Volume 6, No. 3, Fall 1995

General Announcements

American Philosophical Association ISEE Sessions on Program

Eastern Division: New York Marriott Marquis, 27-30 December 1995.
1st ISEE Session: Thursday, 28 Dec., 2:45-5:45 pm. Theme: "Is It Time to Abandon Environmental Ethics?" Presentations by Andrew Brennan (University of Western Australia), Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology), and Mark Sagoff (University of Maryland). Chaired by Katz.

2nd ISEE Session
: Saturday, 30 Dec., 9-11:00 am. Theme: "Politics and Environmental Ethics." Chaired by Amy Lee Knisley (University of Colorado, Boulder). Papers: Avner de-Shalit (Hebrew University), "Where Politics Meets Philosophy: The Concept of the Environment"; Andrew Light (University of Alberta) and Ben Shippen (Florida State University), "Is Environmental Quality a Public Good?"

The ISEE Annual Business Meeting will be held at one of these sessions. Mark Sagoff, ISEE President, will preside.

Also at the Eastern Division. The Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals will have a session on Thursday, 28 Dec., 9-11:00 am. Papers: Alan C. Clune (SUNY, Buffalo), "Nonhuman Animal Rights: An Attempt at a a Rapprochement Between Utilitarian and Inherent Value Views," with commentary by Gary Varner (Texas A&M University); and Hugh LaFollette (East Tennessee State University) and Niall Shanks (East Tennessee State University), "The Origin of Speciesism," with commentary by Mary Carmen Rose (Goucher College).
Numerous other papers will be given at the Eastern Divison.

Central Division: Palmer House Hilton Hotel, Chicago, 24-27 April 1996.
1st ISEE Session: Thursday, 25 Apr.1996, 7-9:30 pm (tentative). Panel Discussion on "Overconsumption: Business and Environmental Ethics Perspectives." Discussants: Tom Donaldson (Georgetown University), John Hasnam (Georgetown University), Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida), Donald Mayer (Oakland University, Rochester, MI). Chair: Laura Westra, (University of Windsor). Co-sponsored by the Society for Business Ethics.

2nd ISEE Session
: Friday, 26 Apr. 1996, 7-9:30 pm (tentative). Theme: "New Questions in Environmental Ethics." Chair: Mary Mahowald (University of Chicago, School of Medicine). Papers: Dr. Lainie Freedman Ross and Prof. Mary Mahowald (University of Chicago, School of Medicine), "Environmental Impact of Contagious Illness: Is Coercion Justified?" Commentator: Laura Westra, (University of Windsor). Ernest Partridge (Northland College), "Now Is the Time for All Good Philosophers to Come to the Aid of the Planet." Bart Gruzalski (Center for Sustainable Living, Redway, CA), "Contemporary Affluent Hallucination." Jack Weir (Morehead State University), "Pluralistic Casuistry and Environmental Ethics."

American Philosophical Association: Call for Papers. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:
--Eastern Division: March 1
--Central Division: proposals by October 15, papers by January 1
--Pacific Division: proposals by October 15, papers by January 1

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 USA.
--Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 CANADA.
--Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211 USA.

Society for Conservation Biology: 1996 Call for Papers. SCB will meet 11-15 August 1996 at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. With over 850 in recent attendence, SCB is the largest annual meeting in the world of scientists specializing in environmental science, conservation, wildlife and zoo management, and related professions. These scientists are genuinely interested in and appreciative of participation by environmental ethicists and philosophers. The 1996 meeting is being hosted by Brown University and the Manomet Observatory for Conservation Science. Meeting in collaboration with SCB will be the Ecological Society of America, the Society of American Naturalists, and ISEE. SCB's instructions for submitting papers will be mailed in November, and abstracts will be due in March or April. To be on the SCB program, participants must be members of SCB. For information about submitting a paper for ISEE's sessions, contact: Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, Tel. 606-784-0046, Email j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu; or Phil Pister, Desert Fishes Council, P. O. Box 337, Bishop, CA 93514 USA, Tel. 619-872-8751.

Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World will hold its 1996 Annual Conference, 9-15 August 1996, at the YMCA of the Rockies in Estes Park, Colorado. This is a conference with time allotted for formal and informal discussion, and exploring the landscape of the Rocky Mountains. It's family friendly, with provisions for children, relatives, and friends. The General Theme is: "Philosophy in Everyday Life." Papers are invited on: environmental philosophy, utopias, ethics and politics, religion, family life, housekeeping, food, parenting, alternative lifestyles, institutional structures, gender and sexuality, race, ethnicity, violence, and other topics. Papers up to 40 minutes reading time are welcome, and poster sessions for works-in-progress are planned. Papers are blind-reviewed, and acceptable papers are published in the Society's journal, Philosophy in the Contemporary World (comments are given to authors and revision of papers for publication is encouraged). For more information or to submit a proposal, contact one of the program chairs: Prof. Erin McKenna, Philosophy Dept., Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447 USA, Tel. 206-535-7213, Email mckenna@plu.edu, or Prof. Sally J. Scholz, Dept. of Philosophy, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 USA, Tel. 610-519-4099, Email scholz@ucis.vill.edu.

Graduate Studies in Environmental Ethics. Considerable information is now available on World Wide Web. Go to the site http://www.cep.unt.edu, which is maintained at the University of North Texas. After the University of North Texas information, take OTHER GRADUATE PROGRAMS. There are "pages" for Colorado State University, Lancaster University (U.K.), Bowling Green State University, Texas A&M University, and the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Under "Graduate Programs Elsewhere" there is detailed information about how environmental ethics and philosophy have been done at other schools, with titles and summaries of recent theses completed. Also there is information on related programs in religion and environmental ethics. Tell prospective students about this; it is quite informative. (Also from this page you can reach the ISEE Bibliography, see below.)

PLEASE PAY YOUR ISEE DUES. Annual membership dues for ISEE are U.S. $15 per year in the United States, and CND $20 in Canada. Students are $10 U.S. or CND. Dues overseas are the equivalent of U.S. funds. If you've not done so, please send in your dues now (address and form below).

Robin Attfield spent a short period in early August at the Man and Nature Humanities Center of Odense University, as the guest of Finn Arler, now a Research Fellow there. Attfield made two seminar presentations on "Ethics and Global Environmental Problems" and on "Habitability and Objections to Sustainable Development." His presentations are to be published as a Working Paper of the Center (which funded his visit to Denmark), under the joint title "Ethics and Problems for Sustainable Development." The Center's address is: Man and Nature Humanities Research Center, Odense University, Hollufgard, Hestehaven 201, DK 5220 Odense SO, Denmark.
Attfield was also a Guest Speaker at the XI Internordic Symposium of the Internordic Institute of Philosophy, speaking on "Progress, Nature and Metaphysics." The theme of this Symposium, which took place from 11 to 13 August 1995, and was hosted by the University of Odense, was "Nature and Lifeworld." The other Guest Speaker was Professor Vittorio Hosle, University of Essen, "The Metaphysics of the Ecological Crisis." Other plenary speakers included Professor Ingvar Johansson, University of Umea, "Perception as the Bridge Between Nature and Lifeworld"; Professor Simo Knuuttila, University of Helsinki, "Plenitude, Reason and Value: Old and New in the Metaphysics of Nature"; Professor Ragnar Fjelland, University of Bergen, "From Evolutionary Epistemology to the Life World A Priori"; Associate Professor Carsten Bengt-Pedersen, University of Odense, "Man and Nature"; and Research Fellow Robert H. Haraldson, University of Iceland, "From Metaphysical Subjects to Naturalized Selves."

Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Distinguished Research Professor, University of South Florida, and some of her doctoral students have been working with Afro-Americans in Louisiana and with Native Americans in Nevada on issues of environmental racism. In both Nevada and Louisiana, Shrader-Frechette and the students have critically evaluated the environmental impact statements submitted by U.S. groups or multinational corporations that propose to site hazardous facilities in Native American or Afro-American communities where the residents oppose the facilities. In all these communities, unemployment is high (up to 80 percent), per capita income is low (down to $5,000 per year), and environmental damage is extreme. Working to stop these facilities, Shrader-Frechette and the students have argued that the environmental impact assessments fail to insure environmental protection and violate the citizens's rights to free and informed consent, due process, and equal treatment. Their work is in process of being published in environmental and philosophical journals, and some of the environmental racism material appears in Shrader-Frechette's latest book, Ethics of Scientific Research.
Shrader-Frechette is also currently a member of the committee of the U.S. National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences that is helping to evaluate the environmental and public health effects of the U.S. Army's testing of biological and chemical warfare agents on U.S. citizens. From 1949 to 1969, the Army tested warfare agents, such as zinc-cadmium-sulfide, on citizens without their knowledge. These warfare agents posed threats to both humans and the environment. The Committee's deliberations are private until the National Academy releases its report. However, to those who request it, Shrader-Frechette will send available, non-restricted information about environmental and public health threats from Army testing. Shrader-Frechette serves on the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology of the National Academy of Sciences.
To receive copies of the work on environmental racism, environmental testing of weapons on U.S. citizens, or Shrader-Frechette's recent publications on ethical principles related to ecological management, interested persons should write to her at: University of South Florida, Environmental Sciences and Policy Program and Department of Philosophy, Cooper 107, Tampa, FL 33620-5550 USA.

The XIV World Conference of the World Futures Studies Federation met in July in Nairobi, Kenya. The Conference was chaired by WFSF president, Pentti Malaska (University of Turku, Finland); local arrangements were by H. Odera Oruka (University of Nairobi). Plenary speakers included: Eleonora B. Masini (Italy), "Women's Vision: Poverty and Beyond" (presented by M. S. Fukunaga [Japan]); C. Mallman (Argentina), "Poverty and Distribution of Power"; I. M. van Hulten (Netherlands), "Poverty Redefined"; A. Nandy (India), "Poverty and Freedom"; Ibrahim Abdel-Rahman (Egypt), "African Population Prospects"; Ioanna Kucuradi (Turkey), "Goals and Traps in the Ways Out of the Current Stalemate of Poverty"; and P. K. Spies (South Africa), "Making the Future: Practical Steps to an Idealised Redesign of Africa." The guest speaker, Archbishop Desmond Tutu (South Africa) spoke on "Hope for Africa."
Robin Attfield chaired the group session on ecophilosophy and environmental ethics, with a paper, "Ecophilosophy, Poverty and the Future." Other papers: W. Kelbessa (Ethiopia), "Traditional Perceptions and Environmental Protection in Ethiopia"; P. Novacek and P. Mederly (Czech Republic), "Czech and Slovak Sustainable Development Study: Landscape Ecological Approach"; J. J. Hukka (Kenya), "Institutional Organisation and Financial Performance: A Future Model for Sustainable Water Supplies in Kenya"; V. Nikolajew (Germany), "The New Age of Enlightenment"; J. A. Odhiambo (Kenya), "Ecology and Man: Mutual Service"; A. Sungarov (Russia), "The Concept of the Noosphere and the Problems of Contemporary Life"; and Jose Perez Adan (Spain), "The Ecological Crisis, Capitalism and Human Survival." (Thanks to Robin Attfield.)

The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (SCASSS), Uppsala, sponsored a "Workshop on Ethics, Economics and Environmental Management," 25-27 August 1995, at a country hotel near Uppsala. The keynote speaker was Partha Dasgupta (Cambridge), who addressed population ethics. Other speakers included Jorge Rabinovich (Argentina), James Wilen (USA), Peter Bohm (Sweden), Tom Tietenberg (USA), Daniel Bromley (USA), Robert Costanza (USA), Gisli Pálsson (Iceland), Uno Svedin (Sweden), Alla Frolova (Russia), Mark Sagoff (USA), Dale Jamieson (USA), Tim Ingold (UK), Per Ariansen (Norway), Stefan Anderberg (Sweden), Hans Lanberg (Sweden), Harry Scheiber (USA), Robin Attfield (UK), and Bo Gustafsson, the principal organizer (Sweden). Bartil Strömberg presented the paper of the late Getachew Woldemeskel (Ethiopia and Sweden), who conceived and planned this Workshop.

The Senter for Utvikling og Miljo (SUM) (Center for Environment and Development) has Andrew Brennan (Philosophy, University of Western Australia) and Bayard Catron (Public Administration, George Washington University) as guest professors for the fall term 1995. Brennan and Catron contributed, with Arne Naess and others, to a one-day conference, September 5th, on "Rethinking Deep Ecology."

Avner de-Shalit, of the Department of Political Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is Visiting Fellow fall term 1995 at the Oxford Centre for Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, Oxford. He is the author of Why Posterity Matters, Routledge, 1995, in the series, Environmental Philosophies.

Val Plumwood, Australian environmental philosopher and ecofeminist, is currently Visiting Scholar in the Department of Women's Studies at North Carolina State University, and is speaking at various other colleges and universities this fall, among them the University of Georgia and Colorado State University.

The Conservation of Nature Outside Protected Areas is a conference to be held at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 9-10 November 1995. The conference is being organized by the Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning and the Institute of Landscape Architecture, University of Ljubljana, with sponsorship by various other European groups. Holmes Rolston will be the introductory keynote speaker, and will speak on "Nature, Culture, and Environmental Ethics."

Patti H. Clayton completed a PhD degree in the Curriculum in Ecology at the University of North Carolina in May 1995 with a thesis in environmental ethics, "Connection on the Ice: Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practice." She mixes theory and practice by taking the case of three whales saved in Alaska in 1988 when ice threatened to enclose them, and by interpreting this incident from the traditions of Western rationalism and its moral point of view, of feminist caring, and of Martin Heidegger and environmental phenomenology. The interpretations are especially oriented to the teaching of environmental ethics. Address: 300 Swiss Lake Drive, Cary, NC 27513 USA. E-mail: patti@nando.net.

Philosophies of Nature, a Boston University Symposium in Honor of Erazim Kohak, November 13-17, 1995, has some two dozen speakers, with wide-ranging topics in the philosophy of nature. For more information, contact: The Boston Colloquium for Philosophy of Science, Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215.

The Society of American Foresters will hold its 1995 annual conference in Portland, Maine. On November 1st, ISEE will co-sponsor two sessions on the SAF Land Ethic canon. Participants: Jim Coufal, Laura Westra, Sy Balch, Patricia Straka, Eric Freyfogle, Jack Ward Thomas. (Thanks to Bill Forbes, Siskiyou National Forest, Brookings OR, for arranging this.)

The National Biological Service and the Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange are developing a directory of state biodiversity databases and information sources. The address is http://www.nbs.gov/nbii/.

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) will meet in Baltimore, MD, 8-13 February 1996. The general theme is "Science and Society." ISEE will co-sponsor a session with the International Society for Environmental Epidemiologists (another ISEE), organized by Dr. Colin Sookoine (Epidemiology, University of Alberta) and Laura Westra (University of Windsor), on the topic "Intersection of Environmental Health, Professional Ethics and Law." Speakers will include Dale Jamieson, Clarice Gaylord, Don Brown, Colin Soskolne, and Laura Westra.

Call for Papers: An international meeting on Geoethics is projected for October 1996 in Pribram, Czech Republic, with special emphasis on ethics in relation to geology, mining, engineering, and energy. Languages will include English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, and Czech. The Pribram Mining Symposium 1995 was held in Prague, 9-14 October 1995, and included speakers from several European countries and Russia. To submit papers for 1996 or for more information, contact: Dr. Vaclav Nemec and Dr. Lidmila Nemeova (conveners), Krybnickum 17, 100 00 Praha 10-Strasnice, Czech Republic; tel. +422-7811801. Information is available from Laura Westra, address below.

The Conference on Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Ecology and Bioethics was held 26-28 August 1995, at Sala Sant'Agostino, Cortona, Italy. Organized by Laura Westra, the interdisciplinary conference was co-sponsored by: ISEE; the Institute for the Study of Man and Global Bioethics; the Institute for Research on Environment and Economics, Ottawa, ON; and the University of Windsor Research Board. Plenary Speakers included: James Karr, Reed Noss, B. Chiaralli, Don Brown, Robert Goodland, Orie Loucks, Jim Sterba, Philippe Crabbe, Pierre Di Toro, Klaus Meyer-Abich, Alan Holland, and Ernest Partridge. Also presenting were Greg Cooper, Michael Jacobs, Kate Rawles, Otto Neumaier, Stig Wanden, Leena Vilkka, David Schmitz, Elizabeth Willott, and many others from Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Belgium, and the US. Plenary papers and some others will be published in the first issue of Global Bioethics, which will be published by Kluwer Academic Publishers starting in 1996.

Call for Papers: International Congress of Scientists and Engineers. Theme: "Towards a Sustainable World." Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-25 August 1996. Participants will include the Club of Rome, UNEP and many NGO groups. Workshop topics include: "Ethical Foundations and Basic Attitudes," "Challenges to Economy: Concepts and Strategies for Sustainable Economics," "Sustainable Development on a Local, Regional, and Global Scale," "Elements of a Safe and Secure World." One ISEE Session is being organized by Eric Hol, 438 North C Street, Springfield, OR 97477 USA. For more information, contact: Dr. Philip B. Smith, Steenhouwerskade 22, 9718 DB - Groningent, The Netherlands, Fax 31-50-3129186.

Doug Daigle presented a paper, "Whose Property, Which Rights? Deconstructing `Property Rights' Legislation," at the Institute for Advanced Philosophic Research, Annual Conference, Estes Park, in August. For a copy, contact him: Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana, 200 Lafayette St., Suite 500, Baton Route, LA 70801.

Announcing a new quarterly journal: Science and Engineering Ethics. Editors: Stephanie J. Bird, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, and Raymond E. Spier, University of Surrey, UK. Published by Opragen Publications, PO Box 54, Guildford, GU1 2YF, UK. Multi-disciplinary, the journal was launched in January 1995 and is dedicated to exploring ethical issues of direct concern to scientists and engineers covering professional education, research and practice as well as the effects of innovations on the wider society. An international editorial board has been appointed which represents a broad range of expertise. The journal will publish original research papers, reviews, comment pieces, letters, editorials, book reviews and conference reports. It will also publish special issues devoted to single topics of importance; these include Trustworthy Research (in 1995), Computer Ethics (in 1996) and Peer Review (in 1997). In this new journal both science and engineering are defined broadly and include all aspects of human endeavour that seek to increase the range and quality of our knowledge and the application of this knowledge to the generation of goods and services that benefit us as individuals and as members of societies. Although the focus of this publication is primarily directed towards practitioners of science and engineering, contributions from a broad range of disciplines will be included. The journal presents an opportunity for the discussion of ethical values and professional standards as well as exploring the expectations and concerns of professionals in science. In addition, Science and Engineering Ethics will provide material which will be useful for the education and training of scientists and engineers in the ethical issues that they will encounter in their workplaces - a matter receiving increasing attention. The journal will also provide a forum for the exchange of views on the many issues that are presented to society by innovations in science and engineering. These include new products that have arisen from genetic engineering, informatics, nucleonics, robotics and our abilities to manipulate the fertilization process. Other concerns emerge from our use of animals in research, our approach to healthcare, the persuasiveness of the media, the sustainability of a high quality environment and the way in which we build and use our towns and cities. Manuscripts are welcome. Papers containing original research will be double-blind refereed. Announcements of meetings and networks relevant to the subject matter are welcomed and will be published in each issue as a service to readers. Information should be sent to: Opragen Publications at the address below. Notes for authors, subscription information and review copies of the journal can be obtained from the publishers: Opragen Publications, P.O. Box 54, Guildford, Surrey GU1 2YF, United Kingdom, Tel/Fax +44 (0)1483 560074. Manuscripts can be submitted to one of the editors as follows: Professor Raymond Spier, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, United Kingdom, Tel/fax +44 1483 259 265, E-Mail: r.spier@surrey.ac.uk. Dr. Stephanie J. Bird, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rm. 12-187, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Tel (617) 253 8024, Fax (617) 253 1986.

