new undergraduate course at Marquette University, the largest Jesuit university in the U.S. The course will begin this Fall Semester, and will be taught by Jame Schaefer, PhD, whose research has focused on applying Thomas Aquinas to contemporary environmental ethics. The course will include sections on environmental criticisms of the Judeo-Christian tradition, biblical passages, selections from theologians, and statements by theologians from a variety of denominations, including Pope John Paul II. For more information, contact Jame Schaefer, Dept. of Theology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233; E-mail SCHAEFERJ@vms.csd.mu.edu.

A Swedish Forester's Ethic. A two-page ethical code adopted by various foresters and forest owners groups in Sweden, from February 1995 onward, has a preface about forestry not being just a matter of producing timber but more importantly including preserving the life sustaining processes, in which ethics is an important guideline. The eight promises made are: (1) I will cultivate the forest sustainably. (2) I will cultivate the forest with the help of tested experience and knowledge. (3) I will cultivate the forest so that biological diversity will be maintained. (4) I take responsibility for creating economic values from the forests. (5) I will cultivate the forest so that diverse uses continue, such as tourism, hunting, reindeer-keeping, berry and mushroom picking, and so forth. (5) I will take into account the values that make forests a source of recreation. (7) I will protect historical and cultural values on the forest landscape. (8) I will listen to and inform the people who surround me and my forest. (Thanks to Solveig Rasanen Lindholm, Institute for Statistics, Data, and Information Studies, Uppsala.)

Environmental Ethics in Latvia. Andris Gulbis teaches a course, "Natural Philosophy and Environmental Ethics" at the University of Latvia, in Riga, especially for master's students in Environmental Science and Management. The course is an extensive survey of both classical and contemporary concepts of nature and of contemporary philosophies of nature conservation. Gulbis both teaches there and also is in the Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection. Contact: Andris Gulbis, Ministry of the Environmental Protection, Public Relations and Education Division, Republic of Latvia, 25 Peldu Str., Riga, LV-1494, Latvia. Phone 371 (country code) 2 (city code) 220 767. Fax 371 2 820 442.

Environmental ethics in Hungary. Dr. Lásló Molnár, Department of Philosophy in the Technical University of Budapest, teaches a course in environmental ethics for engineering students. He has prepared two works that he uses in this class: (1) Környezeti etika (Environmental Ethics), his own text book in the field in Hungarian, and (2) Környezeti etika (Environmental Ethics), an anthology with the same title, in which about a dozen works largely from English and German authors are translated into Hungarian, including Holmes Rolston, P. W. Taylor, W. F. Baxter, K. S. Shrader Frechette, Hans Jonas, Dieter Birnbacher, and others. Address: Department of Philosophy, Technical University of Budapest, Muegyetem rkp. 3, 1111 Budapest, Hungary. Phone 36 1-463 1181. Fax 36 1-463 1042. E-mail: miller@tttk2.tttk.bme.hu

The Oxford Centre for Environment, Ethics and Society, at Mansfield College, conducted a series of seminars and lectures in environmental philosophy. On April 17th Avner de-Shalit (visiting fellow at OCEES) gave an introductory lecture, "Environmental Philosophy; What's It All About?". Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University) presented his paper on "Nature for Real: Is Nature a Social Construct?" and Andrew Light (University of Alberta and University of Montana) talked on "What Kind of Good Is Environmental Quality?". Robert Williamson (anthropology, University of Saskatchewan) discussed "Human Rights, Animal Rights and the Fur Trade". Finally, Brian Klug (Philosophy, Saint-Xavier University) gave a paper on "When Are We Human? (How Should We Treat Animals)". In addition, OCEES arranged a seminar for those graduate students who were writing their dissertations in relevant fields. Ms. Gayil Talshir presented her work on Green ideology. Ms. Talshir is at St. Antony's college, Oxford, OX2 6JF, and is about to finish her studies. The next academic year she will be at the Department of Politics, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91905, Israel. Ms. Antonia Layard presented her work on risk and rights. She is a fellow at OCCES, Mansfield College, OX1 3TF. Mr. Mat Hamphrey presented a chapter of his doctorate thesis, on the notion of ecology. He is writing on green political thought. His address is: Nuffield College, Oxford OX1 1NF. Ms. Michelle Friedland is an M.Phil student in philosophy. She presented her work on future generations and Rawls's theory. She is at Wolfson College, Oxford OX2 6UD. Anne Hammond discussed her interest in the emergence of the idea of "environment" and "wilderness" in American photography. She is a doctorate student in the history of art. In addition she is the editor of the Journal of Photography. Hammond's address is Linacre College, Oxford OX1 3JA. Finally, Bruno Walter, a doctorate student at the Department of Zoology in Oxford presented his thesis and discussed the place of environmental philosophy in his scientific work. The seminar was organized and conducted by Avner de-Shalit.

Leena Vilka's doctoral dissertation, the first on environmental ethics in Finland (see Newsletter 7, no. 1), was the subject of a research news story in Universitas Helsingiensis, 1/96, the University of Helsinki's quarterly magazine (pages 5-7) reporting on events of consequence in the university life.

Robin Attfield presented a paper, "Discounting, Jamieson's Trilemma and Representing the Future" at the Annual Conference of the Association for Legal and Social Philosophy, 28-30 March, 1996 at St. Aidan's College, University of Durham, England. The Austin Lecture was presented by Ted Benton, on "Animal Rights, Ecology and Social Justice." Other speakers included Mick Smith, "The Enclosure of the Ethical Commons", Michael Hammond, "Ecofeminism and Justice in the Family", Donald McGillvary and John Wightman, "Private Rights, Regulation, Social Interest and the Environment", Tim Hayward, "The Grounds of Inter-Species Solidarity", Chris Himsworth, "Law-Making for Environmental Liability", Kate Soper, "Human Needs and Natural Resources: the Dilemmas of Ecology", David E. Cooper, "Non-human Rights", Patricia Park and James Connelly, "The Hour of the Pig: Rights, Rhetoric and Law", Markku Oksanen, "Lockean Provisos and the Privatisation of Nature", John O'Neill and Russell Keat, "King Darius and the Environmental Economist", and Anthony Stenson and Tim Gray, "Plants, Property and Peoples."

Robin Attfield was one of the speakers at the 1996 annual conference of the Society for Applied Philosophy, held at Isle of Thorns, Chelwood Gate, Sussex, England in May on the theme of "The European Moral Community." His presentation was entitled "Global Warming and International Equity", the subject of much recent work by Finn Arler (University of Odense). Other speakers on environmental philosophy were Andrew Light (University of Alberta, University of Montana), "Negotiating the Environment: Is There a Place for Non-Anthropocentrism?", and Avner de-Shalit (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), "Environmentalism for Europe--One Model?"

Jane Goodall was cited for a career that "embodies the environmental ethic" when she was awarded the William Proctor Prize for Scientific Achievement for her work with chimpanzees in Tanzania. The prize is the highest award of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, and Goodall spoke to 450 persons at a Sigma Forum March 7-8 in San Diego, CA.

Chen Changdu is professor of ecology at Peking University and the current president of the Ecological Society of China. He serves as Vice Chair of the expert group for the government's China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan, and is one of the plan's main authors. He is also leading a group that is compiling the UNEP-funded China Country Study on Biodiversity. Address: Chen, Laboratory of Landscape Ecology, Department of Urban and Environment Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. E-mail: chcd@urbanms.urban.pku.edu.cn

Congratulations to Peter List, College of Liberal Arts, Oregon State University, who received Hovland Service Award in the fall of 1994.

Dale Jamieson is the new Henry Luce Chair of Global Change at Carlton College, Minesota, starting August 1996.

Internet discussion group on environmental ethics. To subscribe, send the line to mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk. You will receive further information. For more information contact Clare Palmer C.A.Palmer@greenwich.ac.uk.
The Wolf Report by Ralph Maughan is at:
There are updates several times a week on recent wolf activity.
The Wildlife Society has an internet listserve, maintained out of Cornell University. You can join the conversation of several hundred wildlife professionals discussing pertinent issues with wildlife colleagues. To subscribe, send the line: to listproc@cornell.edu. Do not put anything in the subject line. You will receive further information.
Various other listserves and discussion groups have been mentioned in previous news letters.

Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biología y la Conservación. The Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation was formed on 14 January 1996, at Lake Yojoa, Honduras, by a group of biologists from five countries and numerous branches of the biological sciences. The new society will serve biologists and conservationists throughout Central America and southern Mexico, by publishing a news bulletin Mesoamericana, and by sponsoring annual congresses in Mesoamerica. Contact: Oliver Komar, Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware OH 43015. Phone 614-369-0175 E-mail: ookomar@cc.owu.edu. The first issue of Mesoamericana was published in June 1996. Editor: Carlos René Ramírez Sosa, 4a. Avenida Sur #1, Apopa, San Salvador, El Salvador. Phone (503) 336-0152; E-mail: crrlc@cunyvm.cuny.edu.




Call for Papers: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:
Eastern Division: March 1st
Central Division: September 1st
Pacific Division: September 1st
--Submit Eastern Division proposals to: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; or Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 USA, Email: katze@admin.njit.edu.
--Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca.
--Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org.

APA: Eastern Division Program: Dec. 27-30, 1996, Atalanta GA.
ISEE Sessions (Organized by Eric Katz). Session One: Author Meets Critics--Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Method in Ecology. Chair, J. Baird Callicott, University of North Texas; Speakers, Bryan Norton (Georgia Tech), Eric Katz (NJ Institute of Technology), Greg Cooper (Duke), Frank Golley (Georgia). Session Two: Author Meets Critics--Michael Zimmerman, Contesting Earth's Future. Chair, Ernest Partridge (Northland College); Speakers, Jonathan Maskit (Katholicke University of Luvven), Steven Vogel (Denison), Victoria Davion (Georgia), Harold Glasser (NJ Institute of Technology). Session Three: Author Meets Critics--David Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous. Chair, Eric Katz or Jack Weir; Speakers, Andrew Light (Montana), Irene Klaver (Montana State), Deane Curtin (Gustavus Adolphus).
Session of the North American Society for Social Philosophy. Chair, James Sterba; Speakers: Laura Westra (Windsor), "Environmental Risks, Rights, and the Failure of Liberal Democracy," and Eugene Hargrove (North Texas), "Environmentalism and Democracy."

AAAS, 13-18 Feb. 1997, Seattle, WA, has accepted a session from ISEE, entitled "Ecological Integrity and Societal Well-Being." co-organized by James Karr, University of Washington, and Laura Westra, University of Windsor. Other speakers include: Reed Noss, William Reese, Orie Loucks, Caroline Madden.

Society for Business Ethics Annual Meeting, Sat., 10 Aug. 1996, Quebec City, PQ. Session organized by Laura Westra. Speakers, Mark Sagoff and Eric Freyfogle; comments by Westra.

Meeting of IUCN, 12-20 October 1996, Montreal, PQ. Ethics committee will take place during the weekend of the19-20; Steven Rockefeller will present the status of the Earth Charter on the evening of the 19th (tentative date); The Global Integrity Project meeting will also be convened during the same weekend. Participants and speakers will include Mark Sagoff, Gene Hargrove, Dale Jamieson, James Sturba, Ernest Partridge, Robert Goodland, Robert Ulanowicz, James Karr, James Kay, Phillipe Crabbe, Peter Miller, Will Aiken, David Pimentel, William Rees, Colin Soskolne, Don Brown, Orie Loucks, Henry Regier, John Lemons and Laura Westra.

Society for Conservation Biology will meet 11-15 August 1996 in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. SCB will be celebrating its 10th anniversery, and the program is truly outstanding. Also meeting with SCB are:
Ecological Society of America
American Society of Naturalists
Association for Tropical Biology
International Society for Ecological Modeling
Smithsonian Institution/Man and the Biosphere (SI/MAB)
SCB is the largest annual meeting in the world of scientists specializing in environmental science, conservation, wildlife and zoo management, and related professions. These scientists are genuinely interested in and appreciative of participation by environmental ethicists and philosophers. The 1996 meeting is being hosted by Brown University and the Manomet Observatory for Conservation Science.
Phil Pister and Jack Weir were invited by SCB President Dee Boersma (University of Washington) to organize and co-chair a symposium on "Approaches to Environmental Ethics." The symposium will be held August 12th, 1-5:00 PM. The symposiasts will be available that evening for a round table discussion from 7-9:00 PM. The symposiasts and their paper topics are:

J. Baird Callicott (Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203), "Do deconstruction and sociobiology undermine the Leopold Land Ethic?"
Ronnie Z. Hawkins (University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816), "Seeing ourselves within ecosystems, reconstructing our social reality, seeking our golden mean."
Patti H. Clayton (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695), "Connection on the ice: environmental ethics in theory and practice."
Victoria Davion (Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1627), "Ecological feminism and environmental ethics."
Bryan G. Norton (School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332), "Human arrogance: which antidote?"
In addition, ISEE will co-sponsor a session of contributed papers as part of the regular SCB program. Papers will be presented by: Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), Bill Throop (St. Andrews College), Laura Westra (University of Windsor), and Jack Weir (Morehead State University).

