Volume 6, No. 2, Summer 1995

General Announcements

ISEE on World Wide Web

The International Society for Environmental Ethics is now on the World Wide Web. It can be reached at:

The page is being maintained for ISEE by the Center for Environmental Philosophy. The website includes pages on membership and officers. In addition, the ISEE Newsletter, which is maintained on-line by Morehead State University, may be accessed from the page, and the ISEE Bibliography, compiled by Holmes Rolston, III, is also available there, complete with a specially designed search engine.
The main page for the Center for Environmental Philosophy is:
http://www.cep.unt.edu
From it, information is available about academic programs, other organizations, other publications, and funding opportunities. Requests to be included on the page should be sent to ee@unt.edu. (Thanks to Eugene C. Hargrove and the Center for Environmental Philosophy for this.)

The Society for Conservation Biology met June 7-11, 1995, at Colorado State University, with 850 persons present, some 250 more than at such meetings in previous years. About 5,000 biologists and conservationists belong to the Society. The ISEE session was a lively one and attended by about 75 persons. Papers: Will Aiken (Chatham College), "Too Many People? Issues Arising from Rio and Cairo"; Jack Weir (Morehead State University), "Poverty, Development, and Sustainability: The Hidden Moral Argument"; Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston) and Bill Throop (St. Andrews Presbyterian College), "Can Ecocentric Ethics Withstand Chaos in Ecology?"; Holmes Rolston, III, (Colorado State University), "Winning and Losing in Environmental Ethics." Moderated by Phil Pister (Desert Fishes Council); organized by Jack Weir. In another session on ethical issues in sustainability, J. Baird Callicott and Karen Mumford (delivered by Karen Mumford), "Sustainability as a Conservation Concept"; Michael Harthill, Ted Heintz, Jim Lemons, and John Rogich (delivered by Michael Harthill), "Indicators for Sustainable Development"; Gary Meffee, "Sustainable Development: Conservation Panacea or Politically Correct Ecocide?"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Environmental Conservation and an Equitable World Order"; Joseph Dunstan, "Sustaining Ecosystems: Landscape Architects and Conservation Biologists as Partners." Organized by Katherine Jope and Joseph Dunstan, National Park Service. And lots, lots more.


1996 Call for Papers: SCB will meet in June 1996 at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. For information about submitting a paper, contact: Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, Tel. 606-784-0046, Email j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu.


The American Society for Environmental Literature met June 9-10, 1995, at Colorado State University, with 300 persons present, simultaneously to the 850 biologists with the SCB above, all in the same building! There was a session: "Environmental Philosophy: From Physics to Metaphysics, Ethics to Aesthetics." Participants: Bill Stephenson (Religion, Northland College, Wisconsin), on hidden religious agendas in teaching nature writing; Sean O'Grady (English, Boise State), on literary reactions to an environmentally-destructive nuclear power site; David Rothenberg (Philosophy, New Jersey Institute of Technology), on ways to the mountains, comparing accounts of ascents ancient and modern, east and west; and Norman Fischer (Philosophy, Kent State) on environmental aesthetics in Kant and Scheler. Chaired by Holmes Rolston. Other sessions on "Women and Landscape," on native American literature, on literature and the international environment, and much more. For information on the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment, founded in 1992, contact David W. Teague, Secretary, University of Delaware, Parallel Program, 333 Shipley St., Wilmington, DE 19801. There is an e-mail network: To subscribe: asle-request@unr.edu.

Election of ISEE Secretary

Laura Westra (University of Windsor) has been re-elected Secretary. She and Roger Paden (George Mason University) were candidates. Ballots were mailed in April 1995 and were due by May 15th via return mail to Prof. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida).


Current officers and their terms of service are:
President: Mark Sagoff (Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy), term to expire end of academic year 1997
Vice-President, J. Baird Callicott (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point), term to expire end of academic year 1997
Secretary: Laura Westra (University of Windsor), term to expire end of academic year 1998
Treasurer: Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), term to expire end of academic year 1996

"Word of Thanks" from the Secretary

I would like to express my thanks for the very strong vote of confidence I received from the membership of ISEE. Aside from the personal satisfaction, I am particularly delighted that our interdisciplinary society has also proven itself to be truly multicultural and open to and accepting of differences. Your strong endorsement of my role in the Society, in spite of my different ethnic background, leading to somewhat different dispositions and mores than the majority of members, is duly noted and appreciated. On the other hand, any suggestions about future directions or complaints about any aspect of my activities in regard to the Society should be directed to me, and will be seriously considered. I am very proud of our first five years of operation, and I am sure that, given a group that is as intellectually strong and vital as ours, the next five years can only be better. --Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary.

Nominations (and Volunteers) Needed

During the next year, ISEE will hold elections by mail ballot for membership on the Nominating Committee and for Treasurer. The current Nominating Committee hopes to conduct the mail ballot in January 1996 but needs to prepare a ballot before then. By September 1, 1995, please send your suggestions for candidates for Treasurer and for the Nominating Committee (please include a 10-12 line biosketch and confirmation that the person is willing to be nominated) either to: Mark Sagoff, President of ISEE, Inst. for Philosophy and Public Policy, SPA Bldg. 039, 3rd Floor, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; or Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Chair of the Nominating Committee of ISEE, Dept. of Philosophy, 107 Cooper Hall, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5550, USA.
The present nominating committee is:
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida), Chair; Jack Weir (Morehead State University); George Sessions (Sierra College); Robin Attfield (University of Wales).

The Central Division of the APA met April 26-29, 1995, Palmer House Hilton Hotel, Chicago, IL. ISEE sessions were: Thursday, April 27, 7:30-10:00 (Wabash Parlour), L. Westra, Chair, on the topic: "Environmental Ethics in Europe," with papers by Jan Wawrzyniak, "The Social Self-Delusion of Utilitarian Philosophy of Environmental Policy," Konrad Ott, University of Tubingen, Germany, "Can One Coherently Argue Both in Support of Discourse Ethics and Deep Ecology?" and Adrian Miriou, Romania. Friday, April 28 (Private Dining Room #6), Panel Discussion on "Environmental Racism," James Sterba, Chair; speakers: Robert Bullard, Clarke University, "Justice in Environmental Decision-Making," Bill Lawson, University of Delaware, "Environmental Justice in the Urban Setting," Laura Westra, University of Windsor, "Titusville, AL and BFI: A Case Study," Peter Wenz, Sangammon State University, "Just Garbage."
The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:

ISEE President Mark Sagoff will be meeting and speaking with economists and philosophers in the United Kingdom during August, appearing at Cambridge (Aug. 1), OCEES, Oxford (Aug. 3), the University of Lancaster (Ambleside Campus) (Aug. 10), and the University of York (Aug. 14).
Several environmental philsophers (including Sagoff) will convene at a Workshop on Ethics and Economics in Environmental Management, sponsored by the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, in Uppsala, Sweden, August 25-27, 1995.
Sagoff's article, "Carrying Capacity and Ecological Economics," will appear in the October 1995 isssue of BioScience. A reply by Herman Daly appears with it.

Holmes Rolston is visiting professor at the University of Stellenbosh, Stellenbosch, South Africa, in July and August, sponsored by the Department of Philosophy and its Unit for Environmental Ethics. Rolston's itinerary also includes speaking engagements and seminars at the University of South Africa (UNISA) in Pretoria, at the Conference of the Environmental Education Association of South Africa near Durban, at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, at the University of Cape Town, and the University of the Western Cape, as well as various contacts with environmental, business, and wildlife professionals. On the outdoor side, it includes several treks into the bush, and a seminar and trek in Kruger National Park. Johan Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics and is the ISEE contact person in Africa

J. Baird Callicott will leave the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point and move to the University of North Texas where he will be a member of the faculty of the Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies and participate in the department's environmental ethics graduate program. Beginning September 1, 1995, his address will be:
J. Baird Callicott
Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies
University of North Texas
P.O. Box 13526
Denton, TX 76203-6526, USA
Office: 817-565-2266; 817-565-4448 (fax)
callicot@terrill.unt.edu(do not use until September 1st)
From June 1 to July 5, 1995, Callicott was at James Cook University, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia. He assisted administrators in designing a program in environmental philosophy. The new program will be interdisciplinary, and will give an ethical dimension to the four central disciplines at JCU: general science, biological science, behavioral science, and the arts. A few philosophy courses will be offered in 1996, and staff and courses will be added each year until a full degree program is in place. Philosophy-related courses already being taught will be cross-listed as philosophy courses, giving an immediate impetus to the program. The university has had no philosophy program, which could be advantageous, Callicott claims, since out-dated curricular biases will not have to be refuted and revised. Callicott predicts that philosophy in the 21st century will return to the "big questions" of previous centuries, abandoning the analytic approach dominant in the 20th century. Graduates of the program are expected to proceed to advanced studies in economics, business, or environmental law. On June 5th, Callicott presented a public lecture at the university entitled "Toward a Global Environmental Ethic."

The Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics has four emphases over the next months: 1) Publishing an anthology from the Second Chinese Academic Conference on Ecology, Environment, Natural Resources and Social Development; 2) Setting up the Volunteer Association for Eco-Conservation, a working group in Heilong Jian Province (North China, in the region once called Manchuria); 3) Developing a study on ancient ecological and ethical thought in traditional Asia; 4) Finishing translations into Chinese of Holmes Rolston, Philosophy Gone Wild and Environmental Ethics. (Thanks to Ye Ping, Secretary, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin.)

Environmental Ethics at the University of Lisbon. Professor Viriato Soromenho-Marques announces the first graduate program in environmental ethics in Portugal, a master's degree in philosophy of nature and environment, coordinated by five faculty members there. Contact Professor Dr. Viriato Soromenho-Marques, Cidade Universitaria, Apartado 1699, Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Soromenho-Marques recently reviewed Rolston's Conserving Natural Value in Jornal de Letras, a Portuguese journal of humanities and letters, with a distribution of 20,000 copies throughout the Porguguese-speaking world. Soromenho-Marques is also a founder of Quercus, the Portuguese National Association for the Conservation of Nature.

Socijalna ekologija (Social Ecology: Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research has been published since 1992 by the Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Sociology, University of Zagreb, Croatia. The journal is in Croatian, with paper summaries in English and German. One international edition of the journal in English each year is planned. The first university course in "social ecology" in the former Yugoslavia was started in 1986 in the Faculty of Philosophy; a graduate course has since been added, and several research projects have been completed, including the launching of the journal. The editor is Professor Ivan Cifric, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Sociology, I. Lucica 3, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia. Fax: 385 (country code) 1 (city code) 51 38 34.

Environmental Ethics at Bucharest University. The Senate of the University has approved a course on environmental ethics to be taught to philosophy, theology, and biology students. The course is inaugurated by Professor Adrian Miroiu, who is dean of the Faculty of Philosophy. Address: Facultatea de Filosofie, Universitatea Bucuresti, Bd. M. Kogalniceanu No 64, Bucharest, Romania. Miroiu was last year on study leave at Cornell University, and participated in the ISEE session at Central Division APA in Chicago last spring.

Seminar on Metaphysics and Environmental Ethics was held May 30-June 1 at Florida Atlantic University. The organizers were Don Marietta and Lester Embree (Florida Atlantic University). Participants included: Robin Attfield (Cardiff University of Wales), Susan Armstrong (Humboldt State), Frederick Ferré (University of Georgia), Eugene Hargrove (University of North Texas), Max Oelschlaeger (University of North Texas), Ullrich Melle (Katholicke Universiteit Leuven), Peter Miller (University of Winnipeg), and Laura Westra (University of Windsor). For more details, contact: Prof. Lester Embree, Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology, Inc., c/o Department of Philosophy, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA; tel./Fax 407-367-3827.
Philosophy and Geography. The Society for Philosophy and Geography and Rowman & Littlefield Publishers announce the publication of a new peer-reviewed yearly annual. Volume 1 will be on environmental ethics. First issue deadline, December 1, 1995. Send papers to the editors: Jonathan M. Smith, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3147, USA. J0S7507@tamvm1.tamu.edu. Or: Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, 4-108 Humanities Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E5. andrew.light@ualberta.ca Editorial board members include: Albert Borgmann (Montana), J. Baird Callicott (Wisconsin, Stevens Point), Edward Casey (SUNY, Stony Brook), Denis Cosgrove (Royal Holloway, London), James Duncan (Syracuse), Nicholas Entrikin (UCLA), Mark Gottdiner (SUNY at Buffalo), David Harvey (Johns Hopkins), Kathleen Higgins (Texas, Austin), Bernd Magnus (UC Riverside), Thomas McCarthy (Northwestern), John Pickles (Kentucky), Moishe Postone (Chicago), David Seamon (Kansas State), Neil Smith (Rutgers), Iris Marion Young (Pittsburgh).

International Journal of Wilderness. The Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, is launching this new journal with the first issue to be published September 1995, 1,500 copies. John C. Hendee is managing editor. Wilderness Research Center, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1144, USA. Phone 208-885-2267. Fax: 208-885-6268. Vance Martin is Executive Editor, International. The Wild Foundation, 2162 Baldwin Rd., Ojai, CA 93023, USA. Phone 805-649-3535. Fax 805-649-1757.

