Volume 7, No. 1, Spring 1996

 

NOTICE THIS IS YOUR LAST NEWSLETTER UNLESS YOU PAY YOUR DUES.

ISEE is out of money. Beginning with the next issue, no one will receive the Newsletter whose dues are not paid for the current year. Anyone in arrears will not receive the Newsletter.
ISEE currently has almost 600 members, which are plenty to pay for the Newsletter if dues are paid. In total, members currently owe the Society a total of almost $11,000.00 U.S. in arrears dues. A bill is enclosed with this Newsletter showing how much you owe for past years. You must pay the for the current year (1996) or you will not receive the next Newsletter.
AMNESTY FOR ALL
. You will continue to receive the Newsletter by paying for the current year (1996). Past years are forgiven. However, if your conscience bothers you, we need the money. The next Newsletter will be sent only to those who have paid for 1996.
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General Announcements

A new, interdiscliplinary journal in environmental and philosophical interests is scheduled to appear this spring. Ethics and the Environment, a scholarly journal housed in the Philosophy Department at the University of Georgia, is edited by Victoria Davion, associate professor of philosophy; internationally recognized scholars in various discliplines serve on the editorial board. Ethics and the Environment will provide an interdiscliplinary forum for theoretical and practical articles, discussions, reviews, comments, and book reviews in the broad area encompassed by environmental ethics. Topics to be discussed will encompass conceptual approaches in ethical theory and ecological philosophy, including deep ecology and ecological feminism, as they pertain to environmental issues such as environmental education and management, ecological economics, and ecosystem health.
Manuscripts may be submitted at any time to the editor. Please send two copies, one without the author's name, for anonymous refereeing. For matters of style, consult The Chicago Manual of Style. Upon acceptance an abstract of 100 words or less and a computer disk in WordPerfect 5.1 or 6.1 will be required. Submitted materials cannot be returned. For more information please contact: mfreer@uga.cc.uga.edu.

The Millenium Tree Line, supported by the University of Greenwich, aims to conserve trees and plant new ones, where appropriate, along the Greenwich Meridian, 0 Longitude. For details, contact Catherine Freeman, Coordinator, Unit 42, Dartford Trade Park, Hawley Road, Dartford, Kent, DA1 1PF, England, UK. Fax 0181 331 9672.

In December 1995, Robert Kirkman completed a PhD in philosophy at the State University of New York at Stony Brook with a thesis in environmental philosophy: "Environmentalism Without Illusions: Rethinking the Roles of Philosophy and Ecology." Drawing from his studies of the history and philosophy of the natural sciences (especially ecology), phenomenology, and the history of the philosophy of nature, he raises an epistemological challenge to environmental philosophy insofar as it is grounded in factual claims about the world. He concludes that many of these claims are unwarranted, particularly those which come about through an appropriation, or rather a misappropriation, of scientific concepts. Finally, he recommends that environmental philosophers attend more carefully to the scope and limits of human knowledge, and that they shift their emphasis away from the construction of speculative cosmological or ethical systems to a more direct engagement in seeking practical solutions to environmental problems. Address: P.O. Box 438, Millwood, NY 10546. Email: bandreoba@aol.com.

Leena Vilkka has completed her Ph.D. degree at the University of Helsinki, on "The Varieties of Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Naturistic Approach to Environmental Philosophy" (in English). Her "opponent" in the formal thesis defense, November 13 in Helsinki was Holmes Rolston. Ilkka Niiniluoto, chair of the department there was chair of her committee and served as "custos" at the examination. The thesis examines the varieties of intrinsic value in nature proposed by various philosophers and then progressively defends an animal-centered philosophy (zoocentrism), a life centered-philosophy (biocentrism) and an ecosystem-centered philosophy (ecocentrism), culminating in a defense of objective intrinsic value in nature and of the rights of animals. The thesis has been published in Finland, in a limited edition (as is required for Ph.D. dissertations there), and will be published in 1996 by Editions Rodopi (Amsterdam/Atlanta) in their Value Inquiry Book Series, Robert Ginsburg, editor. This is the first Ph.D. thesis in Finland in environmental philosophy.

University of Zimbabwe, Environmental Philosophy Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe. Environmental philosophy was the main theme of the Third International Jacobsen Philosophy Conference, held from February 29 to March 2, 1996 at the University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, organized by the University of Zimbabwe Jacobsen Fellow, Barnabas Dickson. The keynote speaker was Johan Hattingh (University of Stellenbosch) on "Environmental Justice: A Southern African Perspective." Other speakers in environmental philosophy were: Robin Attfield (UK), "Saving Nature Versus Feeding People?", R. W. Murungi (Kenya), "Progress as Creative Advance: Environmental Health"; Nelleke Bak (South Africa), "Shades of Green"; Kate Rawles (UK), "Conservation and Animal Welfare"; Marthe Kiley-Worthington (UK), "Wildlife Conservation, Food Production and Development: Can They Have Symbiotic Relationships?"; J. P. Abrahams (South Africa), "Technology and Values"; Barnabas Dickson (Zimbabwe), "Putting the Precautionary Principle in its Place"; Andrea Chimuka (Zimbabwe), "Why We Have Obligations to Care for and Preserve the Environment in Our Time as Well as for Future Generations"; T. K. Makokha (Kenya), "The Me/Now Syndrome and Environmental Crisis"; and O. Hapanyengwi (Zimbabwe), "A Philosophical Critique of the Environment Debate in Zimbabwe."

Tributes to the life and work of the late Henry Odera Oruka (Kenya), who was tragically killed in a road accident in December 1995, were presented by Jan M. van Hook (USA), "H. Odera Oruka and Kenyan Sage Philosophy: A Memorial Tribute," and by Gail Presbey (USA), "Odera-Oruka's Kenyan Sages and Socrates." Henry Odera Oruka was Professor of Philosophy, University of Nairobi, and the Director of the Nairobi Ecophilosophy Centre. He also organized the World Congress of Philosophy, on "Philosophy, Environment and Development" (Nairobi, 1991) and the XIV World Conference of the World Futures Studies Federation, on "Futures Beyond Poverty" (Nairobi, 1995). (Thanks to Robin Attfield.)

Graduate studies in environmental ethics and philosophy. A considerable amount of information is now available on world wide web about graduate work in at various locations, in the U.S. and abroad, notably the University of North Texas, Colorado State University, Lancaster University, and the University of Stellenbosch. This often includes lists of theses completed. Many Ph.D. theses at other universities are listed. Web address: http://www.cep.unt.edu and follow the various menus. A more direct address to some of the information is http://www.cep.unt.edu/gradstudents/html. This site is at the University of North Texas and is maintained by Environmental Philosophy, Inc. (Thanks to Eugene Hargrove.)
The University of Lancaster website address is: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/users/philosophy
The Colorado State University website address is:
http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Philosophy.
The University of Georgia, Certificate Program in Environmental Ethics, website is: http://www.phil.uga.edu/faculty/wolf/eecp/index.htm.
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) on listserv. To subscribe to CITES-L, the bulletin board on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species maintained by the Wildlife Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge, England: Send a message to LISTPROC@WCMC.ORG.UK. Your message should read "Subscribe CITES-L ."

Andrew Light has been appointed Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Montana. He will teach environmental ethics beginning this Fall Semester.

The Wildlife Society, which is the professional organization for wildlife biologists, has established a listserv, for discussion of wildlife conservation issues. Send a message to listproc@cornell.edu. Your message should read SUBSCRIBE TWS-L . Questions may be addressed to tws@wildlife.org on the subject: listserv.

Geo-Ethics is a listserv on geography, ethics and justice, and includes the computer network for the proposed Ethics and Justice Specialty Group (EJSG) of the Association of American Geographers (AAG). Contributions from academic and applied geographers, non-geographers, and independent scholars are welcome. To subscribe, send to Majordomo@atlas.socsci.umn.edu the following message: subscribe Geo-Ethics . Do not include a subject header. Inquiries to: William Lynn, Department of Geography, University of Minnesota, 414 Social Science, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Phone 612/625-6080. Fax 612/624-1044. lynn0003@gold.tc.umn.edu

Wolves on the world wide web. The Wolf Study Project at the International Wolf Center, Ely, Minnesota, is on the web at http://www.wolf.org. Persons, or classes, who wish to monitor the movement of radio collared wolves may do so using a U.S. Forest Service map of the Superior National Forest, Center Section. The maps may be obtained from Superior National Forest, P. O. Box 338, Duluth, MN 55801. Phone 218/720-5324.

National Science Foundation - Environmental Protection Agency Partnership for Environmental Research. The National Science Foundation and the Environmental Protection Agency are supporting a special awards competition in this fiscal year. Proposals are due in NSF on May 7, 1996. You can see the announcement text at the WWW address:
http://www.nsf.gov:80/wais/pubs.htm.
You can also get the text electronically by sending an e-mail to
stisserve@nsf.gov. In the text of that message, indicate
get nsf9645.txt
You can request a printed version by sending your name and address to pubs@nsf.gov; ask for NSF96-45.
The three research areas targeted by this announcement are: Water and Watersheds, Technology for a Sustainable Environment, and Decision Making and Valuation for Environmental Policy. Brief highlights are in a section of the Decision Making and Valuation for Environmental Policy area of the announcement. The Decision Making and Valuation for Environmental Policy area encourages research on decision making and understanding public values in environmental policy and related public issues. Four sub-areas are identified: (1) benefits of environmental policies and programs; (2) costs of environmental policies and programs; (3) ecosystem protection; and (4) normative behaviors and environmental decision making. Normative behaviors and environmental decision making focuses on research to identify and examine behavioral and institutional factors that influence the development, implementation, and evaluation of environmental policies. Potential topics include:
--characterization of communities and the values and normative behaviors that influence their responses, and of processes to involve communities in decision making;
--analysis of social, political, and ethical factors relevant to environmental problem-solving in trans-jurisdictional contexts;
--implications of geographical and political boundaries and personal, group, and organizational characteristics; and
--comparative analysis of different models of decision making.
Holmes Rolston will be in Australia in July and August. He will be speaking at the following Australian Universities: University of Western Australia (Perth); Murdoch University (Perth); LaTrobe University (Melbourne); University of Tasmania (Hobart), Australian National University (Canberra); University of New England (Armidale), University of Queensland (Brisbane); Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane); and Sunshine Coast University College (Sippy Downs), Flinders University (Adelaide). He will also present a paper at the Australasian Association of Philosophy, University of Queensland.

Michael Allen Fox, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, is currently Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University, Canberra, and will be the James Martineau Lecturer for 1996 at the University of Tasmania. His Martineau Lecture, to be delivered in July at both the Hobart and Launceston Campuses, will be "Humans and Other Animals: An Ethical Perspective on Their Future Relationship." Fox is engaged in sabbatical research for a book on arguments for vegetarianism.

Chuck D. Barlow completed an LL.M. (Master of Laws) thesis, "Why the Christian Right Must Protect the Environment: Theocentricity in the Political Workplace," in the environmental law and natural resources program at the Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon, December 1995. The faculty advisor was Professor William Funk. The thesis analyzes the rise of the Christian right as a force in American political policy, demanding adherence to traditional Biblical values. The Christian right has taken, at best, an indifferent, and at worst, a heavily anthropocentric attitude toward the use and conservation of the environment. Barlow rebuts the proposition, asserted by Lynn White, Jr., Aldo Leopold, and others, and implicitly accepted by the environmental inaction of the Christian right, that the scriptures of the Judeo-Christian tradition promote an anthropocentric environmental ethic. Rather, the Bible sets forth a "theocentric," or God-centered, approach to care of the environment. Those who claim to base their political agenda on Christianity ought to consider the Biblical mandate to use the earth's resources wisely. The thesis will be published in The Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, Summer, 1996. Chuck D. Barlow, c/o Phelps Dunbar, L.L.P., P.O. Box 23066, Jackson, MS 39225-3066.

Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologi'a y la Conservacio'n. The Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation was formed on 14 January 1996, at Lake Yojoa, Honduras, by a group of biologists from five countries and numerous branches of the biological sciences. The new society will serve biologists and conservationists throughout Central America and southern Mexico, by publishing a news bulletin Mesoamericana, and by sponsoring annual congresses in Mesoamerica. Contact: Oliver Komar, Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware OH 43015. Phone 614-369-0175 e-mail: ookomar@cc.owu.edu. The first issue of Mesoamericana will be published in June 1996. Editor: Carlos René Rami'rez Sosa, 4a. Avenida Sur #1, Apopa, San Salvador, El Salvador. Phone (503) 336-0152; email: crrlc@cunyvm.cuny.edu.

Institute for Social Ecology will have several courses and colloquia during the Summer 1996. Faculty will include: Murray Bookchin, Daniel Chodorkoff, Matthias Finger, Thomas Forster, Grace Gershuny, Chaia Heller, Joey Klein, Beverly Naidus, Bob Spivey, Johathan Stevens, Brian Tokar, and several visiting lecturers. Courses run for various periods of time, ranging from weekends to several weeks. Each colloquium is $200. College credit is available. For a catalog, write or call: Institute for Social Ecology, P. O. Box 89, Plainfield, Vermont 05667 USA, PH 802-454-8493.


BEYOND POPPER: The Science and Environmental Health Network (SEHN) Struggles with the Philosophy of Science
by Carolyn Raffensperger
Most environmental ethics questions have revolved around issues such as the role of humans in the environment, the rights of all species, and the intrinisc or utilitarian value of ecosystems in their natural state. But there is another fundamental ethical question, seldom addressed, that goes to the heart of the way science is used with respect to environmental issues.
As we face serious questions about the environmental well-being of the planet, we seem to be caught in a tug-of-war between the Luddites pulling one end of the rope and the Technophiliasts pulling the other. The rope itself is science. Luddites argue that the material results of science (technology) destroy community integrity and ecological health. The Technophiliasts argue that science and technology (given free rein in a free market economy) can solve most, if not all, human health and environmental problems. Each is arguing about how we ought to use science to further the goals of environmental protection.
Neil Postman, quoting Paul Goodman, begins his book 'Technopoly' with the following observation about technology: "Whether or not it draws on new scientific research, technology is a branch of moral philosophy, not of science." Postman's assertion forces us to wrestle with questions about the philosophy of science. What is science? How does science know what it knows? What deserves to be called "science"? When is "science" used to legitimize assertions that are not "scientific" at all?
At the Science and Environmental Health Network (SEHN), a not-for-profit consortium of environmental groups dedicated to public interest science, we believe that science should be used to promote the commonwealth and the commonhealth. This is, quite unabashedly, a philosophical statement, not a statement of science. That philosophy drives our agenda. For example, we work to empower community groups by helping them get access to good science. And we seek to reduce the barriers, and increase the incentives academic scientists face in doing public service and public interest research.
Commonwealth and health is a radically different agenda than the prevailing agenda in Congress which often uses science and research to keep the United States competitive in a global market. Organizations such as the Council on Competitiveness, for example, want to use public research funds to develop new technologies which corporations can export to keep the United States ahead of the science and technological curve. Everything from the race to the moon to genetic engineering of crops and livestock exemplifies this view of science. Comptitiveness as the goal of publicly funded science has clearly failed to protect the environment. CFCs, radioactive waste - the entire litany of environmental ills - testify to this failure.
The Science and Environmental Health Network seeks dialogue with philosophers and scientists on the role of science in the environmental arena. We struggle with questions of ethics and epistemology. For instance, Congress has been using the concept of "sound science" in the use of risk assessment to determine regulatory policy. But what is "sound science"? What is the difference between sound science and ethical science? Who should bear the risk of uncertainty - the public or the corporation manufacturing a pesticide that may be an endocrine disruptor? Do scientists have ethical obligations that extend beyond the rigor of their research techniques? Do scientists have a duty to society? If so, what is the nature and origin of that duty? Is participatory science (science which includes the observations of stakeholders such as farmers or people living around a Superfund site) better science than scientists doing research exclusively within the bastion of the academy? If you are interested in public interest science, you may subscribe to our free electronic newsletter, The Networker by sending an E-Mail message to 75114.1164@compuserve.com. You may reach us at Rt. 1 Box 73, Windsor ND 58424. Phone 701-763-6287.


CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS

Call for Papers: American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; or Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 USA, Email: katze@admin.njit.edu.
--Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca.
--Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor Ernst Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org.

Society for Conservation Biology will meet 11-15 August 1996 in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. SCB will be celebrating its 10th anniversery, and the program is truly outstanding. Also meeting with SCB are:
Ecological Society of America
American Society of Naturalists
Association for Tropical Biology
International Society for Ecological Modeling
Smithsonian Institution/Man and the Biosphere (SI/MAB
)
SCB is the largest annual meeting in the world of scientists specializing in environmental science, conservation, wildlife and zoo management, and related professions. These scientists are genuinely interested in and appreciative of participation by environmental ethicists and philosophers. The 1996 meeting is being hosted by Brown University and the Manomet Observatory for Conservation Science.
Phil Pister and Jack Weir were invited by SCB President Dee Boersma (University of Washington) to organize and co-chair a symposium on "Approaches to Environmental Ethics." The symposium will be held August 12th, 1-5:00 PM. The symposiasts will be available that evening for a round table discussion from 7-9:00 PM. The symposiasts and their paper topics are:
J. Baird Callicott (Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203), "Do deconstruction and sociobiology undermine the Leopold Land Ethic?"
Ronnie Z. Hawkins (University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816), "Seeing ourselves within ecosystems, reconstructing our social reality, seeking our golden mean."
Patti H. Clayton (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695), "Connection on the ice: environmental ethics in theory and practice."
Victoria Davion (Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-1627), "Ecological feminism and environmental ethics."
Bryan G. Norton (School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332), "Human arrogance: which antidote?"
In addition, ISEE will co-sponsor a session of contributed papers as part of the regular SCB program. Papers will be presented by: Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), Bill Throop (St. Andrews College), Laura Westra (University of Windsor), and Jack Weir (Morehead State University).

Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World will hold its 1996 Annual Conference, 9-15 August 1996, at the YMCA of the Rockies in Estes Park, Colorado. This is a conference with time allotted for formal and informal discussion, and exploring the landscape of the Rocky Mountains. It's family friendly, with provisions for children, relatives, and friends. The General Theme is: "Philosophy in Everyday Life." Papers are invited on: environmental philosophy, utopias, ethics and politics, religion, family life, housekeeping, food, parenting, alternative lifestyles, institutional structures, gender and sexuality, race, ethnicity, violence, and other topics. Papers up to 40 minutes reading time are welcome, and poster sessions for works-in-progress are planned. Papers are blind-reviewed, and acceptable papers are published in the Society's journal, Philosophy in the Contemporary World (comments are given to authors and revision of papers for publication is encouraged). For more information or to submit a proposal, contact one of the program chairs: Prof. Erin McKenna, Philosophy Dept., Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447 USA, PH 206-535-7213, E-mail mckenna@plu.edu, or Prof. Sally J. Scholz, Dept. of Philosophy, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 USA, PH 610-519-4099, E-mail scholz@ucis.vill.edu.

The British Ecological Society and the Science and Religion Forum will sponsor a conference on "Contours of Ecology: Religious Faith and Issues in Ecology Today," 9-11 September 1996, at High Leigh Conference Centre, Hoddesdon, Herts. Speakers include: Prof. R. J. Berry (University College London), Dr. Jack Cohen (University of Warwick), Prof. Colin Russell (Open University), Prof. Robin Attfield (University of Wales), Rev. Dr. Michael Reiss (Homerton College, Cambridge), Dr. Judy Turner (Principal of Van Mildert College, University of Durham), and Prof. Stephen R. L. Clark (Liverpool University). Full board is £90. A limited number of concessionary places are available to students and ministers, courtesy of Templeton UK Projects Trust. For more information or to book (£25 non-refundable deposit): The Rev. Ursula Shone, Diocesan Science Advisor, 25 Pinfold Lane, Ainsdale, Southport, PR8 3QH, Tel. 01704 576098.

The International Association of Bioethics will be held November 22-24, 1996 at the Parc 55 Hotel in San Francisco. We are hoping to hold a session of the "Environmental Biothics" interest group. Please reply to us at this e-mail address: 72113.1610@compuserve.com with ideas and expressions of interest in participating. What would you like to hear a session on? What would you like to present? We will circulate ideas to the mailing list of the "Environmental Ethics" section members. Roughly 50 people have expressed interest in the section so far. Also, any ideas which you would like to discuss can be sent to this address. We will reflect items to the membership by e-mail. Other comments and questions can be sent to this address also. Andrew Jameton and Jessica Pierce, University of Nebraska Medical Center, organizers, "Environmental Biothics" section of the International Association of Bioethics.