The British Ecological Society and the Science and Religion Forum will sponsor a conference on "Contours of Ecology: Religious Faith and Issues in Ecology Today," 9-11 September 1996, at High Leigh Conference Centre, Hoddesdon, Herts. Speakers include: Prof. R. J. Berry (University College London), Dr. Jack Cohen (University of Warwick), Prof. Colin Russell (Open University), Prof. Robin Attfield (University of Wales), Rev. Dr. Michael Reiss (Homerton College, Cambridge), Dr. Judy Turner (Principal of Van Mildert College, University of Durham), and Prof. Stephen R. L. Clark (Liverpool University). Full board is £90. A limited number of concessionary places are available to students and ministers, courtesy of Templeton UK Projects Trust. For more information or to book (£25 non-refundable deposit): The Rev. Ursula Shone, Diocesan Science Advisor, 25 Pinfold Lane, Ainsdale, Southport, PR8 3QH, Tel. 01704 576098.

The International Association of Bioethics will be held November 22-24, 1996 at the Parc 55 Hotel in San Francisco. We are hoping to hold a session of the "Environmental Biothics" interest group. Please reply to us at this e-mail address: 72113.1610@compuserve.com with ideas and expressions of interest in participating. What would you like to hear a session on? What would you like to present? We will circulate ideas to the mailing list of the "Environmental Ethics" section members. Roughly 50 people have expressed interest in the section so far. Also, any ideas which you would like to discuss can be sent to this address. We will reflect items to the membership by e-mail. Other comments and questions can be sent to this address also. Andrew Jameton and Jessica Pierce, University of Nebraska Medical Center, organizers, "Environmental Biothics" section of the International Association of Bioethics.

Society for Philosophy and Technology, Ninth International Conference: "TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, AND SUSTAINABILITY," Puebla, Mexico, 30 October to 1 November 1996.
Four types of regular sessions are planned: 1. Major presentations (45 minutes) by well known experts in the philosophy of science and technology or in related technical fields. 2. Plenary sessions (30 minutes for each presentation) on subthemes related to the overall theme of the conference. 3. Parallel sessions (20 minutes for each presentation) on specialized topics, whether related to the main theme or in philosophy of technology more generally. 4. Working-paper sessions (15 minute presentations or poster presentations), with the same broad scope as no. 3.
An academic subcommittee of the Organizing Committee will select from among submitted papers and assign them to the various sessions. Authors of those papers judged to be the best by this committee will receive a grant to cover all expenses of their stay at the conference.
Languages of the conference: Spanish, English, with simultaneous translation.
The following have tentatively agreed to read papers: Stanley Carpenter, Fernando Cesarman, Paul Durbin, Carl Mitcham, Manuel Molina, Emilio Munoz, Rocco Petrella, and Jose Sanmartin.
A selection of the papers and presentations will be published in a special number of Ludus Vitalis, the Mexican journal devoted to the philosophy of the life sciences.
Special Sessions: Three special sessions are currently scheduled: 1. Environmental Ethics (which may include related themes, such as, biotechnology or environmental education). 2. Women and Development (including gender issues generally, women and work, women and the environment, etc.). 3. Biomedical Technologies and the Environment (possibly including issues of genetic engineering, quality of life measures, the high costs of biomedical technologies, and so on).
Contacts: Conference Email account: filtec@xanum.uam.mx; Jose Sanmartin: fax: (Spain) 34-6-386-4437, Email: sanmarti@vm.ci.uv.es; Paul Durbin: fax: 302-831-6321, Email: 18512@udel.edu; Raul Gutierrez Lombardo: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-661-1787, Email: lombardo@servidor.dgsca.unam.mx; Jorge Martinez Contreras: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-724-4778, Email: jmc@xanum.uam.mx.

International Congress of Scientists and Engineers. Theme: "Towards a Sustainable World." Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-25 August 1996. Participants will include the Club of Rome, UNEP and many NGO groups. Workshop topics include: "Ethical Foundations and Basic Attitudes," "Challenges to Economy: Concepts and Strategies for Sustainable Economics," "Sustainable Development on a Local, Regional, and Global Scale," "Elements of a Safe and Secure World." One ISEE Session is being organized by Eric Hol, 438 North C Street, Springfield, OR 97477 USA. For more information, contact: Dr. Philip B. Smith, Steenhouwerskade 22, 9718 DB - Groningent, The Netherlands, FAX 31-50-3129186.




Environmentalists at the polls. The environment is more of an issue with voters than Republicans calculated. Republicans are now said to realize that the most glaring miscalculation of the current campaign is the strength of the environmental vote. Many voters report that their perception that Republicans wish to undermine environmental laws will be a deciding factor in how they vote. Ken Miller, Gannett News Service story, June 20, 1996. This coincides with the finding of a National Science Foundation study (which the authors found in surprising strength in all sectors of society) that "environmental values have already become intertwined with other American values--from religious to parental responsibility--and that an environmental view of the world is more universal than previous studies have suggested." "Approximately half to three-quarters of all Americans now consider themselves to be `environmentalists'." Willet M. Kempton, James S. Boster, and Jennifer A. Hartley, Environmental Values in American Culture (Cambridge, MA MIT Press, 1995). p. ix.

Too many possums in New Zealand. Aside from three inconspicuous bats, New Zealand had no mammals before the arrival of the Maori (about 800 years ago) and the Europeans (about 200 years ago). About a century ago an Australian possum was brought in for fur farming, but the industry failed, and the remaining possum stock was released. They have spread widely and there are now about 50 million possums throughout the country. They eat native vegetation and some bird eggs. A number of New Zealand forests are threatened with serious damage as a result of the possum's appetite for certain native vegetation. The New Zealand Department of Conservation has a systematic policy of possum eradication, usually by spreading poison (1080 compound) which also kills rabbits. There is no chance of the possum's eradication but only of local control. The possums have become a prey species of the New Zealand harrier, the numbers of which have increased markedly. There is no pre-possum ecology, although in certain areas the new ecology is reasonably orderly. Environmental ethics students in New Zealand invite your comments on whether to accept the modified ecology, pursue eradication, or what. What are comparable solutions with other pest species? Thanks and comments to Stan Godlovitch, Lincoln University, P. O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand. Fax 64 3 325-3857. Phone: 64 3 325-2811, x8971. E-mail godlovis@lincoln.ac.nz

Gulls versus piping plovers. U. S. Fish and Wildlife authorities at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, off Cape Cod, are moving to destroy 6,000 gulls to save 35 piping plovers. The Human Society of the United States and several other animal rights groups sued to block the planned extermination and lost in the U.S. District Court in a May 1996 ruling. Fish and Wildlife officials argued that the sea gulls have taken over the refuge and are driving off the smaller piping plovers.

Flooding results in the Grand Canyon. The Glen Canyon Environmental Studies has a home page with the results the Bureau of Reclamation's experimental beach/habitat building flood in the Grand Canyon. Results of aerial videography of sandbars before and during the flood, and some sediment scour and deposition data are posted. Also, native fish, vegetation, sandbar volumes, campsite carrying capacity, critical habitats, for neotropical migrants and snails, and sediment transport will be posted as researchers file reports. Thus far, results look very good for sediment redeposition. Some sandbars got more than three meters of deposition. Visit the website: http://phantom.uc.usbr.gov For more information, contact Richard Quartaroli rquartaroli@gces.uc.usbr.gov. Glen Canyon Environmental Studies, 121 E. Birch Ave, Ste. 307, P.O. Box 22459, Flagstaff, AZ 86002. Phone: 520/556-7363. Fax: 520/556-7368.

A danger of transgenic organisms demonstrated. Proving what many of biotechnology's critics have claimed possible for a long time, a new study shows that genes inserted into crops can rapidly migrate to their weedy relatives. Danish researchers showed that transplanted genes could cross from crops to wild plants that are closely related and that the resulting hybrid was viable. Like many genetically-engineered plants, these crops had been altered for herbicide tolerance so that it was possible to immerse a field in poisons that kill weeds without affecting the crop. The study showed that highly fertile, weedlike plants carrying the gene for herbicide tolerance were produced after just two generations of hybridization. Pesticide-resistant weeds are clearly undesirable from a chemical-farming perspective. Spreading unwanted characteristics to weeds or other plants could also lead to major lawsuits if plants crossed property lines. A deeper problem is the specter of unwitting and widespread human alteration of the genetic composition of wild plants (and animals?) as a result of the creation and use of transgenic organisms. See Warren Leary, "Gene Inserted in a Crop Plant Quickly Spreads to Weeds, a Study Shows," New York Times (3/7/96): A8.

Ecosystem diversity increases productivity. A recent study found that the more species in a plot of grassland, the more biomass is produced and the better it was able to retain nitrogen (a crucial nutrient). The study suggests that biodiversity enhances ecosystem functioning and long term sustainability. The results were found in both native prairies and tended experimental plots. The study provides theoretical support for polyculture forestry and farming practices rather than the usual monoculture. The same researchers had earlier found that species diversity enhanced ecosystem resilience after drought. See C.K. Yoon, "Ecosystem's Productivity Rises With Diversity of Its Species," New York Times (3/5/96): B8.

Birth control for wild animals. A contraceptive made from pigs is being tested with some success on wild horse and deer populations around the country. This summer it will be tried on elephants in South Africa. The contraceptive--which so far works for only a year--is an alternative to hunting, starvation, ecosystem degradation, feeding programs (and humans withdrawing from the range of these animals) as a response to animal overpopulation. In order to allay concerns about negatively affecting genetic diversity, wild mares are not vaccinated until they have given birth at least once. Some contend that the contraceptive might only work on animals with strong immune systems, thus perpetuating animals with weak immune systems. Another question is how fertility control might affect the social dynamics of herds. See Doug McInnis, "Birth Control Might Keep Mustangs from Outgrowing Range," New York Times (3/26/96): B8.

Yellowstone bison killing continues. Continuing a 20-year old controversy, Montana official are once again shooting buffalo as they wander out of the sanctuary of Yellowstone National Park. More than 300 (10% of the herd) have been killed already this year, including 83 on one day. The justification is that bison may carry brucellosis, a disease that if somehow spread to cattle would end Montana's brucellosis-free status. This would cost ranchers millions of dollars because cattle would have to be tested for the disease before they are shipped to market. The evidence that the disease can be transmitted from bison to cattle is slight. For Park Service officials to remove the disease (by inoculation) from the Yellowstone bison heard--something cattlemen want--would contravene the Park's "natural regulation" policy of letting nature take its course. Bison and brucellosis have co-evolved in the Park at least since the earlier parts of this century. A program in the late 1980's allowing hunters to shoot bison that strayed from the Park created a national outcry. See Jim Robbins, "Montana's Policy of Killing Bison Brings an Outcry," New York Times (3/25/96): A16. For a beautifully presented and balanced account of this issues, see Paul Schullery, "Drawing the Lines in Yellowstone: The American Bison as Symbol and Scourge," Orion 5,4 (Autumn 1986).

Greenscamming. "Northwesterners for More Fish" is the name of a group of utility and other companies in the Northwest with a yearly budget of $2.6 million to be used to limit Federal efforts to protect endangered fish species when these efforts interfere with industry's use of the Columbia and other rivers. A California group called "Friends of Eagle Mountain" wants to create the world's largest landfill in an abandoned iron ore pit. "The National Wetlands Coalition" was formed to fight the Endangered Species Act. For a story about this trend by foes of environmental regulations to cloak themselves in green, see Jane Fritsch, "Friend or Foe? Nature Groups Say Names Lie," New York Times (3/25/96): A1.

USDA fails to enforce the Animal Welfare Act. Both animal protection groups and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) officials agree that the Animal Welfare Act is not being enforced. The Humane Society claims that of the 1/2 million puppies sold every year in pet shops, 90 percent come from commercial breeders and that only 1/2 of those bred for market survive the living conditions. Annother group, In Defense of Animals, estimates that two million dogs and cats are stolen each year, many by thieves who sell to dealers in research animals. The Animal Welfare Act is supposed to regulate animal breeders and dealers, but an investigator with USDA's enforcement division suggests that the agency has made ignoring the law an unwritten policy. Reports from an internal audit suggest that inspectors knowingly undermine the law by failing to cite serious violations by licensed dealers and that penalties for violations that were assessed were so low that violators considered them part of the cost of doing business. Critics claim that the problem is due to "a general culture of defeat" in the enforcement division and by the USDA resenting its assignment to enforce the Animal Welfare Act. See Evelyn Nieves, "Agency Fails to Protect Pets, Critics Say," New York Times (2/5/96): A8.