The Chilean Philosophy Society in conjunction with the Austral University of Chile is organizing their 11th National, and 2nd International, Congress of Philosophy. The theme this year is: 'Philosophy and the Environment: Transdisciplinary Ecology Awareness. The congress is to be held at the Austral University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile, and takes place from 27 November to 1 December 1995. To receive more information, or register interest in attending or giving a paper, please contact: Alfredo Pradenas M, Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Filosofia, Valdivia, Chile. Phone +56 63 221 276, and fax +56 63 218 510

Iowa State University's Bioethics Program Web Page. The Bioethics Program at Iowa State University announces our new Web page regarding moral issues associated with agricultural biotechnology, the environment, food, nutrition, and animals. Our URL is:
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~grad_college/bioethics/.
We are in the process of making available current and back issues of "The Ag Bioethics Forum," a biannual newsletter containing philosophical debates on topics such as "Can Free Market Environmentalism Resolve Ecological Problems Before It's Too Late?" (Jan Narveson and Tony Smith), "Can Animals Feel Pain in a Morally Relevant Sense?" (Peter Carruthers and Bill Robinson), "Does the Iowa Prairie Have Intrinsic Value?" (J. Baird Callicott and Lilly-Marlene Russow), "Can Ethical Theory Resolve Disagreements About Ag Biotech?" (Bernard Gert and Robert Fullinwider). The most recent issue features an article by Partha Dasgupta of Cambridge University, "Population, Poverty and the Local Environment." We would like to establish links to any relevant sites out there. Please consider linking us to your site. For further information contact Gary Comstock, coordinator, Bioethics Program, ISU, Ames, IA, 50011-2063. 515/294-0054. comstock@iastate.edu.

ISEE on World Wide Web. The International Society for Environmental Ethics is on the World Wide Web (WWW), and can be reached at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
The page is being maintained for ISEE by the Center for Environmental Philosophy. The website includes pages on membership and officers. In addition, the ISEE Newsletter, which is maintained on-line by Morehead State University, may be accessed from the page, and the ISEE Bibliography, compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, is also available there, complete with a specially designed search engine.
The main page for the Center for Environmental Philosophy is:
http://www.cep.unt.edu
From it, information is available about academic programs, other organizations, other publications, and funding opportunities. Requests to be included on the page should be sent to ee@unt.edu. (Thanks to Eugene C. Hargrove and the Center for Environmental Philosophy for this.)

International Journal of Wilderness. The Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, is launching this new journal with the first issue to be published September 1995, 1,500 copies. John C. Hendee is managing editor. Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1144, USA. Phone 208-885-2267. Fax: 208-885-6268. Vance Martin is Executive Editor, International. The Wild Foundation, 2162 Baldwin Rd., Ojai, CA 93023, USA. Phone 805-649-3535. Fax 805-649-1757.

EarthLight is a new periodical, launched by Thomas Berry and Brian Swimme, featuring the connection between environmental/ecological issues and spirituality. Subscriptions $15. Contact: Paul Burks, Editor, 1558 Mercy St., Mountain View, CA 94041, USA. Tel. 415-960-1767.

Call for Applications for Life Sciences Bioethics Institute: The Iowa State University Model Program in Environmental and Agricultural Ethics at Michigan State University, May 5-10, 1996, in East Lansing, MI. The ISU institute teaches basic methods and principles in ethics to life science faculty members, focusing on those who deal with the environment, food, nutrition, animals, and agriculture. The institute equips faculty to introduce discussions of ethical issues into existing science courses. Two philosophers, professors Fred Gifford (Michigan State) and Gary Comstock (Iowa State), are joined by internationally recognized experts in ethics to lecture on moral theory and to lead discussion sessions of pedagogy. The institute provides case studies, classroom exercises, bibliographies, and other practical strategies used successfully by life scientists to introduce ethics into their classes. Possible issues to be covered: Honesty and integrity in scientific research; Environmental ethics and intrinsic value of ecosystems; Labeling of genetically-engineered foods; Animal welfare and rights; Justice between developed and developing economies; Risk assessment and the politics of uncertainty; Feminist moral theory; The place of human beings in nature. All participants will receive a $250 stipend. Applicants must be tenured or tenure-track life science faculty members. The institutions of out-of-town applicants must commit funds to cover applicant's travel, lodging, and meals. Applicants promise to introduce the equivalent of at least one hour-long discussion of ethics into each semester-length class they teach. Deadline for applications is March 1, 1996. Contact Professor Gary Comstock, Coordinator, Bioethics Program, 413 Ross Hall, Ames, IA 50011-2063,USA, phone: 515-294-0054, Iowa State University fax: 515-294-1003, email: comstock@iastate.edu.

The Society for Human Ecology, 8th International Conference, will be held 19-22 October 1995 at Granlibakken Conference Center at Lake Tahoe, Tahoe City, California USA. ISEE is cosponsoring a symposium on "Humans and Nature: False Dichotomies and Fruitful Contrasts." Papers include: "Humans and the Value of the Wild," by Bill Throop, St. Andrews College; "Enhancing Natural Value," by Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston; "The Takings Issue and Two Visions of Humans' Relations to Nature," by Gary Varner, Texas A&M University; and "Nature and Human Ecology," by John Visvader, College of the Atlantic. The symposium will be on Friday Oct 20, from 10am-12pm. For information on the conference, contact Nancy Markee, Environmental and Resource Sciences/199, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557-0013, USA, internet: nlmarkee@scs.unr.edu.

Call for Papers: The Environmental Challenge to Social and Political Theory, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb, to be published by Routledge in 1996; papers due February 1, 1996
The premise of this volume is that the ecological crisis challenges the presuppositions and theoretical stances of dominant Western social and political theories. Liberalism, Marxism, feminism, rights theory, general orientations towards justice, conceptions of political alignments and emancipatory strategy--all are brought into question when existing social practices threaten the natural world as an environment for human beings.
Approximately half the papers will appear in a special volume of Social Theory and Practice (Summer, 1995): "Imperialism and Environmentalism," Eric Katz; "The Threat of Ecofascism," Michael E. Zimmerman; "Expanding Wilderness: An Ecofeminist Rapprochement of Environmentalism and Animal Liberation," Bryan Luke; "International Justice and Wilderness Preservation," Mark A. Michael; "Is Liberalism Environmentally Friendly?," Avner de-Shahit; "Empathy, Society, Nature, and the Relational Self: Deep Ecology and Liberal Modernity," Gus diZerega; "Materialists, Ontologists, and Environmental Pragmatists," Andrew Light.
New papers may include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following topics:
*Sustainability. Sustainability relates to both formal issues of democracy and substantive normative concerns. On what basis will we distinguish between what is to be sustained and what is frivolous or exploitative? Whose voices will be heard in the debate over sustainability? Is the current social order sustainable?
*Communicative Reason. Habermasian communicative ethics bases concepts of justice in unrestrained communication. Is this framework necessarily anthropocentric? Is there any way to include "nature" in the dialog of "reasoned" speech?
*Postmodernism/Deconstruction. Does the environmental crisis--with the seeming objectivity and decisiveness of its potential effect on human life--render postmodernism highly suspect? Is the fate of the earth the inescapable grand narrative?
*Analysis of principle concepts of ecological theory. These include nature, species, ecosystem, bioregion, ecosystem integrity, environmental racism.
*Political strategies of environmentalism. Does the critical nature of environmental issues alter assessments of political strategies? How are the interest group or standpoint politics of race, class, gender, etc., affected by a political context in which concerns are in some sense universal?
*Anthropocentrism in postmodern ethics. For instance, does Levinas's sense of the inevitable distance between ourselves and the "other" to whom we are obligated ignore the close connections between human beings and the non-human, natural Other of our ecological setting?
*Environmental theory and Marxism. What is the environmental significance of Marxism? Is the new ecoMarxism viable?
*Genocide and Ecocide. How do the great human devastations of our century--the Holocaust, world wars, racial or national massacres--compare to our elimination of species and ecosystems?
*Spirituality and Social Theory. Green perspectives are often animated by a spiritual revisioning of ultimate values and human identity. What implications do these perspectives have for the essentially secular dominant social theories of modernity?
For further information, or to discuss a possible submission, contact: Roger S. Gottlieb, Paris Fletcher Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Department of Humanities and Arts, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609; USA, Tel: 508-831-5439; gottlieb@wpi.wpi.edu.

Call for Papers: The Society for Philosophy and Geography and Rowman & Littlefield Publishers announce the publication of a new peer-reviewed yearly annual: Philosophy and Geography, edited by Jonathan Smith (Geography, Texas A&M University) and Andrew Light (Philosophy, University of Alberta). Each volume will focus on a specific theme. Volume 1: Environmental Ethics. Papers are invited on any aspect of environmental ethics that may be of interest to philosophers or geographers. Authors need not address their topic through a conjunction of philosophy and geography but are encouraged to do so. First issue deadline, December 1, 1995. Send all papers to Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, 4-108 Humanities Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E5. andrew.light@ualberta.ca

Call for Papers: Responsibilities to Future Generations: The Sequel. Ernest Partridge has been asked by a major publisher to collect another anthology on the topic of the Duty to Posterity. (His first anthology, Responsibilities to Future Generations, published by Prometheus Books, is now out of print). Published or (preferably) original papers are invited on the topics of 1) the rights of and duties to future generations, 2) motivation problems regarding provision for the remote future, 3) general and particular policy issues affecting future generations, or other philosophically-oriented issues. "Future Generations" is understood to mean future persons with lives that are non-concurrent with those of the present generation. The tentative deadline for receipt of papers is January 1, 1996. Partridge can be contacted at Northland College, Ashland, WI 54806, USA. Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org. Since Prof. Partridge is wandering this summer (as far away as Russia and Italy), it would be best to contact him through e-mail.

Oxford Brookes University is offering a Postgraduate Program in the School of Social Sciences with an MA in Environmentalism and Society. This course focuses on the aims, philosophy and practical implications of the environmental movement. It focuses on critical analysis of ideologies, values and policies, and emphasizes the importance of sustainable development and social justice. For further particulars write to: Dr. George Revill, Geography Unit, School of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK. Tel: 01865-483750. Fax 01865-483937.

Call for Papers: Terra Nova: Nature and Culture is a new journal to be published by MIT Press and the Department of Social Science and Policy Studies at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. David Rothenberg is Editor. Publication will begin in January 1996. Professional and refereed, the journal will cross the boundaries between disciplines to show how serious discussion of the problem of nature appears in many fields of creative inquiry. Subscriptions are US $32 for individuals, $95 for institutions. Rothenberg can be contacted at the department above, NJIT, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA; Tel. 201-596-3289; Fax 201-565-0586; Email rothenberg@admdin.njit.edu.

Call for Papers: The Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics has begun a section called "Global Bioethics," and the journal is interested in receiving papers. Bioethics and environmental ethics blossomed in the 1970s, but the disciplines developed largely independent of each other. As environmental crises deepen and the need for health care reform increases, it is essential that the interrelationship of the two be explored and the gap bridged. Possible topics include: explorations of human health and welfare, resource use, technology, justice, environmental ethics, and the place of humans in nature. This is the official journal of the International Bioethics Institute. To join an E-mail discussion group on "Environmental Bioethics," send your name and Email address to Andrew Jameton: ajameton@unmcvm.unmc.edu. Submit manuscripts to: Andrew Jameton, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 600 S. 42nd St., Omaha, NE 68198-4350, USA; Tel. 402-559-4680; Fax 402-559-7259.

The Ometeca Institute presents Working Conference IV on the Relations Between Humanities and Science, at Rutgers University, July 24-28, 1996. Three copies of complete papers are due November 15, 1995. Conference languages include Spanish and Portuguese, as well as English. Topics include Theoretical Aspects of the Relationship Between Science and the Humanities; Ecocentrism: the New Paradigm?; Science, Aboriginal Cultures, and the Role of "Story," and many others. For a brochure and further information, write: The Ometeca Institute, P. O. Box 38, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903-0038, USA, Fax 908-932-6916, or Dr. James Anderson, Communications, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University, 4 Huntington St., Room 316, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901-1071, USA, Fax 908-932-6916.

The First World Conference of Business, Economics and Ethics will be held July 25-28, 1996 in Tokyo, Japan. Topics include: Ethics and International Business, Specific Challenges for Business Ethics in Developing Countries, and Practical and Theoretical Relevance of Religious Traditions. Papers in triplicate are due by December 15, 1995. Notification of acceptance will be March 1, 1996. For papers and additional information, contact Prof. Georges Enderle, University of Notre Dame, College of Business Administration, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA, Fax 219-631-5255.

The Center for Bioregional Studies and Conflict Resolution has been established. Co-directors are Drs. John K. Gamman and Michael V. McGinnis. The Center hopes to develop a bioregional theory of transition and practice, and associates have published cultural and ecological studies in ethics, place-oriented behavior, ecosystem administration, and environmental dispute resolution (EDR). For more information, contact: Michael V. McGinnis, 7602 Hollister Ave, Suite 202, Goleta, CA, 93117, USA.

Providence College wishes to announce its Environmental Studies Program. The program's Director is Laura L. Landen, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Philosophy. For more information, contact Prof. Landen, Providence College, Providence, RI 02918-0001, USA; Tel. 401-865-2255; Fax 401-865-1222; Email: llanden@providence.edu.

Finn Arler is a good contact in Denmark for environmental ethics. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of Aarhus, Bygning 328, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Phone: 45-8942-1111. Fax: 86-19-16-99.

A new journal, Environment and History, specializing in environmental history, is based in the U.K. Papers are invited. Contact Richard H. Grove, Global Environmental History Unit, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RH, UK. Fax 44-1223-332333.


ISEE Newsletter on Internet

Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter are available, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world via Gopher. The addresses is:
(Note: This address has changed. Due to confusion in
accessing the files, is no longer required to access the MSU gopher server.)

Back issues of the Newsletter can also be accessed via World Wide Webb at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html

Instructions for access via gopher. At your local telnet prompt, enter:

(NOTE: Access is via gopher. If your local system does not have gopher access, you'll need to hunt around on Internet to find another server that provides free access to gopher. Alternatively, your local system may be able to access the files via the WWW address.)
You will get a welcome screen with menu choices.
Take: Search MSU Gopher Server Using Jughead.
You will get a window screen asking for words to search for.
Enter: Words to search for: International Society for Environmental Ethics
You will get a screen with this as the option. Enter.
You will get a screen:
1. About the ISEE Newsletter
2. 1990 Issues/
3. 1991 Issues/
4. 1992 Issues/
5. 1993 Issues/
6. 1994 Issues/
etc.
Select the year that you want, find the Newsletter(s), and either read on screen, or, better, at any point after the file has been retrieved and is on screen, Email it to yourself. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (this issue of the Newsletter) to your Email address. The mailing only takes seconds. You can then download the Newsletter file to a disk on your local computer. Likely you'll get the file as a text-only file, which can then be retrieved into WordPerfect or whatever word processing software you wish.


Master Environmental Ethics Bibliography

The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics is available with the completed 1994 update. This bibliography contains all the bibliographic entries from the Newsletter of the Society, volumes 1(1990)--5(1994), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Ethics, volumes 1(1979)--16(1994), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Values, volumes 1(1992)--3(1994), and the other bibliographies. It is available in either WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) or in Macintosh format (also WordPerfect). The bibliography is in two halves, A-L and M-Z. One way to use it is simply to print out each half, take it to Kinko's, have it spiral bound, label the covers, and you instantly have as full a reference base as otherwise exists in print. Another way to use it is to search through it and copy out the various entries in which you are interested, stringing these together into a text of your own on the second screen in your software. The bibliography can be searched for key words, depending on your software.
Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. The compiler of the bibliography, from whom disks may be obtained is: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Phone: 303-491-6315 (office). Fax: 303-491-4900. E-mail: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu. Send $5 to Rolston, stating whether you wish the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disk.
Access via World Wide Web: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
(Thanks to Gene Hargrove for setting this up.)


Recent Articles and Books

--Collett, Jonathan and Stephen Karakashian, eds. Greening the College Curriculum A Guide to Environmental Teaching in the Liberal Arts. Washington, DC Island Press, 1996. 320 pages. Paper, $ 22.00. Cloth, $ 40.00. Environmental literacy requires integrating environmental issues into disciplines not traditionally thought of as being "environmental" in the liberal arts (and into humanist biology). Rationales, guidelines, sample plans for courses, annotated resources, both print and nonprint. David Orr (Oberlin College), "Reinventing Higher Education"; William Blake (Tulane University), "Anthropology"; David G. Campbell and Vern Durkee (Grinnell College), "Biology"; Gerald Alonzo Smith (Mankato State University), "Economics"; Lisa Naughton-Treves (University of Florida) and Emily Young (University of Texas), "Geography"; John Opie (New Jersey Institute of Technology) and Michael Black (Harvey Mudd College), "History"; Vernon Owen Grumbling (University of New England), "Literature"; Karl Grossman (SUNY/College at Old Westbury) and Ann Filemyr (Antioch College), "Media/Journalism"; Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University), "Philosophy"; Michael E. Kraft (University of Wisconsin at Green Bay), "Political Science"; Steven Rockefeller (Middlebury College), "Religion"; Jonathan Collett (SUNY/College at Old Westbury), "Reinventing the Classroom." Collett teaches comparative humanities. Karakashian is coordinator for higher education at The Rainforest Alliance, New York City.