Call for Papers: Society for Philosophy and Technology, Ninth International Conference: "TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, AND SUSTAINABILITY," Puebla, Mexico, 30 October to 1 November 1996.
Four types of regular sessions are planned: 1. Major presentations (45 minutes) by well known experts in the philosophy of science and technology or in related technical fields. 2. Plenary sessions (30 minutes for each presentation) on subthemes related to the overall theme of the conference. 3. Parallel sessions (20 minutes for each presentation) on specialized topics, whether related to the main theme or in philosophy of technology more generally. 4. Working-paper sessions (15 minute presentations or poster presentations), with the same broad scope as no. 3.
An academic subcommittee of the Organizing Committee will select from among submitted papers and assign them to the various sessions. Authors of those papers judged to be the best by this committee will receive a grant to cover all expenses of their stay at the conference.
Languages of the conference: Spanish, English, with simultaneous translation.
The following have tentatively agreed to read papers: Stanley Carpenter, Fernando Cesarman, Paul Durbin, Carl Mitcham, Manuel Molina, Emilio Munoz, Rocco Petrella, and Jose Sanmartin.
A selection of the papers and presentations will be published in a special number of Ludus Vitalis, the Mexican journal devoted to the philosophy of the life sciences.
Deadline: Papers must be submitted before April 30, 1996. (In a limited number of cases, an abstract will be acceptable, but only an abstract of sufficient length to be refereed and with a fixed date, before the conference, for submitting a complete paper.)
Special Sessions: Three special sessions are currently scheduled: 1. Environmental Ethics (which may include related themes, such as, biotechnology or environmental education). 2. Women and Development (including gender issues generally, women and work, women and the environment, etc.). 3. Biomedical Technologies and the Environment (possibly including issues of genetic engineering, quality of life measures, the high costs of biomedical technologies, and so on).
Contacts: Conference Email account: filtec@xanum.uam.mx; Jose Sanmartin: fax: (Spain) 34-6-386-4437, Email: sanmarti@vm.ci.uv.es; Paul Durbin: fax: 302-831-6321, Email: 18512@udel.edu; Raul Gutierrez Lombardo: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-661-1787, Email: lombardo@servidor.dgsca.unam.mx; Jorge Martinez Contreras: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-724-4778, Email: jmc@xanum.uam.mx.


The Society for Philosophy and Geography and Rowman & Littlefield Publishers announce the publication of the second volume of their peer reviewed annual: Philosophy and Geography, edited by Andrew Light (Philosophy, University of Alberta), and Jonathan Smith (Geography, Texas A&M University).
Volume 2: Public Space. Papers are invited on any normative aspect of public space that may be of interest to philosophers or geographers. Work on nature as a form of public space, or the philosophical aspects of urban environments is particularly encouraged. Authors need not address their topic through a conjunction of philosophy and geography but are encouraged to do so. Deadline, September 15, 1996. 10,000 words maximum; use Chicago Manuel of Style. Send three copies of submissions to Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, 4-108 Humanities Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E5. andrew.light@ualberta.ca
Philosophy and Geography, Volume 1: Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics, available October 1996. To order contact Rowman & Littlefield, toll free at 1-800-462-6420. Paper ISBN 0-8476-8221-8, $22.95, Cloth ISBN 0-8476-8220-X, $57.50.

World Bank Conference on Ethics and Sustainable Development. This conference was held October 1995, with about 350 persons attending, in the World Bank facilities, Washington, DC. A co-sponsor was the Center for Respect of Life and Environment. World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn called for "melding economic assistance with spiritual, ethical, and moral considerations as a key challenge confronting the World Bank and the development community." Among the speakers: Denis Goulet, University of Notre Dame; Partha Dasgupta, Cambridge University; Norman Rice, Mayor of Seattle and President of the United States Conference of Mayors; R. J. Berry, University of London geneticist, and many others. Proceedings will be published by the World Bank. Contact Richard Clugston, Center for Respect of Life and Environment, 2100 L. Street, N. W., Washington, DC 20037. Phone 202/452-1100.

An international meeting on Geoethics is projected for October 1996 in Pribram, Czech Republic, with special emphasis on ethics in relation to geology, mining, engineering, and energy. Languages will include English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, and Czech. To submit papers for 1996 or for more information, contact: Dr. Vaclav Nemec and Dr. Lidmila Nemeova (conveners), Krybnickum 17, 100 00 Praha 10-Strasnice, Czech Republic; PH +422-7811801. Information is available from Laura Westra, address below.

International Congress of Scientists and Engineers. Theme: "Towards a Sustainable World." Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-25 August 1996. Participants will include the Club of Rome, UNEP and many NGO groups. Workshop topics include: "Ethical Foundations and Basic Attitudes," "Challenges to Economy: Concepts and Strategies for Sustainable Economics," "Sustainable Development on a Local, Regional, and Global Scale," "Elements of a Safe and Secure World." One ISEE Session is being organized by Eric Hol, 438 North C Street, Springfield, OR 97477 USA. For more information, contact: Dr. Philip B. Smith, Steenhouwerskade 22, 9718 DB - Groningent, The Netherlands, FAX 31-50-3129186.


ISSUES

Mad Cow Disease in England. In 1985, cases of a strange new disease were found in British cattle, which had the effect of turning their brains "spongy," leading to loss of physical co-ordination and eventually death. This disease resembled scrapie, a brain disease endemic in sheep, and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD) a rare and fatal human brain disease. Some suggested that this disease may have appeared in cattle due to deregulation in cattle feed during 1980, which allowed offal from dead sheep (which may have been infected with scrapie) to be fed to cows. During the late 1980s, the disease, called BSE (or popularly Mad Cow Disease) spread to many British cattle herds. Because the disease appeared to have leapt a species barrier (from sheep to cows) fears were expressed that the disease might leap from cows to humans.
Eventually, and reluctantly, by 1989 the British government banned the use of cattle food made from animal offal, and brought in regulations removing brain and spinal cords from beef for human consumption. The Government reassured the public that beef was safe to eat. In March 1996, the British government announced that ten new cases of a new and aggressive strain of the human brain disorder had been identified in the UK. The sufferers were much younger than had ever previously been known for the disease; damage to the brain mirrored the damage to cow brains of those animals infected with BSE. Some scientists concluded that the humans could have been infected by eating beef.
The effects of this announcement in the UK have been overwhelming, with suggestions that hundreds of thousands of people might die of this disease. The risks involved in eating beef--both prior to controls in 1989, and since controls were imposed--are not known. Speculation is rising that either a significant part or all of Britain's dairy and beef herds should be slaughtered and burned--13 million individuals. The cases raises dozens of ethical questions: Past policymaking, the degree of precaution which should have been taken, and the possible slaughter of up to 13 million cattle, mostly beef cattle which would have died anyway. Even if not slaughtered for public health reasons, there is no market for British beef now, so what does one do with the cows. Other cows are dairy cows, that presumably would otherwise continue to live. Can one measure the lives of 13 million animals against an unknown risk to human beings, who wish to eat meat? Humans deliberately altered the diet of normally vegetarian cows to make their meat cheaper; in result, are special responsibilities owed to them when this leads to disaster? Does the risk to humans justify what would almost certainly be a hurried and distressing mass slaughter of possibly entirely healthy animals? What are possible policy alternatives? (Thanks to Clare Palmer.)

Deliberate floods in the Grand Canyon. On March 26, Glen Canyon Dam and U. S. Government authorities started a week-long intentional flooding of the Grand Canyon by releasing about 45,000 cubic feet per second of water, hoping to mimic the once-annual spring floods, which have now been stopped for 33 years by the dam. Lacking the floods, their flushing power, and their silt, Canyon habitat has deteriorated, especially the sand bars and habitat for endangered fish species. The river level was expected to rise about 15 feet, although this deliberate flood is only about one third of the historic flood volume. About 125 scientists were downstream in the Canyon to study the results of the experiment. River management to cause floods is something of a turn-around in environmental policy.

Jurassic forest tree still alive. A tree thought to be extinct since the dinosaurs has turned up in a remote Australian park about 200 km. from Sydney. Named the Wollemi pine, there are only twenty-three adult trees and sixteen seedlings. The closest relatives are species in the family Araucariaceae, found in the fossil record in Australia and South America 50-150 million years ago. American Forests, March-April 1995, p. 25.

Elk Re-introduced in Kentucky. On 16 February 1996, twenty-nine elk were released on a 750-acre enclosure on the Land Between the Lakes, a national recreation area in western Kentucky. Large herds of elk once roamed Kentucky, trodding the same forests and fields as buffalo. The plow and the rifle ended both species's tenure in Kentucky; the buffalo were gone by 1800, the elk by 1850. Numerous place names still memorialize the past: Elkhorn Creek and Elkton, for example. The indigenous Kentucky elk subspecies is extinct, and the individuals released are a close-relative subspecies from Canada. The elk were captured at Elk Island National Park near Edmonton, Alberta. The project cost taxpayers at least $500,000, which was contributed by the Tennessee Vallley Authority. An additional $85,000 was given by the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, which hopes to raise a total of $234,000 for the project. Biologists will monitor the elk via sight and radio transmitters attached to some the animals's ears. The goal is for the herd eventually to roam wild and free throughout the entire 170,000 acres of the Land Between the Lakes. (See story by Andy Mead, "Release Program Brings Elk Back to State, Lexington Herald-Leader, 17 February 1996, pp. A1, A8.)

Prison for selling turtle eggs. Two Florida men have been sentenced to prison for digging up eggs from the beach nests of endangered turtles. Winfred Patrick and Gregory Harmon sneaked onto a private beach last May, found three loggerhead turtle nests and pulled out 372 eggs. The men were stopped by a Palm Beach police officer for a traffic violation, and then arrested after the officer noticed a large cloth bag containing the eggs. Patrick was given two years in prison and Harmon 15 months for violating the U.S. Endangered Species Act. They planned to sell the eggs to local taverns as a highly-prized delicacy. (Reuter's, Feb. 10, 1996)

Evangelical Christian group backs Endangered Species Act. The environment is God's creation and must be protected; a group of evangelical Christians has urged the U.S. Congress not to weaken the Endangered Species Act, launching last January a million-dollar media campaign to support the Act. The Evangelical Environmental Network plans to sponsor public service announcements in eighteen states. Polls indicate that a majority of the nation's 35 to 50 million evangelicals are concerned about environmental issues. The group related the Endangered Species Act to the biblical accounts of Noah's Ark. Story in Christian Century, February 28, 1996.

Test tube pandas. The world's first test-tube panda could be born by the year 2001 in a breakthrough to save China's endangered national animal. China's panda experts, battling hunters, shortages of its favorite kind of bamboo and the animal's poor reproductive capability, have already successfully bred some cubs through artificial insemination. The next step is a test-tube panda, and professors, researchers and veterinarians are involved in the project in central Sichuan province, a major panda habitat. Researchers will try to acquire an ovary from a dead panda, from which egg cells are to be extracted and put into a culture. When an egg cell matures, it will be nurtured together with a panda's sperm to complete external fertilization and the zygote will be nurtured in a test tube until an embryo forms. The embryo will be frozen, awaiting a suitable panda womb into which it can be transplanted. The panda's poor procreative powers are the biggest threat to the species' survival.

Smallpox extinction. After several stays of extinction, the smallpox virus is back on death row. The governing board of the World Health Organization has recommended at the last two remaining stocks of the smallpox virus, in Russian and the United States, be destroyed by June 30, 1999. Smallpox is the only naturally occurring disease ever eradicated in the human population, and was once one of the biggest killers in history. Extinction has been postponed because some scientists argued that remaining stocks could be useful for certain scientific studies. Story in New York Times, January 25, 1996.

First chimpanzee infected with AIDS. AIDS is difficult to study in laboratories because there is no animal that can be used as a stand-in for humans. Monkeys get sick with a simian version, but the results from studying monkeys do not seem to apply to humans. Now, however, scientists have managed to give AIDS to chimps. Meanwhile, chimps are humans closest relative among the primates, and an endangered species in the wild.


RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS

--Macauley, David, ed. Minding Nature: The Philosophers of Ecology. New York: Guildford Press, 1996. 350 pages. $18.95 pb. Articles in the book examine the connections between philosophy and ecology in Thomas Hobbes, Martin Heidegger, Ernest Bloch, Hans Jonas, Lewis Mumford, Paul Ehrlich, and Murray Bookchin. Contributors include: Frank Coleman, Joan Roelofs, Michael Zimmerman, David Abram, David Macauley, John Ely, Lawrence Vogel, Henry Blanke, Ramachandra Guha, Yaakov Garb, Andrew Feenberg, Joel Whitebook, Alan Rudy, and Andrew Light. Macauley teaches philosophy and literature classes in New York City and is completing his doctorate at the State University of New York, Stony Brook.

--Wersal, Lisa. "Islam and Environmental Ethics." Zygon 30, no. 3 (September 1995): 451-60.

--Parton, Glenn. "Humans-in-the-Wilderness." Trumpeter 12, no. 4 (Fall 1995): 185-90. Parton proposes that civilization is not a linear development but includes wrong turns. What needs to be carried forward are the achivements, not the wrong parts. Humans should return the wilderness but not forfeit all the achievements of civilization.

--Yu Mouchang, Ch'eng fa chung ti hsing wu tsou haiang sheng t'au lun li hsüh (Awakening to Retribution: Towards Environmental Ethics). Kuang-tung chiao yü ch'u pan she, 1995. Kuang-cho [Kwangtung], China: Kuang-cho [Kwangtung] Educational Publisher, 1995. ISBN 7-5406-2872-3. The chapters are: 1. Is ecological ethics in existence (rights and values in the natural world). 2. Going toward ecological ethics (Schweitzer, Leopold, and others). 3. Ecological ethics, science and belief (from ecology to ethics, from aesthetics to ethics, from theology to ethics, ecological philosophy and ethics). 4. Is there a general standard for ecological ethics? 5. Moral principles and norms in ecological ethics (respect life and the natural world; not to harm life and the natural world; not to exploit; protect and promote the flourishing of life and ecological uses of nature in economic and social activities). 6. New applications of several moral concepts (the right, fairness, thrift, duty). 7. Ecological Ethics: A new global ethical view. Yu Mouchang is a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, and president of the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics. The Chinese are producing an impressive number of books in environmental ethics, as this and the following entries testify. (China)

--Yu Mouchang, ed., Chüuan chiu yen chiu chi chi che hüeh ssu k'ao (Global Research and Philosophical Thought. A Global Village Project. Chung kung chung yang tang hsiao, 1995. People's Republic of China, Central Party School Publishers, 1995. ISBN 7-5035-1117-6. (China)

--Ch'iu Jen-tsung, ed., Kuo wai tzy jan k'o hsüeh che hsüeh wen t'i (Philosophical Problems in Foreign Natural Science). Chung-kuo she hui k'o hsüeh, 1994. Beijing: Chinese Social Science Press, 1994. ISBN 7-5004-1514-1. Chinese translations of international works in philosophy of science and related issues. Part I is Philosophy of Science: Section I is Theories of Scientific Thought. Section II is History of Science and Philosophy of Science. Section III is Scientific and Sociological Epistemology. Part II is Ecological Ethics, with an introduction by Yu Mouchang, "Major Issues in Modern Western Ecological Research," and translations of the following three articles: Holmes Rolston, III, "Science-based versus Traditional Ethics," pp. 259-275, (from J. Ronald Engel and Joan Gibb Engel, eds., Ethics of Environment and Development, London: Belhaven Press, 1990); Holmes Rolston, III, "Environmental Ethics: Values in and Duties to the Natural World," pp. 276-295, (from F. Herbert Bormann and Stephen R. Kellert, eds., Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991); Mary Anne Warren, "The Rights of the Nonhuman World," pp. 296-320, (from Robert Elliot and Aaran Gare, eds., Environmental Philosophy, St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1983). Part III is Psychological Philosophy. (China)

--Ye Ping, et al, eds., Sheng t'a huan ching pao hu tzu jan tzu yüan kuan li ti li lun yen chiu (A Theoretical Study of Ecological Environmental Protection and Management of Natural Resources). He-lung chiang k'o hsüeh chi shu ch'u pan she, 1995. ISBN 7-5388-2729-3. Harbin, China: Scientific and Technological Publishing Co., 1995. 324 pages. An anthology collecting and summarizing the papers from an academic conference on ecological and environmental natural resources and social development. Some seventy contributors. The sections are: Ecological Philosophy and Methodological Problems; Ecological Ethics, Law, and Aesthetic Issues; Chinese Traditional Cultural and Ecological Ethics Morality; Protection of Living Things and Protection of Biodiversity; Issues of Protection of Forestry Resources, Utilization, and Management; Issues of Ecological Environmental Protection and Social Development. One of the papers is Holmes Rolston, III, "Global Environmental Ethics: A Valuable Earth" from Richard L. Knight and Sarah F. Bates, A New Century for Natural Resources Management (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995), and Rolston also contributes a preface. Ye Ping teaches philosophy and ethics at Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, and is secretary of the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics. (China)

--Ye Ping, Sheng t'ai lun li hsüueh (Ecological Ethics). Chinese Forestry Young Scientist's Works Series. Tung-pei lin yeh ta hsüeh ch'u pan she, 1994. Harbin: Northeast Forestry University Press, 1994. ISBN 7-81008-487-9. 281 pages. The chapter titles are: 1. Introduction to Ecological Ethics. 2. Ecological Ethics on Anthropocentrism. 3. Ecological ethics on Nonanthropocentrism (Biocentrism, Ecocentrism, Animal Liberation). 4. Ecological Ethic Viewpoints on the Cooperation and Evolution between Humans and Nature. 5. Scientific Basis of Ecological Ethics (the is and the ought). 6. Value Outlooks in Ecological Ethics. 7. Ecological Power and Interest Outlooks on Ecological Ethics. 8. Ecological Moral Codes for Human Action in the Wildness. 9. The ecological Moral Practices for the Cooperation and Evolution between Humans and Nature. Ye Ping teaches philosophy and ethics at Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, and is secretary of the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics. (China)

--Bakken, Peter W., Joan Gibb Engel, and J. Ronald Engel, Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Critical Guide to the Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. This book can be obtained at 40% discount = $33 (instead of $55 list price) from Greenwood Press Order Line 1-800-225-5800. Have credit card information ready. Refer to code #F308 to qualify. Part one is "Critical Survey: The Struggle to Integrate Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith," a review essay. Part two is a Bibliography Survey, 1961-1993, arranged in eleven categories with 512 entries, each well annotated. There is an author index, a title index, and a subject index. An extensive work, the labor of many years, and valuable for its critical insights. A related work is Joseph K. Sheldon, Rediscovery of Creation: A Bibliographical Study of the Church's Response to the Environmental Crisis, 1992, which has 1,700 references, also a historical overview, but few critical annotations. Bakken is coordinator of outreach for the Au Sable Institute of Environmental Studies. Joan Engel is a free lance writer and Ronald Engel is professor of social ethics, Meadville/Lombard Theological School.

--Cannon, Teresa, and Peter Davis, Aliya--Stories of The Elephants of Sri Lanka. Ferntree Gully, Victoria, Australia: Airavilta Press (P.O. Box 204, 3156), 1995. ISBN 0-646-21408-X Sri Lankan elephants, now an endangered species, in their encounters with people, for better and worse and over the millennia, used for war, sport, and work, and as cultural symbols. Also, elephants in the wild, their complex social systems and how they constitute a keystone species in that their survival is crucial to the survival of entire ecosystems, and to the welfare of Sri Lankans.

--Ferré, Frederick, Being and Value: Toward a Constructive Postmodern Metaphysics. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996. 424 pages. $ 24.95 paper. Metaphysics with courage and conviction, persuasive and comprehensive, at a time when many are cultured despisers of it. Premodern philosophy intimately bound being and value. Modern philosophy divorced being and value. Postmodern philosophy is in transition from the modern mechanical worldview to an alternative inspired by ecology. The beauty of nature, along with other values, is a more potent ingredient in the structure of things than modern reductionism allows. One chapter is entitled: Toward an Ecological World Model. Another is: Toward a Kalogenic (Beauty-generating) Universe. Two more volumes: Knowing and Value, and Living and Value, are projected. Ferré is professor of philosophy at the University of Georgia.