Green Accounting at The World Bank. For a number of years "ecological economists" have criticized standard ways of assessing a nation's economic health for ignoring depletion of natural resources. The World Bank, long a target of criticism for such unecologic thinking, has come out with a new ranking of national wealth that includes not only manufactured wealth, but also natural wealth and human/social wealth (e.g., skills, health, and education). Countries whose economic growth is based on depletion of raw materials and fertile land no longer do so well under the new ranking. For example, Norway which increased its stock of physical capital by a seemingly robust 10% a year during the late 1980's was also depleting its oil and gas reserves by an amount equal to four-fifths of that gain. According to the Bank, low-income countries like Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya (where depletion of the environment and sale of natural assets dwarfs additions to physical capital) are part of a trend of sub-Saharan Africa that has lost wealth every year since the mid-1970's. Generating such numbers requires controversial assumptions. Human/social wealth was calculated by estimating the value of a country's future output and subtracting depletion of natural and manufactured capital. In calculating the value of different sorts of land across nations, the Bank weights pasture at three-eights the value of croplands and adds a 50% bonus for protected wilderness. See Peter Passell, "The Wealth of Nations: A `Greener' Approach Turns List Upside Down," New York Times (9/19/95): B5.




Regarding Periodicals and Journals. Current articles in Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, and the Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics are not listed here, but they are included in the annual updating of the "ISEE Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics," available on disk and online.
Some journals you may wish to consult are listed below. Most of these are covered in the Uncover Service now available through most university libraries.
Animals' Agenda
Biodiversity Letters
Biodiversity and Conservation
Biological Conservation
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review
Conservation Biology
Ecology Law Quarterly
Environment and Behavior
Environmental Conservation
Environmental Ethics
Environmental Interpretation (Manchester, UK)
Environmental Politics
Environmental Values
Environmental History Review
Environmental Professional
Environmental Law
Hastings Center Report
Human Ecology Forum
Human Ecology
Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation
Journal of Forestry
Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics
Journal of Environmental Law & Practice
Journal of Environment and Development
Land Use Policy
Landscape Ecology
Natural Resources Journal
Natural Resources & Environment
New York University Environmental Law Journal
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
Progress in Human Geography
Research in Philosophy & Technology
Science, Technology, & Human Values
Society & Natural Resources
Tulane Environmental Law Journal
Wild Earth
World Policy Journal
World Politics
Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science
Not listed in Uncover are:
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review (Georgetown University)
Environment and History (Whitehorse Press)
Terra Nova (MIT Press)
Ethics and Environment (University of Georgia)
Between the Species

--Drengson, Alan and Yuichi Inoue, eds., The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1995. 293 pages. $ 14.95. Contributors include Arne Naess (multiple articles), George Sessions, Gary Snyder, Alan Drengson, Bill Devall, Freya Mathews, Warwick Fox, David Rothenberg, Michael E. Zimmerman, Patsy Hallen, Dolores LaChapelle, Pat Fleming, Joanna Macy, John Rodman, and Andrew McLaughlin. Drengson taught philosophy at the University of Victoria and edited The Trumpeter until his recent retirement. Inoue teaches environmental studies at Sangyo University, Nara, Japan, and is translating the anthology into Japanese.

--Drengson, Alan, The Practice of Technology: Exploring Technology, Ecophilosophy, and Spiritual Disciplines for Vital Links. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996. 232 pages. $ 19.95 paper. Modern industrial technology has an underlying agenda: to redesign the human and natural worlds to confirm to the monoculture models of Western society. In contrast, ecological and social responsibility should be built into the design of new technology, based on ecosophy, which enables humans to harmonize with their specific places and ecological contexts. Our current problems, such as the environmental crisis, violence, social injustice, dehumanization, and alienation cannot be diagnosed, let alone cured, without understanding the role of technological forces and practices in contemporary civilization. Drengson taught philosophy at the University of Victoria and edited The Trumpeter until his recent retirement.

--Witoszek, Nina, ed., Rethinking Deep Ecology, Vol. 2 of the Nature and Humanities Series, Oslo: Centre for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo, 1996. The volume can be ordered from: Centre for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1116 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway, Fax: ++47 22 85 89 20. Further information on http://www.sum.uio.no. The project of rethinking Deep Ecology is twofold: to scrutinize a radical philosophy which has informed environmental thinking for the past twenty five years, and to look again at the facts and myths which have accumulated around it. The essays collected in the volume are based on a seminar organized by SUM at University of Oslo in September 1995. Contents: "Reconsidering Deep Ecology," by Andrew Brennan; "Does Deep Ecology Need Intrinsic Value?" by Bayard Catron; "From Scepticism to Dogmatism and Back: Remarks on the History of Deep Ecology," by Peder Anker; "Value in Nature: Intrinsic or Inherent?" by Jon Wetlesen; "Demystifying the Critiques of Deep Ecology," by Harold Glasser; "Response, or Deep Ecology in the Line of Fire,"by Arne Naess; "Afterword: River Thinking and Bottle Thinking in Philosophy," by Henning Breten.

--Wenz, Peter S., "Environmental Ethics," in Donald M. Borchert, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Supplement. New York: Macmillan Reference, Simon and Schuster and Prentice Hall International, 1996. A supplement to the 1967 four volume Encyclopedia of Philosophy, three decades later. Brief survey of environmental ethics and brief bibliography.

--Regan, Tom, "Animal Rights and Welfare," in Donald M. Borchert, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Supplement. New York: Macmillan Reference, Simon and Schuster and Prentice Hall International, 1996. Brief survey and brief bibliography.

--Frey, R. G., "Speciesism," in Donald M. Borchert, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Supplement. New York: Macmillan Reference, Simon and Schuster and Prentice Hall International, 1996. Brief introduction to "speciesism" (taking differences in species as a reason to draw moral differences between the way that members of that species are treated), with bibliography.

--Zabieglik, Stefan, "Filozofia ekologiczna (Ecological Philosophy)," Pismo PG (Newsletter of Gdansk Polytechnic (PG) University) No. 2/3 (22-23), February/March 1996, pages 64-68. In Polish. Introductions to Rolston, Environmental Ethics; Birch and Cobb, The Liberation of Life; Taylor, Respect for Life; Sepanmaa, The Beauty of Environment; Naess' deep ecology; Lovelock, Gaia; Skolimowski, and others for a Polish audience. Zabieglik is in the Department of Management and Economics, Polytechnic University of Gdansk, Poland (Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland).

--Gottlieb, Roger, "Spiritual Deep Ecology and the Left," Capitalism, Nature, and Society 6 (no. 3, 1995):1-20, 41-45. This essay attempts a reconciliation between spiritual deep ecology and neo-marxist political theory by exhibiting some of the social origins and political implications of each perspective for the other. The essay forms the basis for a symposium with responses by Robyn Eckersley, Andrew McLaughlin, John Barry, and David Pepper, and a rejoinder by Gottlieb.

--"Thingmount Working Paper Series on Philosophy and Conservation" is a series jointly sponsored by the British Association of Nature Conservation and the Department of Philosophy at Lancaster University. The title, "Thingmount" recalls a Viking term for a flat-topped mound used as a place of assembly, examples of which are found in the English Lake district. Some titles: Kate Rawles and Alan Holland, "The Ethics of Conservation"; Gill Aitken, "Extinction"; Gill Aitken, "Rarity"; Alan Holland and John O'Neill, "The Integrity of Nature over Time"; Jane Howarth, "In Praise of Backyards"; and others. Contact: The Secretary--Thingmount, Department of Philosophy, Furness College, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YG, UK.

--Colborn, Theo, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future. New York; Dutton, Penguin Books, 1996. Claims there is a large and growing body of scientific evidence linking synthetic chemicals in the environment to aberrant sexual development and behavioral and reproductive problems. Much of the evidence studies animals and ecological effects, but there are important implications for human health as well. Leading medical journals point ominously to hormone-disrupting chemicals' effect on human health and fertility. There are low sperm counts, infertility, genital deformities, hormonally triggered cancers of the breast and prostate gland, and neurological disorders in children, such as hyperactivity and deficits in attention, also developmental and reproductive problems in wildlife. The National Academy of Sciences has established an expert panel to assess the threats. With a forward by Vice-President Al Gore. Colborn is a scientist with the World Wildlife Fund; Dumanoski a journalist with the Boston Globe; Myers directs a foundation on global environmental protection and was formerly a zoologist with the National Audubon Society.

--Attfield, Robin, "Ethics and the Environment: A Global Perspective." In Brenda Almond, ed., Introducing Applied Ethics, pp. 331-42. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1995.

--Budiansky, Stephen, Nature's Keepers: The New Science of Nature Management. Free Press, 1995. Nature doesn't take care of itself, but needs some management. Wild nature is "a fake" not only now but has been a fake for centuries; there is nothing but human modified nature, "the work of civilized man" (p. 3) "Nature lovers ... have deceived themselves about the true character of their beloved" (p. 5). Even ecologists now realize that nature does not take care of itself well (pp. 6-7). "Perhaps the best model for us to follow is that of the gardener, who ... handles nature with respect but without self-abnegation. He brings the full scope of human aptitudes to bear on the landscape, aesthetic, scientific, utilitarian, even moral; he knows that what he is fashioning his creativity and wisdom; but he knows in the end that the effort is a joint one" (p. 250). Critics of Budiansky are complaining that he uses evidence selectively and often fails to give a balanced representation of those he cites, for example, using Donald Worster as an advocate of balance in nature (p. 17), when Worster in fact argues much the opposite. Budiansky is a senior writer at U.S. News and World Report.

--Rosenzweig, Michael L., Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

--Eckerberg, Katarina, Environmental Protection in Swedish Forestry. Aldershot, UK: Avebury, 1990. In English. Sweden has forests, more than before, but these are increasingly managed for silviculture and with reduced biodiversity in result, due to such practices as draining wetlands and to the use of herbicides and pesticides. The threat to biodiversity is surprisingly high: 20 percent of vascular plants, 20 percent of the land-living mollusks, 30 percent of mammals and birds, and 50 percent of the amphibians and reptiles. There is a political consensus in the Swedish Parliament to conserve this diversity, but can this be made effective? Eckerberg is in political science at the University of Umea, Sweden.

--Irland, Lloyd C., ed., Ethics in Forestry. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1994. $ 39.95. Section I: Codes of Ethics, foresters organizations. Section II. Professional Ethics, for foresters. Section III. Business Ethics. Section IV. Environmental Ethics (7 articles, including Leopold, "The Conservation Ethic", Sagoff, "Do We Need a Land Use Ethic?"). Section V: Government Service and Public Policy. Case Studies. Forty chapters by forty different authors. A thorough anthology. "Environmental ethics poses the single most difficult problem for forest managers. ... Environmental ethics represents an extension of ethics to broader realms beyond individual people. The concept of human responsibilities toward nature has raised religious and ethical discussion in all ages, but never more than today, as our ability to affect the very climate of the planet is becoming clear to all. The conflicts in land management have been deepened by our growing knowledge of the value of unmanaged ancient forests" (Editor's section introduction, p. 247). Irland is a forestry consultant, Winthrop, Maine.

--McKibben, Bill, "Creation Unplugged," Religion and Values in Public Life, vol. 4, no. 2/3, Winter/Spring 1996. The Center for the Study of Values in Public Life at Harvard Divinity School. A supplement to the Harvard Divinity Bulletin, vol 25, no. 2/3, 1996. "If we are not to wreck God's creation, then there are certain things we simply must not do--we simply must not continue consuming as we are now. And there are certain thing we must do--we must share our bounty with the rest of the world, finding somewhere a middle ground so they don't follow our path to consumer development" (p. 20). McKibben is the author of The End of Nature and Hope, Human and Wild: True Stories of Living Gently on the Earth; and lives in the Adirondacks.

--Ausubel, Jesse H., "Can Technology Spare the Earth?" American Scientist 84(1996):166-178. Evolving efficiencies in our use of resources suggest that technology can restore the environment even as population grows. Ausubel directs the Program for Human Environment at Rockefeller University.

--Nelson, Robert H., Public Lands and Private Rights: The Failure of Scientific Management. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995. $ 27.95. Nelson proposes a new system of natural resource and land management based on a much greater decentralization of authority.

--Martin, Vance G., "Australia's Wilderness Movement--Gathering Momentum," International Journal of Wilderness 2, no. 1 (May 1996):10-14. Australia's wilderness movement emphasizes some uniquely Australian features, on a continent as large as the United States but with 10% of the U.S. population, largely semiarid or arid, but with rainforest as well and with an unusual fauna and flora. Designation is principally at the state level, and increasingly recognizes the histories of the aboriginal peoples. Good summary of political and philosophical issues, as well as of designated areas. Martin is with the International Center for Earth Concerns and the WILD foundation, Ojai, CA.

--Robertson, M., Vang, K., and A. J. Brown, "Wilderness in Australia: Issues and Options--A Discussion Paper," Canberra, ACT: Australian Heritage Commission, 1992.

--Cole, David N., "Ecological Manipulation in Wilderness--An Emerging Management Dilemma," International Journal of Wilderness 2, no. 1 (May 1996):15-18. As anthropogenic disturbance of wilderness intensifies, managers must increasingly face the dilemma of choosing between the goals of restoring pristine conditions and avoiding conscious manipulation of ecosystems. At the crux of this dilemma are questions about the value of wilderness as a reference area of baseline and what wilderness should provide a reference to. Cole is a research biologist with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Missoula, MT.