EarthLight is a new periodical, launched by Thomas Berry and Brian Swimme, featuring the connection between environmental/ecological issues and spirituality. Subscriptions $15. Contact: Paul Burks, editor, 1558 Mercy St., Mountain View, CA 94041, USA. 415-960-1767.

Call for Applications for Life Sciences Bioethics Institute: The Iowa State University Model Program in Environmental and Agricultural Ethics at Michigan State University, May 5-10, 1996, in East Lansing, MI. The ISU institute teaches basic methods and principles in ethics to life science faculty members, focusing on those who deal with the environment, food, nutrition, animals, and agriculture. The institute equips faculty to introduce discussions of ethical issues into existing science courses. Two philosophers, professors Fred Gifford (Michigan State) and Gary Comstock (Iowa State), are joined by internationally recognized experts in ethics to lecture on moral theory and to lead discussion sessions of pedagogy. The institute provides case studies, classroom exercises, bibliographies, and other practical strategies used successfully by life scientists to introduce ethics into their classes. Possible issues to be covered: Honesty and integrity in scientific research; Environmental ethics and intrinsic value of ecosystems; Labeling of genetically-engineered foods; Animal welfare and rights; Justice between developed and developing economies; Risk assessment and the politics of uncertainty; Feminist moral theory; The place of human beings in nature. All participants will receive a $250 stipend. Applicants must be tenured or tenure-track life science faculty members. The institutions of out-of-town applicants must commit funds to cover applicant's travel, lodging, and meals. Applicants promise to introduce the equivalent of at least one hour-long discussion of ethics into each semester-length class they teach. Deadline for applications is March 1, 1996. Contact Professor Gary Comstock, Coordinator, Bioethics Program, 413 Ross Hall, Ames, IA 50011-2063,USA, phone: 515-294-0054, Iowa State University fax: 515-294-1003, email: comstock@iastate.edu.

The Society for Human Ecology, 8th International Conference, will be held October 19-22, 1995, at Granlibakken Conference Center at Lake Tahoe, Tahoe City, California, USA. ISEE is cosponsoring a symposium on Humans and Nature: False Dichotomies and Fruitful Contrasts. Papers include, "Humans and the Value of the Wild," Bill Throop, St. Andrews College; "Enhancing Natural Value," Ned Hettinger, College of Charleston; "The Takings Issue and Two Visions of Humans' Relations to Nature," Gary Varner, Texas A&M University; and "Nature and Human Ecology," John Visvader, College of the Atlantic. The symposium will be on Friday Oct 20, from 10am-12pm. For information on the conference, contact Nancy Markee, Environmental and Resource Sciences/199, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557-0013, USA, internet: nlmarkee@scs.unr.edu.
Call for Papers: The Environmental Challenge to Social and Political Theory, edited by Roger S. Gottlieb, to be published by Routledge in 1996; papers due February 1, 1996
The premise of this volume is that the ecological crisis challenges the presuppositions and theoretical stances of dominant Western social and political theories. Liberalism, Marxism, feminism, rights theory, general orientations towards justice, conceptions of political alignments and emancipatory strategy--all are brought into question when existing social practices threaten the natural world as an environment for human beings.
Approximately half the papers will appear in a special volume of Social Theory and Practice (Summer, 1995): "Imperialism and Environmentalism," Eric Katz; "The Threat of Ecofascism," Michael E. Zimmerman; "Expanding Wilderness: An Ecofeminist Rapprochement of Environmentalism and Animal Liberation," Bryan Luke; "International Justice and Wilderness Preservation," Mark A. Michael; "Is Liberalism Environmentally Friendly?," Avner de-Shahit; "Empathy, Society, Nature, and the Relational Self: Deep Ecology and Liberal Modernity," Gus diZerega; "Materialists, Ontologists, and Environmental Pragmatists," Andrew Light.
New papers may include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following topics:
*Sustainability. Sustainability relates to both formal issues of democracy and substantive normative concerns. On what basis will we distinguish between what is to be sustained and what is frivolous or exploitative? Whose voices will be heard in the debate over sustainability? Is the current social order sustainable?
*Communicative Reason. Habermasian communicative ethics bases concepts of justice in unrestrained communication. Is this framework necessarily anthropocentric? Is there any way to include "nature" in the dialog of "reasoned" speech?
*Postmodernism/Deconstruction. Does the environmental crisis--with the seeming objectivity and decisiveness of its potential effect on human life--render postmodernism highly suspect? Is the fate of the earth the inescapable grand narrative?
*Analysis of principle concepts of ecological theory. These include nature, species, ecosystem, bioregion, ecosystem integrity, environmental racism.
*Political strategies of environmentalism. Does the critical nature of environmental issues alter assessments of political strategies? How are the interest group or standpoint politics of race, class, gender, etc., affected by a political context in which concerns are in some sense universal?
*Anthropocentrism in postmodern ethics. For instance, does Levinas's sense of the inevitable distance between ourselves and the "other" to whom we are obligated ignore the close connections between human beings and the non-human, natural Other of our ecological setting?
*Environmental theory and Marxism. What is the environmental significance of Marxism? Is the new ecoMarxism viable?
*Genocide and Ecocide. How do the great human devastations of our century--the Holocaust, world wars, racial or national massacres--compare to our elimination of species and ecosystems?
*Spirituality and Social Theory. Green perspectives are often animated by a spiritual revisioning of ultimate values and human identity. What implications do these perspectives have for the essentially secular dominant social theories of modernity?
For further information, or to discuss a possible submission, contact: Roger S. Gottlieb, Paris Fletcher Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Department of Humanities and Arts, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609; USA, Tel: 508-831-5439; gottlieb@wpi.wpi.edu

Krishna Consciousness and the Environment. A source for information on organic gardening, vegetarianism, ox training, reverence for life, and alternative lifestyles is the Bhaktivedanta Society and the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Publications and videos are available on Hinduism and ecology, Hare Krishna rural life, ox power and training, cow protection, cooking (and cookbooks), "nonmechanistic science," "Vedic cosmography," "consciousness and the laws of nature," and other topics. The society has a number of farms, communes, urban houses, and restaurants throughout the world. Just published is a book by Michael A. Cremo and Mukunda Goswami entitled Divine Nature: A Spiritual Perspective on the Environmental Crisis (see Articles and Books). Michael W. Fox of the Humane Society (USA) praises the book as "wonderful." Last March, Cremo presented a scholarly paper at the Conference on Religion and Technology, an annual conference at Kentucky State University, Kentucky, USA, whose plenary speakers have included Holmes Roston, III, and James Hillman. For more information, contact: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 3764 Watseka Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90034 USA; Tel. 800-927-4152.

The Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas (Société canadienne pour l'étude des idées européenes) held its Fifth Annual Conference, June 3-4, 1995, in conjunction with the Learned Societies Conference, Université de Quebec a Montreal, Montreal QC, Canada. A session was held on June 4th on "Ideas of Nature and Land": Chair: Thomas Heyd; Papers: "Being-in-the-World and Nature in a Japanese Context: Watsuji's Theory of Milieu," Yoko Arisaka (UC Riverside); "Glenn Gould's Idea of the North," Matthew Stephens (Alberta); "Potamographic Maps," Tom Conley (Minnesota/Harvard); "Social Change and Human-Nature Interaction in the Transformation of Socialist to Capitalist Societies," Wolf Schluchter (Freie Universitat Berlin/Cottbus, Germany). For more information, contact Thom Heyd or Andrew Light (address below), who jointly organized the session.

Schumacher College. This international centre for ecological studies was described in the last issue as the "Institute for Ecology, Justice and Faith." In fact it has only ever been called Schumacher College, but it does run residential courses with scholars such as James Hillman, Thomas Berry, Arne Naess and Helena Norberg-Hodge. Autumn 1995 courses are listed in Events and Calendar section.

Call for Papers: The International Society of Business, Economics and Ethics is having its First World Congress in Tokyo, July 25-28, 1996. Papers due: December 15, 1995. Contact: Georges Enderle, College of Business Administration, U. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame IN 46556, U.S.A.

Call for Papers: The Society for Philosophy and Geography and Rowman & Littlefield Publishers announce the publication of a new peer-reviewed yearly annual: Philosophy and Geography, edited by Jonathan Smith (Geography, Texas A&M University) and Andrew Light (Philosophy, University of Alberta). Each volume will focus on a specific theme. Volume 1: Environmental Ethics. Papers are invited on any aspect of environmental ethics that may be of interest to philosophers or geographers. Authors need not address their topic through a conjunction of philosophy and geography but are encouraged to do so. First issue deadline, December 1, 1995. Send all papers to Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, 4-108 Humanities Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E5. andrew.light@ualberta.ca

Call for Papers: Responsibilities to Future Generations: The Sequel. Ernest Partridge has been asked by a major publisher to collect another anthology on the topic of the Duty to Posterity. (His first anthology, Responsibilities to Future Generations, published by Prometheus Books, is now out of print). Published or (preferably) original papers are invited on the topics of 1) the rights of and duties to future generations, 2) motivation problems regarding provision for the remote future, 3) general and particular policy issues affecting future generations, or other philosophically-oriented issues. "Future Generations" is understood to mean future persons with lives that are non-concurrent with those of the present generation. The tentative deadline for receipt of papers is January 1, 1996. Partridge can be contacted at Northland College, Ashland, WI 54806, USA. Email: gadfly@igc.apc.org. Since Prof. Partridge is wandering this summer (as far away as Russia and Italy), it would be best to contact him through e-mail.


The International Association for Business and Society (IABS) held its Sixth Annual Meeting in Vienna, Austria, June 26-29, on the topic "From Business and Society to Business in Society," with a strong emphasis on global issues, with the participation of many from Europe and elsewhere. Although an evident effort was made to include environmental issues in many sessions, papers tended to raise questions about means rather than ends. How to include environmental considerations in business decisions, particularly in the context of the acknowledged marketing creed of ever-increasing production/sales, presented a paradox without apparent solution. One excellent session on "Overconsumption as a Special Issue: The Implications for Business," raised some very difficult questions, as did a session on "Ecology, Sustainability and Society," with excellent papers by Donald Mayer (Oakland University), "The Zero Option," and Jean Garner Stead, suggesting the natural environment as a "stakeholder" in business decisions. Thomas Donaldson and Richard De George presented strong and provocative papers, both raising questions without ever addressing environmental issues as such. The IABS will meet in Sante Fe next year, March 21-24, 1996. George Brenkert read a paper on "Trust, Morality and International Business," and Laura Westra spoke on "The Global Dimensions of Environmenatl Equity: Environmentalism Without Racism."
IABS will be meeting in Montreal, Quebec, in 1996, and Westra has already been asked to organize a session. Anyone interested in going to Montreal,
please contact Westra with suggestions about topics, papers, etc.

Phil Frankenfeld has moved from Milwaukee, WI, to Long Beach, CA, USA. Requests for his Bibliography for Technological Citizenship should be sent to: 6291 Bixby Hill Road, Long Beach, CA 90815, USA; Tel. 310-596-0441. Hardcopy by request, although it's on disks (Microsoft Word). Subject headings include: Environmental Justice, Ethics of Uncertainty, Environmental Policy, Consumer Environmentalism, Environmental Law, Whistleblowing. (Thanks, Phil, for making this available.)

World Association of Soil and Water Conservation, Third International Symposium on Headwater Control, will be holding a conference on "Sustainable Reconstruction of Highland Headwater Regions," in Delhi and Himachal Pradesh, India, October 6-15, 1995. This federal conference aims to unite the perspectives of the scientific researcher, environmental practioner, and policy-maker. Its concern is the search for improved strategies for the reconstruction of threatened environments and livelihoods in highland, steepland, and headwater regions. Address for all conference correspondence: Dr. R. B. Singh, HC3 Convenor, Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics (University of Delhi), Delhi--110007, India. Fax: 91-11-725-7049.

Oxford Brookes University is offering a Postgraduate Program in the School of Social Sciences with an MA in Environmentalism and Society. This course focuses on the aims, philosophy and practical implications of the environmental movement. It focuses on critical analysis of ideologies, values and policies, and emphasizes the importance of sustainable development and social justice. For further particulars write to: Dr. George Revill, Geography Unit, School of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK. Tel: 01865-483750. Fax 01865-483937.

Call for Papers. Terra Nova: Nature and Culture is a new journal to be published by MIT Press and the Department of Social Science and Policy Studies at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. David Rothenberg is Editor. Publication will begin in January 1996. Professional and refereed, the journal will cross the boundaries between disciplines to show how serious discussion of the problem of nature appears in many fields of creative inquiry. Subscriptions are US $32 for individuals, $95 for institutions. Rothenberg can be contacted at the department above, NJIT, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA; Tel. 201-596-3289; Fax 201-565-0586; Email rothenberg@admdin.njit.edu.