--Hessel, Dieter T., ed., Theology for Earth Community: A Field Guide Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1996. ISBN 1-57075-052-1 298 pp. $20. Twenty original essays examining state-of-the-art scholarship and pedagogy in ecologically-alert theology. What needs to be done, these authors ask, to bring biblical studies, systematics, social ethics, practical theology, spiritual formation, and liturgy up to speed with eco-justice thought and action? A key study for those in religious and environmental studies who wish to comprehend the range and depth of Christian theological writing, plus some aspects of interreligious reflection, on this increasingly important subject.
An analysis of four major figures--Thomas Berry, Larry Rasmussen, Rosemary Ruether, and James Nash--on what needs to happen in theological studies to meet the environmental challenge. Other contributions: Mary Evelyn Tucker on the role of religions in forming an environmental ethic; Theodore Hiebert on rethinking traditional scriptural approaches to nature; Diane Jacobson on biblical bases for caring about ecology and justice; George Tinker on an American Indian perspective; Catherine Keller on nature, feminism, and community; Manning Marable on the power of connections in environmental justice; Thomas L. Hoyt, Jr. on environmental justice and black theology; Kosuke Koyama on cosmology and justice in ecumenical perspective; and Dieter Hessel on where the churches were/are in the U.S. environmental movement. A chapter on "The Praxis of Institutional Greening" by Richard Clugston incorporates the thought of John B. Cobb, Jr. on a theology of institutional life that will support just and sustainable community. This book can be obtained at half price ($10) from the Center for Respect of Life & Environment, 2700 L St., NW, Washington, DC 20037 (202-778-6133)

--Shannon, Daniel E., "A Criticism of a False Idealism and Onward to Hegel: Objections to the Gaia Hypothesis," The Owl of Minerva 27(no. 1, Fall 1995):19-36. An argument against the Gaia hypothesis as formulated by James Lovelock, who offers a scientific explanation for it, and by Peter Russell, who offers an idealistic system in order to accommodate the theory (in The Awakening Earth: The Global Brain, Routledge, 1982). An argument for an alternative account, one which Hegel presented in his Philosophy of Nature, which Shannon calls the "ecological hypothesis." If the Gaia hypothesis is taken as the claim that the Earth is somehow alive, the answer is decidedly no. But a more modest proposal is still possible that views the Earth as a complexity of processes that engender life. Hegel supports a theory that offers such a proposal. These are fundamental claims about the planet, but in Hegel's system, they involved an essential insight into nature as a whole, showing how the Earth yields life, though it is not itself alive. Shannon is at Depauw University.

--DiSilvestro, Roger L., Reclaiming the Last Wild Places: A New Agenda for Biodiversity. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993. 266 pages. "This is a book about boundaries. ... Territorial boundaries are ancient; they are artifacts dating from a primordial world. They are, in essence, established for the exploitation of the earth. ... Only in the past century has humanity begun to set the protection of wildlands as a broad social goal, creating national parks, national forests, wildlife refuges, even protected wilderness areas. This is something truly new under the sun, and every protected wild place is a monument to humanity's uniqueness. The greatest qualitative difference between us and nonhuman animals is not that we can change and modify our environment. Practically every living creature does that, from the AIDS virus that destroys its own habitat, to herds of hoofed animals that trim grasslands, to chimpanzees that make spoons from leaves, to birds that build nests, to ants and termites living in teeming arthropod cities. But we are the first living things, as far as we know, to make a choice about the extent to which we will apply our abilities to influence the environment. We not only can do, but we can choose not to do. Thus, what is unique about the boundaries we place around parks and other sanctuaries is that these boundaries are created to protect a region from our own actions. ... No longer can we think of ourselves as masters of the natural world. Rather, we are partners with it" (pp. xiii-xv). The final chapter is "Ethics, Economics, and Ecosystems."

--Kaplan, Rachel and Stephen Kaplan, The Experience of Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 340 pages. An assessment of scientific-academic studies that analyze the various kinds of experience of nature that persons have. Is the effect of nature on people as powerful as it intuitively seems to be? How does it work? What lies behind the power of environments that not only attract and are appreciated by people but are apparently able to restore hassled individuals to healthy and effective functioning? Are some natural patterns better than others? Is there a way to design, manage, to interpret natural environments so as to enhance these beneficial influences? Part I deals with research on the perception of and preference for natural environments. There are broad areas of agreement, and variations. Part II deals with research on the satisfactions and benefits people derive from contact with natural environments, with particular attention to wilderness environments, but also to nearby nature, such as gardens. Part III develops the concept of a restorative environment in which the recovery of mental energies and effectiveness is enhanced. The Kaplans are in natural resources at the University of Michigan.

--Sagoff, "Carrying Capacity and Ecological Economics," BioScience 45(1995):610-620. Sagoff generally argues that ecological economics is not much better than classical economics at forming a basis for environmental conservation. "I cast doubt on hopes that the utilitarian logic of ecological economics is any more able than is the logic of mainstream economics to provide a strong foundation for the claims of environmentalism" (p. 610). Reply: Daly, Herman E., "Reply to Mark Sagoff's `Carrying Capacity and Ecological Economics,'" BioScience 45(1995):621-624. "After we have recognized the intrinsic value of the natural world, then we have an obligation to protect and increase that value. That realization leads us to pay attention to instrumental value. ... It is a further mistake to identify intrinsic value with morality and instrumental value with prudence and then set up an opposition between them, as Sagoff does." Daly's reply shows that economists, at least ecological economists, are not going to be upstaged by philosophers either on their own turf or with moralist arguments. A spirited exchange that should get the reader (or the classroom) thinking. Sagoff is at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, Daly in economics, at the University of Maryland.

--BioScience, Science and Biodiversity Policy Supplement, 1995. A special supplement on national strategy on biological diversity, public understanding of biodiversity, and studies of the Everglades, the Pacific Northwest, and Yellowstone. About two dozen contributors. Sample articles: Jerry Franklin, "Scientists in Wonderland": Monica G. Turner, Robert H. Gardner, and Robert V. O'Neill, "Ecological Dynamics and Broad Scales."

--BioScience, November 1995, vol. 45, no. 10, is a theme issue on systematics and the biodiversity crisis, the role of systematic biology in identifying, classifying, and conserving biological diversity.

--Wild Earth is the periodical of The Wildlands Project, now in volume 6, and is increasingly proving a forum for the discussion of conservation, policy, strategy, ethics, especially involving relatively large areas of wildlands and interconnecting buffers and corridors. Winter 1995/96, vol. 5, no. 4, is a good sample issue. Examples of articles:
Freyfogle, Eric T., "Land Ownership: Private and Wild," pages 71-77. The word property shares etymological roots with such words as proper, appropriate, and propriety. Thus, embedded in the world, if not in today's version of the institution, are certain seemingly inescapable ideas--of rightful scale and proportion, of balance and order, of personal responsibility. To make something one's own--to transform it into one's property--is to make it part of one's life, an extension of one's person and character; it is to bring the thing within the fold of one's individual care and duty. Do these ethical ideas, we might wonder, lurk somewhere beneath the surface of American property law? Freyfogle teaches law at the University of Illinois.
Windsor, Donald A., "Endangered Interrelationships: The Ecological Cost of Parasites Lost," pages 78-83. "Collectively, parasites form a pervasive matrix of interrelationships within an ecosystem which tends to hold it together, acting almost as a glue." Parasites are important regulators of ecosystems, acting almost like complicated servomotors in complex machines. When parasitism is viewed in its larger category, symbiosis, the unifying force is seen as even more comprehensive. "If a single message jumps out from all the myriad details of parasitology, it is that the complex interrelationships among parasites and their hosts are essential to the natural functioning of ecosystems." Required reading for those who dislike parasites. Windsor is an invertebrate zoologist, Norwich, New York.

--deHaan (de Haan), Gerhard, "Sustainable Development--Remarks from an Anthropological Point of View," Socijalna Ekologija: Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research 4 (no. 4, 1995):287-300. In Croatian.

--Rogic, Ivan, "Modernity and Immediateness: A Brief Account of a Modernity Interpretation Model and a Position of Environmental Critique," Socijalna Ekologija: Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research 4 (no. 4, 1995):301-319. (in Croatian) Modernity is not characterized by emphasis on expanding rationality, but rather by a defining of the immediate life, but both these opposite and complementary models characterize the postmodern period, a double-coding which is the basis of environmental critique. The author is in architecture, at the University of Zagreb.

--Attfield, Robin, Value, Obligation, and Meta-Ethics. Amsterdam/Atlanta: Editions Rodopi B.V., 1995. 319 pages. $ 31.00 paper. Part I, on Value, defends a biocentric theory of moral standing and the coherence and objectivity of belief in intrinsic value, despite recent objections. Chapter 3 is "What is Intrinsic Value?"; Chapter 4 begins with "The Intrinsic Value of Flourishing"; Chapter 6 is "Priorities Among Values." Intrinsic value is located in the flourishing of living creatures; specifically, a neo-Aristotelian, species-relative account is developed of wellbeing or flourishing, in terms of the essential capacities of species. There follows a theory of priorities, or of relative intrinsic value, in which the satisfaction of basic needs takes priority over other needs and wants, and the interests of complex and sophisticated creatures over those of others, where they are at stake. Parts two and three continue with theories of rightness and obligation and meta-ethics, defending a naturalist meta-ethic. This analysis continues Attfield's earlier work, A Theory of Value and Obligation (1987). Attfield teaches philosophy at the University of Cardiff, Wales.

--Hayward, Tim, Ecological Thought: An Introduction Polity Press, Oxford, 1995, in association with Blackwells, Cambridge, 1995. $ 45 cloth, $ 22.95 paper. 272 pages. This is a sustained and comprehensive examination of the question whether the newly emerging ecological movement is compatible, theoretically and practically, with the Enlightenment project of Western Europe, as this has played out in the modern, now largely Westernized, world. The general answer is that, after a sort of dialectic between ecology and enlightenment, it is. This is spelled out in five chapters. Chapter 1 is philosophical; it compares ecological and Enlightenment accounts of nature and human nature. Chapter 2 asks whether humanism, the Enlightenment ideal, can be ecological, showing appropriate respect for nonhuman nature. Chapter 3 is on economics, especially on the industrial capitalism that has somehow been one of the main outcomes of Enlightenment. Chapter 4 asks whether rights and justice (the Enlightenment ethical ideas) can be retained in an ecological era. Chapter 5 is on politics, and asks whether ecological ideas can be made compatible with democracy, which is another main outcome of the Enlightenment ideal.
Hayward is good at going back into Enlightenment ideals and finding new resources in them, or old resources forgotten or obscured. But he is never naive or simplistic about this. He fully recognizes that much of what the Enlightenment stood for will have to be considerably chastened. The world is not so much a compromise as a kind of dialogue, with Enlightenment as the thesis, environmentalism as antithesis, and Hayward's new position a synthesis in which both are significantly transformed. Hayward teaches politics at the University of Edinburgh.

--Apel, K.O, et al, Het discursieve tegengif. De sociale en ethische aspecten van de ecologische crisis (The discursive antidote. The social and ethical aspects of the ecological crisis). Kampen, Netherlands: Kok Agora, 1996, ISBN 90-391 0652 5. In Dutch. A collection of essays by prominent authors in the field of political-ethical aspects of the environmental crisis and the risk society. Contents: Introduction: The role of the public debate, etc. K. O. Apel (Frankfurt am Main), "The ecological crisis in the perspective of discourse ethics"; Ph. Visser 't Hooft (Utrecht), "The ecological crisis and the duty to survive"; I. Fetscher (Frankfurt am Main, "Ecology and Democracy: a politico-cultural problem"; V. Hoesle (Essen), "Economy and Ecology"; Rene von Schomberg (Tilburg), "Discourse and context. The unavoidable social contexts of discourse"; A van Dommelen (Amsterdam), "Environmental crisis and methodology. On the quality of science." (Thanks to Johan Hattingh.)

--Orians, Gordon, and Judith Heerwagen, "Evolved Responses to Landscapes," Pages 555-579, in a section on "Environmental Aesthetics," in Jerome Barkow, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, eds., The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Oxford University Press, 1992.

--Wilson, Alexander, The Culture of Nature: North American Landscape from Disney to the Exxon Valdez. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1992. 335 pages. Another book featuring the social construction of nature: "We should by no means exempt science from social discussions of nature. ... In fact, the whole idea of nature as something separate from human existence is a lie. Humans and nature construct one another" (p. 13). A cultural history of North American and native responses to the land, especially the multiplicity of environments built on the North American continent in the last 50 years. Chapters on nature education and promotion; landscape design, nature movies and TV, theme parks that image nature (Disney), nature parks, zoos, nuclear plants, environmental architecture. "We must build landscapes that heal, connect, and empower, that make intelligible our relations with each other and with the natural world. ... Nature parks cannot do this work. We urgently need people living on the land, caring for it, working out an idea of nature that includes human culture and human livelihood. All that calls for a new culture of nature, and it cannot come soon enough" (p. 17). Wilson is a horticulturalist, journalist, and landscape designer in Toronto.

--Kevles, Daniel J. and Leroy Hood, eds., The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. 397 pages. Paper. Thirteen essays. The substance and possible consequences of the human genome project in relation to ethics, law, and society, as well as to science, technology, and medicine. Includes essays by scientists James D. Watson and Walter Gilbert, and the social analysts of science Dorothy Nelkin and Evelyn Fox Keller. An early National Academy of Sciences report concludes: "Homo sapiens has overcome the limitations of his origin. ... Now he can guide his own evolution. In him, Nature has reached beyond the hard regularities of physical phenomena. Homo sapiens, the creature of Nature, has transcended her. From a product of circumstances, he has risen to responsibility. At last, he is Man. May he behave so!" (p. 288). Kevles teaches humanities at California Institute of Technology; Hood teaches biology there.

--Environmental Enhancement Through Agriculture. Agriculture can serve the environment rather than conflict with it. 36 papers offering numerous examples of agricultural systems that benefit the environment: increasing wildlife habitat and biodiversity; protecting water quality in streams and estuaries; producing substitutes for nonrenewable energy sources; turning urban waste into a resource; offering aesthetically appealing landscapes; and bringing urban residents into closer contact with food production and the land. Special attention to areawide collaborations in which farmers, citizens, and technical experts establish common goals and develop innovative arrangements. From a conference held in Boston, sponsored by the Tufts University School of Nutrition Science and Policy and others. $20, postpaid, to "Trustees of Tufts College." Center for Agriculture, Food and Environment, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155.

--Tullock, Gordon, The Economics of Non-Human Societies. Tucson, AZ: Pallas Press, 1994. 87 pages. The author offers a general theory of "bioeconomics" encompassing both human and non-human societies. His strategy is to apply to non-human societies the tools that have developed in economics. Specifically, the behavior of the social insects can be thought of as the interaction of preference functions and the environmental consequences of individual behavior. Insects have their preferences instinctively, but are selected for reciprocal cooperation doing what is in the self-interest of each. An "invisible hand" naturally selects the most efficient hive. Humans have their preferences with options in choice but act in their self-interests; Adam Smith's "invisible hand" selects for economic efficiency. From this, Tullock develops a theory that, in principle, is capable, he claims, of predicting whether a given species will survive in a particular niche. Nevertheless, he adds, "I do not think that studying the non-human societies is of help to the student of human societies" (p. 83). For a review see Clarence C. Morrison, "The Economics of Non-Human Societies," Atlantic Economic Journal 23(1995):318-322. Tullock is an economist at the University of Arizona known for his application of economic theory to problems in political science.

--Pepper, David, Modern Environmentalism: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 1996. 376 pages. Chapters: Defining Environmentalism. Some Fundamental Issues in Radical Environmentalism. Pre-modern and Modern Ideas about Nature and Science: The Roots of Technocentrism. Modern Roots of Ecocentrism. Postmodern Science and Ecocentrism: Subjectivity, Ideology and the Critique of Classical Science. Ways Ahead. "Above all, a historical and ideological perspective teaches us that there is no one, objective, monolithic truth about society-nature/environment relationships, as some might have us believe. There are different truths for different groups of people and with different ideologies. ... Each myth functions as a cultural filter, so that adherents are predisposed to learn different things about the environment and to construct different knowledges about it" (pp. 3-4). Pepper, having introduced modern environmentalism, recommends a postmodern environmentalism. Of course, postmodern environmentalism, like modern environmentalism, is just one more myth about the way humans do and should relate to nature. Pepper is in geography at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.

--Collins, Paul, God's Earth: Religion as if Matter Really Mattered. North Blackburn, Victoria, Australia: Dove, 1995. 280 pages.

--Linnea, Ann, Deep Water Passage: A Spiritual Journey at Midlife. Boston: Little Brown, 1995. The author takes an extended canoe trip in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area after a spiritual crisis.

--Ellis, Gerry and Karen Kane, Wilderness Remembered. Minocqua, WI: NorthWord Press, 1995. Excerpts from earlier explorers of the wilderness, their diaries, journals, and other works, often offsetting the belief that such explorers found a howling wilderness that they feared or disliked. Accompanied by contemporary photographs.

--Karper, Karen, Where God Begins to Be: A Woman's Journey into Solitude. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994. Karper lived for three decades in a monastery, then moved to take up solitary residence in the mountains of Appalachia, near Spencer, West Virginia, to discover there that the grace of God abounds.

--Fisher, Hank, Wolf Wars: The Remarkable Inside Story of the Restoration of Wolves to Yellowstone. Helena: MT: Falcon Press, 1995.

--McIntyre, Rick, A Society of Wolves: National Parks and the Battle over the Wolf. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 1993.

--Timber Wolf Alliance, Beyond Little Red Riding Hood: A Resource Directory for Teaching about Wolves. Ashland, WI: Timber Wolf Alliance, 1994. $ 5. Available from Timber Wolf Alliance, Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute, Northland College, Ashland, WI 54806. Phone 715/682-1223. Perhaps the best short list of resources, videos, children's and youth literature, technical reports, journal articles, curriculum guides, newsletters and magazines, personal presentations, workshops, seminars, organizations.

--Murray, John A., ed., Out Among the Wolves: Contemporary Writings on the Wolf. Anchorage, AL: Alaska Northwest Books, 1993. $ 14.95, paper. 247 pages. Twenty selections: Adolph Murie, Aldo Leopold, Sigurd Olson, Richard Nelson, Rick McIntyre, Paul Schullery, and others, scientists, naturalists, literary authors. Murray teaches English at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

--Peterson, Rolf O., The Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance. Minocqua, WI: Willow Creek Press, 1995. 190 pages. Isle Royale, in Lake Superior, is the site of the longest running study (35 years) of any mammal on the planet, and here is the story by a wildlife biologist who has been there 25 of those years. The wolf population is now at the lowest recorded level.

--Towery, Twyman L., The Wisdom of the Wolves: Nature's Way to Organizational Success. Franklin, TN: Wessex House Publishing (P. O. Box 681753, Franklin, TN 37068-1753. The wolves as a moral tutor, or at least as a provocative symbol. So much for the big bad wolf! The wolf credo: Respect the elders. Teach the young. Cooperate with the pack. Play when you can. Hunt when you must. Rest in between. Share your affections. Voice your feelings. Leave your mark. The strength of the wolf is the pack, and the strength of the pack is the wolf. First there was the woman who runs with the wolves, and now, for the men, maybe women too, there is the wisdom of the wolves. Twyman is a Nashville, Tennessee, counseling psychologist and organizational management consultant.

--Fair, Jeff, and Lynn Rogers, The Great American Bear. Minocqua, WI: NorthWord Press, 1994. (P. O. Box 1360, Minocqua, WI 54548) 192 pages, paper. A study of the black bear, nicely illustrated, biologically accurate and philosophically insightful.

--Backes, David, Canoe Country: An Embattled Wilderness. Minocqua, WI: NorthWord Press, 1991. (P. O. Box 1360, Minocqua, WI 54548) 207 pages, paper. This history and current status of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota. Roads, motors, timber harvest, mining, fishing, resorts, outfitters, local versus national interests, motorized portages, wilderness as sacred place, relations with the Canadian Quetico Provincial Park. Backes is in mass communications at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

--Samways, Michael J., Insect Conservation Biology. London: Chapman and Hall, 1994. 358 pages. Global variation in insect variety; historical trends; the development of insect conservation biology; levels of analysis; nature reserves and global warming; the fragmented landscape; the disturbed landscape; rarity; individual insect species and their conservation; insect pest control and insect conservation, with a concluding section on "insect conservation ethics" (intrinsic value of the individual insect and the species; insect utilitarian value; value of the landscape/ecosystem; the land ethic and the entomologist; priority systems). "Concern for landscape is concern for all life and its processes. This landscape approach also creates an awareness and an ethic that all landscapes are linked by biogeocycles. Insects are major interactors in the whole terrestrial biosphere and are therefore party to Gaia maintenance" (pp. 230-231). Samways is at the Invertebrate Conservation Research Centre, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

--Nabhan, Gary Paul, "The Parable of the Poppy Bee: Why Should We Save Those Spineless Critters?" Nature Conservancy 46 (no. 2, March/April 1996):10-15. "Spineless or not, native pollinators have consistently provided our croplands and wildlands with the kind of support that has kept our country fruitful. Let us remember them every time we smell a poppy, or take a bite into a delicious, red apple or munch on almonds. Let us now praise the not-so-famous pollinators, and honor our collective debt to them" (p. 15). A theme developed at more length in Nabhan and Buchmann, The Forgotten Pollinators. Nabhan is director of science at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.