--Greenway, Robert, "Wilderness Experience and Ecopsychology," International Journal of Wilderness 2(no. 1, May 1996):26-30. Wilderness participants often speak of a feeling of "expansion" or "reconnection" in wilderness which can be interpreted psychologically as an expansion of "self." Greenway teaches psychology at Sonoma State University, California.

--Carroll, Noël, "On Being Moved by Nature: Between Religion and Natural History," in Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, eds. Landscape, Natural Beauty and the Arts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 244-266. Nature arouses us in ways that are neither religious nor scientific, and these are legitimate ways of appreciating nature aesthetically. "We may appreciate nature by opening ourselves to its stimulus, and to being put in a certain emotional state by attending to its aspects. Experiencing nature, in this mode, just is a manner of appreciating it. ... Such experiences have a genuine claim to be counted among the ways in which nature may be (legitimately) appreciated." This does not require knowledge of natural history. They are "of a less intellective, more visceral sort" (p. 245). Carroll is at the University of Wisconsin.

--Godlovitch, Stan, "Icebreakers: Environmentalism and Natural Aesthetics," Journal of Applied Philosophy 11(1994):15-30. "The only fitting regard for [nature] is a sense of mystery" and "the relevant special sense of mystery is ... a state of appreciative incomprehension, at best an acknowledgment of limits." But this need not involve a sense of awe or the sublime and natural science is irrelevant to nature appreciation. Godlovitch is in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism at Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.

--Carlson, Allen, "Nature, Aesthetic Appreciation, and Knowledge," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 53(1995):393-400. Critiquing the views of Carroll and Godlovitch, Carlson argues that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature does require knowledge, especially that of science and natural history. Carlson is in philosophy at the University of Alberta.

--Diffey, T. J., "Natural Beauty without Metaphysics," in Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, eds. Landscape, Natural Beauty and the Arts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 43-64. Diffey is at the University of Sussex, U.K.

--Grande, John K., Balance: Art and Nature. Montreal/New York: Black Rose Books, 1994. Art and the environment, art as a new way of looking at humanity and nature. Artistic expression can and does play and important role in changing the way we perceive our relation to the world we live in. One chapter title: "Nature is the art of which we are a part."

--Minai, Asghar Talaye, Aesthetics, Mind, and Nature: A Communication Approach to the Unity of Matter and Consciousness. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993. "The totality of cosmic order bears messages of meaning and is `beautiful'. The properties of this system may fall in either rational or random order, the former promoting well-ordered, rule-generated, sociobiological conditions, but the latter providing the necessary complexity and variety that transforms the mundane into the beautiful. ... This book aims to satisfy the urge for better understanding of the underlying principle of beauty and the nature of what is beautiful (p. xvi).

--Miroiu, Adrian, Etica Aplicata (Applied Ethics). Bucharest, Romania: Editura Alternative, 1995. ISBN: 973-96996-6-9. Translations into Romanian of selected articles from the West on applied ethics. In addition to sections on abortion, the right to die, and euthanasia, it contains a section on nature, with translations from Peter Singer on "Animal Liberation," Tom Regan on "The Rights of Animals," and Elliot Sober's "Philosophical Problems for Environmentalism." Miroiu teaches philosophy at the University of Bucharest and is in the ministry of higher education for Romania.

--Pimentel, David and Marcia Pimentel, eds., Food, Energy, and Society, rev. ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1996. $ 39.95. 392 pages. In the fifteen years since the first edition of this book was published, world energy supplies, especially fossil fuels, have dwindled as their use has escalated. Availability of the other major resources required for human life also has come under growing pressure. These include fertile land, water, and biological diversity. The very integrity of these resources is threatened. David Pimentel is professor of insect ecology, Marcia Pimentel teaches nutritional science in the College of Human Ecology, Cornell University.

--Gever, John, Robert Kaufmann, David Skole, and Charles Vorosmarty, Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1991. $ 19.95.

--Edwards, Denis, Jesus the Wisdom of God: An Ecological Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995. $ 16.95. Edwards is eloquent about Jesus the Sophia of God, a more feminine metaphor that crosschecks Jesus' masculinity and the overly patriarchal tradition, allows more openness to other religious traditions, and, above all, enjoins a more ecological theology--less human dominance and more caring for creation. He waxes eloquent over every Biblical opportunity to interpret Jesus as Sophia, personifying this where he can. Also, this improves the doctrine of the Trinity. God is a sort of community-in-unity, allowing autonomy in the creatures, a more ecological account than the patriarchal monarch. Interesting argument, but not always convincing. Edwards is a Roman Catholic priest from Adelaide, Australia.

--Parini, Jay, "The Greening of the Humanities," New York Times Magazine, October 29, 1995, pages 52-53.

--Buhl, Lawrence, Environmental Imagination, 1995.

--Naess, Arne, "The Third World, Wilderness, and Deep Ecology," in George Sessions, ed., Deep Ecology for the 21st Century (Boston: Shambahala Publications, 1994). Answers Ramachandra Guha's critique of wilderness as a first world luxury.

--Andersen, Svend, "Global Ethics and Salvation," in Brümmer, Vincent and Marcel Sarot, eds., A Dialogue of Social Science and Religion (Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House), pp. 133-143. "It is not legitimate to make direct links between the global problems and Biblical concepts like salvation" (p. 138). "The concept of salvation is not a part of global ethics: salvation is not a state on this earth which human beings can bring about. But the language of salvation is connected with Christian ethics and accordingly can have bearings on the efforts of solving the global problems. ... It is part of Christian ethics that all human beings should be treated as equals, so that justice is a universal idea. ... It is part of Christian ethics that we are responsible for nonhuman nature which is delivered into our hands" (pp. 142-143). Andersen teaches in the theology faculty at the University of Aarhus, Denmark.

--Edwards, V. M., Dealing in Diversity: America's Market for Nature Conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Can market-based approaches be used successfully to conserve biodiversity? Should environmentalists eschew government regulation of private land-owners and the public purchase of conservation lands and instead strengthen private activities that further conservation. Edwards answers yes to both these questions. Edwards teaches land management at the University of Portsmouth, England.
--Bernson, Vibeke, The Framework Convention on Climate Change: Analyzing the Role of Epistemic Communities and of Problem Uncertainty in the Outcome of the Negotiations. Lund, Sweden: Lunds Universitet, Statsvetenkapliga Institutionen. A master's degree in International Corporation and Administration on Negotiation. In English. 57 pages. Contact Kemikalieinspektionen, Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden. Phone 08/730 57 00. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, at the Earth Summit at Rio in 1992, is ineffectual. This results from the negotiation process by which it was prepared, and this is analyzed, using regime theory and the roles of the epistemic communities involved, such as natural scientists, their scientific organizations, economists, and national governments, all of which can have different belief systems and behave differently in the face of uncertainties.

--National Parks and Protected Landscape Areas of Slovakia. Ekologia Bratislava, Ekologia Publishing House, 1992. ISBN 80-85559-08-0. 71 pages. Description of conservation areas, brief history, what is conserved, landscapes, endangered species. Color pictures and text.

--Sandoe, Peter, Roger Crisp, Nils Holtug, "Animal Ethics," Copenhagen, Denmark: University of Copenhagen, Department of Education, Philosophy, and Rhetorics, 1996. Also forthcoming in Mike Appleby and Barry Hughes, eds., Animal Welfare (Wallingford, Oxfordshire, U.K: C.A.B. International). Views concerning how humans ought to treat animals. The view that animals do not have moral standing is examined, and four different views of the ways that animals may have moral standing: utilitarianism, the animal rights view, the species-integrity view, and the agent-centered view. Sandhoe and Holtug are with the Bioethical Research Group, University of Copenhagen. Crisp is at St. Anne's College, Oxford University. Copies from: Bioethical Research Group, University of Copenhagen, Department of Education, Philosophy, and Rhetorics, Njalsgate 80, DK-2300, Copenhagen S., Denmark. Fax 45 5370 3573.

--Mortensen, Viggo, ed., Concern for Creation: Voices on the Theology of Creation. Special issue of Tro & Tanke: Svenska Kyrkans Forskningsrad, 1995, no. 5. Fifteen articles, all in English, from authors in various nations, under the sponsorship of the Lutheran World Federation. Samples: Per Lonning (Norway), "Creation--How It Became an Ecumenical Challenge"; Bernard Przewpzny (Italy), "The Catholic Church and Ecological Concern"; Grace N. Ndyabahika (Uganda), "The Earth Belongs to God: Women's Place in Creation." Tro & Tanke, Svenska krykan, 751 70 Uppsala. Phone: 018/16 96 67 Mortensen is with the Lutheran World Federation, Geneva, Switzerland.

--Mejia, Alfonso Alonso, Leeanne Tennant de Alonso, Lincoln Brower, and Dennis Murphy, "Maintaining Migratory Phenomena: The Mexican Monarch Butterfly Challenge," Society for Conservation Biology Newsletter 3 (special issue, May 1996):1, 17. The Monarchs winter in selected forests of Oyamel fir in Mexico, clustering in large groups in some eight or so areas. They need the protection of the forests to survive winter freezing, but forest destruction threatens their survival. Mexico has set aside a Monarch Butterfly Special Biosphere Reserve by presidential decree, though much of the reserve is private land, and only a portion of the reserve is fully protected. Logging is still permitted on much of it. Ways to combine butterfly protection and the economic needs of local peoples are reviewed. The authors, zoologists from the University of Florida, Harvard, and Stanford, have been involved in intensive study of the problem.

--Latour, Bruno, We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. 157 pages. paper. Only the modern West has conceptually separated culture from nature; no other cultures have ever done so. That is, in fact, the defining characteristic of modernity: "it believes in the total separation of humans and nonhumans" (p. 37). "Our own mythology consists in imagining ourselves as radically different" (p. 114). At the same time we in the West construct massive "hybrids" of culture and nature--the ozone hole, global warming, deforestation--and are unable to recognize the root of the problem because our ideology, driving science, technology, and politics, separates humans from nature when in fact they must and do entwine. In achieving this separation, "no one has ever been modern. Modernity has never begun. There has never been a modern world" (p. 47) "It behooves us to ... become once more what we have never ceased to be: amoderns" (p. 90). The answer is not in being postmodern, but in being amodern (p. 131). This will retain "the premoderns' inability to differentiate durably between the networks and the pure poles of Nature and Society" (p. 133). Pure culture does not exist, nor does pure nature, nor is anything singular. "There are only natures-cultures" (p. 104). Latour is a sociologist at Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, Paris, and at the University of California, San Diego.

--Young, Crawford, The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. $ 45. This is the kind of book that those who hope for environmental conservation, environmental justice, and sustainable development in Africa hate to read. Even a cursory glance at postcolonial Africa suggests disaster. Abject poverty, widespread suffering, health crisis, civil wars, displaced populations, murderous and corrupt dictatorships, the collapse of basic infrastructures, and environmental degradation mark much of the region. Young finds colonialism still the culprit. But postcolonial states in Isia, Oceania, and the Americas have fared, on the whole quite differently. Seven distinctive characteristics of the African colonial state account for its virulent legacy: the speed of colonial occupation, the ruthless drive to extract resources from the subjugated societies in order to finance their conquest, the forcing of rural Africans into labor service, a welfare ideology that crippled independence of spirit, a thoroughgoing domination aided by new technologies, a racist ideology that permeated dealings with Africa and denigrated the value of African culture, and--outside Islamic areas--the lack of a religious system that could counter the West's monopolization of the production of meaning and thus the construction of culture. Postcolonial politics inherited the practices and norms of the old, and added destructive and exploitative elements of their own. "The new state was but a derelict reproduction of the old one, unable to perform its functions with the same competence." Can a new state be invented that sheds the debilitating traditions of the past? The outlook is bleak for Africans. And equally bleak for the wildlife.

--Human Dimensions of Wildlife has published its first issue, Spring 1996. Vol. 1, no. 1, contains articles such as: Alan D. Bright and Michael J. Manfredo, "A Conceptual Model of Attitudes toward Natural Resource Issues: A Case Study of Wolf Reintroduction"; Bonita L. MacFarlane, "Socialization Influences of Specialization Among Birdwatchers"; Daniel J. Decker et al., "From Clients to Stakeholders: A Philosophical Shift for Fish and Wildlife Management"; Thomas A. Heberlein and Elizabeth Thomson, "Changes in U.S. Hunting Participation, 1980-1990." Papers and subscriptions are invited. The editors are Michael J. Manfredo and Jerry J. Vaske, both of Colorado State University. Address: Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, Department of Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 970/491-2077. Fax 970/491-3394.