The Institute for Social Ecology will hold several workshops and courses throughout the spring and summer in Plainfield, Vermont, USA. Workshops/courses include: Community Development, Global and Local Health, Lessons from Ladhak: "Counter Development," Agriculture and Food Systems, Appropriate Technology, Reconstructive Anthropology, Feminism and Ecology, Anarchist Education, Ecology and Spiritual Renewal, Biological Agriculture, Cooperatives and Ecological Democracy, Environmental Racism, Ecological Activism, Radical Democracy and Our Future, and more. Faculty includes: Margot Adler, Janet Biehl, Murray Bookchin, Helen Norberg-Hodge, Daniel Chodorkoff, Dave Dellinger, Chaia Heller, Isola Kokumo, Susan Meeker-Lowry, Beverly Naidus, Brian Tokar, and others. In conjunction with Goddard College, the Institute offers an MA degree in Social Ecology (36 credit hours). The Institute has applied to the Vermont Department of Higher Education for authority to grant Ph.D. degrees in Social Ecology with concentrations in philosophy, anthropology, education, social theory, and individually-designed programs. Admission is highly selective, and applicants must have a faculty sponsor. The Institute publishes a bi-annual newsletter and sponsors the scholarly journal, Society and Nature, edited by Takis Fotopoulos. For additional information, contact: Claudia B. Maas, Associate Director, Institute for Social Ecology, P.O. Box 89, Plainfield, VT 05667, USA, Tel. 802-454-8493.

Call for Papers: The Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics has begun a section called "Global Bioethics," and the journal is interested in receiving papers. Bioethics and environmental ethics blossomed in the 1970s, but the disciplines developed largely independent of each other. As environmental crises deepen and the need for health care reform increases, it is essential that the interrelationship of the two be explored and the gap bridged. Possible topics include: explorations of human health and welfare, resource use, technology, justice, environmental ethics, and the place of humans in nature. This is the official journal of the International Bioethics Institute. To join an E-mail discussion group on "Environmental Bioethics," send your name and Email address to Andrew Jameton: ajameton@unmcvm.unmc.edu. Submit manuscripts to: Andrew Jameton, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 600 S. 42nd St., Omaha, NE 68198-4350, USA; Tel. 402-559-4680; Fax 402-559-7259.

Call for Papers: The Interdisciplinary Research Network on the Environment and Society (IRNES) will host its 4th annual conference at the University of Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK. Themes include, Women and the Environment, Popular Protest and Environmental Change, Ecology: Connecting the Natural and Social Sciences, Environmental Policy After Rio, Sustainable Development and the Global Economy, Environment and Health. Papers are invited on these and any topic on the relationship between environment and society. Contact: John Barry, Dept. of Politics, University of Keele, Keele, Staffs., ST5 5BG, Email poa19@cc.keele.ac.uk.

The School for Field Studies offers semester and summer environmental field studies programs. Wildlife management studies in Kenya. Marine resource studies in the Carribean. Coastal studies in Pacific Northwest Canada. Island management studies in Palau. Sustainable development studies in Costa Rica. Rainforest studies in Australia. About $2,500-3,000 for summer programs; $11,000 for semester programs, plus transportation. 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915-4499, USA. Phone 508-927-7777. Fax 508-927-5127.

An environmental ethics course was taught at Oxford University this spring. Roger Crisp was the organizing figure, and he invited seven scholars to present papers, including Dale Jamieson, Bernard Willliams, the animal rights theologian Andrew Linzey, the American philosopher Brian Klug, and Paul Waldau, who will speak on "Environmental Ethics and the Problem of the Individual." (Thanks to Paul Waldau, Christ Church, University of Oxford for this information.)

ISEE will meet in conjunction with the American Institute for Biological Sciences (AIBS) in San Diego, CA, USA, August 6-10, 1995. ISEE's session is entitled "Science and Ethics," and speakers and topics are: Charles R. Malone (Environmental Scientist with the Nuclear Waste Project Office [NV])," "Ecology, Ethics and Professional Environmental Practice: A Case Study"; Larry Stowell (Plant Pathology) and W. D. Gelenter (Entomology), "Ethical Challenges Faced by Professionals in Modern Agriculture"; Laura Westra (University of Windsor), "The Ethics of Integrity and the Canadian Fish Wars." George Sessions and Cory Briggs will also speak, titles to be announced. (Thanks to Laura Westra for organizing and chairing this meeting.)
A conference on Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Ecology and Bioethics, will be held August 26-29, 1995 in Cortona, Italy. The meeting is co-organized by Laura Westra, the IREE Institute in Ottawa, Ontario, Global Bioethics, and the Faculty of Economics, University of Siena. About sixty participants are expected, about twenty from Italy. The non-Italian participants include speakers from Canada, the U.S., Russia, Finland, Switzerland, England, and Japan. For more information, contact: Laura Westra (address below) or at 10 Lynch Rd., Willowdale, Ontario, M2J 2V5, Canada; Fax 905-738-4421.

The Ometeca Institute presents Working Conference IV on the Relations Between Humanities and Science, at Rutgers University, July 24-28, 1996. Three copies of complete papers are due November 15, 1995. Conference languages include Spanish and Portuguese, as well as English. Topics include Theoretical Aspects of the Relationship Between Science and the Humanities; Ecocentrism: the New Paradigm?; Science, Aboriginal Cultures, and the Role of "Story," and many others. For a brochure and further information, write: The Ometeca Institute, P. O. Box 38, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903-0038, USA, Fax 908-932-6916, or Dr. James Anderson, Communications, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University, 4 Huntington St., Room 316, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901-1071, USA, Fax 908-932-6916.

The First World Conference of Business, Economics and Ethics will be held July 25-28, 1996 in Tokyo, Japan. Topics include: Ethics and International Business, Specific Challenges for Business Ethics in Developing Countries, and Practical and Theoretical Relevance of Religious Traditions. Papers in triplicate are due by December 15, 1995. Notification of acceptance will be March 1, 1996. For papers and additional information, contact Prof. Georges Enderle, University of Notre Dame, College of Business Administration, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA, Fax 219-631-5255.

The Center for Bioregional Studies and Conflict Resolution has been established. Co-directors are Drs. John K. Gamman and Michael V. McGinnis. The Center hopes to develop a bioregional theory of transition and practice, and associates have published cultural and ecological studies in ethics, place-oriented behavior, ecosystem administration, and environmental dispute resolution (EDR). For more information, contact: Michael V. McGinnis, 7602 Hollister Ave, Suite 202, Goleta, CA, 93117, USA.

Providence College wishes to announce its Environmental Studies Program. The program's Director is Laura L. Landen, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Philosophy. For more information, contact Prof. Landen, Providence College, Providence, RI 02918-0001, USA; Tel. 401-865-2255; Fax 401-865-1222; Email: llanden@providence.edu.

Finn Arler is a good contact in Denmark for environmental ethics. He is organizing a workshop on environmental ethics at a Nordic Philosophy Symposium in August, on "Nature and Lifeworld," at which Robin Attfield is a speaker, and he has research in progress on man and nature at a research center in Odense. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of Aarhus, Bygning 328, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Phone: 45-8942-1111. Fax: 86-19-16-99.

Ethics, Environment, and Agricultural Quarantine: Walter A. Pokines, Jr., is pursuing a Ph.D. dissertation in this area with the Union Institute, and invites correspondence. He is a senior quarantine officer for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 7845 South County Road, Tipp City, Ohio 45371, USA.

A new journal, Environment and History, specializing in environmental history, is based in the U.K. Papers are invited. Contact Richard H. Grove, Global Environmental History Unit, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RH, UK. Fax 44-1223-332333.

Jack Weir is co-editor of the ISEE Newsletter, and Holmes Rolston, III continues as co-editor as well. Jack is the producing editor, and items should preferentially be sent to him. Send information for the Newsletter to Jack via Email where possible since this saves re-typing:
j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu (Note the hyphen!)
or
iseenewsletter@msuacad.morehead-st.edu
Postal address: Jack Weir, Dept. of Philosophy, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689, USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783- 2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $15.00 Australian ($10.00 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67-732657 (direct line). (0)67-732896 (Dept. office). Fax 61 (country code) (0)67-733317. E-mail: relliot@metz.une.edu.au

Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below.) Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (the equivalent of $15 U.S.) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48-61-417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.

Professor Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa, is the ISEE contact for Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues payable, again the approximate equivalent of $U.S. 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za
Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China, is the contact person in mainland China.

Annual membership dues for ISEE are U.S. $15 per year in the United States, and CND $20 in Canada. Students are $10 U.S. or CND. Dues overseas are the equivalent of U.S. funds. If you've not done so, please send in your dues now, to L. Westra (address below).

ISEE Newsletters on Internet

Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter are available, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world, if you have access to the educational network. At your local prompt:
Enter: gopher infoserv.morehead-st.edu
(NOTE: Access is via gopher. If your local system does not have gopher access, you'll need to hunt around on Internet to find another server that provides free access to gopher.)
You will get a welcome screen with seven choices.
Take: 7. Search MSU Gopher Server Using Jughead.
You will get a window screen asking for words to search for.
Enter: Words to search for: International Society for Environmental Ethics
You will get a screen with this as the option. Enter.
You will get a screen:


Select the year that you want, find the Newsletter(s), and either read on screen, or, better, at any point after the file has been retrieved and is on screen, Email it to yourself. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (this issue of the Newsletter) to your Email address. The mailing only takes seconds. You can then download the Newsletter file to a disk on your local computer. Likely you'll get the file as a text-only file, which can then be retrieved into WordPerfect or whatever word processing software you wish.


Master Environmental Ethics Bibliography

The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics is available with the completed 1994 update. This bibliography contains all the bibliographic entries from the Newsletter of the Society, volumes 1(1990)--5(1994), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Ethics, volumes 1(1979)--16(1994), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Values, volumes 1(1992)--3(1994), and the other bibliographies. It is available in either WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) or in Macintosh format (also WordPerfect). The bibliography is in two halves, A-L and M-Z. One way to use it is simply to print out each half, take it to Kinko's, have it spiral bound, label the covers, and you instantly have as full a reference base as otherwise exists in print. Another way to use it is to search through it and copy out the various entries in which you are interested, stringing these together into a text of your own on the second screen in your software. The bibliography can be searched for key words, depending on your software.
Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. The compiler of the bibliography, from whom disks may be obtained is: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Phone: 303-491-6315 (office). Fax: 303-491-4900. E-mail: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu. Send $5 to Rolston, stating whether you wish the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disk.
Access via World Wide Web: The Master Bibliography can be accessed from the ISEE World Wide Web Site at:
http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html
Thanks to Gene Hargrove for setting this up.)
Videotapes and Media

"Spaceship Earth, Green Means," and "Return to the Sea." Public Broadcasting Service Adult Learning Satellite Service (PBS ALSS) broadcast this series of programs June 22 and 23. Extensive use is made of satellite imaging, remote sensing, sonar, and lasers. Footage was shot in Australia, Bolivia, France, Italy, Japan, Java, Kenya, UK, USA, and the former USSR. The following topics are examined in more depth than usual for video media: population, the earth's crust, world markets, weather, seas and oceans, rivers, forest, food, and earth's inhabitants. Also: overgrazing and green cowboys, green surfers, high school students cleaning up creek beds, Wes Jackson as the prairie prophet, boat patrols, consumption reduction, old growth in the northwest (U.S.), the manatee, reefs, Belize's rainforest and barrier reef, salt marshes, and much more. Standard fees: $275, $125, $150 (U.S.) respectively. Print materials are also available. To order or for more information, contact: Environmental Media, 800-368-3382, or PBS ALSS, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314-1698, USA, tel. 800-257-2578, Fax 703-739-8495.


Recent Articles and Books

--Encyclopedia of Bioethics. The following articles are in the recently released second edition of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Holmes Rolston, III, Colorado State University, is the area editor for environmental ethics and animal welfare issues. Coverage of these issues is expanded ten times over the first edition. Warren T. Reich, Georgetown University, is the editor-in-chief. Also of interest is an extensive appendix (the last half of volume 5), "Codes, Oaths, and Directives Related to Bioethics," including Section V, Ethical Directives Pertaining to the Welfare and Use of Animals, with codes and policies on veterinary medicine and on research involving animals; and Section VI, Ethical Directives Pertaining to the Environment. The latter section contains: World Charter for Nature, General Assembly of the United Nations (1982); Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992); Conservation Policies of the Wildlife Society (1988); Code of Ethics for Members of the Society of American Foresters, Society of American Foresters (1976, amended 1986, 1992), the last amendment with the land ethic canon; Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals (1979, revised 1994); and Code of Ethics, National Environmental Health Association (revised 1992).

--Callicott, J. Baird, "Environmental Ethics: Overview," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 676-87.

--Naess, Arne, "Deep Ecology" (Environmental Ethics), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster ,1995), 687-88.

--Callicott, J. Baird, "Land Ethic" (Environmental Ethics), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 688-90.

--Warren, Karen J., "Ecofeminism" (Environmental Ethics), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 690-94.

--Wenz, Peter, "Environmental Health," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 694-99.
--Sagoff, Mark, "Environmental Policy and Law," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 701-7.