--Marietta, Don, Jr., and Lester Embree, eds. Environmental Philosophy and Environmental Activism. Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995. 224 pages. Should environmental philosophy and ethics be seen as a form of applied philosophy or something else, perhaps best called practical philosophy. How should environmental philosophy be practiced in life, especially in the lives of academics? Contributors: J. Baird Callicott, "Environmental Philosophy is Environmental Activism: The Most Radical and Effective Kind"; Timothy Casey, "The Environmental Roots of Environmental Activism"; Lester Embree, "Phenomenology of Action for Ecosystemic Health or How to Tend One's Own Garden"; Irene Klaver, "The Implicit Practice of Environmental Philosophy"; Don Marietta, Jr., "Reflection and Environmental Activism"; Ullrich Melle, "How Deep is Deep Enough? Ecological Modernization or Farewell to the World City?"; Bryan Norton, "Applied Philosophy vs. Practical Philosophy: Toward an Environmental Policy Integrated According to Scale"; Kate Rawles, "The Missing Shade of Green"; Gary Varner, "Can Animal Rights Activists Be Environmentalists?"; Red Watson, "The Identity Crisis in Environmental Philosophy"; Peter Wenz, "Environmental Activism and Appropriate Monism." Marietta and Embree are both in philosophy at Florida Atlantic University.

--Strong, David. Crazy Mountains: Learning from Wilderness to Weigh Technology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. 253 pages. $ 14.95 paper. Strong uses the Crazy Mountains of Montana, a wilderness, jeopardized by a newly bulldozed road and a planned timber sale to trigger a series of wide-ranging reflections on the way in which technology is transforming the Earth in increasingly extensive ways. From wilderness we can learn what things are real and how this reality can re-order our lives. Written with considerable literary power and philosophical clarity. Strong teaches philosophy at Rocky Mountain College, Billings, Montana.

--Rothenberg, David, ed. Wild Ideas. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. 225 pages. Papers mostly from the Fifth World Wilderness Congress in Tromso, Norway, September 1993. R. Edward Grumbine, "Wise and Sustainable Uses: Revisioning Wilderness"; Denis Cosgrove, "Habitable Earth: Wilderness, Empire, and Race in America"; Max Oelschlaeger, "Earth Talk: Conservation and the Ecology of Language"; Marvin Henberg, "Pancultural Wilderness"; Lois Ann Lorentzen, "Reminiscing about a Sleepy Lake: Borderland Views of Women, Place, and the Wild"; Douglas J. Buege, "Confessions of an Eco-Colonialist: Responsible Knowing among the Inuit"; David Abram, "Out of the Map, into the Territory: The Earthly Topology of Time"; Irene Klaver, "Silent Wolves: The Howl of the Implicit"; David Rothenberg, "The Idea of the North: An Iceberg History"; R. Murray Schafer, "The Princess of the Stars: Music for a Wilderness Lake"; Tom Wolf, "Beauty and the Beasts: Predators in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains," Robert Greenway, "Healing by the Wilderness Experience"; and Andrew Light, "Urban Wilderness." Rothenberg teaches philosophy at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.

--Anderberg, Thomas. Den Mänskliga Naturen: En Essa om Miljo och Moral (The Humane Nature: An Essay on Environment and Morals). Stockholm: Norstedts Forlag, 1994. 308 pages. ISBN 91-1-932031-0. Chapter themes: Overpopulation, depletion and environmental degradation--biological impoverishment, economic flourishing, common morality: a sketch. Nature as complementary or as fundamental? The two directions in environmental ethics--anthropocentrism and non-anthropocentrism. The widening circle, a global ethics--nature and culture. A model of moral politics. The tamed animal--human nature in a biological perspective. Environment, gene technology and the problem of democracy--the struggle of the majority and the faceless collectives. The nature of morality and the moral of nature--collective guilt and the responsibility of the individual: a compass direction. Anderberg is at the University of Lund, Sweden. (Thanks to Per Ariansen)
--Fox, Warwick. Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing Foundations for Environmentalism. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1995. Earlier published Boston: Shambahala Publications, 1990.

--Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. 652 pages. "How much more elaborately wrought is the framework through which our adult eyes survey the landscape. For although we are accustomed to separate nature and human perception into two realms, they are, in fact, indivisible. Before it can ever be a repose for the senses, landscape is the work of the mind. Its scenery is built up as much from strata of memory as from layers of rock. Objectively, of course, the various ecosystems that sustain life on the planet proceed independently of human agency, just as they operated before the ascendancy of Homo sapiens. But it is also difficult to think of a single such natural system that has not, for better or worse, been substantially modified by human culture. Nor is this the work of the industrial centuries. It has been happening since the days of ancient Mesopotamia. ... And it is this irreversibly modified world, from the polar caps to the equatorial forests, that is all the nature we have. ... Even the landscapes that we suppose to be most free of our culture may turn out, on closer inspection, to be its product. And it is the argument of Landscape and Memory that this is a cause not for guilt and sorrow but for celebration" (pp 7-9). This work was once lectures at Princeton, also at Cambridge, and has been made into a BBC television series. "The best work I am familiar with describing the cultural role of nature, or the impact of `place' on the development of a culture" -- William Hoover, Forestry, Purdue. Schama is a historian.

Science, 21 July, 1995, contains fourteen articles on frontiers in ecology, under the theme "Big Questions for a Small Planet." Listed below are several of interest to environmental ethics, values, and policy.

--Cohen, Joel E. "Population Growth and Earth's Human Carrying Capacity." Science 269(1995):341-345. Earth's capacity to support people is determined both by natural constraints and by human choices concerning economics, environment, culture (including values and politics), and demography. Human carrying capacity is therefore dynamic and uncertain. Human choice is not captured by ecological notions of carrying capacity that are appropriate for nonhuman populations. Simple mathematical models of the relation between human population growth and human carrying capacity can account for faster-than-exponential population growth followed by a slowing population growth rate, as observed in recent human history. Estimates of how many people Earth can carry have varied widely, from 1 to 100 billion, and estimates published in 1994 alone varied from 3 to 44 billion. The human population may be entering a zone where limits on the human carrying capacity of Earth will be encountered. The statement that "every human being represents hands to work, and not just another mouth to feed" does not specify the cultural, environmental, and economic resources available to make additional hands productive and therefore does not specify by how much the additional hands can increase or decrease human carrying capacity. An excellent, compact, summary article that everyone concerned with population growth ought to read. Cohen is in the Laboratory of Populations, Rockefeller University.

--Williams, Nigel. "Slow Start for Europe's New Habitat Protection Plan." Science 269(1995):320-322. The European Union's Habitats Directive has considerable promise, but nations have been slow to comply with filing their proposed habitat sites, some 169 habitats by a preliminary estimate. The emphasis is on large conservation areas, which can produce conflicts with development. Good summary of opportunities and problems in Europe.

--Carpenter, Stephen R. Sallie W. Chisholm, Charles J. Krebs, David W. Schindler, and Richard F. Wright. "Ecosystem Experiments." Science 269(1995):324-327. Experimental manipulations of ecosystems have produced some surprising results.

--Root, Terry L. and Stephen H. Schneider. "Ecology and Climate: Research Strategies and Implications." Science 269(1995):334-341. Estimates of models that may help us understand the behavior of complex environmental systems and allow more reliable forecasts of the ecological consequences of global changes.

--Pimm, Stuart L. Gareth J. Russell, John L. Gittleman, Thomas M. Brooks. "The Future of Biodiversity." Science 269(1995):347-350. Recent extinction rates are 100 to 1000 times their pre-human levels in taxonomically diverse groups in widely different environments. If all species currently deemed threatened become extinct in the next century, the future rate will be 10 times the present rate. Many species not now threatened will also succumb. Estimates of future extinctions are hampered by our limited knowledge of which areas are rich in endemics.

--Daily, Gretchen C. "Restoring Value to the World's Degraded Lands." Science 269(1995):350-354. About 43% of Earth's terrestrial vegetated land has diminished capacity to supply benefits to humans because of degradation, a reduction in benefits of about 10%. If present trends continue the reduction in benefits could reach 20%. Alternatively, with restoration, the reduction in benefits could be only 5%. Capitalizing on natural recovery mechanisms is urgently needed to prevent further irreversible change.

--Bloom, David E. "International Public Opinion on the Environment." Science 269(1995):354-358. There is concern about the environment in both developing and developed countries; developing countries rate their environments as lower in quality than do developed nations. There is considerable willingness both in developing and developed nations to accept responsibility for environmental problems. The role of governments in addressing national problems and of strong international agencies in addressing transnational issues is recognized.

--Myers, Norman. "Environmental Unknowns." Science 269(1995):358-360. The most important environmental problems will probably include many unknown to us now. It is important not only to have answers to recognized questions but to ask new questions.

--Time. "The Rape of Siberia." Cover story, Sept. 4, 1995. Siberia is an epic landscape steeped in tragedy, a tortured land. Siberia suffered greatly under communism. Now the world's capitalists covet its riches and that may be worse for the conservation of a majestic landscape.

--Irland, Lloyd C., ed., Ethics in Forestry. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1994. $ 39.95.

--Environmental Education Research is a new academic journal, issued three times a year, devoted to advancing environmental education through a focus on papers reporting research activities. The journal expects to publish papers on policy issues, comparative environmental education, and critical reviews of environmental education. Sample papers from vol. 1, no. 1, 1995: John Fein, "Teaching for a Sustainable World: The Environmental and Development Education Project for Teacher Education"; Barcia Marentic Pozarnik, "Probing into Pupil's Moral Judgement in Environmental Dilemmas: A Basis for `Teaching' Values"; Elena Camino and Carla Calcagno, "An Interactive Methodology for `Empowering' Students to Deal with Controversial Environmental Problems." Address inquiries to Chris Oulton, Environmental Education Research, School of Education, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, U.K.

--Attfield, Robin. Value, Obligation, and Meta-Ethics. Atlanta & Amsterdam, Editions Rodopi B. V., 1995. Defends a biocentric theory of moral standing and the coherence and objectivity of belief in intrinsic value, despite recent objections. Intrinsic value is located in the flourishing of living creatures. A theory of priorities, or of relative intrinsic value, in which the satisfaction of basic needs takes priority over other needs and wants, and the interests of complex and sophisticated creatures over those of others. A practice-consequentialist theory of rightness and obligation. Meta-ethical theories are sifted and moral relativism rejected, and a cognitivist and naturalist meta-ethic defended. Attfield teaches philosophy at the University of Wales, Cardiff.

--Swearingen, Thomas Craig. Moral Development and Environmental Ethics. Ph.D. dissertation in the College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, 1989. Available through University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI. 293 pages. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is relevant to the development of environmental ethical reasoning. Kohlberg is Western and anthropocentric. His theory is extended and adapted to environmental ethics. An instrument is developed to measure principled moral reasoning with an environmental orientation. Approximately 25,000 subjects were observed in a national park; persons observed to engage in environmentally destructive behavior and a matched random sample of other visitors were studied, 568 respondents. Analyses indicate that the subjects' responses are consistent with the extended theory hypothesizing stages in the development of environmental ethical reasoning. The thesis advisor was Robert G. Lee. A paper in progress, continuing this research is, "The Development of an Environmental Morality: A Theoretical Synthesis." Swearingen teaches in the Department of Health, Physical education, and Leisure Studies, University of Alabama, Mobile.

--Flood, Ann Margaret. Eco-morality: The Extension of Moral Development Theory to an Environmental/Ecological Context and the Development of the Flood Relative Presence Scoring Method to Assess Gender-biased Differences in Moral Orientation. Ph.D. dissertation in psychology at the Fielding Institute, 1992. Eugene Kerfoot was the chief advisor. Investigates the theoretical extension of Kohlberg's moral development theory from the anthropocentric context to an environmental context in terms of care and justice orientations of moral development theory. A new scoring method, the "Flood Relative Presence Scoring Method" is developed to assess more accurately the relative presence of moral orientations. Gender differences found in responses to human moral dilemmas were also found in environmental dilemmas. There is strong evidence that present moral development theory is incomplete, as well as unnecessarily limited to the human domain. With substantial reviews of the field of environmental ethics.

--Beringer, Almut. The Moral Ideas of Care and Respect: A Hermeneutic Inquiry into Adolescents' Environmental Ethics and Moral Functioning. Ph.D. dissertation in Natural Resources at the University of Michigan, 1992. William B. Stapp and Martin J. Packer were principal advisors. An interpretive-hermeneutic study of what it means to be moral toward nature. Discontent with contemporary environmental philosophy, leads Beringer to an inductive approach, based on real-life moral experiences. Environmental ethics needs to be rooted in the psychology of people to be applicable. Do people have the psychological capacities to put into practice what philosophers recommend? In an empirical study, 31 high school juniors comment on the ethical dimensions of environmental issues, and their responses are analyzed to answer the question.

--Tacey, David J. Edge of the Sacred: Transformation in Australia. North Blackburn, Victoria: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995.

--Meeker, Joseph W. Minding the Earth: Thinly Disguised Essays on Human Ecology. Alameda, CA: The Latham Foundation, 1988.

--Johansson, Per-Olov. Cost Benefit Analysis of Environmental Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 232 pages. An advanced text in applied welfare economics and its application to environmental economics. Claims to go far beyond the existing literature on the valuation of environmental benefits, deriving sets of cost-benefit rules which can be used to assess private and public sector projects which affect the environment. Argues that valuation studies can be augmented to as to yield the information necessary for decision-making, showing how externalities, taxes, unemployment, risk, irreversibilities, flow and stock pollutants, discounting, and intergenerational distribution should be treated in social cost-benefit analyses. Johansson is in economics at the Stockholm School of Economics.

--Achterberg, Wouter. Samenleving natuur en durrzaamheid: Een Inleiding in de Milieufilosofie (Society, Nature, and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy) (in Dutch). Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum and Comp, 1994. ISBN 90-232-2865-0. Chapters: 1. What is environmental philosophy? 2. Sustainability: History and analysis of an idea. Part I. Environment and industrial society: Will we ever get it right? 3. Whose environment? Tragedies and dilemmas. 4. Market economics, capitalism, and the forces of growth. 5. The state and the environmental crisis. 6. The environmental crisis and technology. Part II. What is the value of nature for us? 7. Attitudes toward nature. 8. Environmental ethics: Respect for nature and intrinsic value. 9. Environmental ethics: Future generations. Achterberg teaches philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and is the European contact person for the International Society of Environmental Ethics.

--Achterberg, Wouter, ed. Natuur: Uitbuiting of respect? Natuurwaarden in discussie (Nature: Exploitation or Respect? Natural Values in Discussion) (in Dutch) Kampen (Netherlands): Kok Agora, 1989. ISBN 90-242-7651-9 Section I. The limits of the "making" of things. ("Make-ability," "construct-ability," "fabrication"; cf. Greek techne, the modes in which nature can be remade by humans. Koo van der Wal, "The `making' of things"; Maarten Coolen, "Some philosophical-anthropological notions of `making'"; Wim Zweers, "Intrinsic value as a norm for `making'"; Section II. The Social Context. Wouter Achterberg, "Future generations: intuitive and contra-intuitive"; Wibren van der Burg, "The environment in political philosophy: toward an alternative vision of the state'; Hans Achterhuis, "Nature: desire and scarcity"; Section III. The image of nature. Henk Verhoog, "Reading the book of nature"; Nico van der Perk, "Social criticism based on an image of nature"; Victor Westhoff, "The image of nature in non-literate societies in the higher-developed Eastern worldviews." Achterberg teaches philosophy at the University of Amsterdam.

--Sitter-Liver, Beat and Beatrix Sitter-Liver, eds. Culture within Nature, Culture dans la Nature. Basel, Switzerland: Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1995. ISBN 3-090164-22-6. Contributions from about twenty authors, about half in English, half in French, the text complemented with visual arts. This volume was produced with the assistance and co-operation of UNESCO. Sample chapters: Carmina Virgili, Paris, "L'Etre humain et la planète Terre"; Beat Sitter-Liver, "La nature - une cité. Vers une constitution politique de la nature"; Nicolas M. Sosa, Salamanca, "Ecological Ethics as an Ethics of Physical and Moral Survival. Towards Morality of All-Embracing Communication and Solidarity"; Peter Saladin, Berne, "L'aspect temporel de la protection de la nature. La dimension juridico-politique"; Juan Diez Nicolas, Madrid, "Postmaterialism and the Social Ecosystem." Beat Sitter-Liver is professor of philosophy, University of Fribourg and Secretary-General of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences, Berne. Beatrix Sitter-Liver is an artist.

--James, David. The Application of Economic Techniques in Environmental Impact Assessment. Dordrecht/Boston /London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. The contribution of economic thought and methods to environmental management, with many illustrations in practice, from studies growing out of UNEP reports. James is with Ecoservices, Pty, Ltd., Whale Beach (Sydney), NSW, Australia.

--Stridbeck, Bolof. Ekosofi och Etik. Göteborg, Sweden: Bokskogen, 1994. ISBN 91 7776 070 0. A doctoral dissertation in practical philosophy delivered to the Humanities faculty at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, in June 1993. With an English summary, pp. 289-299. Chapter 1. Ecological balance as homeorhetic balance, balance in a system that maintains the same direction of change. Chapters 2-5 follow an analogy with the Noble Truths of Buddhism, and feature selected Norwegian and other ecophilosophers. Chapter 2. The truth of suffering. How bad is it today? Sigmund Kvaloy (Sätereng). Chapter 3. The truth of the cause of suffering. Why is it like this? Hjalmar Hegge. Chapter 4: The truth of the end of suffering. How should it be instead? Arne Naess and Henryk Skolimowski. Generally he finds that these thinkers complement one another. Chapter 5. The truth of the way to the end of suffering. Thomas Mathiesen, and his political strategy for promoting "ecological balance and creative manifoldness." Stridbeck also concludes "No concrete entities other than experiences have intrinsic value." (Thanks to Leena Vilkka, University of Helsinki and Per Ariansen, University of Oslo.)

--Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael. Revolution for Nature: From the Environment to the Connatural World. Cambridge: The White Horse Press, 1993. 145 pages. Translation by Matthew Armstrong of Aufstand für die Natur, Von der Umwelt zur Mitwelt, 1990. "What I recommend is a peaceful consumers' revolution." "We require ecological disobedience, if we are to accomplish more than the government thinks fit" (p. 21). Mayer-Abich combines anthropocentric and nonanthropocentric theories; it is neither the natural world nor the human world but the connatural world. We move from egocentricity to nepotism to anthropocentrism to mammalism to biocentrism to physiocentrism. Meyer-Abich is in the philosophy department, Universitat Essen, Essen, Germany.

--Nasar, Jack L. Environmental Aesthetics: Theory, Research and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 1992.

--Seel, Martin Eine Ästhetik der Natur, Frankfurt am Mein: Suhrkamp, 1991

--Rolston, Holmes, III. "What Is Responsible Management of Private Rangeland?" Pages 39-49 in Larry D. White, ed., Private Property Rights and Responsibilities of Rangeland Owners and Managers. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 1995. Proceedings from a conference of the Texas Section of the Society for Range Management. Humans must manage rangelands but on landscape scales they must also manage themselves to fit in living on a landscape. Land is resource but it is also place of residence. In Leopold's words, "We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect." Landscape managers can handle the earth. But perhaps we should also remember that hands are also for holding in loving care. Rolston teaches philosophy at Colorado State University.