--Mainstreaming the Environment: The World Bank Group and the Environment Since the Rio Earth Summit. Fiscal 1995. Summary. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1995. 59 pages. How the World Bank has sought to be an active partner in implementing the Rio imperatives. The Bank has a growing loan portfolio of environmental projects, now $ 10 billion for 137 projects in 62 countries. Obtainable from: The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N. W., Washington, DC 20433. E-mail: boons@worldbank.org

--Business Ethics Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 4, October 1995 is a theme issue on business and the environment. Contains:
--Westra, Laura, "The Corporation and the Environment," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):661-673.
--Brenkert, George G., "The Environment, The Moralist, the Corporation and Its Culture," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):675-697. Business has its own special "ethics," which relates not simply to the internal nature of the corporation but also to the corporate (free market) system. Given this special ethics, business cannot in general be environmentally responsible in the manner that classical moralists demand. More far-reaching changes are needed.
--Frederick, Robert E., and W. Michael Hoffman, "Environmental Risk Problems and the Language of Ethics," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):699-711. Six criteria for assessing proposed solutions to environmental risk problems. But before these criteria can be used business persons must be willing to discuss the problem in ethical terms, and they are often reluctant to do so.
--Halme, Minna, "Environmental Issues in Product Development Process," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):713-733. Studies a shift of a managerial paradigm in a business organization from "traditional management thinking" to "environment-related management."
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Environmental Protection and an Equitable International Order: Ethics after the Earth Summit," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):735-752. The UNCED Summit established two new principles of international justice: an equitable international order and protection of the environment. Wealth is asymmetrically distributed; approximately one-fifth of the world produces and consumes approximately four-fifths of goods and services. This difference can be interpreted as both an earnings differential and as exploitation; responses may require justice or charity, producing and sharing.
--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin S., "Environmental Risk and the Iron Triangle," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):753-777. There appears to be an iron triangle of industry, government, and consultant/contractors promoting the siting of the first permanent geological repository of high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The iron triangle has ignored important epistemological and ethical difficulties with the proposed facility.
--Orts, Eric W., "A Reflexive Model of Environmental Regulation," Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):779-794. We should begin to consider a new model of reflexive environmental law. This regulatory strategy aims to provide more reflective as well as more efficient environmental regulation.
--Reichart, Joel E., "A New Environmental Ethic" (Critical Review of Laura Westra, A Proposal for Environmental Ethics), Business Ethics Quarterly 5(1995):795-804.

--Lucas, Oliver W. R., The Design of Forest Landscapes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Lucas is with the U.K. Forestry Commission.

--Osmo Kontturi, "Ympäristön Tutkimus- Ja Suunnitteu-ongelmien Sekä Ympäristöpolitiikan Ja -Filosofian Suhteista (Environmental Research and Planning in Relation to Environmental Politics and Philosophy" in Ale Fennica: Journal of the Finnish Association for Landscape Ecology, vol. 7-8(1992-1993):4-19. In Finnish with English summary. Kontturi is a docent, University of Joensuu and with the Finnish Association for Landscape Ecology.

--Murphy, Raymond, Rationality and Nature: A Sociological Inquiry. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 295 pages. In contemporary society, the belief that reason, a distinctive characteristic of humans, enables them to reshape and master nature is contested by an alternative belief that nature is not so plastic, hence humans must adapt to nature and render development sustainable, or even limit growth. Social ecology claims that environmental problems result from institutional hierarchies and suggests decentralized institutions and egalitarian ethics. Deep ecologists stress the intrinsic value of nature and feminists postulate that women are inherently closer to nature than men. Murphy assesses these theories and goes on to propose a theory of environmental debt as a source of capital accumulation. He develops a model of "environmental classes" to understand the political and economic bases of conflict over the environment. Murphy teaches sociology at the University of Ottawa.

--Wallace, Mart I., Fragments of the Spirit: Nature, Violence, and the Renewal of Creation. New York: Continuum, 1996. 237 pages. $ 29.95.

--Sutherland, D. Dixon, "The Space of Creation: Theology's Search for an Ecological Ethic," Communio Viatorum 1 XXXVI 1994, pages 46-60. Communio Viatorum is published by the Protestant Theological Faculty of Charles University, Prague. The historic cords that bind the ecological crisis and Christian theology together run deeper than expected. Modern theology and the ecological crisis cannot be separated. The roots of both are historically and substantively entangled. In a profound sense, the ecological crisis of the twentieth century has propelled theology into its own severe crisis. Dixon teaches Christian ethics at Stetson University, DeLand, Florida.

--Thompson, Gary L, Fred M. Shelley, and Chand Wije, eds., Geography, Environment, and American Law. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1996. 216 pages. Cloth, $ 39.95. The interface between geography and the American legal system. The interpretive and analytical skills of professional geographers applied to environmental issues as these complement the analyses of legal scholars in resolving problems associated with land use, water resources, mineral development, and related issues. Thompson is in geography at the University of Oklahoma, Shelley in geography at Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos. Wije is a dean for research at Austin Community College, Austin, Texas.

--Freyfogle, Eric T., "The Construction of Ownership," University of Illinois Law Review, vol. 1996, no. 1, pages 173-187. Modern culture increasingly relies on patchwork remedies for societal problems. Freyfogle calls instead for a fundamental change in land-ownership jurisprudence. Current property law does little to discourage a landowner from acting in self-serving ways to accommodate immediate needs--a shortcoming that necessarily sacrifices the land's long-term health. We need to readjust our vision of our country's land-ownership norms to help nourish the land's health and reinvigorate our faded senses of local community. Freyfogle teaches law at the University of Illinois.

--Freyfogle, Eric T., "Local Value," Terra Nova 1(no. 2, 1996):29-39. Parcel of land are small pieces in a potent, market-based economy that has come to define the modern age, a system that operates on cash and values all things in terms of their cash equivalencies. Land is considered a commodity, and must look appealing to people who have cash to spend. In this competition local lands have not fared well. Only nature continues to embrace these lots and to sense their worth, with lush weeds and sprouting trees covering more or less every unpaved spot. Living responsibly in a place means gaining an awareness of the local natural setting and trying to use that setting as a guide for the types of activities that are suitable for the land. It means mimicking nature, whenever possible, in deference to the more lasting wisdom that lies embedded within the land. Land is being mined by rich people who live elsewhere; while in fact the local people and these lands possess much intrinsic value. Freyfogle teaches law at the University of Illinois.

--Emmenegger, Susan and Axel Tschentscher, "Taking Nature's Rights Seriously: The Long Way to Biocentrism in Environmental Law," Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 6(1994):545- .

--Anderson, Jerry L., "Takings and Expectations: Toward a `Broader Vision' of Property Rights," Kansas Law Review 37(1989):529- .

--Humbach, John A., "Law and a New Land Ethic," Minnesota Law Review 74(1989):339- .

--Anderson, E. N., Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 256 pages. $ 25.00. Diverse but in many ways analogous approaches of a wide range of traditionally based societies in their approaches to their home environments.

--Simon, Noel, Nature in Danger: Threatened Habitats and Species. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Written in association with the World Conservation Monitoring Center. 240 pages. $ 35.00 A detailed picture of the many threatened habitats--rain forests, wetlands, grasslands, mountain ranges, reefs and islands, deserts, Antarctica.

--Pulido, Laura, Environmentalism and Economic Justice: Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1996. 320 pages. $ 17.95 paper. The United Farm Workers 1965-71 pesticide campaign and a grazing conflict between a Hispano cooperative and mainstream environmentalist in New Mexico. Pulido argues for developing an inclusive environmental ethic that is at once economically empowering and respectful of ethnic and cultural diversity.

--Collins, N. M. and J. A. Thomas, The Conservation of Insects and Their Habitat. London: Academic Press, 1991.

--Cook, Cheryl, Enid M. Gorman and Lorette Picciano-Hanson, eds., Directory of Environmental Activities and Resources in the N.A. Religious Community. New York: Joint Appeal by Religion and Science for the Environment, 1992. 172 pages, paper. A directory by religious leaders of all major faiths and many scientists to develop initiatives for protecting and restoring the environment at the national, regional and congregational levels. A resource guide is included.

--Knitter, Paul F., One Earth: Many Religions: Multifaith Dialogue and Global Responsibility. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995. 218 pages. Paper. $ 17. Nothing less than enlisting the world's religions is likely to save the earth. Practical actions and projects that can be undertaken to stem the tide of environmental degradation and human suffering.

--Quinn, Frederick, To Heal the Earth: A Theology of Ecology. Nashville, TN: Upper Room, 1994. 159 pages. paper. Environmental reflection and ecological concern set in the context of biblical scholarship, drawing from both the Old and New Testaments and the works of the early church fathers.

--Ward, Bruce K., "Christianity and the Modern Eclipse of Nature: Two Perspectives," Journal of the American Academy of Religion 63(1995):823-843. Fyodor Dostoevsky is compared with Albert Camus. Both have a shared affirmation of the spiritual significance of nature, but there are revealing differences. Dostoevsky affirms nature's sanctity and presents it as compatible with Christianity and inseparable from it. Camus claims that Christianity, far from containing within itself a possible corrective to the modern denaturation of the world, has contributed to it. There is a tension between love of beauty in nature and love of neighbor. Ward teaches religious studies at Thorneloe College, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario.
--Angermeier, Paul L., "Does Biodiversity Include Artificial Diversity?" Conservation Biology 8(1994):600-602.

--Brooks, Richard O., "A New Agenda for Modern Environmental Law," Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 6(1991):1-38.

--Kingsland, Sharon E., Modeling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

--Linder, Douglas O., "New Directions for Preservation Law: Creating an Environment Worth Experiencing," Environmental Law 20(1990):49-81.

--Pimm, Stuart L., The Balance of Nature? Ecological Issues in the Conservation of Species and Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

--Rosenzweig, Michael L., Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

--Wiens, John A., "What is Landscape Ecology, Really?" Landscape Ecology 7(1992):149-150.

--Turner, Monica G., William H. Romme, Robert H. Gardner, Robert V. O'Neill, and Timothy K. Kratz, "A Revised Concept of Landscape Equilibrium: Disturbance and Stability on Scaled Landscapes," Landscape Ecology 8(1993):213-277.

--Church and Society, July/August 1996, is a theme issue: "For the Beauty of the Earth: Restoring Creation for Ecology and Justice." Articles by a dozen contributors. Samples: William E. Gibson, "Eco-Justice and the Beauty of God"; Dieter T. Hessel, "Spirited Earth Ethics: Cosmological and Covenantal Roots"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Environmental Ethics: Some Challenges for Christians"; Bruce Babbitt, "Leading America Closer to the Promise of God's Covenant"; Peggy Curlin, "Women, Poverty, and Population: A Call to Engagement for People of Faith." And more.

--Flesher, Gail A., Bryk, Dale S. "How to Incur Liability Without Really Trying: The Perils of Parenthood Under CERCLA." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(Mar.1996):4. Developing case law describes the responsibility of parent companies for environmental liabilities of subsidiaries.

--Caretsky, Steven D. "Turning Brownfields Into Homes: A Case Study." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(Mar.1996):42. The pitfalls and solutions to Brownfields projects.

--Scheuplein, Robert J. "Dioxin: How Much Risk?" Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(Mar.1996):48.

--Floyd, Donald W., Germain, Rene H., ter Horst, Kate. "A Model for Assessing Negotiations and Mediation in Forest Resource Conflicts." Journal of Forestry 94(May 1996):26.

--"Death On The Range: The Slaughter of the Yellowstone Bison," The Animals' Agenda 16(Mar.1996):24. American bison, symbols of the West, being gunned down with the consent of the same government entrusted with their protection, just yards from the refuge of Yellowstone National Park? Once again, livestock industry interests take priority over wildlife protection.

--"The Fleecing of Sheep." The Animals' Agenda 16(Mar.1996):30. To think that wool is a painlessly derived product is to pull the wool over your eyes. The truth is that the production of wool involves suffering and death for sheep, and is intimately linked with the meat industry and lethal "predator control" programs.

--MacDonald, Mia, "Toward Kinship `From Protest To Policy.'" The Animals' Agenda 16(Mar.1996):40. When will animal activists be able to retire the lobster and carrot costumes to the closet and start wielding real policy-making power instead? Author Mia MacDonald suggests strategies for advancing meaningful change in the political arena, while still "keeping the placards aloft and the lobster suits nearby."

Riebsame, William E. "Ending the Range Wars?" Environment 38(May 1996):4. Innovative approaches to land management may help bring to a close the long-standing battle between ranchers and environmentalists over the use of the western range.

--Olson, Molly Harriss. "Charting a Course for Sustainability." Environment 38(May 1996):10. This overview of the President's Council on Sustainable Development's recently released report highlights its major policy recommendations and spells out the future directions of U.S. sustainable development policy.

--Raustiala, Kal., Victor, David G. "Biodiversity Since Rio: The Future of the Convention on Biological Diversity." Environment 38(May 1996):16. The Convention on Biological Diversity has serious conceptual and practical shortcomings, and it will take a special effort to make it an effective instrument for preserving biodiversity.

--Hughes, Joanna, Wood, Christopher. "Formal and Informal Environmental Assessment Reports: Their Role in UK Planning Decisions." Land Use Policy 13(Apr.1996):101.

--Mattingly, Michael. "Private Development and Public Management of Urban Land: a Case Study of Nepal." Land Use Policy 13(Apr.1996):115.

--Firbank, Les. "Environmental Change and UK Land Use." Land Use Policy 13(Apr.1996):153.