--Engel, J. Ronald, "Environment and Religion," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 707-14.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, "Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 1026-32.

--Regan, Tom, "Ethical Perspectives on the Treatment and Status of Animals" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 159-71.

--Linzey, Andrew, "Vegetarianism" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster 1955), 171-76.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Wildlife Conservation and Management" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995),176-80.

--Linzey, Andrew, "Pet and Companion Animals" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1955), 180-83.

--Dunlap, Julie and Kellert, Stephen R., "Zoos and Zoological Parks" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 184-87.

--Loftin, Robert and Klein, Ellen, "Hunting" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster 1995), 187-90.

--Rollin, Bernard E., "Animals in Agriculture and Factory Farming" (Animal Welfare and Rights), Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 190-93.

--Jamieson, Dale, "Climatic Change", Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference , Simon and Schuster, 1995), 393-99.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Endangered Species and Biodiversity", Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 671-75.

--Engel, J. Ronald, "Sustainable Development," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 2456-62.

--Kesel, M. Lynne, "Veterinary Ethics," Encyclopedia of Bioethics, revised ed. (New York: Macmillan Library Reference, Simon and Schuster, 1995), 2520-25.

--Easterbrook, Gregg, A Moment on the Earth: The Coming Age of Environmental Optimism. New York: Viking, 1995. 745 pages. $27.95. It's been only 25 years since the first Earth Day. Easterbrook argues that the past quarter-century has been nothing short of revolutionary: diminished air pollution, cleaner drinking water than before the first factory was built, hundreds of laws against toxic waste, thousand of towns recycling garbage, endangered species protected by law, littering and smoking--very recently common in America--are now both despised. Although environmentalists are often pessimists, Easterbrook gives them a pat on the back. In a review in The New York Times Book Review (April 23, 1995, p. 13), Michael Specter predicts that Easterbrook's book will be hated by "the liberal ideologues of the environmental movement" and praised by those peddling the Contract with America. The book is poorly documented, Specter points out. Easterbrook has written on environmental issues for Newsweek, The New Republic, and other publications.

--Dowie, Mark, Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. 317 pages. $25. Dowie is a former editor and publisher for Mother Jones magazine. He argues that the national environmental movement is risking irrelevance because the people leading its largest organizations are too white, too male, too elite, too polite, and too involved with Washington. For instance, CEOs often sit on boards of environmental organizations like the National Wildlife Federation and the Sierra Club. The environmental movement is losing its strong grassroots support. The so-called Wise Use Movement--a loose coalition of property owners, ranchers, small-business executives, and municipal officials--has gained considerable clout with the grassroots.

--Earle, Sylvia Alice, Sea Change: A Message of the Oceans. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1995. 361 pages. Illustrated. $25.95. This book is a plea for the preservation of the oceans. A distinguished biologist specializing in marine ecosystems, Earle was chief scientist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration from 1990-92, where she discovered that U.S. commits only $11 million per year to marine sanctuaries compared to $1.4 billion to national parks.

--Mann, Charles C., and Mark L. Plummer, Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. 302 pages. $24.

--Stevens, William K., Miracle Under the Oaks: The Revival of Nature in America. New York: Pocket Books, 1995. 332 pages. Illustrated. $22. Tells the story of how teams of volunteers have adopted and rehabilitated parcels of land.

--Frasz, Geoffrey B., The Problem of Community. Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Georgia, completed 1994, under the direction of Frederick Ferré. The philosophical problem of community, reflected in the field of environmental ethics. Chapter 1: How to balance the needs, rights, and interests of the community as a whole with the needs, rights, and interests of the individuals who make up that community; how to develop a mixed community that allows for human flourishing, as well as a diverse nonhuman biotic component. This is applied to the holism/pluralism debate. Chapter 2: The human community, attempts to define community, and two major attempts to describe this. Chapter 3: The biotic community: a historical account of the change in ecology from populations to ecosystems, ending with a new version of a biotic community based on insights from the emerging science of complexity; a critique of the positions of Aristotle and Whitehead on community, and the metaphysical concepts of humans and nature that underlie each one. Chapter 4: Aristotle's concept of friendship can be extended through Whitehead to include nonhuman entities. Chapter 5: Whitehead's metaphysics can serve as a foundation for a postmodern concept of community; the general features of a constructive postmodern version of community; Frederick Ferré's "personalistic organicism" provides a solution to the community problem in environmental ethics. Frasz is currently teaching a course in environmental ethics at the Community College of Southern Nevada that attracts environmental science students from the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. Address: Geoffrey Frasz, Philosophical and Regional Studies, Community College of Southern Nevada, North Las Vegas, NV 89030, USA. 702-651-4126. frasz@nevada.edu

--Sessions, George, ed., Deep Ecology for the 21st Century. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1995. 488 pages. 39 selections, 13 by Arne Naess. Others: Gary Snyder, Fritjof Capra, Thomas Berry, Dave Foreman, Paul Shepard, John Rodman, Thomas Birch, Donald Worster, Stephan Bodian, Chellis Glendinning, Jack Turner, Delores LaChapelle, Andrew McLaughlin, Del Ivan Janik, Wayland Drew, Richard Langlais, Warwick Fox, Jerry Mander, Ed Grumbine, Wolfgang Sachs. Sessions teaches philosophy at Sierra College, Rocklin, CA, USA.

--Brower, David, with Steve Chapple, Let the Mountains Talk, Let the Rivers Run: A Call to Those Who Would Save the Earth. New York: Harper Collins West, 1995. 196 pages. $20. Brower recalls half a century of activism, outlines crucial contemporary battles--saving Siberia's forests, revamping bureaucratic environmental organizations, and building supercars--and passionately points the way to a green 21st century. Highly endorsed by President Jimmy Carter and Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson.

--Gottlieb, Roger S., ed., This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, and Environment. New York: Routledge, 1995 (to be released in November). A comprehensive survey of sacred texts, classical literature, and a broad spectrum of the new ecotheological writings. Multicultural sources. A unique, historical and critical introduction to the theory and practice of religious environmentalism. Part I: The Moment of Seeing: Selections from Nature Writers Linking Nature and Spirit. Part II: How Have Traditional Religions Viewed Nature? Part III: Ecotheology in the Age of Environmental Crisis: Transforming Tradition. Part IV: Ecology in an Age of Environmental Crisis: Ecofeminist Spirituality. Part V: Ecotheology in an Age of Environmental Crisis: Spiritual Deep Ecology. Part VI: Religious Practice for a Sacred Earth. Part VII: Ecology, Religion and Society. Four dozen or so authors.

--ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment is the journal of the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE). Published twice a year, it began publication in 1993 as a forum for critical studies primarily of the literary and secondarily of the performing arts that proceed from or address environmental considerations, including ecological theory, conceptions of nature and their artistic depiction, the human/nature dichotomy, and related concerns. Contact: Patrick Murphy, ed., English Department, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15704-1094, USA.

--Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment, Bibliography, 1990-1993. Nearly 700 books, articles, and dissertations on fiction, poetry, and non-fiction literature of the environment, criticism, environmental politics, history, philosophy, ethics, rhetoric, and theology. Cost $6.50, checks payable to ASLE, to Allison B. Wallace, ASLE Treasurer, HC78, Box 200, Unity College of Maine, Unity, ME 04988, USA.

--Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment, Handbook on Graduate Study in Literature and Environment. Cost $5.00, checks payable to ASLE, to Allison B. Wallace, ASLE Treasurer, HC78, Box 200, Unity College of Maine, Unity, ME 04988, USA.

--Ehrenfeld, David, ed., Readings from Conservation Biology in six volumes: 1) To Preserve Biodiversity: An Overview, 2) Wildlife and Forests, 3) Plant Conservation, 4) The Landscape Perspective, 5) Genes, Populations and Species, 6) The Social Dimension: Ethics, Policy, Law, Management, Development, Economics, Education. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1995. Between 30 and 40 articles in each volume. Each is $24.95. 800-215-1000. Fax 617-492-5263.

--Francione, Gary L., Animals, Property, and the Law. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. 349 pages. Paper, $22.95; cloth $59.95. Current legal standards of animal welfare do not and cannot establish rights for animals. As long as they are viewed as property, animals will be subject to suffering for the social and economic benefit of human beings. The history of the treatment of animals, anticruelty statutes, vivisection, the Federal Animal Welfare Act, and specific cases such as the controversial injury of unanaesthetized baboons at the University of Pennsylvania (Francione represented some 100 sit-in protestors at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, over this issue). Francione argues that there is a paradoxical gap between our professed concern with the humane treatment of animals and the overriding practice of abuse permitted by U.S. law. Francione is professor of law at Rutgers University.

--"Grazing and Advocacy." Ought a conservation biologist be an advocate, and if so how does science and advocacy mix? The discussion continues with a series of letters, Conservation Biology 9 (1995): 233-39. See earlier, Newsletter 6, no.1, Spring 1995. Useful case for classroom discussion, as well as interestingly mixing theory and important practice. Any philosophers have anything to contribute?

--Stanley, Jr., Thomas R., "Ecosystem Management and the Arrogance of Humanism," Conservation Biology 9 (1995): 255-62. There are two fundamentally different views of ecosystem management: biocentric, considering human uses of resources to be constrained by the primary goal of maintaining ecological integrity; and anthropocentric, centering on human resources and including ecological and social considerations. The anthropocentric view is uppermost, tacitly in the logic of ecosystem management, and ecosystem management is, in its usual manifestations, another example of the arrogance of humanism. Stanley is with the U.S. National Biological Survey, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

--Mech, L. David, "The Challenge and Opportunity of Recovering Wolf Populations," Conservation Biology 9 (1995): 270-78. There is an expanding opportunity for wolf recovery, but, because of the wolf's mobility, fertility, and long life, there are few places where wolves can be reintroduced without control, which means trapping and killing problem wolves. Those who favor wolves typically favor government rather than public control, but if control were allowed by the public (ranchers, landowners, hunters), this could be more effective and cheaper, more acceptable to those for whom wolves create problems, and allow wolves to live in far more places. Mech is the foremost wolf biologist in the world, with the National Biological Service, Laurel, MD, USA.

--Sessions, George, "Postmodernism, Environmental Justice, and the Demise of the Ecology Movement?" Wild Duck Review, Literature and Letters of Northern California, 5th Issue, June/July 1995.

--Haigh, Martin J., George Revill and John R. Gold, "The Landscape Assay: Exploring Pluralism in Environmental Interpretation," Journal of Geography in Higher Education 19, no. 1 (1995).

--Lackey, Robert T., "Ecological Risk Assessment," Fisheries 19, no. 9 (September 1994): 14-18. Risk assessment is used by the scientific elite as a tool to impose their values on the public in the guise of scientific objectivity. The affluent drive the decision-making process of managing and protecting ecological resources. Ecosystem "health" is a strictly anthropocentric notion, and risk assessment will likely be perceived as a form of ecological triage. Lackey is deputy director of the EPA's Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvalis, OR, USA, and holds a courtesy professorship in wildlife and fisheries at Oregon State University. This paper, nor the ones that follow, do not reflect EPA policy positions.

--Lackey, Robert T., "Ecosystem Health, Biological Diversity, and Sustainable Development: Research That Makes a Difference," Renewable Resources Journal (1995) (in press). Addressing important policy problems and being reasonably likely to be achievable scientifically are the criteria for selecting research. Research especially needed today is: 1) credible procedures to determine ecosystem health, 2) scientific bases for legislation regarding biodiversity and endangered species, and 3) a clear understanding regarding the interrelationship of ecosystem stability, biodiversity, and such external stress as habitat alteration (including development) and harvesting biotic resources.

--Lackey, Robert T., "Seven Pillars of Ecosystem Management," The Environmental Professional 17, no. 4 (1995): (in press). The seven pillars are: 1) the continuing evolution of social values and priorities; 2) place-based, necessitating clearly defined boundaries; 3) achievement of social benefits; 4) ecosystemic stress factors; 5) biodiversity, which may or may not be a factor; 6) "sustainability," if used as a concept in management, needs to be clearly defined; and 7) scientific information is important but only one element in decision-making, which is fundamentally one of public or private choice.

--Tunstall, Daniel B. and van der Wansem, Mieke, ed., 1993 Directory of Country Environmental Studies: An Annotated Bibliography of Environmental and Natural Resource Profiles and Assessments. World Resources Institute, International Institute for Environment and Development, and IUCN--The World Conservation Union, 1993. A previous edition was in 1990. Features Africa, Central America, Carribean, South America, Asia, Oceania. Listings on 129 countries, 354 studies.

--Braus, Judy A., and David Wood, Environmental Education in the Schools: Creating a Program that Works. Troy, Ohio: North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) (Box 400, Troy, OH 45373, USA), 1994. ISBN 1-884008-08-9. Environmental education, including ethics, with children and youth, in the field or in elementary and secondary schools. Thousands of ideas. Originally prepared for the U.S Peace Corps.