--Varner, Gary. "The Environmentalists' Conception of Harm to Others." In Larry D. White, ed., Private Property Rights and Responsibilities of Rangeland Owners and Managers, pp. 55-59. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 1995. Proceedings from a conference of the Texas Section of the Society for Range Management. Eminent domain is used to secure some public good. Police power is used to prevent harm to others. Wetlands and endangered species legislation can be construed as designed to prevent harm to others, but some conceptual work here remains to be done. There is a need to draw better analogies with traditionally recognized public goods put in jeopardy by adverse land uses, also a need to stress the way general trends in land management can adversely affect ecological processes when the actions of private individuals would not. Varner teaches philosophy at Texas A&M University.

--Edwards, Denis. Jesus the Wisdom of God: An Ecological Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995. 208 pages. $ 16.95 paper. The Biblical wisdom literature and contemporary creation thought can be used to formulate an integrated ecological theology. What it means to recover the notion that Sophia-Wisdom became incarnate in Jesus of Nazareth and how the universe is altered by this incarnation. The trinitarian theology of Richard of St. Victor and St. Bonaventure find that every creature, including humans, is the free self-expression of the trinitarian God. Humanity is integrally related to all creation. Edwards is a Roman Catholic priest and lectures in theology in the Adelaide, Australia, College of Divinity.

--Finkel, Adam M. and Dominic Golding, eds. Worst Things First? The Debate over Risk-Based National Environmental Priorities. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1994. 348 pages. $ 45.00 cloth. The controversy over EPA's risk-based approach for setting the U. S. environmental priorities. Agreeing that alternative ways exist to plan for the protection of the nation's environmental resources, the contributors differ sharply as to whether these varied approaches complement each other or would disrupt environmental policymaking.

--Roberts, Paul Craig. "Quietly, Now, Let's Rethink the Ozone Apocalypse." Business Week, June 19, 1995, p. 26. Studies that show CFS's are not to blame for holes in the ozone have lawmakers questioning the coming ban on production. An unproven theory of ozone depletion is imposing heavy costs on the global economy. The scientific facts clearly indicate that there is no observational evidence that CFC's are thinning the ozone layer, and even if they did, the additional ultraviolet that would be let through is not the kind that causes cancer. The ozone threat is baseless hysteria. Roberts is in political economy at the Cato Institute, Washington.

--Probst, Katherine N., Don Fullerton, Rovert E. Litan, and Paul R. Portney. Footing the Bill for Superfund Cleanups: Who Pays and How? Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1995. 176 pages. $ 12.95 paper. Liability for cleanup costs, taxes to raise revenues, and hotly debated alternatives in the 1994 reauthorization debate with the U.S. Congress.

--Platt, Rutherford H., Rowan A. Rowntree and Pamela Muick, eds. The Ecological City--Preserving and Restoring Urban Biodiversity. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994. Paper, $ 17.95. Cloth, $ 45.00. Sixteen papers showing convincingly that the term "ecological city" is not an oxymoron. There are urban ecosystems--wetlands, forested areas, meadows, wildlife, and genuine landscapes in the urban environment--albeit too few and all too often threatened with deterioration or loss. Existing resources can be protected, enlarged, and improved if only their worth can be recognized and the necessary measures taken in time.

--Warren, Marion E. with Mame Warren. Bringing Back the Bay: The Chesapeake in the Photographs of Marion E. Warren and the Voices of Its People. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. $ 45. A coffee table book with an interwoven text that reveals the problems and promises of the Chesapeake as one of the world's great estuaries. Photography is black and white and the text is from residents in the region.

--Quinn, Daniel. Ishmael: An Adventure of the Mind and Spirit. New York: Bantam Books, 1992, 1995. A novel where the narrator is taught that we are killing the earth along with ourselves and it is nearly too late to check our fate, all by a remarkable teacher, Ishmael, who turns out to be a gorilla.

--Wersal, Lisa. "Islam and Environmental Ethics: Tradition Responds to Contemporary Challenges." Zygon 30(1995):451-459. The insights of Islamic scholars as they examine the interaction of Islam and the West facing environmental issues. The Western view that separates religion and science, value and fact, in particular differs from Islamic tradition, which sees all facets of life and affairs interconnected by virtue of their common source, the Creator. As traditional Islamic values have been abandoned to adopt Western technologies, environmental problems have intensified in the Muslim world. Muslim scholars urge a return to Islamic ideals that reflect a sacramental view of the physical universe, and they champion the revival of an Islamic science that synthesizes empirical study and symbolic cognition. Wersal lives in St. Paul, MN.

--Nasar, Jack L., ed. Environmental Aesthetics: Theory, Research, and Application. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 1992. 529 pages. Thirty two articles, sections include theory and method, architectural interiors, exteriors, urban scenes, natural and rural scenes, applications. Sample articles: D. Mark Fenton, "Dimensions of meaning in the perception of natural settings and their relationship to aesthetic response"; Thomas R. Herzog, "A cognitive analysis of preference for field-and-forest environments"; Kenneth T. Pearlman, "Aesthetic regulation and the courts"; Arnold Berleant, "Aesthetic perception in environmental design." Nasar is in city and regional planning, Ohio State University.

--Cifric, Ivan. "Relation between Socioenvironmental Orientations and Religious Belief." Socijalna ekologija (Social Ecology: Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research) 4(1995):15-33. (published by the Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Sociology, University of Zagreb, Croatia. In Croatian, with paper summary in English and German. Comparing surveys in 1988 and 1992, there was a decrease in anthropocentric beliefs and an increase of desire for natural balance, though believers in formal congregations were more anthropocentric. Cifric is in philosophy at the University of Zagreb.

--Gabbay, Shoshana. The Environment in Israel. Jerusalem: State of Israel, Ministry of the Environment, 1994. 225 pages. A political document of modest critical value. (Israel)

--Trzyna, Thaddeus, ed. A Sustainable World: Defining and Measuring Sustainable Development. Sacramento: International Center for the Environment and Public Policy, 1995. Published for IUCN. Fourteen articles: sections: Sustainability and Sustainable Development: What Do They Mean? Measuring Progress. Indicators of Sustainability. Sample articles: David A. Munro, "Sustainability: Rhetoric or Reality?"; Denis Goulet, "Authentic Development: Is it Sustainable?"; Calvin Nhira, "Poverty Alleviation and Sustainability: The Case of Zimbabwe" (In Zimbabwe, the environmental crisis has become worse in the period of independence; the elite care for themselves at the expense of the poor; "poverty alleviation measures in Zimbabwe have not been sustainable" (p. 236). Trzyna is Chair of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Strategy and Planning, and at the Center for Politics and Economics of The Claremont Graduate School.

--Pearce, David, Neil Adger, David Maddison and Dominic Moran. "Debt and the Environment." Scientific American 272 (no. 6, June 1995):52-56. Loans to Third World Countries cause great human hardship, but their connection to ecological troubles is difficult to prove. Most debtor nations continue to rely on outside funds, even though additional loans only make their predicament sharper. Structural adjustment programs are hard on people, especially the poor, but whether the environment has also been harmed directly in result is less clear. There is scant empirical evidence to suggest that the connection between debt and environment is significant. According to a common theory production of goods for export, to earn foreign exchange with which to pay debts, diverts resources away from the domestic sector producing goods for consumption at home, and this may be so, but the evidence that the environment is harmed in result is anecdotal and speculative. Most environmental degradation in the developing world probably has other causes than the servicing of debt. Pearce, the senior author, is in economics, University College, London.

--Wayne, Robert K. and John L. Gittleman. "The Problematic Red Wolf." Scientific American 273 (no. 1, July 1995):36-39. Is the red wolf a species or a long-established hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote? Proving that the red wolf fits any of the traditional definitions of species has been extremely challenging. Studies of DNA fail to find diagnosable red wolf DNA sequences different from those of the coyote or gray wolf. The authors conclude that the red wolf is a hybrid and not a distinct species. Such distinctions may affect ongoing efforts to save a variety of endangered species, although the authors argue that there are, nevertheless, compelling reasons to continue protection of the red wolf. Wayne teaches biology at UCLA, Gittleman at the University of Tennessee.

--Stone, Jerome A. "Broadening Care, Discerning Worth: The Environmental Contributions of Minimalist Religious Naturalism." Process Studies 22 (no. 4, Winter 1993):194-203. Religious naturalism, in conjunction with the theory and practice of appreciative awareness such as outlined by Bernard Meland, can contribute to extending our moral concern toward the environment as well as aesthetically appreciating it. In addition, a minimalist religious naturalism with a pluralistic emphasis and a prophetic principle can provide a helpful sense of the plurality of values and a critical readiness to undergo paradigm shifts, both of which are needed in facing our ever-growing eco-crisis. Stone teaches philosophy and religion at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, IL.

--Pojman, Louis, ed. Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1995. Contains Peter Singer, "The Case for Animal Liberation," and Carl Cohen, "The Case Against Animal Rights." Pojman teaches philosophy at the United States Military Academy, West Point, and is also the editor of an environmental anthology.

--Barr, James. Biblical Faith and Natural Theology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. 244 pages. Writing against the background of the rejection of natural theology by prominent twentieth century theologians (especially Karl Barth), Barr, well-known for his biblical exegesis, argues that natural theology is a legitimate enterprise within biblical thought. Any religious claim, no matter how strongly defended as revealed, includes some element of "anterior knowledge" that arises out of what has traditionally been viewed as natural theology. Natural theology is an essential and lively component of Biblical faith. Unfortunately, Barr chooses not to bring his new regard for natural theology to bear in any substantial way on the new discussions of the world and nature prompted by the ecological crisis. Barr presented these as Gifford lectures in 1991; an earlier Gifford lecturer denying natural theology was Karl Barth in 1938.

--Tucker, Mary Evelyn. "An Ecological Cosmology: The Confucian Philosophy of Material Force." In Christopher Key Chapple, ed., Ecological Prospects: Scientific, Religious and Aesthetic Perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. Tucker teaches religious studies at Bucknell University.

--Thomashow, Mitchell. Ecological Identity: Becoming a Reflective Environmentalist. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1995. 268 pages. $ 25.00. How environmental studies can be taught from a different perspective, one deeply informed by personal reflection. Constructing an ecological identity using the direct experience of nature as a framework for personal decisions, professional choices, political actions, and spiritual inquiry. John Muir, Henry David Thoreau, and Rachel Carson are environmental archetypes, though today we have also to consider new emphases, such as ecofeminism and bioregionalism. Thomashow is in environmental studies at Antioch New England Graduate School.

--Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel. The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Protecting the Environment: Proceedings. Tel Aviv, Israel: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (SPNI), 1995. 215 pages. Proceedings from their 40th anniversary Conference, March 1994 at Eilat. A section on "Ethics and Ideology," contains: Andrew Brennan (University of Western Australia), "Placing Ourselves in Nature: Philosophy, Public Policy, and the Environment"; Eitan Tchernov (Hebrew University, Jerusalem), "Increase in Complexity, Exploitation of the Environment and Human Responsibility"; Luke Ivuru Agwe and Alfred A. R. Latigo (African Biodiversity Institute, Nairobi), "Ethical and Ideological Foundation for Environmental Conservation: A Pragmatic Approach for Africa"; Edgar Roy Ramirez (University of Costa Rica), "Ethical Principles for Ecodevelopment: A Concrete Case (the TEPROCA farmers of Costa Rica)." Another paper is Sara Parkin (former chair of the UK Green Party), "The Role of Politics and NGOs in Environmental Protection." (Israel)

--Heinsohn, Robert and Craig Packer. "Complex Cooperative Strategies in Group-Territorial African Lions." Science 269 (1995):1260-1262. African lions are more diverse in co-operation and non-cooperation than current sociobiological theory can explain. When challenged by simulated intruders, some lionesses lead the charge while others lag behind. Although leaders recognize that their companions are lagging, they fail to punish them. Some brave lionesses take risks that are not offspring-optimizing, because they tolerate cowardly lionesses. Some cowardly lionesses come through in a pinch, when they are most needed; some do not. The variety of behavior styles is quite broad, puzzling to current theories of cooperation. With an accompanying report by Virginia Morrell, pp. 1216-17. Heinsohn is in zoology, Australian National University; Packer in animal behavior at the University of Minnesota.

--Krishnaswamy, Ajit. "Sustainable Development and Community Forest Management in Bihar, India." Society & Natural Resources 8 (no. 4, July 1995):339- .

--Tarrant, Michael A., Glenn E. Haas, and Manfredo, Michael J. "Factors Affecting Visitor Evaluations of Aircraft Overflights of Wilderness Areas." Society & Natural Resources 8 (no. 4, July 1995):351- .

--Glick, Daniel. "Having Owls and Jobs Too." National Wildlife 33 (no. 3, August-September):8-13. In Oregon where protection of the northern spotted owl was supposed to destroy jobs, a booming economy debunks the "owl-vs.-jobs" tradeoff. Oregon has lost 14,300 jobs in the timber industry since 1988, with adverse effects on some rural mill towns, but the Oregon economy more than made up for that with new jobs elsewhere, often in wood technology. And former loggers are re-training.
--Sessions, George. "Postmodernism, Environmental Justice, and the Demise of the Deep Ecology Movement?" Wild Duck Review: Literature and Letters of Northern California, vol. 1, no. 5, June/July 1995, pages 14-16. Sessions reviews some current trends, with particular attention to Michael Zimmerman, Contesting Earth's Future. Zimmerman, now rejecting the Heidegger he earlier followed, has gone too far in holding that all positions are power-positions "contesting Earth's future," each promoting its own interests; he cannot consistently say this and hold that nature in itself has intrinsic value or that the integrity of ecosystems should be preserved. The power position account erodes the intrinsic value account. Deep ecology is not one more power position, among others. Sessions teaches philosophy at Sierra College, Rocklin, CA. For copies, contact: Wild Duck Review, 419 Spring Street, Suite D, Nevada City, CA 95959 USA.

--Sessions, George. "Political Correctness, Ecological Realities and the Future of the Ecology Movement." Wild Duck Review: Literature and Letters of Northern California, vol. 1, no. 6, September 1995, pp. 10-13. Sessions continues his review of current trends, with particular attention to Gregg Easterbrook, A Moment on the Earth. In his positive account of the environment, Easterbrook selects certain environmental indices that, while perhaps true, ignore other indices that are ecologically more significant. For copies, contact: Wild Duck Review, 419 Spring Street, Suite D, Nevada City, CA 95959 USA.

--Drengson, Alan. The Practice of Technology: Exploring Technology, Ecophilosophy, and Spiritual Disciplines for Vital Links. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995. 232 pages. $ 20.00 paper. Modern industrial technology seeks to redesign the human and natural worlds to conform to the monoculture models of Western society. But ecological and social responsibility should be built into the design of new technology, practices based on ecosophy (ecological wisdom). Our current problems cannot be solved without understanding the role of technological forces in modern civilization. Drengson teaches philosophy at the University of Victoria.

--Krall, Florence. Ecotone: Wayfaring on the Margins. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. The metaphor of the biological ecotone as the boundary where the inner and outer landscapes of the woman/nature continuum meet. Using autobiographical narrative, the author walks the edges, the margins, to deepen the human/nature bonds. Krall teaches education at the University of Utah.

--Hunter, Jr., Malcolm L. Fundamentals of Conservation Biology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1995. 488 pages. $ 42.95. Chapters on biodiversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity, genetic diversity; extinctions and global change, habitat degradation and loss, overexploitation, exotic species, managing ecosystems, managing populations, zoos and gardens, social factors, economics, politics and action. Hunter is in wildlife ecology, University of Maine, Orono, and a Pew Conservation Scholar.

--Knight, Richard L. and Sarah F. Bates, eds. A New Century for Natural Resources Management. Washington: Island Press, 1995. Twenty-one contributors. The more philosophical articles include: Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology), "The Traditional Ethics of Natural Resource Management"; David W. Orr (Oberlin College), "A World That Takes Its Environment Seriously"; James J. Kennedy (Utah State University) and Jack Ward Thomas (Chief, USDA Forest Service), "Managing Natural Resources as Social Value"; Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University), "Global Environmental Ethics: A Valuable Earth"; and R. Edward Grumbine (Sierra Institute), "Three Bear Stories: Toward a Sustainable Resource Management Future." Knight is in wildlife conservation at Colorado State University; Bates directs the Utah office of the Grand Canyon Trust.

--Jensen, Derrick and George Draffan. Railroads and Clearcuts: Legacy of Congress' 1864 Northern Pacific Land Grant. Durango, CO: Kivaki Press (Way of the Mountain Center), 1995. $ 15.00 198 pages. The wealth of four of the major timber corporations in the Northwest--Weyerhauser, Boise Cascade, Potlatch, and Plum Creek--is derived from land conditionally granted by Congress in 1864, intended for settlers, but which ended up establishing corporate empires. The land given away extends for 2,000 miles in a strip 120 miles long, 40 million acres.
--Oelschlaeger, Max, ed. "The Company of Others: Essays in Celebration of Paul Shepard." Durango, CO: Kivaki Press (Way of the Mountain Center), 1995. $ 30.00. 304 pages. 27 contributors. Oelschlaeger is in philosophy at the University of North Texas.

--Bloch, Konrad. "Carnivores, Herbivores, and Omnivores." In Blondes in Venetian Paintings, the Nine-Banded Armadillo, and Other Essays in Biochemistry, pp. 228-241. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. The genetic basis of obligate carnivores. Cats, wolves, foxes, raccoons, raptors are obligate carnivores, and must eat flesh. Two carnivores, the giant panda and the black bear have become herbivores, the panda eats only bamboo. Domesticated dogs are not obligate carnivores, although their wild ancestors were. Not too much is known about the genetic basis or obligate carnivores, except for the domestic cat. Four deficiencies are known. Cats lacking taurine and vitamin A, obtained in meat, will go blind from retinal deterioration. Omnivores and herbivores can synthesize taurine, though there is some evidence that taurine deficiency in primates produces less than optimum growth. Bloch is a Nobel laureate biochemist, formerly at Harvard.

--Zaslowsky, Dyan. "The Battle of Boulder." Wilderness 58 (no. 209, Summer, 1995):25-33. Good intentions combine with contrary expectations to produce a troubling irony. The Boulder Open Space Department has been a pace setter, strongly supported by the populace in land acquisition and preservation--until they began to limit access and move trails in the name of ecosystem conservation and restoration. One observers says: "This is a conflict between social ecologists and deep ecologists. The deep ecologists are the sort of people who lecture us that human society is a cancer on the planet. We social ecologists see ourselves as a part of the natural environment and believe that the footprints of humans have as much right to be on a trail as the footprints of deer and elk." Zaslowsky covers the Rocky Mountain region for the New York Times.