--Nabhan, Gary Paul and Steve Buchmann, The Forgotten Pollinators. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1996. More than 60 kinds of bird and mammal pollinators are known to be endangered and no one has any idea how many insect pollinators are vulnerable to extinction. Honey bees are a doubtful substitute; there are now far fewer honeybees in the U.S. than at any time since World War II, owing to infestations with exotic diseases and pests that are not easily controlled. Within a few years pollinators other than honeybees will be needed to provide $ 4 billion to $ 6 billion of annual crop pollination service to America's farmers.

--Scholtmeijer, Marian, Animal Victims in Modern Fiction: From Sanctity to Sacrifice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

--Hetherington, John, Terry C. Daniel, and Thomas C. Brown, "Anything Goes Means Everything Stays: The Perils of Uncritical Pluralism in Understanding Environmental Values," Society and Natural Resources 7 (no. 6, 1994):535-546.

--Sustainable Forestry in the Boreal, Taiga News, no. 16, February/March 1996. Special issue on sustainable forestry in boreal forests. Taiga Rescue Network, Ajtte, P. O. Box 116, S-962 23 Jokkmokk, Sweden. Phone 46 971 17039. Fax 46 971 12057.

--Newell, Josh and Emma Wilson, The Russian Far East: Forests, Biodiversity Hotspots, and Industrial Development. Tokoyo: Friends of the Earth-Japan, 1996. 200 pages. $ 28.50. Overview of development and conservation issues in all regions of the Russian Far East. Friends of the Earth-Japan, 4-8-15 Naka Meguro, Meguro-ku-Takoyo, Japan 153. Phone 81-3-3760-3644. Fax 81-3-3760-6959. In the U.S.: PERC. Pacific Environmental Resources Center, 1055 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94065. 415/332-8200. Fax 415/332-8167.

--Devall, Bill, ed., Clearcut: The Tragedy of Industrial Forestry. San Francisco: Sierra Club/Earth Island Books, 1993. A large book designed for visual impact with (when the book is opened) almost poster-sized pictures of clearcut devastation, often with remnants of the forest lingering nearby in their beauty. The book is a product of the Foundation for Deep Ecology. There are some short essays: Warwick Fox, "The Recognition of Intrinsic Value in the Writing of Legislation"; R. Edward Grumbine, "Policy in the Woods"; "The Ecoforestry Declaration of Interdependence"; Chris Maser, "The Twenty-First-Century Forester"; Alan Drengson, "Remembering the Moral and Spiritual Dimensions of Forests"; Reed Noss, "A Sustainable Forest is a Diverse and Natural Forest"; Dave Foreman, "The Big Woods and Ecological Wilderness Recovery"; and others. The book has provoked a response by the American Forest and Paper Pulp Association: Closer Look: An On the Ground Investigation of the Sierra Club's Book: Clearcut. The response claims that the book deliberately misleads readers, blaming clearcutting and industrial forestry for impacts actually caused by wildfire, insect and disease infestation, and other natural disasters. For the response call 202/463-2756.

--Trzyna, Thaddeus C., "Linking Values and Policy for Sustainable Development: An International Strategy to Build the Sustainability Ethic into Decision-Making." 1995. Working Paper No. 6 of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Strategy and Planning. 20 pages. Proponents of sustainable development often call for a new global ethic. But how will a new ethic translate into policies and decisions? Copies from Thaddeus C. Trzyna, Chair, CESP, International Center for the Environment and Public Policy, P. O. Box 189040, Sacramento, CA 95818. Phone 916/442-2472. Fax 916/442-2478

--Rockefeller, Steven, Summary and Survey: Principles of Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development. 146 pages. 1995 in working draft for the Earth Charter Project. Forty-seven major principles of conservation and sustainability that have been formulated to date in international law and related reports. Examples of such principles: the unity of the biosphere, elimination of unsustainable production, non-violent conflict resolution, and equitable use of transboundary natural resources. Rockefeller teaches religious studies at Middlebury College, Vermont. Copies from Steven Rockfeller, P. O. Box 648, Middlebury, VT 05753. Phone 802/388-9933. Fax 802/388-1951.

--deGroot (de Groot), Rudolf, Functions of Nature: Evaluation of Nature in Environmental Planning. Groningen, Netherlands: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1992. Identification of indicators for measuring sustainable use of environmental functions, currently being applied to assessing the Danube and Dniester deltas, the Spanish island of Mallorca, the Greek island of Santorini, the Pantanal wetland in Brazil, and other areas. de Groot is director of the Wageningen Institute for Environment and Climate Research at Wageningen Agricultural University, Netherlands.

--Balogh, James C. and William J. Walker, Golf Course Management and Construction: Environmental Issues. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1992. The environmental effects of turfgrass in golf courses, lawns, parks, greenways, and similar areas, which are widespread in landscape architecture. Ways that these areas do and do not, can and cannot have environmental benefits, such as recreational, aesthetic, erosion control, green space, and wildlife habitat uses. Balogh is a soil scientist with Spectrum Research, Duluth, MN. Walker is a geochemist at the University of California, Davis.

--Colborn, Theo, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future. New York; Dutton, Penguin Books, 1996.

--Hospers, John, Human Conduct: Problems of Ethics, 3rd edition. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1996. In this new edition of a longstanding ethics text, Hospers has added a chapter (Chapter 8) on "Animal Rights," which is a five-way dialogue among proponents of animal rights, animal liberation, environmentalists, and others. Maybe the fourth edition will see fit to separate out environmental ethics from animal rights. Hospers teaches philosophy at the University of Southern California.

--Crosby, Donald A., Hardwick, Charley D. eds. Religious Experience and Ecological Responsibility (Volume 3 in American Liberal Religious Thought). New York: Peter Lang, 1996. 652 pages. $74.95 hardcover. Contains: Frederick Ferré, "Keeping It Together: Holistic Reflections from a `Natural Analyst'"; Nancy Frankenberry, "The Earth Is Not Our Mother"; D.W.D. Shaw, "The Wreck of `The Braer'", Donald A. Crosby, "Experience As Reality: The Ecological Metaphysics of William James"; Susan Armstrong, "An Outline of a Theology of Difference"; J. Edward Barrett, "Ecological Reverence: Or, Religion Rediscovering Reality"; Noel Boulting, "Grounding the Notion of Ecological Responsibility: Peircian Perspectives"; J. Harley Chapman, "The Practice of Natural Piety as a Spiritual Discipline"; Hermann Deuser, "Charles S. Peirce's Contribution to Cosmology and Religion"; Lewis E. Hahn, "A Contextualistic View of Experience and Ecological Responsibility"; Fred W. Hallberg, "Demythologizing Eschatological Environmentalism"; Nancy R. Howell, "The Paradox of Power: An Ecofeminist Reflection upon Diversity"; John Howie, "Personalism and a Holistic Environmental Ethics"; Charles S. Milligan, "The Eco-Religious Case for Naturalistic Pantheism"; Leslie A. Muray, "Meland's Mystical Naturalism and Ecological Responsibility"; Jerome Stone, "Caring for the Web of Life: Towards a Public Ecotheology"; Douglas Sturm, "Faith, Ecology, and the Demands of Social Justice: On Shattering the Boundaries of Moral Community"; and papers on other themes. Crosby is in philosophy at Colorado State University; Hardwick in religious studies at American University.

--Santas, Aristotelis, "A Pragmatic Theory of Intrinsic Value," lecture at the Environmental Ethics Certificate Program, University of Georgia, March 12, 1966. An ecosystem is a dynamic, ever-changing process of interactions where parts are not passive recipients, but constantly interact. Individuals of an ecosystem can be instrumental to its growth, but never merely instrumental to the whole, only to the parts. The value of the whole must be seen as inseparable from the value of its constituent parts. No overall value sets a standard to measure all other values. It is absurd to claim, for example, that a salt marsh exists purely for the benefit of the resident crabs any more than it does for the benefit of humans; an ecosystem's value is not relative to its individual parts any more than it should be relative to the demands of a real estate contractor.
John Dewey's concept of value does not destroy intrinsic value. Not until we give up the idea that value can exist outside of all context can we really have intrinsic value. Value is contextual; it exists as a functional relationship. Although understanding those relationships may necessitate a relational look at value, at the same time, value is independent of human existence. For example, fish have value to alligators and the salt marsh has value to the larger environment for its functions. There is no need to appeal to humans for value to exist; whether rational or sensory, value is there. Santas is professor of philosophy and environmental ethics and Coordinator of the Center for Professional and Applied Ethics at Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia.

--Oelschlaeger, Max, "Soul of the Wilderness: The Wild, the Tame, and the Folly of Sustainable Development," International Journal of Wilderness 1(no. 2, December):5-7.

--deWaal (de Waal), Frans, Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996. The extent to which requisites of morality can be recognized in other animals, especially primates. de Waal strenuously objects to a current tendency among biologists to ascribe various negative descriptions to animals, such as their being "selfish," or "cheaters" or "deceiving" or "greedy" or "having enemies," or "murdering" with a simultaneous refusal to ascribe various positive traits to them. Biologists go to great lengths, unnecessarily so, to argue away all evidence of animal altruism, interpreting it as disguised selfishness, or kin selection, or nepotism, and so on. Animals, particularly those close to us, display an enormous spectrum of emotions and different kinds of relationships. It is only fair to reflect this fact in a broad array of terms. If animals can have enemies, they can have friends. If they can cheat, they can be honest. If they can be spiteful, they can also be kind and altruistic. Semantic distinctions between animal and human behavior often obscure fundamental similarities; a discussion of morality will be pointless if we allow our language to be distorted by a denial of benign motives and emotions in animals. de Waal works at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center in Atlanta, Georgia.

--Holland, Heinrich, D., and Ulrich Petersen, Living Dangerously: The Earth, its Resources, and the Environment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995. 490 pages. The fate of humanity and our store of natural resources in the next century. The often conflicting needs of natural resources extraction and environmental protection. Holland is in geochemistry, Petersen in economic geology at Harvard University.

--Pope, Carl, "Television Misses the Picture," Sierra 81 (no. 2, March/April 1996):12-14. Environmental coverage on the three networks has declined by 60 percent since 1989; the decline is not due to lack of environmental news or interest, but possibly to the pressures of owners and advertisers. Ted Turner and Tom Brokaw are notable exceptions. Pope is executive director of the Sierra Club.

--Foreman, Dave, "Am I a Free Market Environmentalist?" PERC Reports 14 (no. 1, March 1966):1, 4-5. PERC is published by the Political Economy Research Center, 502 S. 19th Ave., Suite 211, Bozeman, MT 59719. The Wildlands Project has a goal of protecting and restoring the ecological richness of North America. Private property and voluntary agreements play a big role in that. Landowners who host endangered species should be honored as good members of the community and as good stewards of their land. Am I a free-market environmentalist? Naw, I'm an agnostic. But I'm a friendly agnostic. Dave Foreman, co-founder of Earth First!, now heads the Wildlands Project.


--Gadgil, Madhav and Ramachandra Guha, Ecology and Equity: The Use and Abuse of Nature in Contemporary India. London: Routledge, 1995. 213 pages. Gadgil is at the Centre for Ecological Studies at the Indian Institute of Science. Guha is an independent writer.

--Allenby, Braden R., and Deanna J. Richards, eds., The Greening of Industrial Systems. Washington: National Academy Press, 1994. 259 pages. 18 contributors. Promising approaches to environmentally conscious design and manufacturing. The need for greater recognition of environmental dimensions in formulating technology policies and management strategies. A project of the National Academy of Engineering.

--Korten, David C., When Corporations Rule the World. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, and San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1995.

--Ehrlich, Paul R., Anne H. Ehrlich, and Gretchen C. Daily, The Stork and the Plow: The Equity Answer to the Human Dilemma. New York: Grosset/Putnam, 1995. The population-consumption problem and its connection with the environment. The authors are at Stanford University.

--Pluhar, Evelyn B., Beyond Prejudice: The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995. 370 pages. Paper, $ 19.95. Any sentient cognitive being--one caring about what happens to him or herself--is morally significant, supporting the moral status and rights of many nonhuman animals. Implications of this for children and abnormal humans, and its relevance for population policies, animal testing, euthanasia, hunting and the treatment of companion animals. Pluhar is in philosophy at Pennsylvania State University, Fayette Campus, Uniontown.

--Cromartie, Michael, ed., Creation at Risk? Religion, Science, and Environmentalism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1995. 166 pages. Paper, $ 15.00. Ten scholars and activists explore and clash over some of the scientific, religious, moral, philosophical, economic, and political claims proposed by contemporary environmentalists. Is green utopianism becoming the new communism? The Rio Climate Convention and the use of failed computer forecasts of temperature changes as the basis for public policy. Global warming. Theological implications of biocentrism. The relative merits of governments and markets in dealing with ecological problems.

--Corrington, Robert S., Ecstatic Naturalism: Signs of the World. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994. 218 pages. Cloth, $ 29.95. A new metaphysics, a semiotics of nature, insisting that all signs participate in larger orders of meaning that are natural and religious. Meanings embodied in nature point beyond nature to the mystery inherent in positioned codes and signs. Corrington is professor of philosophical theology at Drew University.
--Ferrell, John S., Fruits of Creation: A Look at Global Sustainability as Seen Through the Eyes of George Washington Carver. Shakopee, MN: Macalester Park, 1995.

--Deloria, Jr., Vine, Red Earth, White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact. New York: Scribner, 1995. 286 pages. Cloth, $ 23. Taking on scientists from Darwin to Stephen Jay Gould, Deloria claims that white European scientists manipulate data to fit their theories. Native American oral traditions may actually provide better explanations than those of scientists, who struggle to make facts fit predetermined theories. Evolution, planetary history, the origin of humans, natural disasters, and population as explained differently from the white European scientific and the red Native American point of view. Modern science encourages cultural bias and mistaken understandings of the natural world. One of Deloria's targets is the claim by scientists who argue, on the basis of archaeological and paleontological records, that native Americans caused the extinctions of animal species in the Pleistocene period. That claim is nonsense. Deloria is a well-known Native American and professor of history, law, religious studies, and political science at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

--Wall, Derek, ed., Green History: A Reader in Environmental Literature, Philosophy, and Politics. London: Routledge, 1994. 271 pages. Dozens of mostly quite short excerpts, from all over the spectrum of literature, philosophy, and politics. Ancient wisdom, ecology and early civilizations, Gaia, philosophical holism, the web of life, against growth, sustainable development, the Frankenstein factor (genetic engineering), peaceful protest, the city and the country, eco-feminism, spiritual awakenings, green revolutionaries, green politics, utopias. One theme is that today's environmental issues were already problems in the past. Wall teaches economics at the University of West England.

--Barbato, Joseph and Lisa Weinerman, eds., Heart of the Land: Essays on the Last Great Places. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994. 297 pages. A Nature Conservancy sponsored book. Thirty essays by well-known nature writers about places that still retain the ability to inspire, to awe, and to fire our collective imaginations. The essayists find that such places move us in ways that we intuitively understand but cannot adequately explain. Samples: Terry Tempest Williams, "Winter Solstice at the Moab Slough (Colorado Plateau, Utah)"; Rick Bass, "On Willow Creek" (Texas Hill Country); Joel Achenbach, "The Most Patient of Animals" (Clinch Valley, Virginia). "Of course we shouldn't protect a wild core such as the Texas hill country because it is a system still intact with the logic and sanity that these days too often eludes our lives in the city. We should instead protect the hill country simply for its own sake, to show that we are still capable of understanding (and practicing) the concept of honor: loving a thing the way it is, and trying, for once, not to change it" (Rick Bass). Barbato is an editorial director at the Nature Conservancy; Weinerman is with Nature Conservancy in Latin America.

--Wright, Will, Wild Knowledge: Science, Language, and Social Life in a Fragile Environment. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. 240 pages. $ 14.95 paper. "The ecological problem always seems ... more a profound issue of social order than a strategic issue of legal controls. In many ways it seems to be a problem with our legitimating idea of rationality. Industrial society is based on a political and organizational commitment to the idea of rationality, but as the planet becomes more committed to rationality, in the Enlightenment sense of science and individualism, it also seem to become more irrational, in the ecological sense of sustainability. Rational society seems to be disrupting itself systematically, and if so, then there is a fundamental problem with our legitimating idea of rationality, because this idea is legitimating ecological disaster in the name of reason. If our `rational' social order is inherently irrational, then we must either give up on it ... or articulate a more coherent idea of rationality, an idea that will legitimate a more ecological and sustainable social order" (p. ix). Wright argues for a "critical commitment to a `wild' rationality, a rationality that is always external to any established institutional order and thus that is always legitimately available to criticize and disrupt that order. ... It is only through a commitment to a truly `wild' knowledge that sustainable social institutions can be legitimated" (pp. 218-219). Wright is in sociology at the University of Southern Colorado.

--Rutledge, Ron, and Terje Vold, "Canada's Wilderness," International Journal of Wilderness 1(no. 2, December):8-14. Canada is a large country with close ties to its wilderness heritage. An analysis of the extent of Canada's wilderness, both protected wilderness and remaining roadless areas. Canada has continued to increase the size of its protected area systems, continued to give more protection, and increasingly given special recognition to protecting wilderness. The authors are with the British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

--Miller, Jonathan, "Australian Approaches to Wilderness," International Journal of Wilderness 1(no. 2, December):38-39. Six of the eight Australian states, plus the Australian Commonwealth Territory, have wilderness legislation. Some wilderness initiatives are also undertaken at the national level, especially the National Wilderness Inventory. Miller is with the Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.

--Zunino, Franco, "The Wilderness Movement in Italy: A Wilderness Model for Europe," International Journal of Wilderness 1(no. 2, December):41-42. There is an Italian Wilderness Society and seven wilderness areas are established, with various degrees of municipal and regional authority. Franco directs the Associazione Italiana per la Wilderness.

--Chipeniuk, Raymond, "The Old and Middle English Origins of `Wilderness'," Environments (Waterloo, Ont.: Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo) 21(1991):22-28. Interesting and important article on the roots of the idea of wilderness, which should be read by anyone who has read Roderick Nash. There is a widespread view that until the eighteenth century it was usual for people in the Western tradition to fear and hate wilderness. This view is elaborated by Roderick Nash in Wilderness and the American Mind. But, contrary to Nash, in old English the sense is not always negative; there are many commonsense, neutral, and sometimes positive evaluations of wilderness. There are two possible roots "wil(d)deor," or "wild deer" and "wildeorern," or "wild, uncontrolled or untamed," and "wildeornes" generally meant wild or uncultivated land, inhabited only by wild animals. The word "wild" goes back to Old Teutonic, the precursor of English, long before 450 A.D. In the Bible, the meanings of several words for "wilderness" are not always negative, but they sometimes are, and with the coming of Bible translations these could enter English usage, where wilderness is a frightening and wasted place.
"All in all, the evidence seems to suggest speakers of English have always used the word `wilderness" ... to mean primarily land not farmed or settled, or ... land inhabited by wild animals. ... Americans do not deserve quite as much credit for elevating wilderness to its current high esteem as Nash and others are wont to give them. Interest in and regard for wilderness as the home of abundant wildlife was the heritage of the English-speaking world from its beginnings." Chipeniuk has degrees in English language and literature from McGill University and the University of Toronto, and works in regional planning with an interest in wilderness.

--DiSilvesto, Roger L., Reclaiming the Last Wild Places: A New Agenda for Biodiversity. New York: John Wiley, 1993.

--Hunter, James, On the Other Side of Sorrow: Nature and People in the Scottish Highlands. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Co., 1995. £ 17.50. U.S. Distributor: Trafalgar Square Publishers, Howe Hill Road, North Pomfret, VT 05053. 802/457 1911. The Scottish Highlands were, in earlier centuries, depopulated in heartbreak with the enforced removal of its peoples. Today conserving the Highlands environment is, quite rightly, a matter of high public priority, but environmentalists must take account of the sensibilities of those who see a deserted Highland glen not so much as a piece of wilderness as a place where everyone who ever mattered is dead and gone. Environmentalists need to be aware of Highland attitudes to the Highlands, all the more so in view of the fact that the Gaelic-speaking people who inhabited the area for 1500 years held so positive a view of nature.
The Highlands suffer from deforestation and forms of land use that prevent the regeneration of the land. The task of preserving the Highlands is not one of preserving what is presently there, but of putting right the many thing which, over several centuries, have gone so desperately wrong. Further, the area now has one of Europe's fastest growing rural populations. The rehabilitation of the Highlands needs simultaneously to bring about the restoration of people to some at least of the many localities where human communities, and the Gaelic culture association with those communities, were so long ago destroyed. Hunter is a freelance historian, writer, and broadcaster who lives in the Skye crofting township of Borve.