--Rang Shijie Geng Mei Hao--For a Better World (in both Chinese and English). Commemorative book, by China Environment News and the China Environmental Culture Promotion Association, about 40 pages, based on special issue Chinese stamps that promote environmental conservation. The stamps are quite artistically done, and the accompanying essays are on such topics as water, desertification, the Three Gorges, the narcissus, Dujiang Dam, forests, the Dunhuang Cave Frescoes, sturgeon, the Luanhe River Diversion Project, the red ibis, Dinghu Mountain, the giant panda, Wulingyuan scenic area, Pere David's deer, Wuyi Mountain, Suzhou, the garden city. "The love for nature and the country has always existed in the virtues of the Chinese history." (Thanks to Xu Guangming, Suzhou Institute of Urban Construction and Environmental Protection.)

--Gorlin, Rena, ed., Codes of Professional Responsibility, 3rd. ed., Washington, DC: BNA (Bureau of National Affairs) Books, 1994. $75. This hardcover volume contains 51 official codes of ethics issued by 45 associations in business, health, and law--most in full text. Each code is fully indexed, facilitating comparative analysis of codes and professions. Data on each association (address, phone, etc.) and a brief discussion of its code's development and implementation are also provided. The Resources section lists hundreds of U.S. and worldwide organizations, educational programs, periodicals, and bibliographies on ethics, professionalism, and public policy.

--Freyfogle, Eric T., "The Ethical Strands of Environmental Law," University of Illinois Law Review, 4, 1994. The morality that underlies the environmental movement, and the extent to which environmental statutes reflect this new moral order in environmental law. The U. S. Congress's acts and pronouncements do not form a coherent moral order, nor do they convey a vision of ecological well-being. In result, environmental lawmaking is approaching a crisis of vision and imagination, stumbling on knotty issues such as nonpoint-source water pollution and declining wildlife habitat. Principles that could guide environmental lawmaking oriented by more encompassing, more deep-rooted issues of ecosystem health. Freyfogle teaches law at the University of Illinois.

--Satchell, Michael, "A New Day for Earth Lovers," U.S. News and World Report, April 24, 1995. Republican party efforts to kill environmental laws have galvanized the struggling green movement.
--Westra, Laura, and Peter Wenz, ed., Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995. 300 pages. $21.95 paper. $57.50 cloth. Holistic approaches to environmental protection risk unjustly sacrificing certain minorities for the good of the whole. Racial minorities in the U.S. are disproportionately exposed to toxic wastes and other environmental hazards. Internationally, wealthy countries of the North increasingly ship hazardous wastes to poorer countries of the South. Contributors: Hussein Adam, Robert D. Bullard, Clarice Gaylord, Robert Goodland, Omari Kokole, Bill Lawson, Howard McCurdy, Richard Phillips, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Peter S. Wenz, Laura Westra. Westra is in philosophy at the University of Windsor. Wenz is in philosophy at Sangamon State University.

--Strudler, Alan, "Valuing Nature: Assessing Damages for Oil Spills," Report from the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy 15 no. 1 (Winter, 1995): 6-10. The Valdez spill reviewed. Determining dollar amounts commensurate with nonuse values has proved elusive. But one should not conclude that any dollar amount imposed by a court is arbitrary and unfair. Arbitrariness can be limited by judges who review damage awards for their consistency with comparable cases. Accidents themselves are deeply arbitrary, and, in the case of oil spills, there is no reason that the weight of the arbitrary should fall entirely on the shoulders of the public. By imposing liability for lost nonuse values on firms like the Exxon corporation, the burden of arbitrariness is more fairly shared. Strundler is a Research Scholar at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland.

--Cremo, Michael A., and Mukunda Goswami, Divine Nature: A Spiritual Perspective on the Environmental Crisis. Foreward by William McDonough. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1995. 108 pp. Pb. $ 9.95 U.S.; $12.95 Canada. Includes a bibliography of environmental books and videos available from the Bhaktivedanta Society. Michael W. Fox of the Humane Society (USA) praises the book as "wonderful." Also the author of the Hanover Principles, McDonough is Dean of Architecture at the University of Virginia. Cremo is a research associate at the Bhaktivedanta Institute, and Goswami is the Director of Communications for the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON). Chapters in the book are: Planet in Trouble, Meat and the Environment, Toward a Spiritual Solution, Science Nature and the Environment, A Science of Consciousness, Karma and the Environment, Rural Communities of ISKCON (sub-sections: Ox Power, Karma-Free Diet, Village Life, Sustainable Small Towns, Opportunities for Involvement), and the Environment of the Soul.

--Lyons, Jonathan, "Smuggled Orangutans: the Bangkok Six," The Animals' Agenda 15 no. 2 (March 1995): 22- . Torn from their mothers and sold to smugglers, six infant orangutans were discovered, nearly dead, in packing crates at the Bangkok airport. Two of the smugglers were apprehended and a Mexican zoo official mistook a U.S. Fish and Wildlife agent in a gorilla suit for the real deal.

--Raizis, Anthony, "The Plight of Animals in Romania," The Animals' Agenda 15 no. 2 (March 1995): 28- . Romania's totalitarian regime took its toll on animals. A research scientist describes the efforts being made to establish humane standards of animal care and control in Romania, where the average salary is $100 a month in U.S. dollars, and the average family spends three quarters of that amount on food.

--Holdt, Jennifer, "The Challenge of Cruelty Prosecutions," The Animals' Agenda 15 no. 2 (March 1995): 30- . Justice is blind and judges are hard seeing when animals are the victims of cruelty. The public outreach coordinator of the Animal Legal Defense Fund, explains why and suggests what activists can do to help secure justice for animals.

--Fiorelli, Paul E. and Rooney, Cynthia J., "The Environmental Sentencing Guidelines for Business Organizations: Are There Murky Waters in Their Future? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 22 no. 3 (Spring 1995): 481- .
--Murchison, Kenneth M., "Environmental Law in Australia and the United States: A Comparative Overview," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 22 no. 3 (Spring 1995): 503- .

--Smith, Richard, "Getting Rich is Glorious." The Ecologist 25 no. 1 (January 1, 1995): 14- ). China's market economy has increased insecurity and environmental degradation.

--West, Karen, "Ecolabels: The Industrialization of Environmental Standards," The Ecologist 25 (no. 1, January 1, 1995):16- . Ecolabelling schemes are being promoted by governments and industry as substitutes for environmental regulation. Without the backing of legally-binding standards, however, ecolabelling is little more than a marketing gimmick, providing minimal protection for the environment or for the consumer. Under GATT, even this weak instrument could be ruled a barrier to trade.

--EJAP, The Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy, Issue on Justifying Value in Nature, 3 (Spring 1995). ISSN: 1071- 5800. Articles: Martin Schönfeld (guest editor), "Introduction to Justifying Value in Nature"; Robin Attfield, "Preferences, Health, Interests and Value"; Kent Baldner, "Transcendental Idealism and the Fact/Value Dichotomy"; J. Baird Callicott, "Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Metaethical Analysis"; Stephen R. L. Clark, "Objective Values, Final Causes: Stoics, Epicureans, and Platonists"; S. F. Sapontzis, "The Nature of the Value of Nature"; Donald VanDeVeer, "Interspecific Justice and Intrinsic Value." With EJAP, there are two issues a year, put on the network, or "published" all at once. The journal is not meant to be printed, it will never be "bound", there are no "volume" numbers. Each issue is referenced in the order of release. There are no page numbers but each paragraph is numbered and referenced instead. To subscribe: It's free! Send a message to: listserv@iubvm.ucs.indiana.edu with "subscribe ejap [Firstname] [Lastname]" in the body. Subscribers receive instructions for retrieving EJAP files from the listserver. Anonymous FTP: phil.indiana.edu/ejap/ Gopher: phil.indiana.edu World Wide Web: http://www.phil.indiana.edu/ejap/ EJAP is produced at the Department of Philosophy, Indiana University: ejap@phil.indiana.edu

--Ransel, Katherine P., "The Sleeping Giant Awakens: PUD No.1 of Jefferson County v. Washington Department of Ecology," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 255- . Ransel is the public interest lawyer who represented the plaintiffs in Jefferson County. She analyzes the U.S. Supreme Court's 1994 decision that confirms the right of states to impose minimum instream flow requirements on federal hydroelectric projects and discusses its implications.

--Fisher, Michael, "Environmental Racism Claims Brought Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 285- . Fisher evaluates the usefulness of Title VI's prohibition on discrimination in U.S. federal funding to the environmental justice movement, focusing on the evidentiary demands that a title VI case presents and concluding that a Title VI approach to litigation would overcome the doctrinal barriers that have frustrated past attempts to apply civil rights laws to the problem of discrimination.

--"Colloquium: Who Runs The River?" Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 349- . On November 4, 1994, the Northwest Water Law and Policy Project of Northwestern School of Law of Lewis and Clark College held a colloquium on issues affecting Columbia River salmon. The focal points of the colloquium were two decisions: Northeast Resource Information Center v. Northwest Power Planning Council and Idaho Department of Fish and Game v. National Marine Fisheries Service, that held that the federal agencies responsible for running the river had violated the Northwest Power Act and the Endangered Species Act. Participants in the conference included attorneys who argued both sides of these cases. These articles are adaptations of remarks delivered at the colloquium.

--Wright, Al, "Should the Courts Run the River?" Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 403- . The courts as managers of the Columbia River.
--Eames, Mark A., "The Endangered Species Act, the Federal Columbia River Power System, and the National Marine Fisheries Service," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 389- .

--Liu, Sylvia F., "American Indian Reserved Water Rights: The Federal Obligation to Protect Tribal Water Resources and Tribal Autonomy," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 425- . A federal water policy that has historically neglected tribal sovereignty dictate a broad interpretation of the Indian reserved water rights doctrine.
--Axelsen, Kaarin L., "Problems of Punitive Damages for Political Protest and Civil Disobedience," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 1(995):495- . Axelsen examines Huffman & Wright Logging Co. v. Wade, a recent Oregon case in which members of Earth First! were assessed punitive damages for trespassing on private property to protest a logging operation. She concludes that the freedom of expression provisions of the U.S. and Oregon Constitutions make punitive damages inappropriate in cases of political protest and civil disobedience.

--Dill, Starla K., "Animal Habitats in Harm's Way: Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon v. Babbitt," Environmental Law 25 no. 2 (1995): 513- . Dill criticizes the majority opinion in Sweet Home III. She argues that, pursuant to the Chevron doctrine, the majority should have held the Fish and Wildlife Service interpretation of harm as habitat modification a reasonable interpretation of the Endangered Species Act and concludes that the Supreme Court should reverse Sweet Home III and declare the Fish and Wildlife Service regulation valid.

--Ethical and Philosophical Issues in Environmental Epidemiology. The report of a World Health Organization / International Society for Environmental Epidemiology Workshop held last fall, at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, is now available in English, French, German, and Russian. Contact: Roberto Bertollini, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, European Centre for Environment and Health, Via Vincenzo Bona, 67, I-00156 Rome, Italy. Phone 39-6-4116640. Fax 39-6-4116649.

--Arrow, Kenneth, et al., "Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment," Science 268 (April 28, 1995): 520-521. Eleven authors, reporting from a Swedish conference; other authors include Robert Costanza, C. S. Holling, and David Pimentel. Economic policy typically ignores environmental concerns, or considers them tangential. But economic liberalization and other policies that promote gross national product are not substitutes for environmental policy. It is typically thought that in developing nations, environmental quality first degenerates and, with further development, later improves, a U-shaped curve. This is true for selected pollutants but not true for environmental quality as a whole. Economic policy needs to recognize carrying capacity and ecosystem resilience, though these are complex and dynamic, not simple and fixed relations. Economic liberation may require more, not less regulation, because the signals of ecosystem stress are frequently received after irreversible changes have already occurred, or are misinterpreted, or relocated to other nations, and there is little incentive under present policy for a more ecologically sustainable economics. Arrow is in economics at Stanford University; Costanza in ecological economics at the University of Maryland; Holling in zoology at the University of Florida; Pimentel in entomology, ecology, and systematics at Cornell University.