--Little, Charles E. The Dying of the Trees: The Pandemic in America's Forests. New York: Viking, 1995. 274 pages. $ 22.95. In the East, along the spine of the Appalachians, the dogwood are dead and dying from a disease called anthracnose, while acid deposition is killing red spruce and balsam fir from Vermont to Virginia and the Carolinas. Soil disease is destroying the mixed mesophytic forests of West Virginia; in the upper Midwest, gypsy moths are devastating second-growth white pine. In Southern California and the Sierra Nevada, airborne pollutants are killing yellow pine and ponderosa pine; in the Rocky Mountains, spruce budworms and bark beetles have combined with a century of fires suppression to cripple the health of Douglas fir. In the Pacific Northwest, the ancient forests of Douglas fir and other old-growth species have been systematically obliterated by Forest Service timber policies.

--Caughley, Graheme. "Directions in Conservation Biology." Journal of Animal Ecology 63(1994):215-244. Most theories about conservation have been developed in studies of species that occur in small populations under constrained conditions. These are amenable to theoretical treatment, but the theory provides an answer to a trivial question, How long will the population persist if nothing happens. It bears tenuous relevance to the specific problems of aiding a species in trouble. The real conservation problems, however, involve species that are declining in numbers from widespread, large populations. The reasons are humdrum, various, defy tight generalization, and not of theoretical interest. But such theory is in urgently needed to orient practice. Caughley is with the CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra, Australia.

--Tillman, David, and John A. Downing. "Biodiversity and Stability in Grasslands." Nature 367(1994):363-365. In a manipulated study of grasslands, which increased diversity by adding nitrogen, more diverse plant communities were more resistant to and recovered more fully from drought. Evidence for the often contested diversity-stability hypothesis, though not the alternative hypothesis that most species are functionally redundant. The preservation of biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of stable productivity in ecosystems. Tillman is in ecology at the University of Minnesota; Downing in biology at the University of Montreal.

--Walker, Brian and Henry Nix. "Managing Australia's Biological Diversity." Search (Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science) 24(no. 6, July, 1993):173-178. Four particular gaps require attention: what and where is the biodiversity, what is its functional significance, what is needed for its persistence, and what are the appropriate management guidelines. Regional scale analyses of alternative combinations of land use can lead to policy decisions on an optimal land use target. Walker is with CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra; Nix is in environmental studies, Australian National University, Canberra.

--Comstock, Gary L. "Do Agriculturalists Need a New, an Ecocentric, Ethic?" Agriculture and Human Values 12 (Winter 1995): 2-16. In 1973, Richard Sylvan began his seminal essay, "Do We Need a New, an Environmental Ethic?" with these words: "It is increasingly said that...Western civilization...stands in need of a new ethic...setting out people's relations to the natural environment." In the intervening years, it has increasingly been said that Western civilization is in need of ecocentrism, an ethic according to which a thing's value is derived from its contribution to the integrity, stability, and beauty of ecosystems. Comstock argues that ecocentrism is an inadequate ethic for agriculturalists, and suggests they look instead to "extensionists," or animal rights philosophers, for guidance regarding our relations to the natural environment. Comstock is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Iowa State U. and Head of the ISU Bioethics Program. The article is an expanded version of his 1994 presidential address to the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society.

--Vodopianov, P. A., and V.S. Kryeachenko. The Great Day of Wrath (Ecology and Eschatology. Minsk, Bielorussia. Chapters: "An Eschatological Dimension of Traditional World Views," "Oikumena and Natural Conditions of Human Activities," "Man and Natural World," and "Strategy of Human Survival." The authors propose their own interpretation for a number of acute problems of the contemporary world and a strategy of stable and secure social development.

--Van der Weele, Cor. "Images of Develoment: Envrionmental Causes in Ontogeny." Doctoral thesis, Vrije Univeristeit of Amsterdam, 1995. Supported by the Foundation for Research in Philosophy and Theology, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.

--Marin, Vance G., and Nicholas Tyler eds. Arctic Wilderness , the 5th World Wilderness Congress. Golden, CO: North American Press, 1995.

--Trzyna, Thaddeus C., ed. A Sustainable World: Defining and Measuring Sustainable Development. Published for IUCN by the International Center for the Environment and Public Polioy, California Institute of Public Affairs, Sacramento and Claremont, 1995.

--Brown, Don, and Cohn Lemons, eds. Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics and Pulbic Policy. Dordrecht: Kluwar Academic Publishers, 1995. Chapter authors include: Don Brown, John Lemons, Rudolf Heredia, Dale Jamieson, Clive Spash, Larry Canter, Konrad Ott, Carl Cranor and Kristin Shrader-Frechette.

--Sagoff, Mark. "Carrying Capacity and Ecological Economics." Bioscience 45, no. 9 (October 1995): 610-20. Reply by Herman E. Daly follows on pp. 621-26.

--Daly, Herman E. "Reply to Mark Sagoff." Bioscience 45, no. 9 (October 1995): 621-26. Sagoff's article, "Carrying Capacity and Ecological Economics," is on pp. 610-20.


Issues

Peregrine Falcon Saved or Endangered? The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed removing the peregrine falcon from the endangered species list. Some biologists say that plan fails to take into account the fragility of the bird's restored population. Part of the debate is whether to count breeding pairs, which are up, or hatchlings fledged, which are down.

Animal Research in Polish Science. Two bills before legislators state that "animal experiments are acceptable only in cases where the desired outcome cannot be obtained any other way." More controversial features require scientists to care for the animals after experiments, rather than euthanize them, and to create a worldwide data bank. Scientists would need to show that identical or very similar results had not already been accomplished elsewhere. Brief story in Science, 21 July, 1995.

Seal Nursery-Rehabilitation Center. The "Zachonden-creche" is a nursery-rehabilitation center at Pieterburen, Netherlands, for the only mammal of the Waddenzee. The Waddenzee, in North Holland, is said to be perhaps the only "natural" area in a country where manipulation and control of natural landscapes and processes have been the norm. Yet, even here the seal population has been severely affected because of pollution, primarily from Rotterdam, consisting mostly of PCBs and pesticides. Natural enemies like the polar bear and the killer whale are not present in the Waddenzoe; humans are the seals' natural enemy, by hunting, polluting, and disturbing theanimals and their habitats. The creche's aim is to maintain and possibly increase the number of local population of the harbour seal, through the care of individual stranded, diseased or orphaned seals. Rehabilitation takes 3-4 months. Seals are then taken back to the sea by the NMF Dept. of the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. Already more than 850 seals have been released since the start of the centre in 1971. Orphans are bottle fed, receive vitamins and other treatment, then eventually fish. It is a delightful place to visit, and they welcome donations to giro-account 884327 of the RABO bank, Eenrum,account no. 316004936. (More information can be obtained from Laura Westra.)

Automobile Fuel Efficiency Declining, Arctic Slated for Drilling. Average automobile fuel efficiency has declined from 26.2 miles per gallon in 1987 to 24.8 mpg in 1995. Most of the decrease is due to the increasing popularity of sport utility vehicles, minivans and pickups, used by "overprepared commuters" who only drive the rugged vehicles to work and haul kids and groceries. The U.S. House of Representatives has voted to bar the Transportation Department from raising fuel economy standards next year. (See James Bennet, NY Times 9/4/95, p. A1.) Meanwhile, both houses of Congress have passed a budget resolution that includes revenue from oil and gas leases in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Northeast Alaska. This would end a longstanding ban on drilling in the coastal plain of ANWR, a calving ground for a caribou herd of 150, 000 individuals. The oil that is possible under ANWR would support the nation's oil consumption for about half a year. In response to a letter objecting to opening ANWR, one Senator wrote, "Contrary to the views of many, this area is a barren and desolate stretch of tundra . . . . [T]here are no majestic mountains, beautiful forests, or other national treasures, and the area is without sunlight much of the time." President Clinton has vowed to veto the budget bill if it includes this revenue source, and he is considering declaring ANWR a national monument, which would prevent drilling for oil and gas. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger for this.)

Improving Natural Aesthetics? Rocks newly exposed by rockslides or roadcuts on national scenic highways are sometimes sprayed with a liquid mixture of iron and manganese because of a concern that it takes too long for the rocks to weather naturally. (AP story, Bozeman Daily Chronicle, 28 July 1995.)

Protecting Endangered Species But Not Their Habitat? A bill to amend the Endangered Species Act (ESA), HR-2275 was introduced by Representatives Don Young of Alaska and Richard Pombo of California (with 90 cosponsors). Like the ESA bill in the Senate (S-768, introduced by Slade Gorton of Washington), the Pombo-Young bill would no longer require the protection of endangered species habitat on private lands. The bill would also weaken requirements to protect endangered species on Federal lands used for logging or grazing (e.g., lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management). Do Federally protected wilderness areas and National Parks include sufficient land areas to prevent further extinctions and to recover endangered populations in the U.S.? (John Cushman, NY Times, 7 September 1995.)

Paying for Watching Wildlife and Appreciating Nature? Should outdoor enthusiasts pay a user fee for their nonconsumptive use of wildlife by way of a dedicated surcharge on purchases of backpacks, kayaks, binoculars, bird seed, guide books, etc.? According to the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), for fifty years hunters and fishers have paid user fees on hunting and fishing equipment and this money has been used successfully to conserve millions of acres of habitat. If government funding for habitat protection is increasing unlikely, might not such an alternative funding source be desirable? The NWF suggests we tell the manufacturers and retailers of the equipment we buy that we are in favor of such a fee. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger for this.)


Environmental Ethics in South Africa
By Holmes Rolston, III

This section features South Africa, with more incidental references to East Africa and other parts of Africa, with little reference to French-speaking Africa. More information on these other areas of interest to ISEE members would be welcome.

The Land,
People, Fauna, Flora,
and Environmental Concern

South Africa is characterized by marked topographic gradients: extensive plains and plateaus in the interior, spectacular mountain landscapes of the Great Escarpment, also mountain landscapes in the Cape region, and a narrow coastal plain. There is a mix of tropical and temperate habitats. The warm Agulhas Current comes down the east coast; the cold Benguella Current comes up the west coast. One result is summer rains in Natal, with dry winters; and, in contrast, winter rains in the Cape, with dry summers. There is a remarkable richness of plant and animal species in the region. Current estimates place the total number of species in South Africa somewhere between 250,000 and 1,000,000. The flora is the richest temperate flora in the world, approximately 24,500 species, almost 10% of the world's flowering plants. The cape flora alone, the fynbos, one of the six Plant Kingdoms of the World, contains more species than in all of Europe. South Africans of European descent have a long history of interest in their wildlife; in addition to the hunting tradition there is a impressive range of national and provincial parks. After the Bible, over the years Robert's Bird Guide to South Africa has been the second best selling book in South Africa.

About 25% of the land surface has been greatly transformed by cultivation, urban development, forestry plantations, mining, impoundments, and plant invasions. Known extinctions since 1600 include 30 plant, two bird, and two mammal species; currently 2,300 plants, six amphibian, 27 reptile, 72 bird, and 42 mammal species are threatened. The major threats are habitat destruction through agriculture and urbanization and, for the large mammals, human hunting pressure, illegal and legal. Water is the most critical limiting resource, and especially adversely affected are wetlands, rivers, and estuaries. Salinization, eutrophication, and pollution by heavy metals, mine dump affluents, pesticides and herbicides have considerably reduced water quality. Natural runoff has been substantially reduced. Some three-fourths of estuaries in Natal and the Cape regions are degraded. Fifty fishes are threatened.

Invasive plants jeopardize indigenous biota on a national scale. South Africa originally had rather few forested areas, confined to ravines in the veld and fynbos country, more extensive on some high escarpments in the Transvaal and Drakensberg regions. Native trees grow slowly and imported trees have been favored for plantations, especially eucalyptus and pines, which grow rapidly, but also have escaped and become troublesome, as also has black wattle. Forestry as traditionally established was concerned with saving native forests and planting tree farms for timber instead, but, over the years, forestry has become largely commercial forestry and such plantations are often evident on the landscape, although in aggregate they occupy only a tiny fraction of the land area. Such forests, however, are regarded as heavy consumers of water; they are not irrigated and may be planted in some of the better watered parts of the landscape. Trees in towns and cities, aesthetically important to many, are almost entirely exotic trees.

Protected areas, impressive as they are, cover only 8.6% of South Africa, though Roy Siegfried (University of Cape Town) estimates that 74% of plants, 92% of amphibians, 97% of birds, and 93% of mammals are represented in these protected areas. Reserves are, on the whole, small and isolated, with notable exceptions, such as Kruger National Park. There are a few, small marine reserves. (Some of the above data from Rachel Wynberg, "Biodiversity for All: Protecting, Managing and Using South Africa's Biotic Wealth," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 3(no. 1, January-February 1995):33-38).

Apartheid policies forced many blacks to relocate and this often upset their traditional uses of plant and animal resources, including customary practices that regulated supply and demand. This has been greatly exacerbated by an exploding black population, high population densities in parts of the country, growing unemployment, and increased demands from urban areas for economically important resources. Black settlements near cities lack basic sanitation services and contaminate rivers with domestic and human waste. Present rates and techniques of harvesting plants used for medicinal compounds and for fuelwood are of concern, and their depletion especially affects women who traditionally harvest wood and plants and carry water.

Since the 1993 elections, conservation agencies have been in considerable shuffle. The traditional provinces have been merged with the former homelands, and all the government agencies are busy sorting out what this means, including the parks boards. Traditionally, and continuing still, there has been a National Parks Board, various provincial parks boards, of which the Natal Parks Board has been especially important. In the new government, the African National Congress has an extensive environmental policy statement, and in the provisional constitution South Africa has become the second nation in the world (after Namibia) to mention the environment in its constitution, where all citizens, in the bill of right are assured "the right to an environment which is not detrimental to his or her health or well-being" (Article 29, Constitution of the RSA Act 200 of 1993 in Betus de Villies, ed., Birth of a Constitution, Kenwyn: Juta, 1994).

WWF South Africa (The Southern African Nature Foundation) has proved, over a quarter of a century, a major NGO force in conservation, with over 200 projects. Samples: The Table Mountain Fund, conserving the biological diversity in the Cape peninsula, various land acquisitions that make it the largest private contributor of land for conservation, founding the Southern African Wildlife College (preceding paragraph), and Caring for the Earth: South Africa, a South Africa adaptation of the WWF World Conservation Strategy, Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living. Dr. John Hanks is the chief executive, P. O. Box 456, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa.

The Wildlife Society is an NGO with general membership promoting conservation of wildlife. The society publishes a journal called African Wildlife.

CSIR Environmental Services is the environmental assessment unit of the government-charted Council on Scientific and Industrial Research. They conduct scientific research, assess management skills, coordinate business ventures with national policy, conduct environmental impact studies, environmental audits, and generally promote integrated environmental management. Some representative projects: The large-scale environmental impact assessment for mineral sands mining of the St. Lucia area, the most extensive EIA ever undertaken in South Africa; environmental impact assessment for Chevron Offshore Oil Exploration, Namibia, environmental impact assessment of a manganese ore installation at Port Elizabeth harbor; development of water quality management policy and strategies for the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Contact: Alex Weaver, CSIR Environmental Services, Private Bag x 5011, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa. Fax: 021 889-1130.

Environmental Ethics and
Education in South Africa

At the University of Stellenbosch, the Unit for Environmental Ethics within the Department of Philosophy is an inter-disciplinary research and advisory body that concerns itself with the application of ethical norms to environmental issues. The unit provides a nonpartisan forum for the exchange of ideas on environmental ethics in contemporary society, focusing specifically on the environmental problems facing a developing South africa. The unit promotes efforts to foster sensitivity for the importance of guiding ethical principles for decision-making practices in the field of environmental management and to establish greater cooperation on ethical issues among academic, labor and public interest groups. Johan P. Hattingh is head of the unit.

At the University of South Africa (UNISA) in Pretoria there are in the philosophy courses some units on environmental ethics. This is a largely correspondence university, serving a large number of students. Alan Hilary Marshall completed a M.A. in environmental ethics there in 1993 (see bibliography). Two contact faculty in philosophy and members of ISEE are Pieter Coetzee and Jennifer Wilkinson.

The Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa is an important organization in environmental education, including environmental ethics. About 500 teachers at grade and secondary schools, academics, agency and government persons, national and provincial parks staff persons meet annually, mostly South Africans but quite a number from other southern African nations, and a number of internationals. EEASA publishes a journal: Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, once a year. ISSN 0256-7504. Editors: Pat Irwin and Eureta Janse van Rensburg. The association also publishes a newsletter. A contact is Professor Pat Irwin, Department of Education, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa.

The University of Cape Town has two especially relevant activities. There is an Environmental Evaluation Unit, which provides environmental impact statements and other environmental consulting. The unit head is Richard Fuggle, who is also chair of the Department of Environmental and Geographical Science. The FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology sponsors an M.Sc. course in conservation biology, taking a maximum of twelve students; about half are traditional aged master's students; about half are professional natural resource people returning for the emphasis in conservation biology. This program was initiated in 1991, and includes courses in both technical and social and philosophical aspects of conservation values.

The University of Natal, on the campus at Pietermartitzburg, has an Institute for Natural Resources. Charles Breen heads this institute.

The Southern African Wildlife College is being opened this year, located on contractual national park land on the western boundary of Kruger National Park near the Open Gate. An important project of the WWF Southern African Natural Foundation, the training program will provide southern African protected area managers with the motivation and skills to manage their areas and wildlife populations sustainably and in co-operation with local communities. Training will initially concentrate on area managers from southern Africa, including Mozambique and Angola. The course duration is two years, in six modules of three months each. Joe Venter, a grasslands ecologist, has been named the first principal. (Story in Africa - Environment and Wildlife, May/June 1995.)

The Industrial Environmental Forum of Southern Africa seeks to be the preferred voice of business on pertinent environmental issues in the region, an organization of over 70 business leaders from over 40 companies in South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique. The forum encourages responsible environmental business, and organizes workshops and seminars to promote a proactive rather than a reactive approach to environmental concerns. Contact Jonathan Hobbs or Karin Ireton, P. O. Box 1091, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa. Fax 27-11-800-4360.

Elsewhere in Africa, at the University of Nairobi, Professor Odera Oruka in the Department of Philosophy has a center for applied ethics in technology and environmental ethics and has sponsored several conferences with this theme. One publication, an edited volume, is Philosophy, Humanity, and Ecology.

In Kenya, Moi University, at Eldoret has a program in wildlife conservation.

In Tanzania there is a College of African Wildlife Management at Mweka, a village 10 km. north of Moshi and south of Kilimanjaro National Park. Reports are that the school was better in the past than it is now.