--Moody, Roger. "Mining the World: The Global Reach of Rio Tinto Zinc." The Ecologist 26(Mar. 1996):46. Over the past few years, a spate of mergers and takeovers among mining multinationals has enabled them to take maximum advantage of national mining assets being privatized worldwide. British company Rio Tinto Zinc is foremost among these global giants, its position resulting in large part from its self-serving, global political infrastructure.

--Richter, Judith. "'Vaccination' Against Pregnancy: The Politics of Contraceptive Research." The Ecologist (1979)26(Mar.1996):53. For the past 25 years, scientists have been researching a new birth control method--an immuno-contraceptive--which aims to turn the body's immune system against the reproductive system. Some researchers doubt whether the method will actually prevent pregnancy without severe health risks. Analysis of the method suggests that research has been motivated by the goal of developing an easy means of "population control."

Kloppenbug Jr., Jack, Burrows, Beth. "Biotechnology to the Rescue? Twelve Reasons Why Biotechnology Is Incompatible with Sustainable Agriculture." The Ecologist 26(Mar.1996):61. Proponents of biotechnology claim that genetic engineering is the only way to achieve sustainable agriculture and feed the world's poor and hungry. In fact, genetic engineering will exacerbate many existing problems in agriculture and introduce new ones. The main beneficiaries will be its corporate backers.

--Newell, Josh, Wilson, Emma. "The Russian Far East: Foreign Direct Investment and Environmental Destruction." The Ecologist 26(Mar.1996):68. Powerful multinational and national interests are turning Russia's Far East into a "resource colony" for the Pacific Rim economies. In a mad dash for cash, the region's timber, gold, coal, oil and gas are being exploited, causing widespread environmental destruction and a few local benefits.

--Massinga, Antonio. "Development Dilemmas in Mozambique." The Ecologist 26(Mar.1996):73. After three decades of warfare, Mozambique is being developed as a tourist destination. While the economic returns for local people are slim, the ecological damage is often considerable. But tourism is not the only destructive industry making land grabs on Mozambique. Trapped by the current development model, many environmentalists feel forced to make invidious choices.

--Downs, Thomas M., Morrison, Alexia. "Responding to Search Warrants and Grand Jury Subpoenas in Environmental Criminal Cases." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(May 1996):4. The potential dangers associated with grand jury subpoenas and search warrants and advice on how best to prepare for and respond to them.

--Wilson, Albert R. "Defining the `Environmentally Impaired Market Value' of Real Property." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(May 1996):10. The author defines "environmentally impaired market value," discusses each of the elements of the definition, and specifically argues against use of the term "stigma."

--Edwards, Amy L. "Restoring Private Property Values in the World of CERCLA's Emerging Alternatives." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(May 1996):17. The benefits of voluntary cleanup programs as a response to CERCLA, and an analysis of four such state-sponsored programs.

--Bierlein, Lawrence W. "Transportation Regulations Applicable to Environmentally Hazardous Substances." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(May 1996):30. The U.S. Department of Transportation's program to ensure safety in the transportation of hazardous substances is summarized and analyzed.

--Horta, Korinna. "Environmental Policies of the World Bank." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 3(May 1996):36. The role of the environment in the activities of the World Bank.

--Mathews, Freya. "Introduction: Ecology and Democracy." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):1.

--Dryzek, John S. "Political and Ecological Communication." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):13.

--Thompson, Janna. "Towards a Green World Order: Environment and World Politics." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):31

--Burnheim, John. "Power-Trading and the Environment." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):49.

--Mathews, Freya. "Community and the Ecological Self." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):66.

--Barns, Ian. "Environment, Democracy and Community." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):101.

--Plumwood, Val. "Has Democracy Failed Ecology? An Ecofeminist Perspective." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):134.

--Eckersley, Robyn. "Liberal Democracy and the Rights of Nature: The Struggle for Inclusion." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):169.

--Young, Robert. "`Monkeywrenching' and the Processing of Democracy." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):199.

--Hayward, Bronwyn M. "The Greening of Participatory Democracy: Reconsideration of Theory." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):215.

--O'Riordan, T., Jordan, A. "British Environmental Politics in the 1990s." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):237.

--Roberts, Geoffrey K. "Developments in the German Green Party: 1992-95." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):247.

--Hooghe, Marc. "The Greens in the Belgian Elections of 21 May 1995: Growing Doubts." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):247.

--McCarthy, Elaine, Yearley, Steven. "The Irish Environmental Protection Agency: The Early Years." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):257.

--Grove-White, Robin. "Environment and Society: Some Reflections." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):265.

--Newell, Peter. "Politics in a Warming World." Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):276.

--Collier, Ute. "Towards a Sustainable Energy Future?" Environmental Politics 4(Winter 1995):280.

--Shindler, Bruce, Steel, Brent, List, Peter. "Public Judgments of Adaptive Management: A Response from Forest Communities." Journal of Forestry 94(Jun.1996):4.

--Brunson, Mark W., Yarrow, Deborah T., Kuhns, Michael R. "Nonindustrial Private Forest Owners and Ecosystem Management: Can They Work Together?" Journal of Forestry 94(Jun. 1996):14.

--Cruz, Wilfirdo, Munasinghe, Mohan, Warford, Jeremy. "Greening Development: Environmental Implications of Economic Policies." Environment 38(Jun. 1996):6. Policies to promote economic development can have a profound impact on the environment--including the resource base on which development may depend.

--Connolly, Barbara, Keohane, Robert O. "Institutions for Environmental Aid: Politics, Lessons, and Opportunities." Environment 38(Jun. 1996):12. The success of environmental aid programs depends on defining the problem correctly, getting resources into the right hands, and establishing effective oversight.

--Hornig, James F. "Training the Next Generation." Environment 38(Jun. 1996):28. Interdisciplinary environmental studies programs may be most valuable as part of a liberal arts education, according to this review of a study by the Environmental Careers Organization.

--Singer, Peter. "The Great Ape Project." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):12.

--Markarian, Michael. "Sport Hunting: The Mayhem in Our Woods." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul.1996):14.

--Derby, Pat. "The Abuse of Animal `Actors'." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):16.

--Swart, Betsy. "The Fight Against Fur." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):18.

--Barnes, Don. "Vivisection: A Window to the Dark Ages of Science." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):20.

--Balcombe, Jonathan. "Dissection and Dissent." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):23.

--Mason, Jim. "A Lion in Every Back Yard: The Mass Marketing of Exotic Animals." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):26.

--Rose, Naomi. "Marine Mammals in Captivity." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):31.

--Bauston, Lorri. "Seven Billion Reasons to Go Vegetarian." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):35.

--Davis, Karen. "The Plight of Poultry." The Animals' Agenda 16(Jul. 1996):38.

--Buchanan, Allen. "Judging the Past: The Case of the Human Radiation Experiments." The Hastings Center Report 26(May 1996):25. Our reluctance to measure the morality of past practices is more than a nagging problem for moral theorists. The legitimacy of retrospective moral judgment has fundamental implications for how practices and institutions should be viewed, and judged, now.

--Curry, John. "Gender and Livestock in African Production Systems: An Introduction." Human Ecology 24(Jun. 1996):149.

--Roberts, Bruce D. "Livestock Production, Age, and Gender Among the Keiyo of Kenya." Human Ecology 24(Jun. 1996):215.

--Mullins, G., Wahome, L., Maarse, L. "Impacts of Intensive Dairy Production of Smallholder Farm Women in Coastal Kenya." Human Ecology 24(Jun. 1996):231.

--Oboler, Regina Smith. "Whose Cows Are They, Anyway?: Ideology and Behavior in Nandi Cattle `Ownership' and Control." Human Ecology 24(Jun. 1996):255.

--MacDonald, Doug. "Beer Cans, Gas Guzzlers and Green Taxes: How Using Tax Instead of Law May Affect Environmental Policy." Alternatives 22(Jul. 1996):12. Why was the Ontario government willing to impose a green tax on beer cans, but not on gasoline?

--Fisher, Andy. "Toward a More Radical Ecopsychology: Therapy for a Dysfunctional Society." Alternatives 22(Jul. 1996):20. If ecopsychology is to help reconcile humanity with nature, it must become more critically-oriented.

--Fisher, Andy. "What is Ecopsychology?" Alternatives 22(Jul. 1996):20.

--Fisher, Andy. "Ecopsychology Resources." Alternatives 22(Jul. 1996):25.

--Guiste, Averil. "Ontario's Environmental Bill of Rights Weakened But Still Viable." Alternatives 22(Jul. 1996):9.

--Lin, Albert C. "Participants' Experiences with Habitat Conservation Plans and Suggestions for Streamlining the Process." Ecology Law Quarterly 23(1996).
--Fiorino, Daniel J. "Toward a New System of Environmental Regulation: The Case for an Industry Sector Approach." Ecology Law Quarterly 23(1996):457. Fiorino is the Director of the Industry Strategies Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Policy Development. He examines the current federal regulatory scheme for controlling industrial pollution and identifies structural flaws that are impeding further progress. Fiorino advances alternative approaches based on performance across industry sectors or facilities. Recent EPA initiatives and other models illustrate how a more flexible and integrated system of environmental regulation may be developed.

--Gorton, Slade, Kays, Juli. "Legislative History of the Timber and Salvage Amendments Enacted in the 104th Congress: A Small Victory for Timber Communities in the Pacific Northwest." Environmental Law 26(1996):641. U.S. Senator Slade Gorton and his natural resources legislative assistant Juli Kays, discuss the purpose and scope of the salvage logging rider. Responding to Professor Axline's criticisms of the salvage logging rider, they explain that its purposes are to restore forest health and jobs in timber communities.

--Serageldin, Ismail and Andrew Steer, eds., Making Development Sustainable: From Concepts to Action. 1994, 1995. 39 pages. A paper of the World Bank, how it is increasingly supporting sustainable and environmentally sensitive development. With a selected bibliography on environmentally sustainable development projects. 1818 H Street, Washington, DC 20433.

--Cooper, Nigel S., "Wildlife Conservation in Churchyards: A Case-Study in Ethical Judgments," Biodiversity and Conservation 4(1995):916-928. Groups promoting wildlife in churchyards, or other sites, discover that they face normative questions that have no scientific answers. The language of management is used for handling these questions, but this metaphor has unhelpful associations with predetermined goals, a culture of control and self-centeredness. Using a case-study approach, conflicts between conserving natural entities or natural processes (e.g. transplanting scarce plants); between caring for the individual organism or for the system (e.g. felling trees); and between conserving the natural or the cultural heritage (e.g. repointing walls) are examined. These case of conflicts of duty illustrate the value of attention to circumstances, proportionality, and compromise. The social mechanisms of moral debate include legal protection and the power of stories to give meaning and vision. Ethics is a communal activity. By listening to others and attending to nature our sensibilities will become more refined and our ethical judgments will develop. Cooper is a pastor in Rivenhall, Witham, Essex, UK.

--Cooper, Nigel S., Wildlife in Church and Churchyard: Plants, Animals and Their Management. London: Church Publishing House (Church House, Great Smith Street, London SW1P 3NZ), 1005. About 65 pages. Chapters on how to manage the churchyard, grassland, stonework habitats, wanted and unwanted wildlife, disturbed ground, trees, hedges, and woodland. Suggestions for action.

--Cooper, Nigel S., and R.C.J. Carling, eds., Ecologists and Ethical Judgments. London: Chapman and Hall, 1996. 176 pages. £ 20. Papers growing out of the Sixth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Manchester, England, in 1994. Contains: Jane M. Howarth, "Ecology: Modern Hero or Post-modern Villain?"; Andrew Brennan, "Ethics, Ecology and Economics"; Gary L. Comstock, "An Extentionist Environment Ethic"; Alan Holland, "The Use and Abuse of Ecological Concepts in Environmental Ethics"; Calvin B. De Witt, "Ecology and Ethics"; Brent Waters, "Christian Theological Resources for Environmental Ethics"; John P. Barkham, "Environmental Needs and Social Justice"; Susan Power Bratton, "Christianity and Human Demographic Change"; David R. Given, "Forging a Biodiversity Ethic in a Multicultural Context (New Zealand)"; Darrell A. Posey, Graham Dutfield and Kristina Plenderith, "Collaborative Research and Intellectual Property Rights (of Indigenous Peoples)"; Rory J. Putman, "Ethical Considerations and Animal Welfare in Ecological Field Studies"; Nigel S. Cooper, "Wildlife Conservation in Churchyards"; Eddie T. Idle, "Conflicting Priorities in Site Management in England." Also published as a special issue of Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 4, November 1995.

--Farnsworth, E. J., "Oikos and Ethos: Setting our House in Order," Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10(1995):56-57.

--Farnsworth, E. J. and Rosovsky, J., "The Ethics of Ecological Field Experimentation," Conservation Biology 7 (1993): 463-72.