--Education for the Earth: A Guide to Top Environmental Studies Programs. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's Guides, Second Edition, 1994.
--Bond, Ivan, "The Importance of Sport-Hunted African Elephants to CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe," TRAFFIC Bulletin 14 (1994): 117-119. Hunting of elephants brought over $9 million to Zimbabwe, distributed under the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) to local peoples. Some 60 elephants were killed, in a population of 76,000 elephants, and five of these would have been destroyed in any case as problem animals. Hunters are mostly Americans, some Europeans. Local peoples have a much more positive attitude toward elephants when they see these benefits; they now discourage and report the poachers. CITES permits such hunting, but not the sale of elephant products, and this costs these rural communities about $1 million annually. Pragmatists will love this, but the author does not examine the ethical impact, either on Zimbabweans, Americans, or elephants of having wealthy Americans lay out up to $35,000 to put down a trophy elephant, with trickle-down benefits to poor Zimbabweans whose annual incomes are a small fraction of this. Bond is with World Wildlife Fund in Harare, Zimbabwe.
--Berry, R. J., "Sam", "Creation and the Environment," Science and Christian Belief 7 (1995): 21-43. Debates about creation and evolution have distracted attention from the proper understanding of the environment as God's creation, for which we are responsible to God. This has left the way open for a plethora of odd religious ideas, which in turn have raised suspicions about orthodox Christian interpretations of the environment and distracted from the obligations of stewardship laid by God on his people. This essay reviews some of the deficiencies and divergences of creation doctrine, beginning from the implicit teaching of scripture that God created the world ex nihilo, that nature is not divine, and that it has been redeemed by Christ's work. The consequence of living in God's image in God's world is that we are stewards, accountable to God for our creation-care. The working-out of this doctrine is explored in terms of the more important distortions of our relationship to the world (syncretism, New Age teachings, Gaia, creation spirituality, deep ecology) and the weakness of our current perceptions. The conclusion is that traditional teachings about responsible stewardship need to be asserted and emphasized by Christians, and that these form the basis of environmental care for Christian and non-believer alike. Berry is professor of genetics at University College London, formerly president of the British Ecological Society, of the Linnean Society, and the European Ecological Federation.

--Bourdeau, Philippe, Fasella, P.M., and Teller, A., ed., Environmental Ethics: Man's Relationship with Nature, Interaction with Science. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities, 1990. Papers from the Sixth Economic Summit Conference on Bioethics, Val Duchesse, Brussels, May 10-12, 1989, called by the Economic Summit Nations (G7). A Working Party was commissioned to produce a Code of Environmental Practice, with R. J. Berry as chair. The code can be found in R. J. Berry, ed., Environmental Dilemmas: Ethics and Decisions (London: Chapman and Hall, 1992), 253-62, essentially a stewardship ethic. The Bourdeau volume is not easy to obtain in the U.S.; only the libraries at Duke University and at the University of North Texas seem to have it.

--McMichael, Anthony J., Planetary Overload: Global Change and the Health of the Human Species. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 352 pages. An analysis of the ways in which global change is affecting human health adversely.

--Mayer, J. "The Stalemate in Food and Agricultural Research, Teaching, and Extension," Science 260: 881-82.

--Ornstein, Robert and Paul Ehrlich, New World, New Mind: Moving toward Conscious Evolution. New York: Doubleday, 1989. 302 pages. Humans were, from evolutionary natural selection, a good fit in the circumstances under which they evolved. But "there is now a mismatch between the human mind and the world people inhabit. This mismatch interferes with the relationships of human beings with each other and with their environment" (9). The rapid pace of cultural changes requires us "to take our evolution into our hands and create a new evolutionary process, a process of conscious evolution . . . We need to replace our old minds with new ones" (12). Ornstein is a well-known science writer; Ehrlich is a biologist at Stanford University and active conservationist.

--Scherer, Donald, "Sustainable Resources, Ethics," in Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment, a four volume set, pp. 2571-77. San Francisco: John Wiley, 1995. Sustainability of choice; sustainability of lifestyles; sustainability of resources; sustainability and substitutability; sustainability and justice; justice and the meaning of opportunity; sustainability and the well-being of ecosystems; the good of a person and the good of an ecosystem compared; ecosystemic goods as public goods; managing common resources; public goods and government involvement; proper resource pricing; justice, opportunity, and public goods; pollution: prevention versus clean-up; sustainability and reusability; reusability and ecosystem sustainability; distributing proven technologies; empowering individuals; reforming management; coping with congestion; the evaluation of sustainability; the ethics of sustainability; the ethics of sustainable energy; and more. A useful introduction, quite suitable for classroom use. Scherer is in philosophy at Bowling Green State University, Ohio, USA.

--Sloan, D., "A Postmodern Vision of Education for a Living Planet." In D. R. Griffen and R. Falk, ed., Postmodern Politics for a Planet in Crisis. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

--Daly, Herman, "The Perils of Free Trade," Scientific American. November 1993, 50-57.

--Blueprint for a Green Campus: The Campus Earth Summit Initiatives for Higher Education. Pittsburgh, PA, USA: Heinz Family Foundation (3200 CNG Tower, 625 Liberty Avenue, 15222, USA), 1995. Available through Campus Green Vote, 1400 16th St., NW, Box 24, Washington, DC 20036; USA, 202-939-3338. Fax 202-797-6646. In February 1994 over 450 faculty, staff, and students from 22 nations, 6 continents, and all 50 U.S. states met at Yale University in a Campus Earth Summit. Here is their set of recommendations for higher education instititions around the globe to work for an environmentally sustainable future. With sections on ten recommendations: 1. Integrate Environmental Knowledge into All Relevant Disciplines. 2. Improve Undergraduate Environmental Studies Course Offerings. 3. Provide Opportunities for Students to Study Campus and Local Environmental Issues. 4. Conduct a Campus Environmental Audit. 5. Institute an Environmentally Responsible Purchasing Policy. 6. Reduce Campus Waste. 7. Maximize Campus Energy Efficiency. 8. Make Environmental Sustainability a Top Priority in Campus Land-Use, Transportation, and Building Planning. 9. Establish a Student Environmental Center. 10. Support Students who Seek Environmentally Responsible Careers. (Thanks to David Orr, Oberlin College.)

--Orr, David W., "The Liberal Arts, the Campus, and the Biosphere," Harvard Educational Review 60 (1990): 205-16. Where does the campus fit into the biosphere? What role should universities play in the struggle to save the environment? Although critics, such as Allan Bloom, have recently accused liberal arts institutions of failing to educate college youth properly, few have addressed the question of how colleges and universities might make students more aware and responsible about their place in the natural world. Orr offers a rationale for incorporating environmental concerns into the curriculum of higher education and suggests examples of curricular innovations, including programs for restructuring the ways colleges procure food, deal with waste, and use energy. A focus on the ecosystem of the college campus can broaden students' visions of the natural world in which they live. Orr teaches environmental studies at Oberlin College.

--Weiskel, Timothy C., "Environmental Ethics and the Problem of Community," Quinnipiac/Schweitzer Journal 1, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1994-95): 44-53. A social anthropologist, Weiskel is director of the newly created Center for the Study of Values and Public Life at Harvard Divinity School. The environment is decaying before communities summon the will to balance their way of life. The journal is available for $5 U.S. per issue: Public Relations, Quinnipiac College, 275 Mt. Carmel Ave., Hamden, CT 06518, USA.

--Bowers, C. A., Education, Cultural Myths, and the Ecological Crisis: Toward Deep Changes. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. What our priorities should be in public school and university education as we face the environmental crisis. How our cultural beliefs contribute to the accelerating degradation of the environment as the most fundamental challenge we face. All other social and educational reforms must be assessed in terms of whether they mitigate or exacerbate the ecological crisis. Thought patterns formed in the past are reproduced through the metaphorical language used in the classroom, with the result that both conservative and liberal educators and their critics ignore the ecological crisis. Aldo Leopold, Wendell Berry, and Gregory Bateson suggest a more ecologically sustainable ideology. Bowers teaches education at Portland State University, Oregon.

--McInnis, Noel, and Don Albrecht, ed., What Makes Education Environmental? Washington, DC: Environmental Educators, Inc., and Louisville, KY: Data Courier, Inc., 1975. Two dozen articles. The authors are both freelance authors, based in Wisconsin.

--Haas, Peter M., Keohane, Robert O., and Levy, Marc A., Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. Seven international environmental issues: ozone, European acid rain, the Baltic and North Seas, oil pollution of oceans, fisheries, pesticides, population, and what the proliferating international institutions can and cannot do. State sovereignty is not incompatible with progress in solving difficult problems, but the most effective institutions must penetrate the state politically to a high degree.

--Donnelley, Strachan, "Trout, Salmon, and Rivers: Saving the Human and Natural Future." A report from an exploratory meeting of the Hastings Center, Trout, Salmon, and Rivers Project. The salmon problem, besides its immediate interest and relevance, with many natural and social values at stake, is a bellwether for further environmental conflicts and their resolution. Contact Strachan Donnelley, The Hastings Center, 255 Elm Road, Briacliff Manor, NY 10510, USA.

--Vogel, Joseph Henry, Genes for Sale: Privatization as a Conservation Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 155 pages. $29.95, hardcover. "The thesis of this book is that the creation of property rights over genetic information can make habitat preservation compete with alternative land uses" (33). This is "the baseline ethic assumed in the policy: those who benefit pay the costs associated with the benefits" (5). Vogel proposes "a gargantuan database" that can track what plants grow on whose land, with "genesteaders" who protect such land from development, and share the royalties when useful finds are made. The proposal raises all the issues of ownership of genetic diversity, plus issues of whether landownership tied to genetic diversity rights is likely to produce a just distribution of costs and benefits. He deplores the idea of a common good of mankind.
One of Vogel's provocative illustrations. Chimpanzees know what species of plants to eat when they are sick. Jane Goodall discovered this "monkey know how" (43). Some 27 species are under investigation. What if a pharmaceutical company, alerted by this chimp behavior, uses one of these plants to make a new drug? Jane Goodall should establish a property right to these plants; pharmaceutical companies should pay her when they use such plants. "The economic advice to Goodall is that she keep her findings secret until privatization eventuates" (43). But, since Jane Goodall doesn't own the land on which the chimpanzees live, nor does she own the chimpanzees, perhaps neither Goodall nor the pharmaceutical companies have a right to steal the chimp's knowledge without compensating them. This could be the solution to chimp conservation! Vogel teaches economics at the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Quito, Ecuador.

--de-Shalit, Avner, "From the Political to the Objective: The Dialectics of Zionism and the Environment," Political Studies 4: 70-88. Is the argument that we can only conceive of the "environment" in political terms far-fetched? Is an objective understanding of the concept of the "environment" possible? By an analysis of three phases in the relationship between Zionism and the environment, it can be argued, first, that not only the developmental but also the romantic attitudes to the environment regard the latter instrumentally and both constituted political definitions of the environment; and second, that a direct transition from a romantic-ruralist attitude to the environment to a modern, scientifically-based environmentalism is impossible, and that the antithesis of the ethos of development has been necessary for the instrumental and political approach to the environment to be abandoned.

--Coufal, James E., and Charles M. Spuches, Environmental Ethics in Practice: Developing a Personal Ethic. Materials for Natural Resources Management Instructors. Syracuse, NY: SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1995. 309 pages. Designed especially for professionals affiliated with the Society of American Foresters, the National Association of Professional Forestry Schools and Colleges, and the National Association of University Fisheries and Wildlfe Programs. Funded by a USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant, and a SUNY Environmental Science and Forestry Grant. Field tested in some 20 locations. Copies have been placed with over 60 colleges of forestry, natural resources, and other related programs. Copies available for $15.00 from Dr. Charles M. Spuches, Coordinator of Instructional Development, SUNY-ESF, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. Phone 315-470-6810. Unit One: An Introduction to the Roots of Environmental Ethics. In 3-ring notebook form. Unit Two: Models for Understanding and Use. Unit Three: Environmental Ethics in Practice: Examples, Reflections and Cases. Includes overhead masters, codes of ethics of selected natural resources organizations, and selected readings on environmental ethics. The readings include: David N. Bengston, "The Nature of Value and the Value of Nature"; Membership Concerns Survey, Situational Ethics Workgroup, American Fisheries Society, "Should We Eat These Fish? A Situation Ethics Survey of AFS Members"; J. Baird Callicott, "The Wilderness Idea Revisited"; and Holmes Rolston, III, "The Wilderness Idea Reaffirmed"; Callicott, "The Land Aesthetic"; James. W. Giltmier, "How Can We be Ethical Conservationists if We are Irrational in the Way We Think?"; Leo McAvoy, "An Environmental Ethic for Parks and Recreation"; Ian S. Moss, "Foresters' Ethics"; Bob Scarfo, "Stewardship: The Profession's Grand Delusion"; Christopher A. Wood, "Ecosystem Management: Achieving the New Land Ethic"; Craig R. Wyant, "The Environmental Role of Landscape Architects." Included in the text is James E. Coufal, "Biodiversity and Environmental Ethics: A Personal Reflection." Case studies: Red-cockaded woodpeckers on private forest land; logging ordinances and aesthetics, corridor design, religious forests and secular forest policies. Yellowstone National Park: To burn or not to burn? Is that the question? Coufal is professor of forestry and environmental studies, and Spuches is instuctional developer at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Impressive for its mix of theory and practice at the level useful for the forestry and environmental professional.

--McKinney, Matthew J., "Dispute Resolution Courses in Natural Resource Schools: Status and Needs for the Future," Renewable Resources Journal, Summer 1993. Much of the problem in environmental conflict is structural, as well as differences on issues. Few opportunities exist for the interests affected by proposed actions to participate directly in the decisionmaking process. What's going on, and what might be better, at 46 natural resources schools in the training of natural resource professionals entering this arena. McKinney has taught a dispute resolutions course at the University of Montana, and is director of the Montana Consensus Council.