In Liberia, there is a Society for the Renewal of Nature Conservation in Liberia. Contact Alex L. Peal, P. O. Box 2628, Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa. Phone 231-223-830. Also: Philip T. Robinson, 45375 Escalante Court, Temecula, California 92592. Phone 619/534-6068 or 619/669-4780.

Bibliography: Some Relevant Periodicals

--Africa - Environment and Wildlife is the best single source of reflective articles, raising the ethical and philosophical issues in conservation for a literate audience. This is a magazine, not a journal, issued six times a year and is a relative newcomer on the African scene. Several examples are summarized in the bibliography below.

--African Wildlife is the official organ of the Wildlife Society, a conservationist organization with general membership. Articles can be good, though not as explicitly probing as those in Africa - Environment and Wildlife.

--Endangered Wildlife is the official publication of the Endangered Wildlife Trust.

--Swara (the Swahili for impala) is the conservation magazine of the East African Wildlife Society (2nd floor, Museum Hill Centre. Mailing address: P. O. Box 20110, Nairobi, Kenya. Phone 748170. Fax 746868). They print about 10,000 copies.

--The African Journal of Ecology, a scientific journal, is also published by the East African Wildlife Society through Blackwells.

--New Ground: A Journal of Development and the Environment is a journal with a black perspective on environmental conservation and sustainable development. Published by an independent trust, the Environmental and Development Agency Trust. Address: P. O. Box 322, Newtown 2113, South Africa. ISSN 1016-8075. Editor: Dick Cloete.

--Development Southern Africa is a quarterly journal published by the Development Bank of Southern Africa. P. O. Box 1234, Halfway House, 1685, South Africa. A scholarly journal now in its twelfth year, published six times a year. The emphasis is on development, but development that is environmentally sustainable and sensitive.

--Wildlife News is published by the African Wildlife Foundation, Washington, DC, and Nairobi, reporting wildlife issues throughout Africa, and continuing more than thirty years of conservation efforts by this foundation. African Wildlife Foundation, 1717 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036.
Bibliography: Articles and Books
--Adams, William Mark, Green Development: Environment and Sustainability in the Third World. London and New York: Routledge, 1990, 1992. 257 pages. An analysis of the concept of sustainable development, with particular reference to the gulf between environment and development studies. The "greenness" of development is not to be found in a simple concern for the environment, but in a new understanding of the politics of the development process and the power of the poor to control and determine the future of their own environment. Adams is a lecturer in geography at the University of Cambridge.

--Adams, W. M., Wasting the Rain: Rivers, People, and Planning in Africa. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Co-published with Earthscan in the United Kingdom. 240 pages. $ 17.95, paper. For much of Africa, drought seems to be a permanent feature. Many attempts have been made to develop water resources through dams and irrigation schemes, but these have almost invariably failed. The best hope of appropriate development lies in working with local people using local knowledge. Adams wants to use the strength and diversity of indigenous water development in the difficult and often variable climate of Africa. The record of the modern, large-scale developments, particularly dams and irrigation schemes, has been poor and ineffective in conservation. (v4,#2)

--African National Congress, Mayibuye iAfrika--An Introduction to ANC Environmental Policy. Johannesburg, African National Congress, 1991.

--African Panorama, a general magazine, issued a Special Environmental Edition, 1995. Twenty authors have brief articles on values and issues in conversation. Ian Player discusses the importance of the environment to the psyche of humankind. Dawie de Villiers presents the position of the new government on environmental strategies, David Varty examines ecotourism, Carrie Curzon the illegal wildlife trade, George Hughes reports on the eighth CITES conference and South Africa's position there, Nolly Zaloumis outlines threats to wetlands, Tony Pooley examines South Coast degradation, Gerhard Verdoom describes the battle to save raptors, Basie Maartens explains how hunting can conserve wildlife, Clive Walker explains the importance of creating awareness in children, Raymond Byrne looks at waste facilities, Kader Asmal describes the water supply limitations, Kraai van Niekerk looks at the uneasy relation between farming and conservation, Jeunesse Searll shows how poverty is depleting Africa's natural forests, John Hanks presents opportunities for private sector ecotourism, and more.

--Anderson, David S. and David R. Bridge, Focus on Africa: Wildlife, Conservation, and Man. Santa Barbara, CA: Bridgewood Productions, 1994. ISBN 0-9639261-0-1. Mostly pictures.

--Battersby, John, "A Human Face for South Africa's Park System," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (23 August 1994): 12-13. (v5,#3)

--Berger, Joel and Carol Cunningham, "Active Intervention and Conservation: Africa's Pachyderm Problem," Science 263(1994):1241-1242. Few conservation programs have succeeded where the animal has valuable body parts that can be poached. The ban on elephant ivory may be working, though causing dissension in Africa, where countries with abundant elephants want to sell legal ivory, to support conservation. Africa's most endangered pachyderms are the rhinoceroses, in 25 years reduced from 65,000 to 2,500, a loss of 97%. Only one unfenced population of over more than 100 animals exists, in Namibia. Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Swaziland are using a controversial dehorning, where the horn is sawed off and the animal returned to the wild. Does the dehorning deter poachers? Can hornless mothers defend calves from predators? Berger and Cunningham think that the answer may be no, on balance, in both cases, but both questions are hard to answer, partly because horned and dehorned animals mix; there is evidence on both sides.
Predators may not turn to rhinoceros calves until there is extended drought and other prey are in shorter supply. It might be better to move the rhinos to fenced areas. On the science and advocacy issue, Berger and Cunningham, a husband and wife team, had returned to Namibia when this article was published and a month later found that their research permits were not renewed by U. S. agencies and their money frozen by the Namibian government, apparently because their research yielded results that cast doubts on the wisdom of an established official policy. Their research has been supported by what looks like a Who's Who in government and NGO conservation agencies. See editorial by Peter F. Brussard in Society for Conservation Biology Newsletter, vol. 1, issue 2, May 1994. (v5,#2)

--Binder, Renee and Burnett, G. W., "Ngugi Wa Thiong'o and the Search for a Populist Landscape Aesthetic." Environmental Values 3(1994):47-59. This essay examines how Ngugi was Thiong'o, east Africa's most prominent writer, treats the landscape as a fundamental social phenomenon in two of his most important novels, A Grain of Wheat and Petals of Blood. Basing his ideas in an ecological theory of landscape aesthetics resembling one recently developed in America, Ngugi understands that ability to control and manipulate a landscape defines a society. Nostalgia for the landscape lost to colonialism and to the corrupting and alienating influences of international capitalism needs to be replaced by its progressive evaluation as it is reshaped by collective action for a new future. Alienation from, and loss of responsibility for, the land may be a major factor contributing to Africa's environmental problems. Ngugi's position casts doubt on professional land management's ultimate ability to influence the shape of the landscape in the face of the collective social will. KEYWORDS: Ngugi wa Thiong'o, landscape aesthetics, development, Kenya. Binder is at Sumter National Forest, S.C. Burnett is with the Dept. of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, S.C. (EV)

--Binns, Tony, ed., People and Environment in Africa New York: John Wiley, 1995. Major anthology of 24 articles, divided into General Issues, and then sections on North, East, and Central Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa. Binns is a geographer at the University of Sussex.

--Blignaut, Peter Erle, Framework for a Socio-Resource Zoning Management Policy for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilisation of the Mountainous Areas of South Africa. University of Cape Town, Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, Ph.D. Dissertation, April 1994. The mountainous environments of South Africa are being steadily degraded due to undesirable agricultural activities, over-burning, erosion, invasive vegetation, afforestation, natural resource exploitation, infrastrutural developments and a general attitude that mountains comprise 'waste land' that presently has little conservation status. Environmental management for the sustainable use of mountains is urgently required. Blignaut is and land surveyor and town and regional planner. Address: Blignaut and Rommelaere, P. O. Box 334, Parow 7500, South Africa.

--Bonner, Raymond, At the Hand of Man: Peril and Hope for Africa's Wildlife. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. 322 pages. $ 24.00. Bonner thinks there has been much folly in Western led efforts at wildlife conservation in Africa. He is especially critical of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) or World Wide Fund for Nature and the Africa Wildlife Fund. He thinks that these funds have used the ban on the ivory trade, for instance, to increase membership and donations, while a controlled sale of ivory would have been more effective at saving elephants. These funds have been too interested in the animals, and not interested enough in the Africa peoples, whose fortunes are tied to those of the animals. Bonner is a former New York Times correspondent. (v4,#2)

--Bophuthatswana National Parks and Wildlife Management Board published a series of occasional papers (at least 16 of them) on policy, ethical, and management issues. Samples: Suping, Victor S (tribal chief of the Botswana) and Roger F. H. Collinson, "The Wildlife Conservation Traditions of the Batswana," Paper no. 2, January 1992; Collinson, Roger F. H., "National Parks: Extravagant or Essential?" Paper no. 6, May 1992; Davies, Richard J., David Grossman and Levy Rammutla, "Wildlife Use and Community Development in Bophuthatswana," Paper no. 13, November 1992; Stuart-Hill, Greg, and David Grossman, "Parks, Profits and Professionalism: An Overview of the Introduction of the Lion to the Pilanesberg National Park."

--Borchert, Peter and Maria Jones, "The Environment Must Win: South Africa's Elections," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 2(no.2, March/April 1994):20-26. In South Africa, the need for social upliftment is crucial but many are concerned that the clamor for short-term reparation and economic success could exacerbate the environmental ills that already beset the land. Politicians must be encouraged to acknowledge that the promise of better times is irrevocably linked to a healthy environment. Most of the political parties have fairly well-articulated environmental policies, but this can prove little more than lip service, and South Africa is out of step with developed western nations that do pay serious attention to environmental problems. Some think that a preoccupation with environmental issues is the mark of a privileged few who put the welfare of animals over that of humans. In fact South Africa's biodiversity is one of its major assets.
Tourism is only part of the answer. At worst, ecotourism is an international hotel group putting up a pleasure palace on the edge of a game reserve, staffed with its international staff, and repatriating the profits taken from overseas tourists. At best, ecotourism is "purposeful travel to natural areas, to understand the cultural and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing economic opportunities that make conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people" (Ecotourism Society). South Africa ought considerably to enlarge its share of the market in better ecotourism. However, the market is finite, the demand can be met with relatively small areas of more or less pristine ecosystems and is generally feasible in a few prime areas, and it is intrinsically unstable, evaporating in time of war, political instability, shifting exchange rates, disease epidemics, perceived personal dangers, and so forth. The larger answer is a spectrum of benefits from conserved natural resources that reach large numbers of ordinary people. Borchert is editor of Africa - Environment and Wildlife; Johns is a freelance journalist.

--Borchert, Peter, "Destination Africa: Turning a Dream into Reality," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 3(no. 3, May/June 1995):27-35. Travel and tourism is, by some measures, the world's largest industry, globally people spend more on tourism than they do for food. Africa offers unparalleled opportunities for tourism, especially its impoverished nations that seem to have little else to offer the world economy other than access to places of great natural beauty. But ecotourism is a mixed bag; done wrong it destroys the assets on which it is based, benefits the rich and not the poor, and escalates further consumption of fuel, water, and materials. Done right it can offer a rational and sustainable use of the continent's great assets in a manner that involves and is of benefit both to Africans and African wildlife. "Tourism is the way in which individuals can savour the unknown, acquire understanding and experience the world in its fullness. Furthermore, tourism stands out as a positive and ever-present factor in promoting mutual knowledge and understanding, and therefore peace and detente" (United Nations World Tourism Organisation, The Hague Declaration on Tourism, 1989). Borchert is editor of Africa - Environment and Wildlife.

--Berger, Dnyani, J., Wildlife Extension: Participatory Conservation by the Maasi of Kenya. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies. ISBN 9966-41-068-6. Community initiative in conservation on Maasai group ranches near Amboseli and Tsavo West Parks, with the resolution of people/wildlife conflicts. Also analyzes the history of wildlife conservation and development in Kenya's rangelands.

--Burnett, G. W., and Kamuyu wa Kang'ethe, "Wilderness and the Bantu Mind." Environmental Ethics 16(1994):145-160. In the West, it is widely believed that, since Africans lack an emotional experience with romanticism and transcendentalism, they do not possess the philosophical prerequisites necessary to protect wilderness. However, the West's disdain for African systems of thought has precluded examination of customary African views of wilderness. Examination of ethnographic reports on Kenya's Highland Bantu reveals a complex view of phenomena that the West generally associates with wilderness. For the Bantu, wilderness is an extension of human living space, and through concerted social action rather than individual initiative, it is, or at least can be, dominated by society. Wildlife is unnatural and alienated from human society, which is natural. Because wilderness is, consequently, understood to be fearsome and hostile, it is not a place that can provide inspiration or self-actualization. Almost all forests have a special spiritual relationship with humankind, and some trees have a special relationship with God. Although traditional Bantu thought is contrary to a concept of wilderness as conserved, managed space filled with tourists and recreators, it does embrace a concept of wilderness as wildlands. The Bantu have gone to considerable length to develop an approach to wilderness that minimizes individual contact while requiring association with wilderness as a social activity. Population growth and want of vocational opportunities continue to thrust Highland Bantu into wilderness as a fundamental and traditional survival technique. Burnett is in Parks, Recreation and Tourism, Clemson, SC; Kang'ethe is in sociology and religion, Cardinal Stritch College, Milwaukee, and formerly of Nairobi, Kenya. (EE)

--Burnett, G. W. and Lisa M. Butler Harrington, "Early National Park Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa," Society and Natural Resources 7(1994):155-168. National parks are widely thought to have begun in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S. in 1872 and to have spread around the world from that inspiration. But parks were adopted early in southern Africa and spread rapidly through much of sub-Saharan Africa. The earliest preservation activities were oriented toward watershed protection and erosion control in fynbos areas. The game reserve orientation of some parks originated later. Burnett is in recreation and tourism at Clemson University, Harrington in geology/geography at Eastern Illinois University. (v5,#4)

--Callicott, J. Baird, Earth's Insights: A Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basis to the Australian Outback. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Includes Chapter 8 on "African Biocommunitarianism." Callicott is professor of philosophy at the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. (v5,#3)

--Chenje, Munyaradzi, and Phyllis Johnson, eds., State of the Environment in Southern Africa, 1994. A Report by the Southern African Research and Documentation Centre, in collaboration with IUCN and the Southern African Development Community. Contact: Southern African Development Community, Box 24, Maseru 100, Lesotho. Fax: 266 310190. ISBN 0-7974-1374-X. Also available in Portuguese. Fourteen chapters, on all aspects: people, history, policy, climate, soils, woodlands and forests, wildlife and protected areas, freshwater resources, marine ecosystems, pollution, armed conflict and the environment, trends and scenarios.

--Clarke, James, Back to Earth: South Africa's Environmental Challenges. Halfway House: Southern Book Publishers (P. O. Box 3103), 1991. ISBN 1 86812 368 5. 332 pages, cloth. Clarke is a journalist in Sandton, Johannesburg.

--Cock, Jacklyn, "Towards the Greening of the Church in South Africa: Some Problems and Possibilities." 26 page typescript, available from the author, at the Department of Sociology, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, South Africa. Probably the principal paper available for assessing the power and prospects for Christianity as a force for environmental conservation, as well as for human development, in South Africa. (v2,#4)

--Cock, Jacklyn, and E. Koch, eds., Going Green: People, Politics and Environment in South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1991.

--Conservation of Southern Africa's Resources. Exploitation, Sustainability and Ethics. Proceedings of a one day symposium in May 1995, organised and hosted by the South African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Scientists, the South African Wildlife Management Association, and the Marine Science Society of Southern Africa. 31 pages. Ten papers dealing with the "consumptive use of wild living resources."

--Council for the Environment, An Approach to a National Environmental Policy and Strategy for South Africa. Pretoria: Council for the Environment, 1990.

--Cowling, Richard and Dave Richardson, Fynbos: South Africa's Unique Floral Kingdom Vlaeberg: Fernwood Press, 1995. 154 pages. ISBN 1 874590 10 5 Fynbos, a vegetation type unique to South Africa, is the smallest floral kingdom in the world, yet for its size it boasts the largest number of plant species. Nowhere else on earth are so many species crammed into such a small area. This is an extremely attractive presentation in text and photography, not only of the flora but of the fauna it supports. Its conservation is of great concern and one of the leading arguments here is that the solutions to these problems lie in the recognition of fynbos as an economic resource. Cowling is an ecologist at the University of Cape Town and a 1994 winner in the Pew Conservation Award. Richardson is a researcher at the Institute for Plant Conservation, University of Cape Town.

--CSIR (Council on Scientific and Industrial Research) Environmental Services, Building the Foundation for Sustainable Development in South Africa. National Report to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. Pretoria: Department of Environment Affairs, June 1992.

--Curzon, Carrie, "Ecotourism - Conservation Ethics - Profit: Getting it Right in the Eastern Transvaal," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 1(no. 2, July-August 1993):36-42. Four game reserves along the western flank of Kruger National Park--Sabi Sand, Timbavati, Manyeleti, and Klaserie--have luxury lodges for high priced ecotourism and close encounter with wildlife. The lodges try to use local materials, labor, and supplies, and claim that they are committed to sound environmental principles, hoping to give credence to the term ecotourism. Fences have come down between the park and the reserves; animals roam where they will. Reserve managers have been following the advice of ecologists in the restoration of lands once degraded by cattle. Ecotourism is a major factor in earning foreign exchange. Still, there is the criticism of a high paying international elite enjoying wildlife while masses of the poor blacks are not far away. Meanwhile, wildlife viewing is much cheaper at nearby Kruger Park. Curzon is a free lance journalist.

--Davies, B. R., J. H. O'Keeffe, and C. D. Snaddon, A Synthesis of the Ecological Functioning, Conservation and Management of South African Rivers Ecosystems, 1993. ISBN 1 86845 001 3. Water Research Commission, P. O. Box 824, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. The dedication reads: "To all people that care for the earth, and who regard it as finite resource to cherish, rather than to pillage and to profit from, be the glory!" The conclusion is in the hope that the study will help South Africans to "give love to our rivers."