--DuPuis, E. Melanie and Peter Vandergeest, eds., Creating the Countryside: The Politics of Rural and Environmental Discourse. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. 346 pages. What does it mean to save nature and rural life? Do people know what they are trying to save and what they mean by "save"? As the answers to these questions become more and more unclear, so, too, do the concepts of "environment," "wilderness," and "country." Ten contributors on people in and out of nature, constructing rurality, why people make artificial distinctions between nature and culture, and generally complaints about dualistic categories that limit our ability to think about environmental and rural problems and hamper our ability to formulate practical, realistic, and just solutions. DuPuis is an analyst of environmental policy with the New York State Department of Economic Development. Vandergeest is on the faculty of environmental studies at York University.

--Shutte, Augustine, Philosophy for Africa. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1996. 184 pages. $ 20. Published by arrangement with the University of Cape Town Press. Has philosophy anything of value to offer contemporary Africa? Has Africa anything of value to offer contemporary philosophy? The answer is yes, to both questions. Human freedom, liberation, the struggle to overcome the predicament that European colonialism and apartheid has left. Traditional African thought contains insights into the nature of persons and community that scientific and technological culture has lost, but which could be of the utmost importance in dealing with these issues. Shutte is in philosophy at the University of Cape Town.

--Gottlieb, Robert, "Beyond NEPA and Earth Day: Reconstructing the Past and Envisioning a Future for Environmentalism," Environmental History Review 19 (no. 4, 1995):1-14. Environmentalism, developing out of the past, needs to be reconstructed to see how it is embedded in the social, or the urban and industrial sphere, connecting natural environments, human environments, and daily life. U. S. environmentalism, in its more than 100 year history, needs to be seen as a response to and indeed an extension of the changes to landscape and society wrought by urban and industrial forces. Environmentalism has been powerfully influenced and ultimately framed by these urban and industrial forces. There are today essential two broad categories of environmental activity, a mainstream and an alternative environmentalism. Mainstream environmentalism remains focused on policy and power, on accomplishing change by helping construct, influence, and watchdog the environmental policy system. Alternative environmentalists focus on people and on place. They accomplish change by being ornery, argumentative, mistrustful, and by mobilizing their base, often against one or another dimension of that same environmental policy system. Gottlieb is at the University of California, Los Angeles.

--Hartel, Peter G., Horace D. Skipper, Thomas A. Ruehr, eds., Agricultural Ethics: Issues for the 21st Century. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, 1994. ASA Special Publication No. 57. Six contributors: Frederick Ferré, "No Hiding Place: The Inescapability of Agricultural Ethics"; Stanley E. Curtis, "Farm Animal Welfare: Obligations, Realities, and Compromises"; Gary Comstock, "Some Virtues and Vices of Agricultural Technology"; Charles V. Blatz, "Coming Full Circle: Ethical Issues in Traditional and Industrialized Agriculture"; C. Dean Freudenberger, "What Is Good Agriculture?"; Thomas A. Ruehr, "Teaching Agricultural Ethics."

--Randolph, Richard O., "The Importance of a Health Public Discourse on the Environment," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Berkeley) Bulletin 16 (no. 1, Winter 1996):1-6. With reflections on how Albert Gore's Earth in the Balance has done and can do this. Randolph is a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley.

--Nash, James A., "The Politician's Moral Dilemma: The Moral Possibilities and Limits of Political Leadership in Confronting the Ecological Crisis," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Berkeley) Bulletin 16 (no. 1, Winter 1996):7-15. Albert Gore's Earth in the Balance reveals the moral dilemma of the politician, a prime example of both exemplary political courage and prudent political caution. Nash is director of the Churches' Center for Theology and Public Policy, Washington, DC.

--Peepre, Juri and Jickling, Bob, eds. Northern Protected Areas and Wilderness. Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada: Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, and Yukon Conservation Society, 1994. 379pp. $20 softcover. The book is a lightly edited compilation of the presentations made at an international conference, November 1993 in the Yukon Territory, by a host of native people, resource professionals, educators, and activists--nearly all of them from the grassroots of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of North America. The examination of the North by northerners provided the unique nature of the conference and gives value to this publication.

--Roth, Dennis M. The Wilderness Movement and the National Forests, 2nd ed., rev. College Station, Texas: Intaglio Press, 1995. 105 pp. $14.95 paperback. As chief historian for the U.S. Forest Service from 1979 to 1989, the author was witness to some of the important conflicts over protection of this land. More importantly he had ready access to the records and many of the people involved in the struggle that has stretched from the 1920s to the present. Interviews with the combatants and selections from their letters and internal memorandums provide detailed insights that make this book what Roderick Nash has called "a model of careful and original research."

--Watkins, T. H. The World of Wilderness: Essays on the Power and Purpose of Wild Country. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1995. 284pp. $14.95 paperback, $24.95 hardcover. A collection of 16 essays that were published in Wilderness, the magazine of The Wilderness Society, over the past 13 years. There is a complex mix of science, politics, and economics that now characterizes the conservation movement (and its opposition).

--Tchudi, Stephen, ed., Change in the American West: Exploring the Human Dimension. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press, 1996. 276 pages. $ 14.95. How the humanities can help to survive the changes in the American West. Published by the Nevada Humanities Committee through a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

--Smith, V. Kerry, Estimating Economic Values for Nature: Methods for Non-Market Valuation. Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar Publishing Co., 1996. 640 pages. $ 98.00! A collection of Smith's papers over 25 years. Indirect methods as detective work. Travel cost recreational demand models. Hedonic models--property and labor markets. Household production models. Contingent valuation methods.

--Swanson, Timothy, ed., The Economics of Environmental Degradation: Tragedy for the Commons? Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar Publishing Co., 1996. 240 pages. $64.00. Swanson is at the University of Cambridge and University College, London.

--Kirkpatrick, Colin, and John Weiss, Cost Benefit Analysis and Project Appraisal in Developing Countries. Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar Publishing Co., 1996. 336 pages. $ 80.00!!! Kirkpatrick and Weiss are at the University of Bradford, UK.

--Jakobsson, Kristin, and Andrew K. Dragun, Contingent Valuation and Endangered Species. Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar Publishing Co., 1996. 304 pages. $70.00. Jakobsson is at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Dragun is at La Trobe University, Australia.

--Lyons, Graham, Evonne Moore and Joseph Wayne Smith, Is the End Nigh? Internationalism, Global Chaos and the Destruction of the Earth. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Avebury. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 1995. 283 pages. $ 69.00. A critique of ideologies that dominate the power centers of the industrialized world and are accelerating the destruction of natural capital and the environment. The authors are at the University of Adelaide, Australia.

--Küng, Hans, ed., Yes to a Global Ethic: Voices from Religion and Politics. New York: Continuum, 1996. 320 pages. $16.95. Leading world figures in politics, culture, and religion urging a new global awareness and a new ethical consensus.

--Westling, Louise H., The Green Breast of the New World: Landscape, Gender, and American Fiction. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996. 232 pages. $ 29.95. An examination of American literary tradition in terms of gender and ecology. Westling teaches English at the University of Oregon.

--Elder, John, Imagining the Earth: Poetry and the Vision of Nature, 2nd ed. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996. 256 pages. $ 19.95. Poetry as a window into our environmental consciousness. Elder teaches English and environmental studies at Middlebury College.

--Milbrath, Lester, W., Learning to Think Environmentally, While There Is Still Time. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996. The survival of planet Earth's nourishing life systems ultimately depends on how we humans think about them. Unfortunately, our culture's assumptions about the way the world works ignore recent scientific understanding of life systems. A new way of thinking in public discourse is needed that understands the interdependency and delicate balance of biological, geological, and chemical systems as environmental scientists now understand them. Milbrath directs the Research Program in Environment and Society, State University of New York, Buffalo.

--Willis, K. G., and J. T. Corkindale, eds., Environmental Valuation: New Perspectives. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, U.K: C.A.B. International, 1995. Distributed in U.S. by University of Arizona Press. 249 pages. $ 82.50!!! Cost-benefit analysis, the contrasting approaches of economists and ecologists, the pros and cons of alternative valuation methods, contingent valuation, the transferability of environmental benefit estimates, and the establishment of research priorities. Willis is in town and country planning, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, and Corkindale is with the Environmental Protection Economics Division, Department of the Environment, UK.

--Istock, Conrad A., and Robert S. Hoffmann, eds., Storm Over a Mountain Island: Conservation Biology and the Mt. Graham Affair. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996. $ 20 paper. 288 pages. The opposition to the Mt. Graham International Observatory on a fragile mountain ecosystem in Arizona, also sacred land to the Apaches. But the Mt. Graham controversy was far more than a local issue, and this will not be the last time that the interests of science and the desire for enduring preservation collide. Istock teaches biology at the University of Arizona, Hoffmann is the provost at the Smithsonian Institution.

--Trzyna, Thaddeus C., Elizabeth Margold, and Julia K. Osborn, World Directory of Environmental Organizations, 5th ed. Sacramento, CA: California Institute of Public Affairs (P. O. Box 189040, Sacramento, CA 95818), 1996. 232 pages. $50.00 Published in cooperation with IUCN, the Sierra Club, and Earthscan. 2,600 organizations in over 200 countries (--so it is claimed, but are there 200 countries?).




"Animal Rights." Tom Regan interviewed by Joram Graf Haber. Distributed by Jones and Bartlett, 40 Tall Pine Drive, Sudbury, MA 01776. 28 minutes, 1996. $ 49.95. In an Ethics in the 90's series produced by Joram Graf Haber, Bergen Community College, New Jersey, for Cable Television Network of New Jersey. Regan teaches philosophy at North Carolina State University. Animals suffer, much of this invisible behind the scenes in the production of commercial products, in medical research, and in food production. Animal rights advocates attempt to make this suffering visible. The animal rights view compared to sexism and racism. Speciesism. Animal rights advocates sometimes must use methods that get media attention, but much of the bad image of animal rights advocates is crafted by powerful interest groups such as the American Medical Association who have a lot at stake and profit by distorting animal rights advocates as crazies. One hears about blood thrown on fur coats but there are no such cases recorded in New York City. Humans are rational and autonomous; doesn't this make the quality of their experience of more worth? Student questions. Alternatives to the use of animals in medical research? Doesn't Regan manipulate audiences? No, and moral philosophers should be advocates. The most important practical step? Stop eating meat. The tape is all talking heads (except for a short film clip), and more of an informal interview than a polished video production, but a reasonable and brief introduction to animal rights and Tom Regan's defense of this position. See also the tape in this series on Environmental Ethics, interviewing Eric Katz, described in the ISEE Newsletter, 7, 1, Spring 1996.

"Hollufgaard and the Cultivation of Nature." 16 mins. 1995. Available in both PAL (British and Continental) and NTSC (US and Canada) format. In English. Hollufgaard is an old major house and grounds outside Odense, Denmark. The area was farmed for over 500 years, and recently taken over by the city of Odense as a recreational and educational, historic and natural area. Among other activities, it houses the Man and Nature, Humanities Research Center, of the University of Odense. Hollufgaard contains, along with a golf course, reconstructed virtual primitive nature, such as a wild area and a recreated prehistoric brook, also reconstructed huts from the past. Today, there is no uncultivated nature, really no pristine nature, though we may reconstruct it virtually for recreational and educational purposes. "The area of Hollufgaard shows us that there is no way back to a primeval nature, but only new ways ahead in the everlasting embrace of nature. Nature is something we produce." But this is really quite a challenging opportunity. Excellent tape to stimulate discussion on the reconstruction of nature, faking nature, cultivated nature, and to compare the human-nature relationships on long-inhabited lands, such as Denmark, with conservation opportunities on perhaps more original pristine wilderness, such as in the U.S. West or in Canada. Contact: Dr. Henrik Juel, Research Secretary, Man and Nature Center, University of Odense, Hollufgaard, Hestehaven 201, DK-5220, Odense SO, Denmark. Phone 45 (country code) 65-95-94-93. Fax: 45 65-95-77-66. E-mail henrik.juel@humcenter.ou.dk

"Ecofeminism Now!" is a grassroots video on ecofeminism. The video gives an introduction to the branches of ecofeminist theory in the U.S., as well as some of the people creating the theory and involved in direct action. Included are interviews with Margo Adair, Carol Adams, Judi Bari, Josephine Donovan, Lori Gruen, Chaia Heller, Marti Kheel, Charlene Spretnak, Vandana Shiva, Karen Warren, and others. The video project is an activist project, and is neither sponsored nor controlled by any business or university. In VHS format, about 37 minutes. Cost: U.S. $15 plus postage ($2 for book/video rate, $3 for 2-day mail). To request the video, send a check payable to Greta Gaard, to:
Dr. Greta Gaard
420 Humanities Bldg.
University of Minnesota
Duluth, MN 55812.
Send payment in U.S. funds only via personal, cashier's check, or university check. Prof. Gaard is not able to handle foreign currency, notes drawn on banks outside of the U.S., credit card orders, C.O.D. orders, or purchase orders. What she can do, for international people, is find out the exact mailing costs to various countries. In such cases, please contact Prof. Gaard for more information. Prof. Gaard can be reached via Email at ggaard@d.umn.edu.