--Moon, Bruce E.. Dilemmas of International Trade. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996. 192 pages. $49.95 hb, $14.95 pb. In the post-Cold War world, trade is the new arena for competition--between nations, between groups, between ethical and theoretical ideas. Political economist Bruce Moon puts contemporary trade events--NAFTA, United States-Japan controversies, the Uruguay Round of GATT, China's Most Favored Nation status, the founding of the World Trade Organization--into historical and theoretical perspective with the British Corn Laws, the Great Depression, the Bretton Woods system, and the origins of the European Union. Economic theory, terms, and concepts are explained and contextualized with those from international relations. Three central dilemmas are examined: the unequal distribution of income and wealth created by international trade, the tradeoff among competing values that trade requires, and the difficult interrelationship between economic and foreign policy goals within and among trading nations. Though internationally framed, each dilemma has ramifications at a variety of levels all the way down to the individual's role in the global economy--as a consumer, as a citizen, and ultimately as a moral agent. Bruce E. Moon is professor of International Relations at Lehigh University.

--Joern, Anthony and Keeler, Kathleen H. The Changing Prairie: North American Grasslands. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. $65.00. 268 pages. In the past, plowing virgin prairie could be easily defended on both economic and sociological grounds. But preservation of these regions is now an urgent need. The ecology of the North American prairie and conservation measures to protect remaining grasslands. Arguments for the value of undeveloped prairies, a current synthesis of prairie ecology to facilitate their best possible management, and a summary of conservation issues, pointing out the costs and benefits of alternative actions. Ethical and aesthetic perspectives. Joern and Keeler are both at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

--Martin, Thomas E. and Finch, Deborah M., eds., Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds: A Synthesis and Review of Critical Issues. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. $28.00 paper $52.00 cloth. 512 pages. The apparent decline in numbers among many species of migratory songbirds is a timely subject in conservation biology, particularly for ornithologists, ecologists, and wildlife managers. This book is an attempt to discuss the problem in full scope. It presents an ambitious, comprehensive assessment of the current status of neotropical migratory birds in the U.S., and the methods and strategies used to conserve migrant populations. Each chapter is an essay reviewing and assessing the trend from a different viewpoint, all written by leaders in the fields of ornithology, conservation, and population biology. Thomas E. Martin is from University of Montana, and Deborah M. Finch is from USDA Forest Service, Arizona.

--Norwood, Vera. Made from this Earth: American Women and Nature. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

--Entrikin, J. Nicholas, The Betweenness of Place: Towards a Geography of Modernity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. "To understand place requires that we have access to both an objective and a subjective reality. From the decentered vantage point of the theoretical scientist, place becomes either location or a set of generic relations and thereby loses much of its significance for human action. From the centered viewpoint of the subject, place has meaning only in relation to an individual's or a group's goals and concerns. Place is best viewed from points in between" (p. 5). Entrikin is a geographer at UCLA.

--Wolff, Edward N., Top Heavy: A Study of the Increasing Inequality of Wealth in America. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press (41 East 70th Street, NY, NY 10021; 800/275-1447, 1995. Disquietingly, evidence supports that general conviction that there are diminished prospects for average American citizens. Over the last several years, many studies have established that the working population of the United States--especially men with less than a college education--not only are doing more poorly than their parents, but that their real wages are declining. Between 1947 and 1973, American families in every income category enjoyed income growth--and the poorest families had the highest rate of all. Then, between 1973 and 1990, average income not only remained almost stagnant, but that average was a reflection of higher income growth for the top 20 percent of families, and a significant fall in real income for the poorest 20 percent. As a result, nearly half the families in American today have lower real income than they did in 1973. In terms of total wealth (distinguished from income), in the 1980's the top 1 percent of wealth holders enjoyed two thirds of all increases in financial wealth. The bottom 80 percent of households ended up with less real financial wealth in 1989 than in 1983. Startlingly, the United States has gone from a position of less wealth inequality among its citizens than in Europe to greater wealth inequality than is found in class-ridden societies. The insecurity that a large segment of the population increasingly faces is shaking the democratic system. Wolff is professor of economics at New York University.

--Pollan, Michael, Second Nature: A Gardener's Education. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991. There are two problems with a purist ethic toward nature. (1) Seemingly pristine parts of nature are more changed by humans already than we like to realize. (2) There is no guidance for what to do with areas that are not pristine. "`All or nothing,' says the wilderness ethic, and in fact we've ended up with a landscape in America that conforms to that injunction remarkably well. Thanks to exactly this kind of either/or thinking, Americans have done an admirable job of drawing lines around certain sacred areas (we did invent the wilderness area) and a terrible job of managing the rest of our land. The reason is not hard to find: the only environmental ethic we have has nothing useful to say about those areas outside this line. Once a landscape is no longer `virgin' it is typically written off as fallen, lost to nature, irredeemable. We hand it over to the jurisdiction of that other sacrosanct American ethic: laissez-faire economics. ... Essentially, we have divided our country in two, between the kingdom of wilderness, which rules about eight percent of America's land, and the kingdom of the market, which rules the rest" (p. 188-189).

--Lynch, Barbara Deutsch, "The Garden and the Sea: U.S. Latino Environmental Discourses and Mainstream Environmentalism," Social Problems 40(1993):108-24. Latinos see nature quite differently from mainstream environmentalists. Latino environmentalism, in which the garden metaphor is central, rejects the dichotomization of people and nature that has pervaded contemporary environmentalism. "The environment is a social construction: a product of all cultural responses to specific historical circumstances which give rise to shared sets of imagined landscapes" (p. 109).

--Troyer, James R., Nature's Champion: B. W. Wells, Tar Heel Ecologist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. B. W. Wells (1884-1978) was a pioneering ecologist at then North Carolina State College (now University), through whom thousands of North Carolinians learned to appreciate and protect nature, long before ecology and conservation became popular causes. Troyer teaches biology at North Carolina State University.

--Wheelwright, Nathaniel T., "Enduring Reasons to Preserve Threatened Species," The Chronicle of Higher Education, June 1, 1994, B2,B3. Many endangered species may not be good for anything, either in the markets of economics or for their roles in ecosystems. "It is poor conservation strategy to bank on the arguments or economics or ecologists alone. Why? Because the most convincing case for rain forests is simply that the loss of species, like the destruction of a Beethoven symphony or a Renoir painting of the Taj Mahal, would be a loss of resplendence. ... Religious leaders and philosophers have the training to raise the moral and philosophical values of preserving species. Traditionally they have had the courage to explore life's most difficult issues. Yet thus far their voices have hardly been heard in the debate over biodiversity. They can and must speak up, defining and explaining the sanctity not just of human life but of life in all of its forms." Wheelwright is a biologist at Bowdoin College who has studied resplendent quetzals in Costa Rica.

--Bate, Jonathan, Romantic Ecology: Wordsworth and the Environmental Tradition. New York: Routledge, 1991. "Modern ecological politics teaches us that to consider society only in terms of production, income, and ownership is insufficient. What is done to the land is as important as who owns it" (p. 46). "It is profoundly unhelpful to say there is no nature at a time when our most urgent need is to address and readdress the consequences of human civilisation's insatiable desire to consume the products of the earth" (p. 56). "The whole concept of society having an economic base with legal and political superstructure fails to address the fact that the economy of human society may in the end be dependent on something larger, the economy of nature" (p. 57).

--Chadwick, Douglas H., "Dead or Alive: The Endangered Species Act," National Geographic 187 (March, no. 3, 1995):2-41.

--Krimsky, Sheldon, Biotechnics and Society. New York: Praeger, 1991. Krimsky concludes with what he calls a critical school of technology assessment with seven relevant criteria: (1) ecological impacts, (2) health effects, (3) ethical soundness, (4) economic productivity, (5) distributive justice, (6) social needs, and (7) market demand. A technology assessment index, resulting from evaluation by such criteria, is applied to sample cases of pending biotechnology, such as bovine growth hormone and herbicide resistant-plants (crop plants that survive, while weeds are killed). Krimsky is at Tufts University.

--Zuckerman, Ben, and David Jefferson, eds. Human Population and the Environmental Crisis. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 1996. Jean-Michael Cousteau: "Population: Challenge to Biosphere and Behavior"; Stephen H. Schneider, "The Global Warming Debate: Are There Public Policy Implications?"; John Harte, "On the Sustainability of Resource Use: Population as a Dynamic Factor"; Mildred E. Mathias, "Biodiversity: Where Have All the Species Gone?"; Jodi L. Jacobson, "Gender Bias and the Search for a Sustainable Future"; Anthony C. Beilenson, "Politics and Society: Political Challenges of Confronting Population Growth"; Richard P. Turco, "Global Environmental Engineering: Prospects and Pitfalls." Zuckerman is in astronomy, Jefferson in computer science at UCLA.

--Kempton, Willett M., James S. Boster, and Jennifer A. Hartley, Environmental Values in American Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. 320 pages. $ 39.95. Fundamental environmental beliefs and value are not restricted to those who are white, liberal, educated, and wealthy, but are held by many Americans in various socioeconomic groups, so widely held as to constitute "an American paradigm." A six year study sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by a team of cultural anthropologists. Some surprising results: with a question such as "Justice is not just for human beings, we need to be as fair to plants and animals as we are to people," 97 percent of Earth First types agreed, but so did 63 percent of sawmill workers from the Pacific Northwest. The study concentrated on the lay public and avoided political, financial, and industrial "elites." The researchers especially conclude that environmentalists are missing an opportunity by depending heavily on utilitarian arguments and neglecting traditional religious teaching and biocentrism, which they identify as the belief that nonhumans have rights and values too.

--Williams, Bruce A., and Albert R. Matheny, Democracy, Dialogue, and Environmental Disputes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. 272 pages. $ 32.50. The difficulties faced by environmental regulation are attributed to competing ideas about regulatory legitimacy, resulting from the growth of the American state. The authors propose a more complex and nuanced dialogue between all participants in regulatory policymaking, and apply this to case studies in New Jersey, Ohio, and Florida.

--Leslie, John, The End of the World: the Science and Ethics of Human Extinction. London and New York: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14043-9. 310 pages. Hardback, 310 pages; $23 US, $29.95 Can, £16.99. Of all humans so far, roughly 10% are alive with you and me. If human extinction occurred soon, our position in population history would have been fairly ordinary. But if humankind survived at least a few more centuries, perhaps colonizing the galaxy, we could be among the earliest 0.001% of all humans--a point crucial to a "doomsday argument" originated by the cosmologist Brandon Carter. People who accept the argument will re-estimate the threats to humankind. These include asteroid impacts; nuclear, chemical and biological warfare; ozone layer destruction; greenhouse warming, possibly of a runaway kind; overpopulation; poisoning of the environment; new diseases; computers replacing humans entirely; disasters from genetic engineering or from nanotechnology; and perhaps even destruction of the galaxy through a "vacuum metastability upset" initiated by physicists. As well as discussing all this, The End of the World asks why it should worry us. Is anything ever better than anything else, as a genuine fact? Are lives almost never worth living, or do only miserable ones really matter? Could nuclear revenge be appropriate although it did no good? And when people of future generations are mere possibilities, what right have they to be born? Leslie is a well known philosopher and cosmologist at the University of Guelph.

--Leslie, John, "The End is More Nigh," Times Higher Education Supplement, February 16, 1966, page 15. "If you view the certainty of global warming, the likelihood of nuclear war and the possibility of grey goo calamity from the perspective of the doomsday argument, nobody should bet on humanity's long-term survival." "I believe that humans may have little more than a half chance of surviving the next 500 years. Inclined at first to say that the risk of Doom within five centuries was only about 5 per cent, I found myself changing this to 40 percent. I reached this conclusion after considering the various dangers facing us in the light of what has come to be known as the `doomsday argument,' which has made me much less optimistic about the future of humankind."

--Goodland, Robert, "The Concept of Environmental Sustainability," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26(1995)1-24. A review of the current debate about environmental sustainability, and related growth, limits, scale, and substitutability. The paths leading to environmental sustainability in each country or sector will differ, but the goals remain constant. Conceptualizing this is far from an academic exercise. Ensuring, within two human generations, that as many as 10 billion people are decently fed and housed without damaging the environment on which we all depend represents a monumental challenge. Goodland is with the World Bank.

--Goodland, Robert, "South Africa: Environmental Sustainability and the Empowerment of Women," Impact Assessment, a special publication of this journal, June 1995, from a conference of the International Association of Impact Assessment, Durban, South Africa. Impact Assessment is based in the Department of Resource Development, Michigan State University. Copies from RJA Goodland, Environment Department, The World Bank, Washington, DC 20433. Fax 202/477-0565. In common with most nations, South African Society also is hurtling away from environmental sustainability at present, largely because of widespread inequity, poverty, inadequate consumption per capita, and rapid population growth which undermines future consumption per capita. This situation is reminiscent of some U. S. data on black/white ratios too. South Africa's black 76 percent majority earns only 36 percent of the national income, whereas the white 13 percent minority earn 54% of the national income (with the colored population in between). This strains environmental sources of raw materials, as well as environmental sinks for assimilating wastes. Environmentally sustainability is quintessentially a social concern. Environmental sustainability needs social sustainability--the social scaffolding of people's organizations that empower self-control and self-policing in people's management of natural resources. The main element of social responsibility germane here is empowerment of women. Includes a good bibliography.

--Light, Andrew, and Eric Katz, eds., Environmental Pragmatism. London and New York: Routledge Press, 1996. 352 pages. Contents: "Introduction: Environmental Pragmatism and Environmental Ethics as Contested Terrain," Andrew Light and Eric Katz; "Pragmatism and Environmental Thought," Kelly A. Parker; "How Pragmatism is an Environmental Ethic," Sandra B. Rosenthal and Rogene A. Buchholz; "Nature as Culture: John Dewey's Pragmatic Naturalism," Larry A. Hickman; "The Environmental Value in G. H. Mead's Cosmology," Ari Santas; "The Constancy of Leopold's Land Ethic," Bryan Norton; "Integration or Reduction: Two Approaches to Environmental Values," Bryan Norton; "Before Environmental Ethics," Anthony Weston; "Compatibilism in Political Ecology," Andrew Light; Pragmatism and Policy: The Case of Water," Paul B. Thompson; "Towards a Pragmatic Approach to Definition: Wetlands and the Politics of Meaning," Edward Schiappa; "A Pluralistic, Pragmatic and Evolutionary Approach to Natural Resource Management," Emery N. Castle; "Laws of Nature vs. Laws of Respect: Non-Violence in Practice in Norway," David Rothenberg; "Teaching Environmental Ethics as a Method of Conflict Management," Gary E. Varner, Susan J. Gilbertz, and Tarla Rai Peterson; "Beyond Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics," Anthony Weston; "Searching for Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism and Despair in Environmental Ethics," Eric Katz; "Unfair to Swamps: A Reply to Katz--Unfair to Foundations?: A Reply to Weston," Anthony Weston and Eric Katz; "Environmental Pragmatism as Philosophy or Metaphilosophy?: On the Weston-Katz Debate," Andrew Light.
The first comprehensive presentation of environmental pragmatism as a new approach. Environmental pragmatism argues that theoretical debates are hindering the ability of the environmental movement to forge agreement on basic policy imperatives. This new direction advocate a serious (though not theoretical) inquiry into the practical merits of moral pluralism, using the methodology of classical American pragmatist thought.

--Light, Andrew, "Materialists, Ontologists, and Environmental Pragmatists," Social Theory and Practice 21 (No. 2, Summer 1995): 315-333. Expanded version reprinted as "Compatibilism in Political Ecology," in Environmental Pragmatism, ed. A. Light and E. Katz, (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 161-184. A strategy for resolving competing claims within environmental political theory, focusing on debates between two kinds of theorists: ontologists--such as deep ecologists--and materialists--such as Murray Bookchin and the social ecologists. The urgency of the ecological crisis requires a form of metatheoretical compatibilism between the opposing theories. The argument is derived from a selective and critical reading of Rorty's neo-pragmatism concerning the distinction between public and private practice. Copies this and related articles available from Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy and Environmental Health Program, 13-103 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G3,
andrew.light@ualberta.ca.

--Light, Andrew, "Environmental Pragmatism as Philosophy or Metaphilosophy: On the Weston-Katz Debate," in Environmental Pragmatism, ed. A. Light and E. Katz (London: Routledge Press, 1996), pp. 325-338. Looks at the debate Environmental Ethics between Anthony Weston and Eric Katz (vols. 7:4, 9:3, and 10:3) on the issue of environmental pragmatism. Argues that given a distinction between two different pragmatist approaches to environmental ethics, both Katz and Weston are pragmatists. Compares the views of both scholars to that of J. Baird Callicott who is deemed not a pragmatist in either sense.

--Light, Andrew and Alan Rudy, "Social Ecology and Social Labor: A Consideration and Critique of Murray Bookchin," Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, June 1995, pp 75-106. The first comprehensive critique of social ecology from an ecological socialist perspective. The first part of the paper summarizes the basic social and political ground of Bookchin's theories; the second part argues that the absence of the category of social labor ultimately undermines the transformative potential of social ecology.

--Light, Andrew, "Urban Wilderness," Wild Ideas, ed. David Rothenberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995), pp. 195-211. Short version reprinted as "Whither Classical Wilderness?," in The Trumpeter, March 1995. Distinguishes between two historical conceptions of the idea of wilderness--classical and romantic--and argues that the idea of the classical wilderness has been transferred to descriptions of urban spaces. Discusses the notions of wilderness of the Puritans, Upton Sinclair, and Mike Davis (writing about Los Angeles).

--Light, Andrew, "Hegemony and Democracy: How the Inherent Politics in Restoration Informs the Politics of Restoration," Restoration and Management Notes 12 (No. 2, Winter 1995):140-144. Argues that ecological restoration contains an inherent political dimension which consists in the potential it always has to serve as the ground for public participation in the human-nature community.
--Light, Andrew, "Three Questions on Hyperreality," Research in Philosophy and Technology, vol 15, 1995. A response to Albert Borgmann's "The Nature of Reality and the Reality of Nature," in Soulé and Lease, eds., Reinventing Nature? (Island Press, 1995). Argues that Borgmann's position on the social construction of nature leads to several puzzles which follow from his attempt to integrate postmodernism and environmental philosophy.

--Light, Andrew, "Environmental Pragmatism and Valuation in Nature," Human Ecology: Crossing Boundaries, ed. Scott D. Wright et al, (Fort Collins, CO: Society for Human Ecology, 1993), pp. 23-30. The first published version of the author's work on environmental pragmatism. Includes a discussion of environmental pedagogy (especially the work of David Orr) as a form of environmental pragmatism.

--Light, Andrew, "Which Side Are You On?: A Rejoinder to Murray Bookchin," Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 4 (No. 2, June 1993): 113-120. Rejoinder to a reply by Bookchin to the author's "Rereading Bookchin and Marcuse as Environmental Materialists."

--Light, Andrew, "Rereading Bookchin and Marcuse as Environmental Materialists," Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 4 (No. 1, March 1993): 69-98. Translated and republished as "Il Materialismo Ambientale Bookchin e Marcuse a Confronto," Capitalismo, Natura, Socialismo, issue 10, February 1994, pp. 110-139. Argues that Bookchin's critique of the Frankfurt School in general and Herbert Marcuse in particular is flawed, since an examination of both Bookchin and Marcuse reveals that they are both "environmental materialists."

--Light, Andrew, "The Role of Technology in Environmental Questions: Martin Buber and Deep Ecology as Answers to Technological Consciousness," Research in Philosophy and Technology, Vol. 12, 1992, pp. 83-104. When viewed as responses to the imposition of forms of technological domination over nature, the views of the deep ecologists (especially Naess) are remarkably similar to the onto-theology of Martin Buber. Suggests that ultimately Buber's approach to topic is even more radical than Naess's.

--Kempton, Willet M., James S. Boster, and Jennifer A. Hartley, Environmental Values in American Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. 320 pages. $ 39.95. Fundamental environmental beliefs and value are not restricted to those who are white, liberal, educated, and wealthy, but are held by many Americans in various socioeconomic groups, so widely held as to constitute "an American paradigm." A six year study sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by a team of cultural anthropologists. Some surprising results: with a question such as "Justice is not just for human beings, we need to be as fair to plants and animals as we are to people," 97 percent of Earth First types agreed, but so did 63 percent of sawmill workers from the Pacific Northwest. The study concentrated on the lay public and avoided political, financial, and industrial "elites." The researchers especially conclude that environmentalists are missing an opportunity by depending heavily on utilitarian arguments and neglecting traditional religious teaching and biocentrism, which they identify as the belief that nonhumans have rights and values too.

--Maxwell, Steven. "The Commercial Environmental Services Industry: Overview and Outlook." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3(no.4, Jan. 1996):4. Despite a shake-out among environmental companies, the need for
high-quality environmental services will endure, and the forecast is optimistic.

--Brookshire, James. "The Litigator's Role in Federal Regulatory Takings Litigation: The Search for Balance." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3(no.4, Jan. 1996):15. An inquiry into the fundamental power balance struck between the majority and the individual in takings litigation.