--Durning, Alan B., Apartheid's Environmental Toll. Worldwatch Paper 95. May 1990. 50 pages. $ 4.00. Worldwatch Institute, 1771 Massachusetts Ave., N. W. Washington, DC 20036. A startling paper. "Apartheid reveals with exceptional clarity the way unfairness within the human estate extends its damage into the natural estate as well." "Forced relocations and natural increase combine to give the homelands an average population density higher than all but three countries on the continent." "Air and water near mining and smelting operations are little monitored, and what monitoring is done is not reported." "Aside from oil exporters and the notoriously inefficient centrally planned economies, South Africa is the most energy-intensive country in the world." "On a per person basis, white South Africans are the world's worst greenhouse offenders." "The bantustan system leaves South Africa with a pattern of land ownership more skewed than any on the seven continents." Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 14(1992):87-91. (v1,#4)

--Endangered Wildlife is the journal of the Endangered Wildlife Trust, South Africa, c/o The Johannesburg Zoological Gardens, Jan Smuts Avenue, Parkview, 2193. (v1,#4)

--Engelbrecht, W. G., and P. T. van der Walt, "Notes on the Economic Use of the Kruger National Park," Koedoe: Research Journal for National Parks in the Republic of South Africa 36, no. 2, 1993: 113-120. In an economic analysis, the present use of Kruger National Park creates substantially more net social benefits than would its conversion to agricultural use, but the question remains whether these benefits are equitably distributed at various levels of the South African society. Engelbrecht is with the Development Bank of Southern Africa; van der Welt is with the National Parks Board, Republic of South Africa. (v5,#1)

--Environmental Planning Professions Interdisciplinary Committee, Poverty and the Environment. Proceedings of the EPPIC '92 Conference (28-29 September 1992, Midrand). 376 pages. EPPIC address: P.O. Box 62041, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa. Telephone: (27) 11 836 8618. Fax: (27) 11 836 8657). Contains a keynote address, "The Nature of Poverty in South Africa," by Roy Siegfried, Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of Ornithology, University of Cape Town. These proceedings, resulting from the conference, are devoted to the following themes: 1. The Nature of Poverty in South Africa. 2. Economic Realities of Poverty in South Africa. 3. The Impact of Poverty on the Environment. 4. Energy Needs, Poverty and the Environment. 5. Strategies for Environmental Management in South Africa. 6. Environmental Education. 7. What Can The Planning Professions do to Alleviate Poverty and Reduce its Impact on the Environment. 8. Development of Viable Strategies for the Future.

--Fuggle, R. F. and M. A. Rabie, eds., Environmental Management in South Africa. Cape Town and Johannesburg: Juta and Co., Ltd (P. O. Box 14373, Kenwyn 7790), 1992. ISBN 0 7021 2847 3. 823 pages, a large volume with over fifty contributors, the Bible of environmental management in South Africa. Replaces the 1983 Environmental Concerns in South Africa.

--Geach, Bev and Bruce Cohen, eds., The Green Pages 1991/1992: Environmental Networking and Resource Directory for Southern Africa. 35 Rand, or US$ 18. 206 pages. Published by the Weekly Mail, 1991, Johannesburg. Contact: The Green Pages, Box 260425, Excom 2023, South Africa. Fax 011 331-3339.

--Grossman, David, "An Overview of the Potential for Wildlife Utilisation in Bophuthatswana," NKWE Journal, Journal of Environmental Conservation in Bophuthatswana (official journal of the Bophuthatswana National Parks and Wildlife Management Board), no. 2, December 1992. Contact David Grossman and Associates, P. O. Box 29038, Sandringham 2131, South Africa.

--Hallowes, David, ed., Hidden faces: Environment, Development, Justice: South Africa and the Global Context. Scottsville, South Africa: Earthlife Africa, 1993. Proceedings of The Earthlife Conference, held in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, 1993. Contact: Russel Friedman Books, P. O. Box 73, Halfway House, 1685, South Africa. 323 pages. ISBN 0-620-17450-1. Articles by over thirty authors. Sections: UNCED and after; Dominant and appropriate paradigms; labor; rural land use; urbanization and human settlements; consumption and population; growth and sustainable development. Sample articles: Dana Alston, "Environment and development: an issue of justice"; Barbara Klugman, "Putting people into perspective: women, environment and population policy"; Vandana Shiva, "Technology's mythic productions."

--Hattingh, Johan, ed., Genetic Engineering in Ethical Perspective. Stellenbosch: Unit for Bioethics, University of Stellenbosch, 1992. ISBN 0-7972-0401-5. Six papers from a conference on this topic.

--Hattingh, Johan, Ian Voges, Kobus Miller, Wilhelm Verwoerd, The Relationship between Ethics, Environment and Development: Guidelines for Policy Making in South Africa. A research report prepared for the Development Bank of South Africa by the Unit for Environmental Ethics, University of Stellenbosh, Stellenbosh. May 1994. 30 pages. At least the following values should inform policy making: Justice in the sense of fairness; development that expands people's functionings, capabilities, and freedoms; the environment has intrinsic value; an action is right if it preserves the beauty, integrity, and stability of the biotic community; it is right to exploit the environment for vital human purposes; it is wrong to over-exploit the environment because it has inherent worth and so doing will compromise the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs. (v5,#2)

--Hattingh, Johan, Willie van der Merwe, and Wilhelm Verwoerd, "Is Access to Electricity a Human Right?" Research paper prepared for Eskom (the South Africa electricity corporation) by the Unit for Environmental Ethics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch. February 1993. Is it possible to speak of access to electricity as a human right? If so, what are the practical implications for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity in South Africa. The authors provide preliminary background and a broad outline for further debate.

--Hill, Richard C. and Paul A. Bowen, "Current Issues in Sustainable Construction," in Managing the Environment in Mining and Construction, July 1995, a supplement to EPM, SA Mining World, and SA Construction World. Seven principles for achieving sustainable construction. Minimize resource consumption, maximize resource use; use renewable or recyclable resources, protect the natural environment and restore degraded environments, create a healthy, non-toxic environment, pursue quality in creating the built environment, and promote labor intensive methods, skills training, and capacity building of local people. With applications to South Africa. Hill is in environmental evaluation, Bowen in construction economics and management at the University of Cape Town.

--Holt-Biddle, David, "The Heat is on: The Reality of Global Climate Change," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 2(no. 3, May/June 1994):31-40. In an Africa beset by environmental and social problems, concern about a minute shift in climate patterns may seem irrelevant. But climate change is as relevant to Africa as to any part of the world. Indeed, the effects could well be even more harshly felt in a continent where limited resources, particularly food and water, are already stretched by rapidly growing populations. Holt-Biddle is an environmental journalist in Johannesburg.

--Huntley, Brian, Roy Siegfried, and Clem Sunter, South African Environments into the 21st Century. Cape Town: Human and Rousseau Tafelberg, 1989. 127 pages. An effort to integrate environmental, political, and social issues as these loom in South Africa's uncertain future. Excellent descriptions of degrading conditions, joined with conservative political philosophy. Laissez faire economics is the key to the redistribution of wealth. "Too much state intervention" is the chief trouble (p. 58). They document that whites earn nearly ten times the per capita income of blacks (p. 50). They document that 70% percent of farmland is owned by 50,000 white farmers and only 13% by 700,000 black farmers (17% other) (p. 55). From these premises they conclude, "What is needed is a much larger cake, not a sudden change in the way it is cut" (p. 85). Black land ownership of land has long been severely restricted by law. Brian Huntley is Director of Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Cape Town, a primary institution for botanical conservation in South Africa. Roy Siegfried is an ecologist at the University of Cape Town and director of an the FitzPatrick Ornithological Institute there, involved in bird and marine conservation. Clem Sunter, trained in philosophy, politics and economics, is a chief officer for environmental affairs with Anglo American Corporation in South Africa, the largest corporation in the nation. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 14(1992):87-91. (v1,#4)

--Janse van Rensburg, Eureta, Environmental Education and Research in Southern Africa: A Landscape of Shifting Priorities. Ph.D. thesis in the Department of Education, Rhodes University, February 1995. 249 pages. Published copies are available from this department. Research priorities within universities and within the context of political and environmental change in southern Africa. The thesis seeks "a reflexive perspective" that is "outside modernist assumptions" and outlines "research priorities from this perspective. Reflexivity reveals the myths of expert-driven, instrumental and institutionalized research separated from environmental education and based upon rationalistic interpretations of science. It opens up possibilities for transformative knowledge emerging from `re-search' based versions of education as a process of, rather than a means to, social change." Janse van Rensburg is now teaching education at Rhodes University.

--Juma, Calestous, John Mugabe and Patricia Kameri-Mbote, eds., Coming to Life: Biotechnology in African Economic Recovery. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies, 1995. ISBN 9966-41-087-2. Also published by Zed Books, London, ISBN 1-85649-268-0. Science and technology policy formulation and the status of biotechnology in Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. African countries have the potential to move into the field of biotechnology, but they are hindered by the lack of coherent national policies.

--Kassas M., "Agriculture in North Africa: Sociocultural Aspects", Journal of Agricultural Ethics 2(1989):183-190. This article documents, in the cases of Libya and Egypt, situations that occur in many other nations: conversion of farmlands to nonagricultural uses, exhaustion of nonrenewable water resources, irrigation leading to waterlogging and salinization of agricultural lands, development that does not benefit people in the regions being developed. It is suggested that the use of natural resources should be in accord with nationally determined priorities and should occur in a sustainable manner. Kassas is at the University of Cairo, Giza, Egypt.

--KwaZulu Conservation Trust, "An African Dilemma: Conservation Must Be Balanced by Human Needs," Financial Mail (South Africa), November 23, 1990, pp. 57-75. A sensitive study of the tradeoffs between wildlife conservation and the needs of the poor, largely blacks, in South Africa. Focuses on KawZulu, the land of the Zulu, a self-governing yet non-independent state made up of fragmented chunks of the province of Natal, carved out by the vagaries of colonial and subsequent apartheid politics. This is also a region of spectacular wildlife, with some of the principal designated conservation areas in South Africa. The blacks, although often on their own original lands, have been marginalized from white society, have seriously overpopulated, and do not always make intelligent use of their own lands (for example their large numbers of cows used as status symbols). Many examples are given of how blacks can derive income and sustainable harvest from reserved lands, with continuing populations of wildlife. In this region, more than elsewhere in South Africa, blacks have been incorporated into the professional personnel of wildlife management. (v2,#1)

--Logan, Bernard I., "Government Expenditures on Imported Inputs and the Goals of Food Self-Sufficiency and Food Security in the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference", Journal of Agricultural Ethics 2(1989): This study is a broad examination of the relationship between government expenditures on imported inputs and the performance of the domestic food subsector. Because much data on government spending and agricultural production in Africa are unavailable, and those in published form are of suspect validity, the study is undertaken largely as a conceptual overview. Logan is in geography at the University of Georgia, Athens.

--Marshall, Alan Hilary, The Concept of Environmental Ethics, M.A. thesis at the University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria, 1993. 133 pages. Human development and excesses threaten not only the continued existence of the human species but that of all other forms of life on earth. Environmental ethics ought to confront and contain this threat. There are two opposed kinds of philosophical positions: a nature-centered ethic, here called biocentrism, from which environmental ethics was developed, and homocentrism, which has arisen in opposition to biocentrism. Marshall argues for a homocentric view. The homocentric view is the world view that the peoples and nations of the world currently adopt; morality is largely worked out in that context, and it is the view most likely to be successful in environmental conservation. The supervisors were Z. Postma de Beer and P. Voice.

--Masolo, D. A., African Philosophy in Search of Identity. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1994, and Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994. Is there an African philosophy? A Kenyan philosopher analyzes this debate, its history and current status. African thinkers have used philosophy as the primary vehicle for theoretical articulation of their identities as the means for contesting identities imposed by outsiders. Among the philosophers studied is H. Odera Oruka, who has an interest in environmental philosophy. African philosophy has grown out of unique cultural circumstances and now embraces many different constructions of African reality, problems, and methods of acquiring meaningful knowledge. Masolo is in philosophy at the University of Nairobi, also he has been visiting professor at Antioch College.

--Kwame, Safro, ed., Readings in African Philosophy: An Akan Collection. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995.

--Moseley, Albert G., ed., African Philosophy: Selected Readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995.

--Matthews, Sue, "The IMF and the World Bank: Financial Friends or Environmental Enemies," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 2(no. 2, January/February, 1994):27-31. In early 1993, after a hiatus of almost 30 years, the World Bank offered to lend South Africa 3 billion rand ($ 800,000), following the new government there, and the lifting of United States and United Nations sanctions. There were detailed negotiations with the South African government and the African National Congress (ANC) party about potential projects within a social reconstruction program. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) also offered an equally large loan to help relieve the balance-of-payments strain South Africa had experienced as a result of the drought and the consequent heavy maize imports of 1992. These advances were met with jubilation on the one hand and words of warning on the other. Many critics felt it was unwise to drive South Africa further into debt, and even unnecessary, given its huge gold reserve. When World Bank President Lewis Preston visited the country, Nedbank's chief economist was quoted, "We have enough finance in this country, but we just don't know how to use it." Others were wary of accepting the World Bank and IMF loans, having seen the consequences of the debt crisis in the rest of Africa. And since both institutions are controlled by member countries whose votes are in accordance with the size of their respective donations, the United States wields the most power. Through the bank and the IMF, the United States has exerted such a strong influence over the macroeconomic policies of African nations that it has been likened to the recolonization of Africa. Particularly troublesome are Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAF's), which typically require currency devaluation to make exports cheaper and imports more expensive, spending cuts, withdrawal of subsidies, and trade liberalization, resulting in plummeting per capita incomes, rising unemployment and urban poverty, and reduced government spending on social services, also encouraging the expansion of cash crops for export at the expense of food crops which are grown for local consumption. Much of this burden of adjustment falls on the poor, especially women and children. The World Bank and IMF have been attempting reforms, but reform is difficult. Matthews is a marine ecologist and free lance journalist.

--Middleton, Neil, Phil O'Keefe, and Sam Mayo, Tears of the Crocodile: From Rio to Reality in the Developing World. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1993. ISBN 9966 46 584 4. 228 pages. This is a critique of those in the developed North who have failed to identify the links between poverty and environmental destruction. The real agenda at Rio was preserving the interests of the developed North both at the expense of the developing South and of the natural world. Middleton is a publisher in Dublin; O'Keefe is in environmental management at the University of Northumbria; Moyo is with the Zimbabwe Institute of Development Studies.

--Mills, M. G. L., "Conservation Management of Large Carnivores in Africa," Koedoe: Research Journal for National Parks in the Republic of South Africa 34 (no. 1, 1991): 81-90. Problems and opportunities in keeping people in reasonable harmony with big predators on a landscape. (v2,#4)

--Mountain, Alan, Paradise under Pressure (St. Lucia, Kosi Bay, Sodwana, Lake Sibaya, Maputoland) Johannesburg: Southern Book Publishing, 1990. ISBN 1 86812 277 8. 133 pages. The St. Lucia area includes a nature reserve, including a wilderness area (the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park), on the shoreline of northern Natal and the Indian Ocean, threatened to be mined for the rutile in the sand dunes, now forested with a rather dense coastal forest. Mining has been in progress some years in a coastal area to the south. In a celebrated conservation victory, a 1994 government board decided not to proceed with the mining, not at least at present.

--Njoroge, Raphael Gerard, and G. A. Bennaars, Philosophy and Education in Africa: An Introductory Text for Students of Education. Nairobi: Transafrica Press, 1986, 1994. 259 pages. Includes a section on education and ethics. Both authors teach philosophy of education at Kenyatta University, Nairobi.

--Okoth-Ogendo, H. W. O., and J. B. Ojwang, eds., A Climate for Development: Climate Change Policy Options for Africa. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies. ISBN 9966-41-090-2. Also published by the Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm. Accurate predictions of the effects of global climate change in Africa are not available, but are likely to be significant, and there are many actions that can now be taken to mitigate these impacts. Climate change brings the urgency of sustainable development into clearer focus.

--Oruka, H. Odera, ed. Philosophy, Humanity and Ecology. Volume 1: Philosophy of Nature and Environmental Ethics. Nairobi, Kenya: African Centre for Technology Studies, 1994. US $20.00 (ISBN 9966-41-086-4). Papers presented at the World Conference of Philosophy held in Nairobi, Kenya, in July 1991. Attracting almost six hundred participants and observers, representing 55 countries, the papers in this volume incorporate contributions from Europe, North America, Asia and Africa, including Evandro Agazzi, Wolfgang Kluxen, Jerzy Pelc, Richard T. De George, S.S. Rama Pappu, Tomonobu Imamichi, Ali Mazrui, Kwasi Wiredu and Thomas R. Odhiambo. Chair of the organizing committee of the World Conference, H. Odera Oruka is Professor of Philosophy, University of Nairobi, and founder chair of the Philosophical Association of Kenya.

--Paice, Di, "Power Hungry: An Electricity Grid for Sub-equatorial Africa," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 3(no. 2, March/April 1995):65-68. An interview Charles Dingley, lecturer at the University of Cape Town, who claims that on the lower reaches of the Zaire River, with a series of water falls, there is enough power potential to supply the whole of Africa twice over. By the year 2025 the whole of sub-equatorial Africa could be linked in a power grid that would change the face of the region, bring an end to chronic poverty and environmental degradation resulting from overuse of fuel and from burning coal to make electricity. Paice is a free lance journalist.

--Pienaar, U. De V., "An Overview of Conservation in South Africa and Future Perspectives," Koedoe: Research Journal for National Parks in the Republic of South Africa 34 (no. 1, 1991):73-80. With particular concern for a national environmental plan and policy that will arrest and reverse current resource and environmental deterioration while at the same time promoting approaches to attaining a better quality of life for all South Africans. (v2,#4)

--Press, Robert M. "Borlaug: Sowing `Green Revolution' Among African Leaders." The Christian Science Monitor, 29 June 1994, p. 9. (v5,#2)

--Preston, Guy and Helen Rees, "Now is the Time: Confronting South Africa's Population Growth," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 2(no.6, November/December 1994):27-32. In South Africa, population policy has been an almost taboo subject: highly politicized, manipulated, and, many would say, functionally ignored by previous governments. The urgent need for a sound policy has to be squarely faced--with South Africa's current population set to double within the next 30 years. There is no time for dithering if the country is to shake off its past and emerge with hope and optimism for a new era. In Africa, the whole continent, it is projected that the 1990 population of about 642 million people will increase by 2050 to 3,090 million, an increase of 500%. Preston is an environmental scientist at the University of Cape Town; Rees is a medical practitioner and chair of the South African Planned Parenthood Association.

--Preston, Guy, "Integrated Environmental Management: Will It Be Worth Having," Africa - Environment and Wildlife 1 (no. 1, May-June 1993):31-35. Environmental management in South Africa is coming to have much of the force of law, and this is desirable. It aims to insure that negative impacts of development proposals are minimized and positive aspects enhanced, in such a way that the social costs of development proposals, those borne by society, rather than the developer, be outweighed by the social benefits. In fact, integrated environmental management is often ineffectual because it is watered-down by interest groups; in result developers make a lot of money at considerable costs of environmental degradation that have to be borne by the community. There is far too great an emphasis on development rights and scant regard for development responsibilities. In one case (Hout Bay), poor policy planning resulted in 95% of the planning bill being footed by taxpayers. Preston is head of research in the Environmental Evaluation Unit at the University of Cape Town.