--Leiss, William, The Domination of Nature. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994. Paper, $19.95. 1994 reprint of a book first published 23 years ago, in 1972, here unaltered, and something of a classic in the field. The global predicament can only been understood in terms of the most deeply rooted attitude that drives Western civilization: the idea of the domination of nature. Leiss holds the Research Chair in Environmental Policy, School of Policy Studies, Queen's University.

--Howard, A. E. Dick, "State Constitutions and the Environment," Virginia Law Review 58 (1972): 193- . "A theme Thomas Jefferson often developed, and one which he explicitly applied to the revision of constitutions, was: `The earth belongs always to the living generation.' He meant, of course, that while the present generation of men may venerate the wisdom of their forebears they must adapt that heritage to the needs of their time. Had Jefferson lived in this time of environmental concern, he might have amended his adage to say, `The earth belongs always to the living generation--and to generations unborn.' This would recognize the fiduciary obligation which those who today inhabit the earth owe to those who will come after" (228-29). An older article, but worth reading. Howard is an authority in constitutional law at the University of Virginia.

--Myers, Norman, "The World's Forests: Need for a Policy Appraisal," Science 268 (May 12, 1995): 823-24. The World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development is soon to be established and gives promise of a better appraisal of how forests can confer their manifold benefits on society. Forests once covered more than 40% of Earth's land surface, but their expanse has been reduced by one-third, mostly since 1950. Tropical forests have been reduced by half, the fastest vegetational change of this magnitude in human history. Forestry has so far been dominated by private interests, commercial for the most part. Certain of these interests could well have an explanded role in the future, but public interests deserve to be better represented in the policy arena, especially the fast-growing interests at a global level. Myers is an environmental consultant based in Oxford, UK.

--Wolf, Tom, Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, USA, 1995. 384 pages. $39.95 cloth. Of interest for its argument that wilderness designation for the Sangre de Cristo mountains, with the richest ecological and cultural diversity from Montana to New Mexico, will result in weaker crucial links between their ecology and the economies of the human communities that surround them. He proposes downsizing the federal management and maintains that the large private ranches in the region are the sites of exciting experiments in creating and maintaing wildlife habitat that tie cultural to biological diversity. Wolf teaches at Colorado College.

--Fowler, Robert Booth, The Greening of Protestant Thought. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.

--Serres, Michel, The Natural Contract. Trans. Elizabeth MacArthur and William Paulson. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995. Translated from the French, Contrat naturel. More on this, as well as on Luc Ferry, Le Nouvel order écologique and Des animaux et des hommes in future Newsletters.

--Ferry, Luc, The New Ecological Order. Trans. Carol Volk. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Cloth, $34.95; Paper, $14.95. A philosophy professor at the Sorbonne analyzes deep ecology. He finds it irrational and antidemocratic.

--Duchin, Faye, Glenn-Marie Lange, Knut Thgonstad and Annemarth Idenburg, The Future of the Environment: Ecological Economics and Technological Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. $29.95. Applies economic principles to the environment and concludes that present plans for recycling, fuel efficiency, and pollution abatement don't do enough.

--Bailey, Ronald, ed., The True State of the Planet. New York: Free Press, 1995. Paper, $15. The perils of deforestation and global warming are exaggerated, but the oceans are in trouble.

--Thomashow, Mitchell, Ecological Identity: Becoming a Reflective Environmentalist. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. $25. Tries to make peace within the environmental movement by exploring the spiritual benefits of activism.

--Grinde, Donald A, and Bruce E. Johansen, Ecocide of Native America: Environmental Destruction of Indian Lands and Peoples. Clear Light Press, 1995. $24.95. Argues for the Native American policy of sustainability, and reports on contamination of reservations by industrial and radiation waste.
--Wildavsky, Aaron, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995. $30. Argues that claims of imminent disaster from global warming and acid rain--but not ozone depletion--are "mostly false, unproven or negligible."

--Houle, Marcy, The Prairie Keepers: Secrets of the Grasslands. Addison-Wesley, 1995. $20. A wildlife biologist gives a portrait of a grassland ecosystem.

--Stewart, Frank, A Natural History of Nature Writing. Shearwater/Island Press, 1995. Cloth, $32.50; paper, $16.95. From Thoreau to Ed Abbey, nature writing has profoundly influenced American literature.
--Roszak, Theodore, Mary E. Gomes, and Allen D. Kanner, ed., Ecopsychology: Restoring the Earth, Healing the Mind. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995. Paper, $15. The roots of our destructive and exploitative environmental attitudes are psychological, and laws alone won't alter our bahavior.

--Hughes, J. Donald, "Ecology and Development as Narrative Th emes of World History," Environmental History Review 19 (1995): 1-16. The story line, or organizing principle, of virtually everything that aspires to be world history in recent times is "development," as revealed by a survey of textbooks, but this is an inadequate principle. The new narrative of world history must have ecological process as its major theme. It must keep human events within the context where they really happen, and that is the ecosystem of the Earth. Hughes teaches history at the University of Denver.

--Coulson, John, and Nicola J. Crockford, ed., Bird Conservation: The Science and the Action, special supplement to Ibis: The International Journal of the British Ornithologists Union, 137 (1995). Over 250 pages, two dozen authors, the proceedings of a 1994 conference, 220 delegates from 20 countries. Worldwide perspectives. Often developments in botany or entomology (birds eat seeds and insects!) have as much to do with bird conservation as ornithology. As visible as birds are, there is an astonishing lack of information about their conservation. Well over 100 species have become extinct within recent centuries. Give patterns and centers of endemism, the future of a quarter of all birds species on Earth depends solely and uniquely on the success or failure of conservation within a critical 5% of the Earth's land surface. With "Conclusions and Recommendations" drafted during the conference.

--Knickerbocker, Brad. "Sagebrush Revolt: Ranchers Clash with Rangers in Wild West." The Christian Science Monitor, July 13, 1995, pp. 1, 18.

--Cahn, Robert. "Over the Desert A Nuclear Dawn, Part III: Elation gives place to contemplation." The Christian Science Monitor, July 13, 1995, pp. 10, 11.

--Clayton, Mark. "Latest Fish Fight: 'Captain Canada' Takes on Alaska." The Christian Science Monitor, July 12, 1995, pp. 1, 9.
--Trumbull, Mark and Mark Clayton. "Clear-Cutting of Rain Forests Faces Restraints." The Christian Science Monitor, July 12, 1995, pp. 1, 8.

--Knickerbocker, Brad. "Western States Chart New Course: Fighting Summer Fires with Fire." The Christian Science Monitor, July 11, 1995, pp. 1, 4.

--Rohde, David. "France Forced into Ground-Zero Test: Greenpeace ship boarded at nuke testing site." The Christian Science Monitor, July 11, 1995, pp. 1, 8.

--Cahn, Robert. "Countdown at Trinity, Part II: Welders' glasses, sunburn lostion, and 150 evacuation trucks at the ready." The Christian Science Monitor, July 11, 1995, pp 10, 11.

--Knickerbocker, Brad. "Will Congress Heed Public on Energy?" The Christian Science Monitor, July 11, 1995, p. 13.

--Anderson, Nick. "A Whale of a Debate Over Salt Stirs Debate in a Baja California Lagoon." The Christian Science Monitor, July 10, 1995, pp. 1, 18.

--Cahn, Robert. "How They Built the Bomb, Part 1: Clouds over Alamogordo." The Christian Science Monitor, July 10, 1995, pp. 9-11.
--Rosen, Yereth. "Pushing Frontiers of Oil Exploration: Old Alaska Fields Stir New Interest." The Christian Science Monitor, July 6, 1995, pp. 1, 18.

Lazaroff, Leon. "Pushing Frontiers of Oil Exploration: Drillers Going Off Deep End in Gulf." The Christian Science Monitor, July 6, 1995, pp. 1, 18.

--Burke, Justin. "Germany's Green Sprout Into Third Force." The Christian Science Monitor, July 6, 1995, p. 6.

--Clayton, Mark. "Canada to Kell Seals To Aid Cod Fishermen." The Christian Science Monitor, July 6, 1995, p. 7.

--"Sensible Species Protection." The Christian Science Monitor, July 6, 1995, p. 20.

--Decker, Jonathan P. "Fishermen Flounder As Gill Net Ban Kicks In." The Christian Science Monitor, July 5, 1995, p. 3.

--Spotts, Peter N. "Sweating in the Name of Science: A Geological Journey. Are the Adirondacks Rising? . . ."The Christian Science Monitor, July 3, 1995, pp. 9-11.

--Knickerbocker, Brad. " Court Sends Mixed Signals in Landmark Rulings: Endangered Species Act Weathers Court Battle." The Christian Science Monitor, June 30, 1995, pp. 1, 18.

--Pierre, Andrew J. "The Missing Link in Global Stability." The Christian Science Monitor, June 30, 1995, p. 19.

--Rosen, Yereth. "Oil Debate in Alaska Is All in a Name." The Christian Science Monitor, June 29, 1995, p. 4.

--Tyson, James. "Tilling Middle Ground of Property-Rights Debate." The Christian Science Monitor, June 27, 1995, p. 4.

--Rohde, David. "In Australia, Environment Wins Over Jobs." The Christian Science Monitor, June 27, 1995, pp. 10, 11.
--Knickerbocker, Brad. "Congress Ponders Competing Proposals For Utah Wilderness." The Christian Science Monitor, June 27, 1995, p. 11.

--Knickerbocker, Brad. "Separating the Park System's Chaff From Its Wheat." The Christian Science Monitor, June 26, 1995, pp. 1, 4.

--Chaddock, Gail Russell. "Pacific Nations Use Money to End French Atomic Tests: Despite outcry, President Chirac stands by decision to resume testing." The Christian Science Monitor, June 23, 1995, p. 6.

--Vellela, Toni. "Music Meets Environment at Clearwater Revival Festival: Pete Seeger's Hudson River cleanup project turns 30." The Christian Science Monitor, June 23, 1995, p. 12.

--Vasey, Lloyd. "Collision in the China Sea: World oil and shipping lanes at stake in multination dispute." The Christian Science Monitor, June 22, 1995, p. 19.

--Moffett, George. "Promise of Rice Aplenty for World is Limited by Shrinking Resources." The Christian Science Monitor, June 21, 1995, pp. 1, 18.

--Knickerbocker, Brad. "'New Forestry': A Kinder, Gentler Approach to Logging." The Christian Science Monitor, June 20, 1995, pp. 10, 11.

--Spotts, Peter N. "Gear up for a Four-Day Race, Fueled by the Sun." The Christian Science Monitor, June 20, 1995, p. 12.


Issues

Aldo Leopold Stamp Proposed as U.S. Postage.
The 50th anniversary of Leopold's death will be in 1998 and the 50th anniversary of the publication of A Sand County Almanac is 1999. Letters of endorsement: Citizens' Stamp Advisory Committee, c/o Stamp Management, U.S. Postal Service, 475 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W. Room 5301, Washington, DC 20060-2420, USA.

Native American Whaling for Ceremonial and Subsistence Purposes?
The Makah, a tribe beset by poverty, drugs, and unemployment and located at the tip of Washington's Olympic Peninsula plans to begin limited hunting of gray whales, a species recently taken off the endangered species list. The only Indian Nation in the U.S. with whale-hunting rights guaranteed by treaty, the Makah plan to use exploding harpoons to kill 5 whales a year to provide food and to serve as a catalyst to instill traditional cultural and spiritual values in their young people.
A U.S. supported international moratorium on commercial whaling is 10 years old but has been routinely violated by Norway, Iceland, and Japan. The moratorium does allow some killings by native people in northern latitudes where there are few other sources of food. The Makah have not hunted whales for 70 years and removed from a subsistence life style. Killing five whales a year will not threaten the species, but could set a precedent and there are over a dozen Canadian tribes that can show a tradition of whaling. The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (the Earth First! of the seas having sunk two of Iceland's whaling ships) will try to prevent the Makah from hunting the whales. Says its leader Paul Watson, "They used to keep slaves, as well. Do we go back to that? I don't see the point in making a distinction between natives having more of a right to kill whales than nonnative people." The U.S. State Department has not ruled on the Makah's request but is likely to oppose it if the Makah sell some of the meat from these 40 ton giants. An excellent case study that merges considerations of animal rights, endangered species, rights of native peoples, and consequentialist versus nonconsequentialist evaluations of hunting. See Timothy Egan, "Tribe's Hope in a Whale Hunt Worries U.S.," New York Times, June 4, 1995, p. A1. (Contributed by Ned Hettinger)

Rooster Pulls, Animal Rights, and Native Religious Traditions

A Pueblo Indian rite of worship and sacrifice where horsemen compete to uproot a rooster buried to its neck has drawn protest from animal rights supporters around the country. The practice called "the gallo" occurs on St. John The Baptist Day. Men named Juan or John honor their patron saint with the offering of the rooster whose blood is said to baptize the earth. The rooster is often torn to pieces as the winner is chased by the other horseman who try to grab "the trophy." In a bald rejection of cultural relativism, one protestor says, "We can't allow someone to be cruel just because of who they are. It would be insulting if we were to hold natives to different standards." To combat a decided lack of human empathy for chickens, the president of United Poultry Concerns says: "They are charming, delightful and interesting birds. Despite all the genetic manipulation that has been imposed on them, the essential nature of the chicken has not changed." See George Johnson, "In New Mexico, an Ancient Rite or a Blood Sport?," New York Times, June 24, 1995, p. A6.