--Morgan, Richard G., Miller, Thomas. "The `Bad Guys' Program: EPA Enforcement Enters the Computer Age." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3(no.4, Jan. 1996):30. The EPA has developed a new weapon against the submission of false data by regulated companies.
--Friedland, David M., Hagerty, Timothy J. "NMA, CMA, and `Federal Enforceability' Under the Clean Air Act." Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 3(no.4, Jan. 1996):59. Controls need not be "federally enforceable" to be considered in calculating "potential to emit" for status as a major source under the Clean Air Act.

--Donnelley, Strachan. "Bioethical Troubles: Animal Individuals and Human Organisms." The Hastings Center Report 25(no.7, 1995):21.

--Vogel, Lawrence. "Does Environmental Ethics Need a Metaphysical Grounding?" The Hastings Center Report 25(no.7, 1995):30.

--Schutze, Christian. "The Political and Intellectual Influence of Hans Jonas." The Hastings Center Report 25(no.7, 1995):40.

--Miller, Char. "A Cautionary Tale: Reflections on Reinventing the Forest Service." Journal of Forestry 94(no.1, Jan.1996):6.

--Mohai, Paul, Jakes, Pamela. "The Forest Service in the 1990s: Is It Headed in the Right Direction?" Journal of Forestry 94(no.1, Jan.1996):31.

--Keen, David. "The Benefits of Famine: A Case Study of the Sudan." The Ecologist (1979) 25(no.6, Nov.1995):214. Discussions of famine relief--and the development process in general--tend to assume that the policies of national and international agencies alike reflect benevolent aims. The possibility that politically powerful groups may actively promote famine, or obstruct relief, for rational purposes of their own is rarely considered or addressed.

--Hellberg, Tom. "Incineration by the Back Door: Cement Kilns as Waste Sinks." The Ecologist (1979) 25(no.6, Nov.1995):232. Since 1992, a number of UK cement manufacturers have been burning high toxic waste as a "fuel" for their cement kilns. Subject to less stringent emission standards than specialized incinerators, kilns offer a cheap but dirty disposal option which waste generators are exploiting to the full. Pollution and ill-health are the results.

--Maggitti, Phil. "Is Fur Really Dead?" The Animals' Agenda 15(no.6 Nov.1995):24. Furriers by the dozens lose their shirts. Models take off their shirts and more to demonstrate that the only skin you should wear is your own. Is this the beginning of the end for fur, or the middle of a long, cold war? Maggitti has some interesting answers.

--Baker, Katherine K. "Consorting with Forests: Rethinking Our Relationship to Natural Resources and How We Should Value Their Loss." Ecology Law Quarterly 22(no.4, 1995):677.

--Cross, Frank B. "When Environmental Regulations Kill: The Role of Health/Health Analysis." Ecology Law Quarterly 22(no.4, 1995):729.

--Milliken Jr., Roger. "Eleven Generations of Forest Benefits: Where Do We Go From Here?" Journal of Forestry 94(no.2, Feb.1996):6.

--Mount, John R. "Southern California Edison: Incorporating Social Values into Forest Management." Journal of Forestry 94(no.2, Feb.1996):21.

--Argow, Keith A. "This Land Is Their Land: The Potential and Diversity of Nonindustrial Private Forests." Journal of Forestry 94(no.2, Feb.1996):30

--Montgomery, Claire A. Pollack, Robert A. "Economics and Biodiversity: Weighing the Benefits and Costs of Conservation." Journal of Forestry 94(no.2, Feb.1996):34.
--Proctor, James D. "Will the Real Land Ethic Please Stand Up?" Journal of Forestry 94(no.2, Feb.1996):39.

--Brown, Kathryn S. "Life on the Molecular Farm." Bioscience 46(no.2, Feb.1996):80. Transgenic plants are extending the range of chemical production possibilities in agriculture.

--Real, Leslie A. "Sustainability and the Ecology of Infectious Disease." Bioscience 46(no.2, Feb.1996):88. Diseases and their pathogenic agents must be viewed as important parts of any ecosystem management strategy.

--Gilbert, Gregory S., Hubbell, Stephen P. "Plant Diseases and the Conservation of Tropical Forests." Bioscience 46(no.2, Feb.1996):98. Conservation planners need to consider the roles diseases play in natural communities.

--Dobson, Andrew P., Carper, E. Robin. "Infectious Diseases and Human Population History," Bioscience 46(no.2, Feb.1996):115. Throughout history the establishment of disease has been a side effect of the growth of civilization.

--Garnett, Geoffrey P., Holmes, Edward C. "The Ecology of Emergent Infectious Disease." Bioscience 46(no.2, Feb.1996):127. Infectious diseases pose an ever-emerging threat to humanity.

--Wheeler, Douglas P. "An Ecosystem Approach to Species Protection." Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):7.

--Andrew, Anne Slaughter. "Brownfield Redevelopment: A State-Led Reform of Superfund Liability." Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):27.

--Hansen, Karen. "Minnesota's Landfill Cleanup Program: A New Superfund Paradigm." Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):32.

--Gover, Kevin, Cooney, James B. "Cooperation between Tribes and States in Protecting the Environment." Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):35.

--Hamm, M. Allison. "The Massachusetts Experience with Nonpoint Sources: Regulators Beware!" Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):47.

--McIntyre, Krista K. "RCRA: Circuits Conflict on Private-Party Cost Recovery." Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):58.

--Kozlowski, Richard G. Bleichfeld, Howard. "Wetlands Enforcement: Lion or Lamb?" Natural Resources and Environment 10(no. 3, Winter 1996):62.

--Guroian, Vigen, "The Christian Gardener: An Orthodox Meditation," Christian Century 113(no. 7, February 28, 1996):228-231. "When I garden, earth and earthworm pass between my fingers and I realize that I am made of the same stuff. When I pinch the cucumber vine and the water drips from capillaries to soil, I can feel the blood coursing through my body." "We are not only God's fellow workers in the garden; we ourselves are the garden." Guroian teaches theology and ethics at Loyola College in Baltimore.

--Duffy, Doril M., Roseland, Mark, Gunton, Thomas I. "A Preliminary Assessment of Shared Decision-Making in Land Use and Natural Resource Planning", Environments 23(No.2, 1996):1- .

--Benidickson, Jamie, "Termagami Old Growth: Pine, Politics and Public Policy", Environments 23(No.2, 1996):41- .
--Wilson, Anne, Roseland, Mark, Day, J.C., "Shared Decision-making and Public Land Planning: An Evaluation of the Vancouver Island, Regional CORE Process", Environments 23(No.2, 1996):69- .

--Flynn, Sarah, Gunton, Thomas, "Resolving Natural Resource Conflicts Through Alternative Dispute Resolution: A Case Study of the Timber Fish Wildlife Agreement in Washington State", Environments 23(No.2, 1996):101- .

--Burdge, Rabel J., "Introduction: Cultural Diversity in Natural Resource Use", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):1- .

--Wang, Grace A., Anderson, Dorothy H., Jakes, Pamela J., "Legislating the Past: Cultural Resource Management in the U.S. Forest Service", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):3- .

--Dick, Ronald E., "Subsistence Economics: Freedom from the Marketplace", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):19- .

--Heasley, Lynne, Delehanty, James, "The Politics of Manure: Resource Tenure and the Agropastoral Economy in Southwestern Niger", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):31- .

--Hoffman, Andrew J., "Trends in Corporate Environmentalism: The Chemical and Petroleum Industries, 1960-1993", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):47- .

--Yanitsky, Oleg N., "The Ecological Movement in Post-Totalitarian Russia: Some Conceptual Issues", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):65- .

--Walker, Gregg B., Daniels, Steven E., "The Clinton Administration, the Northwest Forest Conference, and Managing Conflict: When Talk and Structure Collide", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):77- .

--Kloppenburg Jr., Jack, Lezberg, Sharon, "Getting it Straight Before We Eat Ourselves to Death: From Food System to Foodshed in the 21st Century", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):93- .

--Leisz, Stephen, Gage, James, "Suggestions for Development and Conservation Research Needs in Madagascar", Society and Natural Resources, 9(No.1, 1996):97- .

--Hayes, Denis, "Environmental Law and Millennial Politics", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):953- . Hayes served as National Coordinator of the first Earth Day in 1970 and International Chairman of the twentieth anniversary of Earth Day in 1990. Reflecting on the decline of the environmental movement during the past few years, Hayes challenges movement leaders to acknowledge their weaknesses and offers a strategy for rebuilding public support for environmental protection.

--Leshy, John D., "Challenges to Environmental Law", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):967- . Leshy is the Solicitor of the United States Department of the Interior. Pointing to current efforts by Congressional Republicans to weaken many existing environmental laws, Leshy emphasizes the urgent need for continued scholarship and public service in the fields of environmental and natural resources law.

--Adler, Robert W., "Addressing Barriers to Watershed Protection", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):973- . A comprehensive review of the history of watershed programs in the United States and discusses the underlying issues preventing those programs from succeeding. Recognizing the need for comprehensive watershed-based protections, Adler concludes with a thorough analysis of recommendations for future watershed programs.

--Ruhl, J.B., "Section 7(a)(1) of the `New' Endangered Species Act: Rediscovering and Redefining the Untapped Power of Federal Agencies' Duty to Conserve Species", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):1107- . Ruhl discusses the history of section 7(a)(1) of the Endangered Species Act, which imposes a duty to conserve species on all federal agencies, and explores the recent administrative and Congressional actions affecting this duty. He argues that the provision should be interpreted to require federal agencies to implement programs for the recovery of endangered species.

--Mandiberg, Susan F., "The Dilemma of Mental State in Federal Regulatory Crimes: The Environmental Example", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):1165- . Mandiberg draws upon Supreme Court case law and traditional common-law principles to suggest a framework for interpreting the mental state provisions of environmental and other regulatory crimes. Unlike other commentators, she suggests that mental-state analysis be grounded in notions of moral wrongdoing, understood from a modern perspective. Professor Mandiberg then applies this framework to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act to resolve some outstanding issues and illuminate others that have not yet been widely addressed by the courts.

--Bricker, Jennie, "Wheelchair Accessibility in Wilderness Areas: The Nexus Between the ADA and the Wilderness Act", Environmental Law, 25(No.4, 1995):1243- . Bricker explores the interaction of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Wilderness Act to determine whether wilderness areas can be made more accessible to individuals with disabilities while
simultaneously protecting "wilderness character" in those areas. She concludes that greater access is allowable under the Wilderness Act, though not reflected adequately in currently proposed ADA regulations.

--Horton, Curtis M., "Protecting Biodiversity and Cultural Diversity Under Intellectual Property Law: Toward a New International System", Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 10(No.1, 1995):1- .

--Gaskins Jr., Richard C., Sullivan, Shawn F., "New Clean Air Act Enforcement Provisions and the Defense of Enforcement Actions", Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 10(No.1, 1995):39- .

--Gleason, Jennifer M., Johnson, Bern A., "Environmental Law Across Borders", Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 10(No.1, 1995):67- .

--Hood, Christopher B., "Metaphors of Shareholder Liability Under CERCLA", Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 10(No.1, 1995):85- .

--Bloomer, Danette Landkammer, "Beyond Our Own Backyard: Considering the Legal Implications and Environmental Risks of Importing Spent Nuclear Fuel", Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 10(No.1, 1995):157- .

--Cutler, Jeffry D., "Implications of Strict Scrutiny of Scientific Evidence: Does Daubert Deal a Death Blow to Toxic Tort Plaintiffs", Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 10(No.1, 1995):189.

--Fisher, Richard F., "Broader and Deeper: The Challenge of Forestry Education in the Late 20th Century", Journal of Forestry, 94(No.3, 1996):4- .

--Skoch, Edwin A., "Personal Injury Liability Coverage for Environmental Contamination under the Comprehensive General Liability Policy: Is Migrating Pollution A `Wrongful Entry or Eviction or Other Invasion of the Right of Private Occupancy'", Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 9(No.1, 1995):37- .

--Harutunian, Peter H., "Maximal Environmental Effects under the De Minimis Doctrine: Controversial changes in Ozone Redesignation Policy", Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 9(No.1, 1995):89- .

--Reimer, Monica, "Competitive Injury as a Basis for Standing in Endangered Species Act Cases", Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 9(No.1, 1995):109- .
--Schoenfarber, Jay, "Capitalizing on Environmental Disasters: Efficient Utilization of Green Capital", Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 9(No.1, 1995):147- .

--Levine, James H., "Leslie Salt Co. v. United States: The Ninth Circuit Revisits Federal Jurisdiction over Isolated Wetlands", Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 9(No.1, 1995):167- .

--Pocalyko, Steve, "Ethyl Corp. v. Environmental Protection Agency: Circuit Court Limits EPA Administrator's Discretion under Waiver Provisions of the Clean Air Act", Tulane Environmental Law Journal, 9(No.1, 1995):183- .

--Gillis, Anna Maria, "Weathering Warming in Colorado", Bioscience, 46(No.3, 1996):178- . Heating of a Rocky Mountain meadow shows that alterations in ecosystems provide important climate feedbacks.

--Van Wilgen, Brian W., Cowling, Richard M., Burgers, Chris J., "Valuation of Ecosystem Services", Bioscience, 46(No.3, 1996):184- . A case study from South African fynbos ecosystems.

--Rastetter, Edward B., "Validating Models of Ecosystem Response to Global Change", Bioscience, 46(No.3, 1996):190- . How can we best assess models of long-term global change?

--Baker, Beth, "Washington Watch: Nations Coming to Agreement That Polluted Oceans Need a Cleanup", Bioscience, 46(No.3, 1996):183- .

--Sarkar, Sahotra, "Thinking of Biology: Ecological Theory and Anuran Declines", Bioscience, 46(No.3, 1996):199- .

--Miceli, Thomas J., Pancak, Katherine A., Sirmans, C.F., "Protecting Children from Lead-Based Paint Poisoning: Should Landlords Bear the Burden", Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 23(No.1, 1995):1- .

--Fitzgerald, Edward A., "The Waste War: Oregon Waste Systems, Inc. v. Department of Environmental Quality", Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 23(No.1, 1995):43- .

--Kates, Robert W., "Environmental Surprise: Expecting the Unexpected?", Environment, 38(No.2, 1996):6- . Although environmental surprises are unavoidable, humanity can learn both to anticipate them and to respond to them more effectively.

--Muller, Frank, "Mitigating Climate Change: The Case for Energy Taxes", Environment, 38(No.2, 1996):12- . Carbon and energy taxes are one powerful tool in the struggle to curb carbon dioxide emissions, but climate change policymakers need to reassess how to respond to their critics.

--MacDonald, Gordon J., "Assessing the U.S. Environment", Environment 38(No.2, 1996):25- . The latest report of the Council on Environmental Quality serves as no better a guide to policy than its predecessors.

--Bull, A.T., "Biotechnology for Environmental Quality: Closing the Circles", Biodiversity and Conservation 5(No.1, 1996):1- .

--Shaltout, K.H., El-Halawany, E.F., El-Kady, H.F., "Consequences of Protection From Grazing on Diversity and Abundance of the Coastal Lowland Vegetation in Eastern Saudi Arabia", Biodiversity and Conservation 5(No.1, 1996):27- .

--Chatelain, C., Gautier, L., Spichiger, R., "A Recent History of Forest Fragmentation in Southwestern Ivory Coast (Africa)", Biodiversity and Conservation 5(No.1, 1996):37- .

--Berg, A., Tjernberg, M., "Common and Rare Swedish Vertebrates- Distribution and Habitat Preferences", Biodiversity and Conservation 5(No.1, 1996):101- .

--Taylor, Jane, Lawson, Andrew. The English Garden Cottage. London: Orion of Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1994 (distributed by Trafalgar Square, North Promfet, VT 05053; 800 423 4525). Prowling through the countryside, photographer Lawson catches infinite variations of the endearing style of cottage gardens--clematis in cascades, grappling roses, walkways massed with medleys of color. Author Taylor finds the wisdom at work in this calculated riot, and how it all evolved from medieval herbs through imported wonders brought down from the big house. England grew more salad greens in the 16th century than in the 20th, and that red flowers planted near the house kept the devil away. Like old cottage walls, the lore of their gardens has layers.

--Witney, Dudley, Hopkins, Adam. The Moorlands of England. Toronto: Key Porter Books. (800/ 668-5525). Anyone who has gazed on an English moor, tramped it, or perhaps felt its primordial mystery through reading Wuthering Heights or Jane Eyre cannot help but wonder about these tree-barren lands of bracken and peat and rock. The moorlands go back to Neolithic and Bronze Age England, when early farmers cleared forest and dwelt there, leaving their dolmens and stone circles and precisely bordered fields. The damp moors, with their ruined abbeys, myths--and, of course, sheep--are revealed as another tough soil from which the English sprang.

--Bates, H.E., Parker, Agnes Miller. Through the Woods: The English Woodland--April to April. London: Frances Lincoln, 1995 (distributed by Trafalgar Square, North Promfet, VT 05053; 800 423 4525. The playwright H.E. Bates took his turn in the 1930's at praising the beauty of the English land in a delightfully observant journal of woodsy rambles. Through the Woods has been reissued with its original woodcuts by Agnes Miller Parker.

--Carrere, Ricardo and Larry Lohmann. Pulping the South: Third World Tree Plantations in the Global Paper Economy. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1996. In many regions of the South today, the expansion of the pulp and paper industry is one of the most important causes of land and water conflicts. Information from a wide range of countries and sources on the threats to livelihood, soil, and biodiversity generated by large-scale pulpwood plantations. Case studies from Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay. How a varied assemblage of actors both inside and outside the state construct the social and physical grids through which the wood-fiber industry captures subsidies, redistributes risk, manages paper demand and evades, digests, and regulates resistance.

--Juma, Calestour and J.B. Ojwang, eds. In Land We Trust: Environment, Private Property and Constitutional Change. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1996. This book presses the development of an African perspective on environmental policy. Relevant not only in the developing world but also in those developed countries such as the United States where conservation efforts are hampered by the lack of an adequate constitutional basis.

--McCully, Patrick. Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1996. The history and politics of dam building world wide and why large dams have become the most controversial of technologies. The wide-ranging ecological impacts of dams, the human consequences of these impacts, and the extensive technical, safety and economic problems which afflict the technology are described through numerous case studies.

--Kerridge, Richard and Neil Sammells, eds. Writing the Environment: Ecocriticism and Literature. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1996. The rich variety of environmentalist positions--from ecofeminism to deep ecology--and theories about their contribution to critical theory, literature and popular culture. Contributors explore a wide variety of issues including sexual politics and nature, the link between environmental and cultural degradation, the influence of Heidegger on environmentalism and the degree of continuity between poststructuralist theory and ecological perspectives.

--Dahl, Arthur Lyon. Ecological Foundations for a New Economics: The Theory of ECOs and Its Implications for New Paradigms. Atlantic Highlands NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, forthcoming 1997. Dahl provides the nonspecialist with a readable understanding of scientific ecology's systems approach. In place of traditional paradigms, the author introduces the notion of ECOs. This, he argues, provides a much more accurate portrayal of the real world as a complex 'nested' structure of interacting, dynamic and constantly changing systems.

--Merchant, Carolyn, ed. Ecology. Atlantic Highlands NJ: Humanities Press, 1994. This, the fourth volume in a series "Key Concepts in Critical Theory" is designed for courses in environmental studies, politics, history, and philosophy. This explores the connections between the domination of nature and human beings as articulated by thinkers such as Adorno, Horkheimer, and Marcuse, and asks how current environmental philosophies propose to liberate both humans and nature. The relationships between domination and class society, hierarchy, human-centeredness, patriarchy, economics, religion, and science are discussed. Merchant is at the University of California, Berkeley.

--Shiva, Vandana. Monocultures of the Mind: Biodiversity, Biotechnology and 'Scientific' Agriculture. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1993. Shiva examines the current threats to the planet's biodiversity and the environmental and human consequences of its erosion and replacement by monocultural production. Shiva is director of the Research Foundation on Science and Technology, Dehradun.

--Shiva, Vandana and Ingunn Moser, eds. Biopolitics: An Ecofeminist Reader on Biotechnology. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1995. This reader assembles some of the most important work from feminists and environmentalists critical of the headlong rush into what is likely to prove a technological minefield. Contributors present frameworks for understanding and contextualizing the debates on biotechnological development. Shiva is director of the Research Foundation on Science and Technology, Dehradun. Moser is at the Centre for Technology and Culture, University of Oslo.

--Ravaioli, Carla. Economists and the Environment: A Diverse Dialogue. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1995. Economists from a range of intellectual positions engage in conversations with the author. Contributors include Milton Friedman, John Kenneth Galbraith, Immanuel Wallerstein.