--Preston-Whyte, Rob and Graham House, eds. Rotating the Cube: Environmental Strategies for the 1990's (South Africa). Durban: Department of Geographical and Environmental Sciences, and Indicator Project South Africa, University of Natal, April 1990. With chapters on water, air, fire, the rape of the land, industry and environment, and humans and their environment. A revealing study. Some 28 authors are involved. The editors are in geography and environmental science at the University of Natal. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 14(1992):87-91.

--Ramphele, Mamphela, ed., Restoring the Land: Environment and Change in Post-Apartheid South Africa. London: Panos Publications, 1991. ISBN 1-870670-27-2. 216 pages, paper. By a study group of nearly two dozen persons, from all races, from law, media, philosophy, universities, unions. Sample chapter titles: A Land out of Balance; The Legacy of 'Homeland' Policy; A Desert for the Deserted; Blighted Environment; Life in the Townships; Smoke over Soweto; People, Parks and Politics; Rural Democracy Revisited; A Fragile Land (Namibia). (v5,#2)

--Rogerson, Christian and Jeffrey McCarthy, eds., Geography in a Changing South Africa: Progress and Prospects. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1992. 306 pages. South African rand 51.75. With a section on environment, education and health. Rogerson is a geographer at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. McCarthy is a geographer at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. (v5,#1)

--Saayman, Graham S., ed., Modern South Africa in Search of a Soul: Jungian Perspectives on the Wilderness Within Boston, MA: Sigon Press, 1990. Ten articles interpreting the psychological and spiritual dimensions of wilderness experience.

--Sachs, Albie, Protecting Human Rights in a New South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1990, 1991. With a chapter on "Rights to the Land," and "Conservation and Third Generation Rights: The Right to Beauty." Sachs is a lawyer and writer, long a member of the African National Congress (ANC) and a member of the ANC Constitutional Committee.

--Sánchez, Vincente, and Calestous Juma, eds., Biodiplomacy: Genetic Resources and International Relations. Nairobi: African Center for Technology Studies (ACTS), 1994. ISBN 9966-41-077-5. 16 articles. 371 pages. The Convention on Biodiversity balances conservation of genetic resources, technological development, regulated access to genetic resources, and international equity. But the issue is how to implement the Convention. Sanchez is a Kenyan diplomat; Juma is director of ACTS. $ 22 from ACTS.

--Sayer, Jeffrey A., Caroline S. Harcourt, and N. Mark Collins, eds., The Conservation Atlas of Tropic Forests: Africa. By the World Conservation Union (IUCN). New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. 256 pages, 62 maps. $ 95.00. (v3,#4)

--Soulé, Michael, "A Conservation Biologist's Dilemma: "Does Boycotting South Africa Constitute Human Chauvinism?" Earthwatch, April 1988, pp. 12-13. Soulé first accepted, then declined a consulting trip to South Africa, protesting apartheid. "Clearly, in this case `humanism' (or is it `speciesism'?) triumphed over biological egalitarianism and whatever obligations I have to other species. This realization that I am, after all, a human chauvinist, came as a shock." (v3,#3)

--Soutter, Di and Dave Mohr, Environmental Management and Auditing: Guidelines for South African Managers. Report prepared for the Southern African Nature Foundation and endorsed by the Department of Environment Affairs, 1993. ISBN 0-620-17324-6. 91 pages. Available from Russell Friedman Books, P. O. Box 73, Halfway House 1685, South Africa.

--Taylor, Ricky, The Greater St Lucia Wetland Park. Durban: Natal Parks Board, 1991. ISBN 0 949939 70 6. 48 pages. Interpreting conservation opportunities and issues at this park on the Natal coast.

--Time. October 16, 1989, contains a cover story on the slaughter of elephants for ivory. Elephants face a grim struggle against greed and deceit. Whole families are an increasingly rare sight. The older animals have been wiped out in many herds, and younger ones are now the targets. Poachers must take more tusks to get the same amount of ivory. From the bloody hands of poachers into the stashes of smugglers, ivory moves across Africa under the noses of often corrupt officials. By many routes, some direct and some devious, much of the trade flows to Hong Kong. The final destination is most often Japan, where exquisite carving is a tradition. (v1,#1)

--Travis, Lee A. and Oliver F. Williams, eds., The Pharmaceutical Corporate Presence in Developing Countries. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame press, 1993. 488 pages. $ 34.95 cloth. 33 contributors. All aspects of the issue, including intellectual property rights. The ethical concerns of multinational corporations in the production, distribution, and use of pharmaceuticals in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The authors teach business at Notre Dame. (v4,#1)

--Voges, Ian F., "Environmental Management: Implementing the Paradigm Shift," Global Strategies for Environmental Issues, NAEP 19th Annual Conference Proceedings. Washington, DC: NAEP (National Association of Environmental Professionals) Publications, 1994, pages 266-276. Environmental managers can only incorporate efficiency under their current management paradigm; they are unable to handle the recent values of sustainability and equity. This will require a new paradigm, one that places cost/benefit analyses in this larger perspective. Voges is in philosophy at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. (v5,#4)

--Whigham, D., D. Dyknová, and S. Hejny, eds., Wetlands of the World: Inventory, Ecology and Management. Vol. 1. includes Africa, as well as other nations. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993. 788 pages. $ 286.00. An important reference, at an exorbitant price. (v5,#3)

--Wynberg, Rachel, "Biodiversity for All: Protecting, Managing and Using South Africa's Biotic Wealth," Africa_- Environment and Wildlife 3(no. 1, January-February 1995):33-38. Very useful summary of biodiversity and the present state of its conservation, and threats to it, in South Africa. Wynberg is with the Environmental Evaluation Unit at the University of Cape Town.

--Versfeld, Martin (Marthinus) (1909-1995), "On the Rights of Man and the Rights of Rocks," pp. 199-209 in Versfeld, Sum: Selected Works. Cape Town: The Carrefour Press, 1991. (The title: Sum is from Descartes' Cogito, ergo sum). Earlier, privately printed. "We were to hear a lot about the rights of man the developer and nothing about the rights of rocks. But this attitude to nature does not seem to me to make sense. It is highly artificial. In our ordinary experience, rocks have character and individuality and answer back. I know a sandstone wall where every rock speaks out its name. Stones sparkle with a manifold difference ... I submit that one can't write off the whole tradition of sacred stones and places ... as though it were simply due to a pre-scientific ignorance. ... Rocks, then, have enjoyed a good deal of reverence. If you see them at Stonehenge or Carnac the word `enjoy' does not seem entirely misplaced. Perhaps it is not so much a case of anthropomorphism as of symbiosis, a kind of life in rocks which our ancestors sensed when they maintained that some megaliths walked." Versfeld taught philosophy for many years at the University of Cape Town.

--Versfeld, Martin (Marthinus) (1909-1995), "The Egology of Ecology," pp. 221-230 in Versfeld, Sum: Selected Works. Cape Town: The Carrefour Press, 1991. What it means to be an "ego" in an "eco-system." The ego is an unreal self, a self-enclosed inner world; but the self is in reality always in an environment, which contains other humans and their artifacts, but also a natural world. "Real conservation is the freeing of Being, and it has its source and end in the freeing of inner being." "It will not profit us to gain the whole world if we do not creatively conserve ourselves." "When you chop down a tree, make sure that you are not chopping down the tree of life, the Paradise Tree." "Realize that you are not in the body, but the body in you, and the outer world, which is continuous with your body, shares in your salvation." Versfeld taught philosophy for many years at the University of Cape Town.

--Vorster, W. S., ed. Are We Killing God's Earth? Pretoria: University of South Africa, 1987. Proceedings of the Institute for Theological Research held at the University of South Africa in Pretoria, September 1987. Contains: R. F. Fuggle, "Convergence between Religion and Conservation: A Review of the Assisi Celebrations"; J. A. Loader, "Image and Order: Old Testament Perspectives on the Ecological Crisis"; P. J. Le Roux, "Environment Conservation: Why and How?"; K. Nürnberger, "Ecology and Christian Ethics in a Semi-industrialized and Polarised Society"; D. F. Toerien, "Water: The Limiting Resource"; I. J. Van Eeden, "Ethical Questions Pertaining to the `Soft Explosion'"; N. Boegman and C. J. Els, "Air Pollution: Is It Serious?"; D. F. Olivier, "`God's Rest': The Core and Leitmotif of a Christian Holistic View of Reality?" ISBN 0 86981 525 3.

--Yeld, John, Caring for the Earth: South Africa. A Strategy for Sustainable Living. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Southern African Nature Foundation, 1993. 55 pages.


Employment Opportunities

Carlton Collge. Henry R. Luce Professorship in the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Beginning September 1996. Candidates may be from any discipline, but applications are especially invited from those with broad backgrounds in philosophy, ethics, history, or social sciences. Firm gounding in scientific method is essential. The Luce Professor will play a leading role in the college's Environmental and Technology Studies Program, a new interdisciplinary program involving ten departments. Duties will include co-teaching an introductory environmental studies course, teaching departmental courses and an advanced seminar related to global change, and leading colloquia and faculty tutorials and workshops. The appointinent will be made at the associate or full professorship level in an appropriate department for up to six years with the possibility of renewal with tenure. Salary is negotiable and additional research support is anticipated. Carleton College is an equal opportunity employer and strongly encourages applications from women and minority candidates. Applications including a letter of interest, a statement on the relevance of human dimensions of global change to undergraduate liberal arts education, a curriculum vitae, and three letters of recommendation should be received by Prof. Norman J. Vig, Director, Environmental and Technology Studies Program, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA no later than November 15, 1995.

Pitzer College, a member of The Claremont Colleges, invites applications for a tenure-track Assistant Professorship in Environmental Studies, beginning Fall 1996. We seek candidates with teaching and research interests in human ecology, broadly construed as the study of cultural and social factors that mediate between the human species and elements of the natural environment. We are interested in interdisciplinary approaches that connect one or more areas of the social sciences and humanities with environmental concerns, and with the work of colleagues in environmental science and environmental policy. Candidates should have a commitment to undergraduate teaching. An interest in experiential/participatory modes of teaching and learning, as well as a cross-cultural approach, would be especially welcome. Pitzer College, a member of The Claremont Colleges, maintains a set of educational objectives which promotes interdisciplinary perspectives, intercultural understanding, and concern with the social consequences and ethical implications of knowledge and action. In addition, our College is committed to maintaining and enriching a socially and culturally diverse faculty. We encourage applications from people who have been historically underrepresented on college faculties. Pitzer is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity employer. Applications will be considered until November 1, 1995 or until the position is filled. Send a letter briefly describing your educational philosophy and your current teaching and research interests, a curriculum vitae, and names and addresses of three references, to Susan Seymour, Dean of Faculty, Pitzer College, 1050 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, California USA 91711-6110.


Events

1995
--October 1-21. Rethinking Progress with Helena Norberg-Hodge, Susan Griffin and Mira Shiva. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel 44-1803-865934; Fax 44-1803-866899

--October 26-28. Grassland birds. International Conference on the Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Grassland Birds, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Special attention to Latin American conservation and research. Proceedings will be published. Contact Dan Reinking, Sutton Avian Research Center, P. O. Box 2007, Bartlesville, OK 74005-2007, USA. 918-336-7778.

--October 29-November 3. Large Organisations in the 21st Century with Jonathon Porritt. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact: Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel: 44-1803-865934; Fax: 44-1803-866899

--November 5-25. Ecology and Theology with Thomas Berry and Rupert Sheldrake. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact: Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel: 44-1803-865934; Fax: 44-1803-866899

--November 9-10. The Conservation of Nature Outside Protected Areas, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. See notice in general announcements.

--November 9-11. Consumption, Population and the Environment: Religion and Science Envision Equity for an Altered Creation. The Boston Theological Institute and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, funded by Pew Charitable Trusts. Campion Renewal Center, Weston, Massachusetts. Contact: Brian Boisen, Conference Registrar, B.T.I., 210 Herrick Road, Newton Centre, MA 02159. Phone 617/527-4880. Fax 617/527-1073

--November 13-15. Fire and Rare and Endangered Species and Habitats, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The International Association of Wildland Fire. Contact: Dr. Jason Greenlee, IAWF, P. O. Box 328, Fairfield, WA 99012, USA. Phone 509-283-2397. Fax 509-283-2264.

--November 13-17. Philosophies of Nature: A Boston University Symposium in Honor of Erazim Kohak. See notice in general announcements.

--December 8-15. Encuentro Centroamericano de Filosofia, Universidad Centroamericana, Managua, Nicaragua. Theme: "Philosophical Implications of Globalization." Papers due: August 30, 1995. Contact: Joroi Corominas, UCA-Nicaragua, Apdo. 69, Managua, Nicaragua CA. cong@nicarao.apc.org

--December 27-30. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division. New York. APA contact: Linda Smallbrook, APA, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. ISEE sessions: see above.

1996
--January 2-9, 1996. International Development Ethics Association (IDEA), Fourth International Conference, on Globalization, Self-Determination, and Justice in Development, in Tamil Nadu, India. Contact: Peter Penz, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Fax 416-736-5679. es_ppenz@orion.yorku.ca

--February 4-6, 1996. Seventh International Waterfowl Symposium, Memphis, Tennessee. Contact Mickey Heitmeyer, Institute for Wetland and Waterfowl Research, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., 1 Waterfowl Way, Memphis, TN 38120. Fax 901/758-3850
--February 8-13, 1996. Baltimore, MD. AAAS will meet. ISEE has successfully arranged a joint session with another ISEE (International Society for Environmental Epidemiologists) on "Intersection of Environment, Health, Professional Ethics and Law." Laura Westra is co-organizer with Colin Soskolne, University of Alberta, Department of Public Health. Complete roster of speakers in next Newsletter.

--March 7-9, 1996. Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy. University of Toronto. Theme: "Contingency and Continuity." Papers due 15 October 1995. Contact: Kenneth W. Stikkers, Philosophy, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, USA. ISEE Session? If interested, contact Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, USA, or Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 Canada.

--March 27-29, 1996. First International Conference on Restoration Ecology for Sustainable Development, in Zurich. Contact: Secretary, Geobotanical Institute SFIT Zurich, Zurichbergstrasse 38, CH-8044 Zurich, Switzerland. Fax 41-1-632-12-15.

--April 3-6, 1996. American Philosophical Association: Pacific Division. Seattle, WA, USA. Papers due: September 1, 1995. Contact: Anita Silvers, Philosophy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132. Papers for ISEE sessions are due 15 October 1995. Contact Prof. James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211, USA.

--April 24-27, 1996. American Philosophical Association: Central Division. Chicago. ISEE sessions. See announcement above.

--May 18-23, 1996. Sixth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.

--June 2-6, 1996. National Association of Environmental Professionals, Houston, Texas. NAEP, 5165 MacArthur Boulevard, NW, Washington, DC 20016. Papers invited, including those on ethics of advocacy by environmental professionals, takings issues, risk management, environmental law, and other ethics and value issues.

--July 25-28, 1996. International Society of Business, Economics, and Ethics: First World Congress. Tokyo, Japan. Papers due: December 15, 1995. Contact: Georges Enderle, College of Business Administration, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.

--September 22-28, 1996. Perth, Australia. Wetlands for the Future, the fifth International Association of Ecology (INTECOL) International Wetlands Conference. Contact: Jenny Davis, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150. Phone 61-9-360-2939. Fax 61-9-310-4997.


ISEE BUSINESS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

Current Officers of ISEE
President: Mark Sagoff (Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy), term to expire end of academic year 1997
Vice-President, J. Baird Callicott (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point), term to expire end of academic year 1997
Secretary: Laura Westra (University of Windsor), term to expire end of academic year 1998
Treasurer: Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), term to expire end of academic year 1996.

Election of Treasurer and Nominating Committee. ISEE will hold elections by mail ballot for membership on the Nominating Committee and for Treasurer. Nominations were due by 1 September 1995. The current Committee is: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida), Chair; Jack Weir (Morehead State University); George Sessions (Sierra College); Robin Attfield (University of Wales). For more information, contact any member of the Committee or the Chair: Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Chair of the Nominating Committee of ISEE, Dept. of Philosophy, 107 Cooper Hall, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5550, USA.


ISEE Newsletter PUBLICATION AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION

TO SUBMIT ITEMS FOR PUBLICATION:

Profs. Jack Weir and Holmes Rolston, III, are editors of the ISEE Newsletter. Items should preferentially be sent to Jack. Send information for the Newsletter to Jack either on a disk (3 1/2 inch) or via Email (preferred) since this saves re-typing and avoid erros:
j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu (Note the hyphen!)
or
iseenewsletter@msuacad.morehead-st.edu
Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, UPO 662, 103 Combs Bldg., Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax). Scholarly articles are not published. Due to the large number of submissions, receipt of items cannot be acknowledged. Please submit items via Email, if possible (or on a computer disk via parcel post, especially if the submission of over 100 words).

DUES AND ADDRESS CHANGES:
U.S. and Canada: Send dues and address changes to Prof. Westra (address below).
Outside the U.S. and Canada: Send dues and address changes to the regional contact person named below. (The Newsletter is duplicated and mailed by the regional contact person. Dues and addresses changes should be sent to these regional contact persons.)
If you are uncertain where to send dues or address changes, sendthem to Prof. Westra (address below).

CONTACT PERSONS AND CORRESPONDENTS:

U.S. and Canada
The contact persons are:
Ned Hettinger, Philosophy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA. Tel. 803-953-5786 office, 803-883-9201-home. Fax 803-953-6388. Email HettingerN@CofC.edu.
Peter List, Philosophy Dept., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97332 USA. Email listp@cla.orst.edu.
Holmes Rolston, III, Colorado State University
Jack Weir, Morehead State University
Laura Westra, University of Windsor
Dues and address changes from members in the US and Canada should be sent to Prof. Westra (address below).

Australia and New Zealand
The contact person is Robert Elliot. Send membership forms and dues in amount $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67-732657 (direct line). (0)67-732896 (Dept. office). Fax 61 (country code) (0)67-733317. E-mail: relliot@metz.une.edu.au
Western Europe (Including U.K. and the Mediterranean)
The contact person is Wouter Achterberg. Send the equivalent of $15 U.S. to Prof. Achterberg. Address: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt regarding what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Eastern Europe (Including the Former Soviet Union)
The contact person is Jan Wawrzyniak. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48-61-417275. Checks sent to his home have more security.

Africa
The contact person is Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues, again the approximate equivalent of $15 U.S., but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

Mainland China
The contact person is: Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Pakistan and South Asia
The contact person is: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Tel. (92) (521) (841593). Fax (92) (521) (841594). Email .


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The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Holmes Rolston, III, and Jack Weir are editors. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions should be sent to Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email where possible. Items received after the deadlines will be held until the next issue. Also, when an issue is too long, some items will be held until the next issue. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, September 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu (Note the hyphen!)
or
iseenewsletter@msuacad.morehead-st.edu
Postal address: Jack Weir, Philosophy Faculty, 103 Combs Building, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689, USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).