Logs, Lies & Videotape. Green Fire Productions. 12 minutes. Powerful visual documentation, opposing the "salvage" logging underway on the U.S. National Forests. Protestors, including Brock Evans of National Audubon Society, being carried off by authorities. Interviews with scientists and others who know these forests and challenge the claim that the forests are in crisis from pest and wildfires. Good, short, current film. If this doesn't start a useful and provocative discussion, nothing will. Available for $ 5.00 from National Wildlife Foundation's Western Natural Resources Center, 921 SW Morrison, Suite 512, Portland, OR 97205. 503/222-1429. Fax 503/222-3203. Also: Green Fire Productions, P. O. Box 11216, Eugene, OR 97440. Phone and fax 541/486-4070. Another phone and fax: 503/274-6234




--July 27-August 1, 1996. Gender and Ecopsychology Healing Between Women, Men, and the Earth. Shenoa Retreat Center, California. $ 550. Contact Integral Sustainability Associates, 4800 Baseline road, E104-284, Boulder, CO 80303.

--Aug. 5-10, 1996. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. International Conference on the Island of Borneo. Education and the Environment: Towards Equitable and Sustainable Development. Sponsored by the World Education Fellowship (WEF) in association with the University of Malaysia in Sarawak (UNIMAS). The important role educators at all levels can play in enhancing environmental responsibility and protection. Issues of equity and sustainability will be crucial elements. The conference is located in one of the world's environmental hot-spots, the equatorial rain forests of Borneo. A keynote speaker is David Suzuki, Professor of Genetics, University of British Columbia, and an internationally recognized environmental scientist and author, producer of nature and educational programs with Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Call for papers: Christopher Strong, Conference Programme Co-ordinator, P.O. Box 205, Lilydale, Tasmania 7268, Australia. Phone/Fax +61 03 951 350. Also contact: The Secretariat, 39th WEF Conference on Education and the Environment, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia, Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia. Fax ++60 82 672275 e-mail: azib@frst.unimas.my.

--Aug. 10, 1996. Society for Business Ethics Annual Meeting, Quebec City, PQ. ISEE session speakers, Mark Sagoff and Eric Freyfogle; comments by Laura Westra.

--Aug. 20-25, 1996. ECOSUMMIT '96, Copenhagen, Denmark. Sponsored by the International Society of Ecological Modelling, International Ecological Engineering Society, International Society of Ecosystem Health, International Society of Ecological Economics, Elsevier Science B.V., SAS-Institute Denmark, and International Lake Environmental Committee. Topics include ecological modelling, ecosystem health, and others. Contact person is David Rapport, Tri-Council Eco-Rresearch Chair in Ecosystem Health, Blackwood Hall, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, CANADA. Tel. (519) 824-4120 (ext. 8476). Queries and abstracts can be sent to: Ecological Summit '96, Conference Secretariat, Elsevier Science Ltd., The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, England, UK. Tel. +44 (0) 1865 843643. Fax +44 (0) 1864 8465. Email g.spear@elsevier.co.uk.

--Aug. 22-25, 1996. International Congress of Engineers and Scientists, Amsterdam, Holland. See announcement above.

--Sept. 2-6, 1996. World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, Cairns, Australia. The call for papers includes papers in policy, conservation, and ethics. Contact: Conference Secretariat, World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, Milton, Qld 4064, Australia. Phone 617 3369-0477. FAX 617 3369-1512.

--Sept. 9-11, 1996. Contours of Ecology: Religious Faith and Issues in Ecology Today. Sponsored by the Science and Religion Forum and the British Ecological Society. High Leigh Conference Centre, Hoddesdon, Herts. With papers by Sam Berry, Genetics, University of London, British Ecological Society; Jack Cohen (Ecosystems Analysis, University of Wawrick, "Is Nature Balanced?"); Robin Attfield (Philosophy, University of Wales, "Ecophilosophy, Theodicy and Axiology)" and others. Contact: Ursula Shone, Diocesan Science Advisor, 25 Pinfold Lane, Ainsdale, Southport PR8 3QH. Phone 01704 576098. (Announcement above.)

--Sept. 9-13, 1996. Sustaining Ecosystems and People in Temperate and Boreal Forests. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. An international conference on integrating conservation of biological diversity with social and economic goals. Management of the world's forests to sustain diversity, productivity, and renewability is essential. Forests support much of the world's terrestrial biological diversity, contribute to economic activity in many nations, and provide crucial ecological services. This conference will focus on pro-active solutions to the integration of biological, social, and economic goals. Conference Secretariat: Connections Victoria Ltd., P.O. Box 40046, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3N3. Phone 604-382-0332. FAX 604-382-2076.

--Sept. 22-28, 1996. Perth, Australia. Wetlands for the Future, the fifth International Association of Ecology (INTECOL) International Wetlands Conference. Contact: Jenny Davis, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150. Phone 61-9-360-2939. FAX 61-9-310-4997.

--Sept. 26-28, 1996. Third International Conference on Ethics and Environmental Policies: NEW EUROPE: Transformation and Environmental Issues, Bratislava, Slovakia. The venue is the Kyev Hotel Seeking an integrated approach towards safety, environmental and development issues. Organized in collaboration between Fondazione Lanza, Academia Istropolitana, and Zentrum fur Umweltforschung, this is an occasion for developing a common strategy with an equal cooperation among Central, Eastern, and Western countries. In addition to plenary speakers, there are sections on: 1. Environmental Ethics and Policies, 2. Environmental Ethics and Economy, 3. Environmental Ethics and Socio-Cultural Aspects. There is a call for papers, sent to the Scientific Secretariat of the Conference not later than April 30, 1996. Relevant papers from Eastern Europe are welcome. Registration fee is U.S. $50. The official languages are English, Italian, and Slovak. Simultaneous translation services are provided only during the plenary sessions. Scientific Secretariat, Dr. Matteo Mascia, Fondazione Lanza, via Dante, 55, 35139 Padova, Italy. Phone: ++39+49 875 67 88. FAX: ++39+49 875 67 88. E-mail: lanza@ipdunidx.unipd.it. Organizing Secretariat, Dr. Martina Vagacova, Academia Istropolitana, Hanulova 5/B, P.O.Box 92, 840 02 Bratislava 42, Slovakia. Phone: ++42+7 78 56 71. FAX: ++42+7 78 53 41. E-mail: envir@acadistr.sk. A U.S. contact is Frederick Ferré, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia. An Eastern Europe contact is Zdzislawa Piatek, Instytut Filozofii, Jagiellonian University, 31-041 Kraków, Grodzka 52, Poland.

--Oct. 1-2, 1996. Apes at the End of an Age: Primate Language and Behavior in the 90's. Nobel Conference XXXII, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN. With Frans B. M. de Waal, Yerkes Primate Research Center, Emory University, and others.

--Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 1996. Puebla, Mexico. Technology, Economic Development, and Sustainability. Ninth international conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology. An analysis of the proposals, parochial definitions, and problems related to "sustainable development," both theoretical and practical. Spanish, English, and simultaneous translation. Speakers include: Stanley Carpenter, Fernando Cesarman, Paul Durbin, Carl Mitcham, Manuel Molina, Emilio Munoz, Rocco Petrella, and Jose Sanmartin. A selection of the papers and presentations will be published in a special number of Ludus Vitalis, the Mexican journal devoted to the philosophy of the life sciences. Sessions on environmental ethics, women and development, biomedical technologies and the environment. Conference e-mail: filtec@xanum.uam.mx. Contacts: Jose Sanmartin: fax: (Spain) 34-6-386-4437; e-mail: sanmarti@vm.ci.uv.es; Raul Gutierrez Lombardo: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-661-1787; Paul Durbin, Department of Philosophy, University of Delaware, fax: 302-831-6321, e-mail: 18512@strauss.udel.edu.

--Nov. 22-24, 1996. The International Association of Bioethics, Parc 55 Hotel in San Francisco. Session on Health and Environment. See announcement above.

--Dec. 27-30, 1996. American Philosophical Association, Atlanta, GA. See announcement above.

--Feb. 13-18,1997. AAAS, Seattle, WA. ISEE session entitled "Ecological Integrity and Societal Well-Being." Speakers: James Karr, Laura Westra, Reed Noss, William Reese, Orie Loucks, Caroline Madden.

--Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 1997. International Symposium on Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management in the Americas, Belize City, Belize. Held in Central America, this conference is hosted by the Colorado State University Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit of the College of Natural Resources, and also by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the University College of Belize. This conference is at the peak of the tourist season and you will have to plan early to attend. Contact: Jennifer Pate, Symposium Coordinator, Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 970/491-7729. FAX: 970/491-2255.

--Oct. 2-4, 1997. Environmental Justice: Global Ethics for the XXI Century. An international academic conference at the University of Melbourne. Papers invited. Contact Nicholas Low, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Phone: (3) 9344 6429. Fax (3) 9344 7458. E-mail nick_low@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au




Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter are available, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world via Gopher and World Wide Webb. The addresses are:

Instructions for access via gopher:
At your local prompt, type and enter:
(Note: If your local computer system does not have Gopher access, you'll need to hunt around on Internet to find another server that provides free access to Gopher. Alternatively, your local system may be able to access the files via the WWW address.) Via Gopher, you will get the local menu (list of computer files) for Morehead State University (MSU). The basic plan now is to use the "Search," command to find the ISEE Newsletter files. Select:
Search MSU Gopher Server
You will get a window screen asking for "words to search for." Type and enter something resembling the following:
International Society for Environmental Ethics
Follow the prompts (they should be obvious) until you get the following screen:
1. About the ISEE Newsletter
2. 1990 Issues/
3. 1991 Issues/
4. 1992 Issues/
5. 1993 Issues/
6. 1994 Issues/
Select the number of the issues that you want and enter. The issues of the Newsletter will appear on the screen. You may then either read on your screen, or, better, at any point after the file has been retrieved, E-mail it to yourself (again, follow the prompts on the screen, entering your E-mail address). To quit, you will need to enter "q" for Quit. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (these particular issues of the Newsletter) to your E-mail address. The mailing only takes seconds. From your local electronic mailbox, you can then download the Newsletter file to your computer's internal memory or to a disk. Likely you'll get the file as a text-only (ASCII) file, which can then be retrieved into WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, or whatever word processing program you use.


Master Bibliography


The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, including 1995 update, will be ready in late February. This will cumulate the existing bibliography with all of the 1995 entries in the ISEE Newsletters. It is available in either WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) or in Macintosh format (also WordPerfect). If you don't use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in two halves, A-L and M-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler of the bibliography: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. PH 970-491-6315 (office); FAX 970-491-4900; E-mail rolston@lamar.colostate.edu. Send $5 to Rolston, stating whether you want the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disks.
Access via World Wide Web: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:
There is a search engine to search out entries by name and keyword, and these results can be E-mailed to your local computer.




Thanks to everyone who paid their dues. Special thanks go to:
--Prof. Strachan Donnely, Director of Education, The Hastings Center, New York, for $250, permitting the implementation of a billing system.
--Prof. Konrad Ott, University of Tubingen, Germany, donation of $50.
--Prof. Paul Neibanck, Portland State University, Oregon, donation of $50.
The results of the survey are still coming in. A report will be in the next Newsletter.

Current Officers of ISEE
President: Professor Mark Sagoff, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-5141 USA, Email: msagoff@puafmail.umd.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97.
Vice-President and President-elect: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Dept. of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97, when he becomes President.
Secretary: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca;term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.
Treasurer: Professor Ernest Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.





Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred), since this saves re-typing and avoids errors:
To send items via parcel post, the address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the FAX). Scholarly articles are not published. Brief reports of research and publications will be considered for publication. Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.

U.S.: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, Dept. of Philosophy and Religion, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org.
Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca
Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. (The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, subscriptions, and addresses changes should be sent to these regional contact persons.)
If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Partridge (address above and below).

U.S. and Canada
Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept., College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA. PH 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. FAX 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu.
Peter List, Philosophy Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97332 USA. Email: listp@cla.orst.edu.
Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; Email: rolston@lamar.rolostate.edu; PH 970-491-6315 (Office); FAX 970-491-4900.
Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office); FAX 606-783-2678.
Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca; FAX 519-973-7050.
Australia and New Zealand
The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues in amount $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67-732657 (direct line). (0)67-732896 (Dept. office). FAX 61 (country code) (0)67-733317. E-mail: relliot@metz.une.edu.au
Western Europe (Including U.K. and the Mediterranean)
The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. FAX: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.
Eastern Europe (Including the Former Soviet Union)

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address and phone: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND; PH 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 476461, ext. 280 (8 am to 3 pm). FAX 48-61-477079 (8 am-3 pm), 48-61-471555 (24 hours). Home address and phone: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND, PH 48-61-417275 (24 hours). Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: filozof@plpuam11.amu.edu.pl.

The contact person is Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); FAX: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.
Mainland China
The contact person is: Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.
Pakistan and South Asia
The contact person is: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. PH (92) (521) (841593). FAX (92) (521) (841594). E-mail wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk.

The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via E-mail where possible or disk. Items received will not be acknowledge. If received after the deadline, items will be held until the next issue. Items will be edited. Inappropriate items will not be included. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, October 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, 103 Combs Building, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the FAX).