--Salleh, Ariel. Ecofeminism as Politics: Nature, Marx and the Postmodern. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, Zed Books, 1996. Exploring the philosophical and political challenge of ecofeminism, Salleh shows how the ecology movement has been held back by conceptual confusion over the implications of gender difference, while much that passes in the name of feminism is actually an obstacle to ecological change an global democracy.

--Foltz, Bruce V. Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaphysics of Nature. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995. Through a comprehensive study of the status of "nature" and related concepts such as "earth" in the thought of Heidegger, Foltz attempts to show how Heidegger's understanding of the natural environment and our relationship to it offers a more promising basis for environmental philosophy than others that have been put forward. Foltz is at Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, Florida.

--Beck, Ulrich and Mark A. Ritter translator. Ecological Enlightenment: Essays on the Politics of the Risk Society. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1994. In the sequel to Risk Society Beck now examines the politics of that risk society. He starts from the assumption that the ecological issue, considered politically and sociologically, is a systematic, legalized violation of fundamental civil rights and, from this position, adduces that the ecological conflict is the successor to the industrial conflict. Beck is at the Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich.

--Correa, Sonia. Population and Reproduction Rights: Feminist Perspectives from the South. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1994. Correa analyzes the detrimental effects on women of past and present fertility management policies. Turning to issues of sexual and reproductive health and women's rights, she argues for the indivisibility of health and rights.

--Lequesne (LeQuesne), Carole. Reforming World Trade: The Social and Environmental Issues. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996. The impact of rapid trade liberalization on the livelihoods of poor communities and ways to protect their rights.

--Coote, Belinda. The Trade Trap: Poverty and the Global Commodity Markets. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996. The complexities and difficulties of the international trade system. Argues that trade agreements must incorporate minimum standards in order to defend poor people's basic social and environmental rights against the impact of unregulated trade.

--Dalton, D. and J. Barraclough. One Earth, Two Worlds. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996. Full-color case studies look at environmental issues from the point of view of the poor, those who depend on the environment more directly and are more immediately affected by its deteriorations.

--Eade, D and S. Williams, with contributions from Oxfam Staff. The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief. Atlantic Highlands, NJ,: Humanities Press, 1996. This is the product of over fifty years' experience of Oxfam in their work in over seventy countries around the world. It analyzes policy, procedure, and practice in fields as diverse as health, human-rights, emergency relief, capacity-building, and agricultural production.

--Hill, John Lawrence. The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet. Rowman and Littlefield, 1995. Various philosophical perspectives and the many reasons for adopting a vegetarian diet, from animal interests and rights, to health benefits, global ecology, and world hunger. With a chapter responding to common objections to becoming vegetarian and an examination of why, if the evidence in its favor is so strong, vegetarianism has not caught on. Hill is at St. Thomas University School of Law.

--Gotlieb, Yosef. Development, Environment and Global Dysfunction: Toward Sustainable Recovery. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1996. Gotlieb offers an alternative conceptual framework to development. Rather than striving for unlimited economic growth, the processes described are aimed at building a future in which quality of life, community and ecological welfare replaces unevenly distributed economic growth and technological quick-fixes.

--Maser, Chris. Resolving Environmental Conflict: Towards Sustainable Community Development. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1996. Maser examines notions of development sustainability, and community and the synergism of ecology, culture and economic needs that promote a healthy environment enriching the lives of all its inhabitants.

--Gowdy, John M. and Sabine O'Hara. Economic Theory for Environmentalists. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1995. The implications of neoclassical economic theory and how it relates to the environment and environmental activity. Each chapter outlines the concepts of economic theory and the relevance of its environmental and policy implications.

--Hanks, Sharon LaBonde. Ecology and the Biosphere: Principles and Problems. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1996. This is a one-semester course text for non-science majors. Three main divisions of the text are: 1. What science is and what students need to know about it; 2. The biosphere, how it works, and its current problems, 3. What students can do about the problems. Hanks is at William Paterson College, New Jersey.
--Katz, Michael and Dorothy Thornton. Environmental Management Tools on the Internet. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1996. Besides emphasizing the tools needed to find valuable information, this manual shows a number of actual sites where no-cost data can be pulled off the internet.

--Clinebell, Howard. Ecotherapy. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1996. Clinebell explores an ecologically grounded theory of personality development, outlines a model for doing ecologically oriented psychotherapy, counseling, medical healing, teaching, and parenting. He suggests how these earthy approaches may be utilized in a variety of social contexts and cultures.

--Beamish, Richard. Getting the Word Out in the Fight to Save the Earth. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1995. An instruction manual on how environmental and not-for-profit organizations can use existing avenues of mass communication to maximum effect. How any non-profit citizens group can expand and activate its membership, pressure government officials, use the news media, and shape public policy in the fight to save the earth. Beamish is a communications consultant.

--Little, Charles E. Greenways for America. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1995. The history, the examples, and the practical methods for open-space recreation planners. Little describes dozens of greenway projects that have improved local economies, and preserved outdoor space for millions of citizens. Little is an author and journalist specializing in American life and history and the environment.

--Peterson, David L. and Darryl R. Johnson, Eds. Human Ecology and Climate Change: People and Resources in the Far North. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1995. How global climate change might alter the face of the northern regions of North America during the next century. With a multidisciplinary team of contributors, the chapters cover meteorology, climate modeling, wildlife biology, human ecology, and resource management, and take an objective look into the future of natural resources and human populations in this region.

--Environmental Justice: A Negotiation Training Program. Developed by graduate students at MIT, here are negotiation exercises designed to help groups teach and learn as they negotiate. Case studies: (1) Siting an asphalt plant in the city of Madrona. Six keyholder states must meet to consider how to address equity and fairness claims. (2) The Beaumont Incinerator. What are valid grounds for claims of environmental justice? Impacts and risks concentrated in poor communities, environmental racism. $ 10 each. Order from: Program on Negotiation Clearinghouse, Harvard Law School, 518 Pound Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138. Phone 617/495-1684. Fax 617/495-7818.


MASTERS THESES at Lancaster University

The program in environmental ethics and values at Lancaster University has, in recent years, produced a surprising number of M.A. theses. A list follows: (Thanks to Vernon Pratt, Program Director). Lancaster University. Furness College, Lancaster, LA1 4YG, UK. Phone 44 1524 65201 Fax 44 1524 592503. E-mail: philosophy@lancaster.ac.uk. More information on this program is available at their website: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/users/philosophy or at http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html or at http://www.cep.unt.edu/Lancas.html. (Thanks to Eugene Hargrove.)

Ainsworth, Jonathan N., The Ecological Holism of New Science, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1991.

Arredondo, Edgar., On the Defence of the Human Individual and Non-Human Nature, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Beevers, Paul, Ecocentrism and Misanthropy, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.
Bellingham, Philip, Unnatural Selection: the Possibility of a Phenomenological Ecology, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Benoit-Asselman, David, Ways of Seeing, Ways of Knowing: Some Perspectives on the Relationship Between Phenomenology and Landscape Photography, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Booth, Peter, Anarchism and the Environmental Crisis, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Butler Ricketts, Catherine, Hume's Passion and Aristotle's Virtue: Ethics of Caring and Their Application to the Natural World, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1993.

Charlton, Noel G., A Paradigm Change in Values for Environmental Survival?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Clarke, Benedick, Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Cook, Gavin, Science, Experience, Ethics & Phenomenology; A Phenomenology of Moral Experience; Moral Controversies & Their Possible Resolution; Perspectives Relating to the Environment, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Cox, Cleo, rDNA Genetic Engineering: More of the Same?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Cullen James T., A Systems Approach to Environmental Values: Systems Process and the Bifurcation of Nature, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Drew, Simon, The Modern Self and Environmental Philosophy, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Evans, Paul, A Sketch of an Environmental Ethic for the Conservation of Plants, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Hartley, Stuart David, Mathesis Universalis or Taxinomia? A Reappraisal, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1993.

Rowley, Christopher, The Benefits and the Problems of the Proposed Merger of Development and Environmental Education, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1993.

Grace, Patrick, Is There Any Hope or Are We Completely Screwed? A Study of Some Implications for our Environment Due to the Changing Values of Experience, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1993.

Freeman, David, Self Realisation: Variations on a Deep Ecological Theme, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1993.

Gifford, Richard E.II, A Philosophical and Historical Analysis of Dr. Rupert Sheldrake's Hypothesis of Formative Causation, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1993.

Gittins, John W., Local Distinctiveness and Sense of Place as Concepts and Tools for Promoting, Developing and Sustaining Community Based Environmental Action, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Hewett, Jonathon, 'Green' Claims in Advertising: Caveat Emptor, Caveat Lector?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Mickey, Adrian, Moral Responsibility: A Case Study in Investment Banking, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1991.

Hunt, Nicholas, Being and Everythingness? Aspects of Freedom and Identity in the Thought of Sartre and Others, With Reference to 'Environmental Ethics', Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Lee, Wendy A., On Discerning the Value in Domesticated Nature, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Lloyd, Catherine A., The Balance of Value to the Customer & the Environment for Undergrounding Overhead Lines (sponsored by Norweb), Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1990.

Lucas, Peter, This is not a Planet: Ethics and Environmentalism in the Age of the World Picture, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Macheta, Aleksandra, Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Mcdowell (McDowell), James B., Rethinking Man and Nature: Eco-feminism, Taoism and the Human Character Ideal, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1990.

Mezey, Matthew K. N., Deep Ecology and Transpersonal Psychology: an Enlightening Confrontation?, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 199?.

Mortlock, Annette, At the Roots of Deep Ecology, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1991.

Mulvaney, Tony, An Explanation, and Analysis, of Heidegger's Concepts of 'Being' and 'Clearing' and Their Application to Environmental Philosophy, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Nantsou, Theodota, The Social Role of Modern Science and its Relation to the Natural World: a Critique, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Nicklin, Christopher G. J., Moral Possibility After Nihilism: a Deconstruction of Ethics and Epistemology, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Potter, Stephen, An Environmental Ethic for Business (with special reference to the Electricity Supply Industry), Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1990.

Prescott, Helen, Nature and Self, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Rogers, Peter, A Genealogy of Guilt and Environmentalism, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.
Serrano-Barnett, Teresa, Ethics and Conservation, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Sidwell, Linda, An Examination of the Transformative Effects of New Social Movement Activity upon the Individual: A Qualitative Approach, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1991.

Smith, F. Russell, The Value of Ferns and the Problem with Bracken, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Speight, Laurence, The Case for an Ecocentric Consciousness, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1994.

Starr, Christopher, Are Native Species Always Best?: A Discussion of the Scientific, Cultural and Ethical Issues Surrounding the Native Species Debate, With Particular Reference to Forest and Woodland Trees in the United Kingdom, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Sutton, Richard, The Future of Environmental Education, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1992.

Todd, Ivan, Phenomenological Fragments in a Year of Roads Protests, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Tomasini, Floris J-W., Sublime and the Ridiculous, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.

Walford, James, Phenomenology of the Sublime, Master's Thesis, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, September 1995.


VIDEOTAPES AND MULTIMEDIA

"Ecofeminism Now!" is a grassroots video on ecofeminism. The video gives an introduction to the branches of ecofeminist theory in the U.S., as well as some of the people creating the theory and involved in direct action. Included are interviews with Margo Adair, Carol Adams, Judi Bari, Josephine Donovan, Lori Gruen, Chaia Heller, Marti Kheel, Charlene Spretnak, Vandana Shiva, Karen Warren, and others. The video project is an activist project, and is neither sponsored nor controlled by any business or university. In VHS format, about 37 minutes. Cost: U.S. $15 plus postage ($2 for book/video rate, $3 for 2-day mail). To request the video, send a check payable to Greta Gaard, to:
Dr. Greta Gaard
420 Humanities Bldg.
University of Minnesota
Duluth, MN 55812.
Send payment in U.S. funds only via personal, cashier's check, or university check. Prof. Gaard is not able to handle foreign currency, notes drawn on banks outside of the U.S., credit card orders, C.O.D. orders, or purchase orders. What she can do, for international people, is find out the exact mailing costs to various countries. In such cases, please contact Prof. Gaard for more information. Prof. Gaard can be reached via Email at ggaard@d.umn.edu.

EnviroAccount Software of Davis, California is pleased to annouce the release of its new environmental awareness software, EarthAware for Windows 3.1 and Windows 95. EarthAware does a comprehensive environmental impact assessment for an individual or a household, and gives a final score, a rating (ranging from Eco-Titan to Eco-Tyrannosaurus rex), and a first ever personal CO2 total in kg/yr, all in a seven page printout. EarthAware should be of interest to anyone interested in the environment and in reducing their impact on the environnent. Developed by Don Lotter, a graduate student in the Ecology Graduate Group at the University of California at Davis, EarthAware is the successor to the highly acclaimed EnviroAccount for DOS, and EnviroAccount for Macintosh. EarthAware comes in both a home version ($34.95) and a school version ($69.95) and is especially appropriate for science teachers and environmental educators. Environmental education using EarthAware is personal, dynamic, and action oriented. No other tool can motivate students toward comprehensive environmental literacy as quickly and easily as EarthAware with its personalized and dynamic approach that immediately links a student to the environment through his/her actions. For more information, contact: EnviroAccount Software, 605 Sunset Ct., Davis, California 95616; Phone/Fax: 1-800-554-0317 or 916-756-9156; E-mail: dwlotter@dcn.davis.ca.us; World Wide Web: http://wheel.dcn.davis.ca.us/go/earthaware.

Films for the Humanities and Sciences offers over 80 titles in environmental science and policy issues. For sale or rental. P. O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. For a flyer call 800/257-5126.

Environmental Ethics. Eric Katz, interviewed by Joram Graf Haber. Distributed by Jones and Bartlett, 40 Tall Pine Drive, Sudbury, MA 01776. 800/832-0034. 28 minutes. $ 49.95. In an Ethics in the 90's series, produced by Joram Graf Haber, Bergen Community College, New Jersey, for Cable Television Network of New Jersey. Katz teaches philosophy at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. What is environmental ethics? Human-centered ethics versus duties to the natural world. What kind of entity is morally considerable? What are our goals, ends, as humans wishing a good life in the world for ourselves and other forms of life? Utilitarian arguments might not always favor conserving natural value. Extending the moral community, differences between environmental ethics and the animal rights movement. Restoration biology as "the big lie." A restored environment is an artifact and fundamentally anthropocentric. Do trees have standing? The idea has been proposed as a convenient legal fiction to give environmentalists standing to sue, but such fictions can sometimes be dangerous, and it is better to give environmentalists such standing in other ways. Tree are morally considerable, but do not have rights. The interview concludes with questions from a student panel about a restoration project in Walden Woods, the Amazon Rainforest (fundamentally, the forest deserves protection for what it is in itself, not just for utilitarian reasons) and recycling, obligations of parents, and obligations to future generations. The tape is all taking heads, and more of an informal interview than a polished video production, but a reasonable and brief introduction to issues in environmental ethics.

Logs, Lies & Videotape. Green Fire Productions. 12 minutes. Powerful visual documentation, opposing the "salvage" logging underway on the U.S. National Forests. Protestors, including Brock Evans of National Audubon Society, being carried off by authorities. Interviews with scientists and others who know these forests and challenge the claim that the forests are in crisis from pest and wildfires. Good, short, current film. If this doesn't start a useful and provocative discussion, nothing will. Available for $ 5.00 from National Wildlife Foundation's Western Natural Resources Center, 921 SW Morrison, Suite 512, Portland, OR 97205. 503/222-1429. Fax 503/222-3203. Also: Green Fire Productions, P. O. Box 11216, Eugene, OR 97440. Phone and fax 541/486-4070. Another phone and fax: 503/274-6234

Catch Me If You Can. In two sections, The Predators and The Grazers. This VHS program boasts great footage of small animals growing up in the wild, learning to survive through play. Wolves are featured. 55 minutes. From Trailwood Landis Films, P. O. Box 1421, Huron, SD 57350.

The Wolf: Real or Imagined? Award winning video by Bruce Weide examines the wolf from the standpoint of human perceptions as portrayed in stories, myths, music, folklore, film, and art. Study guide. 28 minutes. From Montanans for Quality Television, 280 E. Front Street, Missoula, MT 59807. 406/543-6333.

Wolves. Video from Audubon, narrated by Robert Redford. What happened to this fierce predator, the ecological importance of wolves, and the challenge of protecting the devastated populations. 60 minutes. From NorthWord Press, P. O. Box 1360, Minocqua, WI 54568. 800/336-5666.




ENVIRONMENTAL CAREERS

The main sources of listing of environmental opportunities, permanent positions, summer programs and internships, assistantships, and so on, are listed below. Faculty and others may wish to check that these publications are in their local career placement office. These are largely in the U.S. and Canada, though many offer overseas opportunities. Similar information from other nations is welcome.
Environmental Career Opportunities. Published twice a month by The Brubach Corporation, 1776 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006. Phone 202/861-0592. FAX 202/293-3054. ISSN 1065-0121. $ 129 per year, $ 29 for two months. Typically lists 400+ jobs, in six different categories: (1) Environmental Advocacy, Communication and Outreach, (2) Environmental Policy, Legislation and Regulation, (3) Conservation and Resource Management, (4) Environmental Engineering, Risk Assessment and Impact Analysis, (5) Environmental Education and Instruction, (6) Environmental Interns and Volunteers. Said to be the best in the field. Should be in every placement office and career service center.
Environmental Opportunities, a monthly publication listing jobs open in environmental affairs, has been published for over thirteen years, the oldest in the field. The editor is Sanford Berry, P. O. Box 788, Walpole, NH 03608, Phone/FAX: 603/756-4553. $ 44.00 per year. The publication is sponsored by the Environmental Studies Department, Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire 03431. ISSN 0736-9603. This listing is typically fifteen pages a month. Environmental Opportunities has about 4,000 subscribers, and can be found in many placement and career service offices.
The Job Seeker lists current vacancies in the environmental professions. It is now in its eighth year. There are two issues per month, typically about 18 pages in rather small print, listing over a hundred jobs. Subscriptions are $60 per year for individuals. Career offices often get it. Address: The Job Seeker, Rt. 2, Box 16, Warrens, WI 54666. Phone 608/378-4920.
Earth Work. The Student Conservation Association, P. O. Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603-0550. $ 30.00 a year. Lists 100-200 jobs, often for students and summers, but many are permanent.
Environmental Careers World. Sponsored by the Environmental Career Center, 22 Research Drive, Hampton, Virginia 23666. 804/865-0605. Published twice a month. Lists several hundred jobs. Now in its second year. This publication is online at a world wide web site: http://www.infi.net/~ecw/jobs/htm.
The following book would also be helpful to many students and others: The New Complete Guide to Environmental Careers, by Environmental Careers Organization. Boston, MA: Island Press, 1993.

The Natural Resources Career Office at Colorado State University maintains a world wide web site: http://www.cnr.colostate.edu/~peted/pd1.htm, and from this you can reach two other pages: Natural Resources Jobs and Web Sites with Natural Resources Job Announcements. The latter page offers connections with about a dozen other web sites where environmental jobs are listed, along with various other information. For example: The Department of Interior Automated Job Announcement System, the State of Oregon, Natural Resource Job Listings, Natural Resources Management Database; Environmental Careers Organization (with Environmental Careers World online; JobWeb; and others. Such connections are developing rapidly and more will soon be in place. The Career Officer at CSU is Peter S. Dixon, Room 103, Natural Resources Bldg., Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 970/491-2668. FAX 970/491-0279. E-mail pdixon@vines.colostate.edu

The Environmental Careers Organization (ECO) is a U.S. national nonprofit organization with five regional offices (California, Florida, Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest) that seeks to place persons seeking employment, short-term and long-term, in environmental careers. They have placed more than 4,500 aspiring environmental professionals, about 300 persons each year. Contact: The Environmental Careers Organization, 286 Congress Street, Boston, MA 02210-1009.

Environmental Field Studies Abroad. The School for Field Studies offers semester and summer environmental field research programs around the world. All courses carry college credit through Boston University; tuitions range from $ 2,600 to $10,300; considerable scholarship help is available. Over 6,000 students have participated in the program, from 150 home institutions. Five major centers are involved, in Australia (rainforests), Mexico (marine mammals), Costa Rica (sustainable development), Kenya (wildlife management), Turks and Caicos Islands (marine conservation), and Palau, U.S. Trust Territories (islands). Headquarters: 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915-4436. Phone 508/927-7777. FAX 508/927-5127.


EVENTS

1996

--April 18, 1996. Beyond the Balance of Nature Environmental Ecology Faces the New Ecology. Duke University Law School. Principal speakers Daniel Botkin (Biology, George Mason University), Gerald Emison (EPA and Duke University), Alyson Flournoy (Law, University of Florida), George Frampton (Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Interior), Walter Kuhlmann (Attorney, Madison, WI), Bryan Norton (Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology), Timothy Profeta (Duke University), Dan Tarlock (Chicago-Kent College of Law). Contact Timothy Profeta or Catherine Malinin Dunn, Duke University Law School, P. O. Box 90364, Durham, NC 27708-0364. 919/613-7224.

--May 5-10, 1996. Life Science Bioethics Institute, with attention to the Iowa State University model program in ethics and environmental, food, and agricultural biotechnology, held at Michigan State University. Speakers include: James Rachels, Gary Comstock, Gary Varner on whether farm animals have moral rights, Lilly-Marlene Russow on the moral status of the environment, Fred Gifford on owning the products of genetic engineering, William Aiken on obligations to the hungry in developing countries, Paul Thompson on the right to use water for agricultural purposes. Contact: Fred Gifford, Dept. of Philosophy, Michigan State University. Phone (517) 353-1993. gifford@pilot.msu.edu

--May 18-23, 1996. Sixth International Symposium on Society and Natural Resource Management, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA. Contact Jim Finley, School of Forest Resources, The Pennsylvania State University, 2B Ferguson Building, University Park, PA 16802. Phone 814/863-0401. Fax 814/865-3725. This is a large conference with many themes and many opportunities to meet wildlife and natural resource professionals with an interest in ethical and policy issues, also coming at a time when many academics are free and ready for such a conference.

--May 19-23, 1996. Wilderness and Natural Areas in Eastern North America, Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Includes an Ethics, History, and Policy section. Contact Michael H. Legg, College of Forestry, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX 75962. Phone 409/468-3301. FAX 409/468-2489.

--May 30-June 1, 1996. Ethical Issues of Animal Research, Bloomington, Indiana. Jointly sponsored by the Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions, Indiana University, and the Kennedy Institute of Georgetown University. A multi-disciplinary conference for those broadly interested in the profound questions of ethics and animal use. Some speakers: R. G. Frey, "Philosophical Arguments for and Against Animal Research"; David H. Little. "Religious Perspectives on the Moral Standing of Animals"; Nicholas Steneck, "Decision Making in Animal Research"; Caird Rexroad, "A Scientist's Perspective on the Manipulation of Livestock Genomes"; John P. Gluck, "Raising Monkeys without Mothers." Contact Kenneth D. Pimple, Poytner Center, 410 North Park Avenue, Bloomington, ID 47405. 812/855-0261. Fax 812/855-3315.

--June 2-6, 1996. Practical Environmental Directions: A Changing Agenda, National Association of Environmental Professionals Annual Conference, Houston, Texas. Contact: National Association of Environmental Professionals, 5165 MacArthur Boulevard, NW, Washington, DC 20016.

--June 10-13, 1996. Aesthetics of Forests. The Second International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics. Lusto, Punkaharju, Finland. The first conference was at Koli, Finland in 1994. Among the plenary speakers: Holmes Rolston, III. Contact: Yrjo Sepanmaa, Department of Finnish Language, Literature, and Cultural Studies, University of Joensuu, P. O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland. Phone 358 93 151 4348. FAX 358 73 151 2035.

--June 15-20, 1996. 2nd International Interdisciplinary Conference on the Environment, Newport, Rhode Island. At the Hotel Viking. Contact: Demetri Kantarelis or Kevin L. Hickey, Interdisciplinary Envrionmental Association, Assumption College, Economics/Foreign Affairs Department, 500 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01615-0005. FAX 508/799-4502.

--June 20-23, 1996. Estoril, Portugal. 18th Annual Meeting of IAIA (International Association for Impact Assessment). A joint session with ISEE is being planned by Robert Goodland and Laura Westra on "Sustainability Assessment: The Interface Between Ethics and Environment." Speakers will include J. Karr and Alan Holland. Contact Westra for details.

--June 25-28, 1996. Conference on Development Ethics. Ethics Development and Global Values. Organised by IDEA, Ethics Working Group, IUCN, and Development Ethics Study Group. Submitted by Ron Engel, Fax (312) 753-1323; or contact Dr. Nigel Dower, Developmentn Ethics Conference (1996), Dept. of Philosophy, University of Aberdeen, AB9 2UB, Scotland, UK. Telephone/Fax 44-1224 / 01224-272369; Email: ph1001@abdn.ao.uk.

--June 27-July 3, 1996. Free Market Environmentalism. Montana State University, Bozeman. Contact: PERC, 502 S. 19th Ave., Suite 211, Bozeman, Montana 59715. Phone 406/587-9591. FAX 406/586-7555.

--July 14-16, 1996. Spirituality and Sustainability, held in Assisi, Italy. Thomas Berry will keynote the conference. Principal sponsors, Saint Thomas University, Miami, Florida, and the Center for Respect of Life and Environment. Other sponsors: the IUCN Ethics Working Group and the International Center for Earth Concerns. Contact Dr. Elisabeth Ferrero, St. Thomas University, 16400 NW 32nd Avenue, Miami, FL 33045. Phone 305/628-6650. Fax 305/628-6764.

--July 25-28, 1996. International Society of Business, Economics, and Ethics: First World Congress. Tokyo, Japan. Papers due: December 15, 1995. Contact: Georges Enderle, College of Business Administration, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.

--Aug. 5-10, 1996. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. International Conference on the Island of Borneo. Education and the Environment: Towards Equitable and Sustainable Development. Sponsored by the World Education Fellowship (WEF) in association with the University of Malaysia in Sarawak (UNIMAS). The important role educators at all levels can play in enhancing environmental responsibility and protection. Issues of equity and sustainability will be crucial elements. The conference is located in one of the world's environmental hot-spots, the equatorial rain forests of Borneo. A keynote speaker is David Suzuki, Professor of Genetics, University of British Columbia, and an internationally recognized environmental scientist and author, producer of nature and educational programs with Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Call for papers: Christopher Strong, Conference Programme Co-ordinator, P.O. Box 205, Lilydale, Tasmania 7268, Australia. Phone/Fax +61 03 951 350. Also contact: The Secretariat, 39th WEF Conference on Education and the Environment, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia, Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia. Fax ++60 82 672275 e-mail: azib@frst.unimas.my.

--Aug. 8-10, 1996. Quebec, CANADA: Annual Meeting of the Society for Business, Ethics. A joint session is planned for SBE/ISEE. Speakers are Mark Sagoff and Eric Freyfogle. Laura Westra is chair and commentator.

--Aug. 20-25, 1996. ECOSUMMIT '96, Copenhagen, Denmark. Sponsored by the International Society of Ecological Modelling, International Ecological Engineering Society, International Society of Ecosystem Health, International Society of Ecological Economics, Elsevier Science B.V., SAS-Institute Denmark, and International Lake Environmental Committee. Topics include ecological modelling, ecosystem health, and others. Contact person is David Rapport, Tri-Council Eco-Rresearch Chair in Ecosystem Health, Blackwood Hall, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, CANADA. Tel. (519) 824-4120 (ext. 8476). Queries and abstracts can be sent to: Ecological Summit '96, Conference Secretariat, Elsevier Science Ltd., The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, England, UK. Tel. +44 (0) 1865 843643. Fax +44 (0) 1864 8465. Email g.spear@elsevier.co.uk.

--Sept. 2-6, 1996. World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, Cairns, Australia. The call for papers includes papers in policy, conservation, and ethics. Contact: Conference Secretariat, World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, Milton, Qld 4064, Australia. Phone 617 3369-0477. FAX 617 3369-1512.

--Sept. 9-11, 1996. The British Ecological Society and the Science and Religion Forum conference on "Contours of Ecology: Religious Faith and Issues in Ecology Today." High Leigh Conference Centre, Hoddesdon, Herts, UK.

--Sept. 9-13, 1996. Sustaining Ecosystems and People in Temperate and Boreal Forests. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. An international conference on integrating conservation of biological diversity with social and economic goals. Management of the world's forests to sustain diversity, productivity, and renewability is essential. Forests support much of the world's terrestrial biological diversity, contribute to economic activity in many nations, and provide crucial ecological services. This conference will focus on pro-active solutions to the integration of biological, social, and economic goals. Conference Secretariat: Connections Victoria Ltd., P.O. Box 40046, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3N3. Phone 604-382-0332. FAX 604-382-2076.

--September 22-28, 1996. Perth, Australia. Wetlands for the Future, the fifth International Association of Ecology (INTECOL) International Wetlands Conference. Contact: Jenny Davis, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150. Phone 61-9-360-2939. FAX 61-9-310-4997.

--September 26-28, 1996. Third International Conference on Ethics and Environmental Policies: NEW EUROPE: Transformation and Environmental Issues, Bratislava, Slovakia. The venue is the Kyev Hotel Seeking an integrated approach towards safety, environmental and development issues. Organized in collaboration between Fondazione Lanza, Academia Istropolitana, and Zentrum fur Umweltforschung, this is an occasion for developing a common strategy with an equal cooperation among Central, Eastern, and Western countries. In addition to plenary speakers, there are sections on: 1. Environmental Ethics and Policies, 2. Environmental Ethics and Economy, 3. Environmental Ethics and Socio-Cultural Aspects. There is a call for papers, sent to the Scientific Secretariat of the Conference not later than April 30, 1996. Relevant papers from Eastern Europe are welcome. Registration fee is U.S. $50. The official languages are English, Italian, and Slovak. Simultaneous translation services are provided only during the plenary sessions. Scientific Secretariat, Dr. Matteo Mascia, Fondazione Lanza, via Dante, 55, 35139 Padova, Italy. Phone: ++39+49 875 67 88. FAX: ++39+49 875 67 88. E-mail: lanza@ipdunidx.unipd.it. Organizing Secretariat, Dr. Martina Vagacova, Academia Istropolitana, Hanulova 5/B, P.O.Box 92, 840 02 Bratislava 42, Slovakia. Phone: ++42+7 78 56 71. FAX: ++42+7 78 53 41. E-mail: envir@acadistr.sk. A U.S. contact is Frederick Ferré, Department of Philosophy, University of Georgia. An Eastern Europe contact is Zdzislawa Piatek, Instytut Filozofii, Jagiellonian University, 31-041 Kraków, Grodzka 52, Poland.

--October 1-2, 1996. Apes at the End of an Age: Primate Language and Behavior in the 90's. Nobel Conference XXXII, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN. With Frans B. M. de Waal, Yerkes Primate Research Center, Emory University, and others.

--Oct. 30-Nov. 1, 1996. Puebla, Mexico. Technology, Economic Development, and Sustainability. Ninth international conference of the Society for Philosophy and Technology. An analysis of the proposals, parochial definitions, and problems related to "sustainable development," both theoretical and practical. Spanish, English, and simultaneous translation. Speakers include: Stanley Carpenter, Fernando Cesarman, Paul Durbin, Carl Mitcham, Manuel Molina, Emilio Munoz, Rocco Petrella, and Jose Sanmartin. A selection of the papers and presentations will be published in a special number of Ludus Vitalis, the Mexican journal devoted to the philosophy of the life sciences. Sessions on environmental ethics, women and development, biomedical technologies and the environment. Conference e-mail: filtec@xanum.uam.mx. Also: Jose Sanmartin: fax: (Spain) 34-6-386-4437; e-mail: sanmarti@vm.ci.uv.es. Also: Paul Durbin: fax: 302-831-6321; e-mail: 18512@udel.edu Also. Raul Gutierrez Lombardo: fax: (Mexico) 52-5-661-1787.

--Nov. 22-24, 1996. The International Association of Bioethics, Parc 55 Hotel in San Francisco. Session on Health and Environment. For more information, see Conferences and Calls for Papers above.

1997
--Feb. 25-Mar. 1, 1997. International Symposium on Human Dimensions of Natural Resource Management in the Americas, Belize City, Belize. Held in Central America, this conference is hosted by the Colorado State University Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit of the College of Natural Resources, and also by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the University College of Belize. This conference is at the peak of the tourist season and you will have to plan early to attend. Contact: Jennifer Pate, Symposium Coordinator, Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 970/491-7729. FAX: 970/491-2255.


INTERNET ACCESS TO BACK ISSUES OF THE ISEE Newsletter

Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter are available, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world via Gopher and World Wide Webb. The addresses are:

(Note: The old Gopher address was changed due to confusion in accessing the files. Specifically, the name is no longer required to access the MSU Gopher server.) Back issues of the Newsletter can also be accessed on the World Wide Webb at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
Instructions for access via gopher:
At your local prompt, type and enter:
gopher.morehead-st.edu
(Note: If your local computer system does not have Gopher access, you'll need to hunt around on Internet to find another server that provides free access to Gopher. Alternatively, your local system may be able to access the files via the WWW address.) Via Gopher, you will get the local menu (list of computer files) for Morehead State University (MSU). The basic plan now is to use the "Search" Word, command to find the ISEE Newsletter files. Select:
Search MSU Gopher Server
You will get a window screen asking for "words to search for." Type and enter:
International Society for Environmental Ethics
Follow the prompts (they should be obvious) until you the following screen:
1. About the ISEE Newsletter
2. 1990 Issues/
3. 1991 Issues/
4. 1992 Issues/
5. 1993 Issues/
6. 1994 Issues/
[etc.]
Select the number of the issues that you want and enter. The issues of the Newsletter will appear on the screen. You may then either read them on your screen, or, better, at any point after the file has been retrieved and is on screen, E-mail it to yourself. To quit, you will need enter "q" for Quit. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (these particular issues of the Newsletter) to your E-mail address. The mailing only takes seconds. From your local electronic mailbox, you can then download the Newsletter file to your computer's internal memory or to a disk. Likely you'll get the file as a text-only (ASCII) file, which can then be retrieved into WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, or whatever word processing program you use.

Master Bibliography

The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics, compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, including 1995 update, will be ready in late February. This will cumulate the existing bibliography with all of the 1995 entries in the ISEE Newsletters. It is available in either WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) or in Macintosh format (also WordPerfect). If you don't use WordPerfect, you can easily translate the files into your local word processing program. The bibliography is in two halves, A-L and M-Z. The bibliography can be searched for key words. Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. Disks are also available from the compiler of the bibliography: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. PH 970-491-6315 (office); FAX 970-491-4900; E-mail rolston@lamar.colostate.edu. Send $5 to Rolston, stating whether you want the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disks.
Access via World Wide Web: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
There is a search engine to search out entries by name and keyword, and these results can be E-mailed to your local computer.


ISEE BUSINESS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

Current Officers of ISEE
President: Professor Mark Sagoff, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-5141 USA, Email: msagoff@puafmail.umd.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97.
Vice-President and President-elect: Professor J. Baird Callicott, Dept. of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 USA, Email: callicot@terrill.unt.edu; term to expire end of academic year 1996-97, when he becomes President.
Secretary: Professor Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca;term to expire end of academic year 1997-98.
Treasurer: Professor Ernst Partridge, Dept. of Philosophy, Northland College, Ashland, WI, 54806, USA; Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org; term to expire end of academic year 1998-99.

Call for Nominations for Vice President/President Elect:
Nominations for the next Vice President/President Elect should be sent to the Nominating Committee by September 1st, 1996. The person elected will take office on July 1st, 1997, when Prof. Callicott becomes President. Send nominations, including a 200-word biosketch (maximum), to any member of the Nomination Committee. Deadline: Sept. 1st, 1996.

Members of the Nominating Committee:
Prof. Victoria Davion
, Dept. of Philosophy, 107 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA, Email: vdavion@uga.cc.uga.edu, PH 706-542-2827.
Prof. Alan Holland, Lancaster University, UK.
Prof. Roger Paden, Dept. of Philosophy and Religious Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 USA, Email: rpaden@gmu.edu, PH 703-993-1290.
Prof. Gary Varner, Dept. of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4237, Email: g-varner@tamu.edu.



ISEE Newsletter PUBLICATION AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION

TO SUBMIT ITEMS FOR PUBLICATION:

Prof. Jack Weir is Editor and Prof. Holmes Rolston, III, Co-editor of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Prof. Weir. Please send information for the Newsletter electronically, either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred), since this saves re-typing and avoids errors:
j.weir@morehead-st.edu
To send items via parcel post, the address is: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the FAX). Scholarly articles are not published. Brief reports of research and publications will be considered for publication. Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged and publication cannot be guaranteed. Submissions will be edited.

SOCIETY DUES, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND ADDRESS CHANGES:
U.S. and Canada
: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to Prof. Laura Westra (address below).
Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues, subscriptions, and address changes to the regional contact person named below. (The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues, subscriptions, and addresses changes should be sent to these regional contact persons.)
If you are uncertain where to send dues, subscriptions, or address changes, send them to Prof. Westra (address below).

CONTACT PERSONS AND CORRESPONDENTS:
U.S. and Canada

The contact persons are:
Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept., College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA. PH 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. FAX 803-953-6388. Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu.
Peter List, Philosophy Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97332 USA. Email: listp@cla.orst.edu.
Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; Email: rolston@lamar.rolostate.edu; PH 970-491-6315 (Office); FAX 970-491-4900.
Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351 USA; Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu; PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office); FAX 606-783-2678.
Laura Westra, Dept. of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; Email: westra@uwindsor.ca; FAX 519-973-7050.

Australia and New Zealand

The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues in amount $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67-732657 (direct line). (0)67-732896 (Dept. office). FAX 61 (country code) (0)67-733317. E-mail: relliot@metz.une.edu.au

Western Europe (Including U.K. and the Mediterranean)

The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. FAX: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Eastern Europe (Including the Former Soviet Union)

The contact person is Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. University address and phone: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND; PH 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 476461, ext. 280 (8 am to 3 pm). FAX 48-61-477079 (8 am-3 pm), 48-61-471555 (24 hours). Home address and phone: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND, PH 48-61-417275 (24 hours). Checks sent to his home have more security. Email: filozof@plpuam11.amu.edu.pl.

Africa

The contact person is Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); FAX: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

Mainland China

The contact person is: Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Pakistan and South Asia
The contact person is: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. PH (92) (521) (841593). FAX (92) (521) (841594). E-mail wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk.


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The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Jack Weir is the Editor and Holmes Rolston, III, is Co-editor. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions and address changes should be sent to Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via E-mail where possible. Items received after the deadlines will be held until the next issue. Also, when an issue is too long, some items will be held until the next issue. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, September 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
j.weir@morehead-st.edu
Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, 103 Combs Building, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. PH 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail), 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the FAX).



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Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.
Enclosed are dues: ______________________. (Annual dues are: $15 U.S.; $20 Canadian; £6.50 UK and Europe. Student dues are: $10 U.S. or Canadian, $15 foreign. Please send comparable amounts based on current exchange rates.)

Name ____________________________________________ Phone (______)________________

Position or Affiliation _______________________________________________________________

Address_________________________________________________________________________ __

______________________________________________________________________________ ____

SEND TO: Prof. Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary; Department of Philosophy; University of Windsor; Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA; PH 519-253-4232, ext. 2342 (Campus Office), ext. 2334 (Department Office); FAX 519-973-7050; Email: westra@uwiindsor.ca.















ISEE NEWSLETTER SURVEY

Complete and mail the following by July 1st, 1996, to: Jack Weir, Editor, ISEE Newsletter, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, Kentucky 40351 USA.

(If members will pay their current dues, the Newsletter can remain essentially the same.)

1. Would you pay higher dues in order to keep the same quality and length? (circle one)
YES NO

How much? $5 $10 $15 $ 20
2. If the Newsletter must be shortened, what should be left out (or abbreviated)? Rate the following items based on the numerical scale indicated.
Scale:
0 = Of no value to me; leave it out.
2 = Of little use to me, but I like knowing it's there if I were to need it.
5 = I'd like it kept, but you can selectively shorten it.
8 = Please don't change this item very much!
10 = Absolutely essential to me; I'll not renew my membership if you leave it out.
Items:
General Announcements
Issues
Reports on Various Regions of the World
Calls for Papers (Conferences, Books, Journals, etc.)
Pre-Conference Announcements
Post-Conference Reports
Bibliography and Annotations: Recent Articles
Bibliography and Annotations: Recent Books
Videos and Multimedia
Internet and Electronic/Computer Media
Graduate Programs, Theses, New PhDs
Employment Opportunities
3. If necessary in order to keep costs down, would you like the Bibliography items to be published separately from the Newsletter? YES NO
4. If the Bibliography were made a separate publication, would you be willing to pay extra to get a hard copy of the Bibliography? YES NO
How much? $5 $ 10 $15
Note: At this time, only back issues are accessible via Internet. This policy encourages members to pay their dues in order to get the current issue as a hard copy.
5. Do you have access to electronic media/computer/Internet services?
YES NO

6. Regarding the items listed in #2 above, would you be willing for any of them to accessible only via electronic media/computer/Internet (no published paper copy)?
YES NO
7. Please circle the items in #2 above for which access only via computer/Internet would be acceptable to you.

WRITTEN COMMENTS: Please write on the reverse side or attach additional pages.