Empathy, Self-Awareness, and Animal Morality
Research into the nature of empathy and its presence in nonhuman animals raises questions about the assumption that only humans are moral agents. How much cognitive ability is required for the presence of empathy? If the ability to identify the needs of others and respond accordingly is a version of empathy, then empathy is present in all mammals who care for their young over a protracted period. An Emory University primatologist is publishing a book with Harvard University Press tentatively titled "Civil Like an Animal" in which he gathers stories of empathetic behavior among animals. Precursors of full-bodied empathy include mood contagion (wolves howling or people yawning in unison), imitation of others (dolphins coordinating the rate of their air bubbles to match those of divers), the ability to communicate using facial expressions (present in monkeys and apes), and engaging in facial imitation that leads to empathic experience (frown in response to another's frown and your mood will darken--the muscles of the face are connected to the emotional centers of the brain). In order to truly empathize one must perceive oneself as an individual and relate personally to another creature's plight. Self-recognition in a mirror is one way to test the ability to recognize oneself as an individual and this is something many great apes (e.g., Chimpanzees) can do, but monkeys cannot. Relatedly, chimps will put their arms around the shoulder of a companion hurt in a fight, while monkeys do not. Should we morally evaluate animals who fail to show compassion in situations where other members of their species do? Is the ability to empathize sufficient for moral agency or does one need a (cognitive) sense of duty as well? See Natalie Angier, "Scientists Mull Role of Empathy In Man and Beast," New York Times, May 9, 1995, p. B7.

Hybridization and Protection of Endangered Species

In an effort to save the Florida panther from the deleterious effects of inbreeding, wildlife officials have imported Texas cougars to mate with their Florida relatives. One of 30 subspecies (or races) of puma found in North and South America, fewer than 50 Florida panthers remain. Without the infusion of new genes, its survival chances are low. The cross breeding evidences an equivocal policy concerning the role of hybrids in the protection of endangered species. Recently, scientists had decided that zoo-bred orangutans will not be used as a genetic reservoir for replenishing endangered wild populations--as was originally intended--because they are crosses between two different subspecies of orangutans and this would undermine the genetic integrity of the wild populations. (About 10,000 orangutans survive in the wild.) Does this desire to preserve genetic purity "reflect a sentimental view of nature in which humans are ever in search of the pristine, the true, the Edenic," and manifest "hubris nearly as offensive as the idea of eugenetics?" Is there a consistent, philosophically-justifiable conservation policy underlying these cases?
The role of hybrids in preserving biodiversity has important political ramifications. In the case of the now extinct dusky seaside sparrow, the U.S. Interior Department at one point ruled that this sparrow should not be protected under the Endangered Species Act because conservationists, in an attempt to revitalize its degenerate gene pool, had crossed the dusky with Scott's seaside sparrows, a related subspecies. Opponents of protecting endangered species have frequently used the idea that the Endangered Species Act only protects pure species, subspecies, or populations and not hybrids. Gray wolves sometimes interbreed with coyotes and there have been attempts to remove the gray wolf from the endangered species list and stop its reintroduction to Western wildlands on these grounds. Captively bred red wolves which were extinct in the wild and are now being reintroduced in the Southeast may be a hybrid between coyotes and an extinct subspecies of gray wolf, a fact that has been seized upon by local opponents of the reintroduction who see no need to protect "woyotes." See Catherine Dold, "Florida Panthers Get Some Outside Genes," New York Times, June 20, 1995, p. B5 and Natalie Angier, "Orangutan Hybrid, Bred to Save Species, Now Seen as Pollutant," New York Times, February 28, 1995, p. B5.


Supreme Court Protects Endangered Species, Congress May Not

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6 to 3 that the Endangered Species Act (ESA) prohibits habitat modification of private lands when it significantly impairs an endangered species' ability to breed, feed, or find shelter. A timber industry group had challenged the law arguing that its prohibition on "harming" endangered species meant only direct physical harm and not destruction of habitat. The ruling is an important victory for endangered species in the U.S. as 90% have habitats on privately-owned land. Reflecting a growing movement opposed to environmental regulation of private land, the Court's minority wrote that the decision "imposes unfairness to the point of financial ruin--not just upon the rich, but upon the simplest farmer who finds his land conscripted to national zoological use."
S-768, a wholesale overhaul of the ESA written by an industry coalition of timber, mining, ranching, and utility interests and introduced by Senator Slade Gorton of Washington, would eliminate this habitat protection. Among other provisions that would significantly weaken protection for endangered species under the Act and "put people and economics back into the equation with endangered species," Gorton's bill would allow the Secretary of the Interior to decide not to protect an endangered species. Under current law, only a specially formed, high-level, endangered species committee or "God Squad" can decide to let humans drive a species extinct. See John Cushman, "Environmentalists Win Victory, but Action by Congress May interrupt the Celebration," New York Times, June 30, 1995, p. A14 and Timothy Egan, "Industry Reshapes Endangered Species Act," New York Times, April 13, 1995. (Contributed by Ned Hettinger)

Greenpeace and German Greens Stop Sinking of Oil Rig

Royal Dutch Shell's attempt to sink a giant offshore oil rig 150 miles off the coast of Scotland was successfully prevented by Greenpeace spawned publicity and a German boycott of Shell stations that decreased business by 30%. Shell stations in Germany were also vandalized, shot at, and one was gutted by a fire bomb. Some Norwegian officials are hoping that mooring and onshore disposal of the over 400 aging rigs in the North Sea could be a growth industry. See stories in New York Times, June 17, 1995, June 21, 1995, p. A4, and June 29, 1995, p. A4.

Coercive Chinese Control of Population

Methods to enforce China's "one child per family" policy include forced sterilization under penalty of blowing up homes, confiscation of property, and public tracking of menstrual cycles on village chalk boards. Many Chinese outmaneuver China's household registration system by becoming migrants and shifting children among relatives. Communist Party leaders deny these coercive family-planning tactics, but local officials are barraged with quotas and deadlines to get results. Party leaders are determined to control the human growth that they fear will sap the benefits of China's economic rise. See Patrick Tyler, "Population Control in China Falls to Coercion and Evasion," The New York Times, June 25, 1995, p. A1.


Funding Source for Compensating "Takings"

A "betterment tax" is a way to provide funds for paying landowners whose property has been "taken" (i.e., devalued) by government environmental and other regulations. Increases in land value not resulting from improvements to the land are due to population growth, economic growth, and infrastructure investments made by local governments. Because such increments in value were produced by society and not the land owner, they fairly belong to society. "Thus an appropriate source of funds for paying financial compensation for public 'takings' of private wealth is to raise revenue from private 'takings' of that value created by society." See letters to the editor, "Government Also Adds to Property Values," New York Times, May 22,1995, p. A10.

Earth's "Vital Signs 1995." Worldwatch Institute reports each year on the earth's status.
On the up side:
-Sale of photo-voltaic cells is up 15% over 1994
-Usage of energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs is up 16%
-Wind powered generation of electricity: up 22%, with noteable expansions in Germany and India
-Rapid growth in environmental treaties: now 173
On the down side:
-A slight rise in the number of wars
-45 million more TVs (almost half the world's population have the tube)
-1% rise in cigarettes produced
-74% of the earth's population live in urban areas (up from 72% a decade ago)
-173 million computers (only 4 million in 1981)
-Declines in frog populations in 17 countries due to chemical contamination, habitat destruction, the pet trade, and "the human taste for frog meat."
The research is paid for by the United Nations and private grants.

25 Million-Year-Old Bacteria Returned to Life? Raul Cano and Monica Boruki, microbiologists at California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo, isolated a spore from a bee in ancient amber in the Dominican Republic, placed it in a nutrient medium, and established a growing colony. The previous record for known spore revival is about 70 years. Previously such claims have turned out to be contaminants, but special precautions were taken in this case. From DNA analysis, the bacterium is quite similar to Bacillus sphaericus, found today in the digestive tracts of Dominican bees. This seems evidence of a symbiotic relationship 25 million years old, although both the bee and presumably the bacillus have since evolved into slightly different species. It also raises the specter of Jurassic Park. What ancient life can be revived in the future? Rights to the discovery have been bought by Ambergene Corporation, seeking to find ancient organisms from which new antibiotics can be produced. Story in Science, May 19, 1995.

Whirling Disease in Colorado Wild Fish. This disease co-evolved with brown trout and was not introduced into the U.S. until the mid-1950's. Introduced brown trout become carriers but do not suffer much mortality. It has proved impossible to eradicate, once introduced. The organism reached Colorado in 1987. Hatchery studies were judged to indicate that there would be little effect from the organism in the wild, even though researchers knew that western salmonids (rainbow, cutthroat, salmon) were susceptible to it. No studies of the organism in the wild were conducted. Fishermen are anxious for waters to be stocked, which is politically popular in Colorado. Hatchery fish used in stocking introduced the organism into the wild in selected streams, and total year class failures resulted. Researchers have faced mounting evidence of the seriousness of the disease, and there has been public conflict and conflict within the agency on assessing the disease. Some say researchers have been pressured to attribute the fish failure to variables other than the introduced pathogen. Eighty percent of hatchery fish production is whirling disease positive, though so far most Western Slope waters remain uninfected. That situation could change rapidly, as infected fish are used for stocking. Essentially the tradeoff is between maintaining fish stocking to please sportsmen and resulting tourist income versus a conservative approach giving priority to disease-free waters and ecosystem protection. (Thanks to Mary McAfee, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Grand Junction, Colorado, USA.)

Wetlands Reform Bill Disputed. Current legislation in the U.S. Congress (HR 961) proposes changes to the Clean Water Act that would remove 60% to 80% of the 105 million acres of currently designated wetlands in the contiguous U.S. and 175 million acres in Alaska. The new designation would require "wetlands" to be covered with surface water at least 21 days during the growing season and home to obligate hydrophytes, which grow only in very wet areas. Most bogs and fens would be eliminated. Story in Science, May 19, 1995.

Religious Leaders Oppose Patenting Genes and Animals. Led by the United Methodist Church, representatives of over 80 faiths have issued a statement opposing patented ownership of animals and genes in humans and animals. The report does not oppose genetic technology, nor patents on engineering processes or engineered products, but rather on what is created by God rather than by humans. God's creation, animals and genes, should be part of the common heritage of humankind. Story in Science, May 26, 1995.

National Academy of Sciences Backs U.S. Endangered Species Act. The National Research Council of the Academy issued a report that the Act is scientifically sound and that additional programs, setting aside vital habitats, are needed to improve the odds for threatened organisms. Restricting human activity in the habitats of endangered species is nececessary to set the stage for their recovery. Story in Science, May 26, 1995.

Faulty Dioxin Analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. So said the EPA's Science Advisory Board. EPA had claimed there was no threshold below which dioxin poses no health risk, and the Advisory Board finds no evidence for this conclusion. The Advisory Board accused EPA of reading its policy agenda into the data. Story in Science, May 26. 1995.

Risk Assessment and Biases. EPA employee Robert T. Lackey boldly argues that risk assessment is used by the scientific elite as a tool to impose their values on the public in the guise of scientific objectivity. Moreover, the affluent drive the decision-making process of managing and protecting ecological resources. Ecosystem "health" is a strictly anthropocentric notion, and risk assessment will likely be perceived as a form of ecological triage. For Lackey's recent publications, see the Articles and Books section of this Newsletter (above). Lackey is deputy director of the EPA's Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvalis, OR, and holds a courtesy professorship in wildlife and fisheries at Oregon State University. In case you're wondering, Lackey's views do not reflect EPA policy positions.

Wilderness as Therapy. Wilderness camps for troubled youth combine the physical challenges of Outward Bound-style experiences with counseling. All camps are not created equal; some participants have died. See "The Call of the Wild," Time, June 26, 1995, p. 64.

Logging Restrictions on Private Land in Kentucky? Not Yet. Eastern Kentucky is well-known for its Appalachian hardwood and coal--and its poverty. In Whitesburg, Letcher County, Judge-Executive Carroll Smith proposed a timber ordinance, but the proposal died for lack of a second before the county magistrates, at the fiscal court, on June 20, 1995. The magistrates, however, did listen to two hours of speeches--by concerned citizens, property owners, and loggers. The law would have required loggers to: apply for a $10 license to harvest timber on private land in the county; submit proof of $500,000 in liability insurance; and submit a plan showing how the timber would be removed so as to protect streams from erosion and repair disrupted land. The debate was classic Appalachia: private property vs. public interest, business allegedly over-burdened by regulation, skepticism of industry, rich vs. poor. Like the coal industry when it faced regulation, the loggers complained that regulation would bankrupt them. Jerry Toliver, a private timber owner, told the assembly that he wanted his timber logged but that he couldn't find any logger that he trusted to do it right. Patricia Ann Blanton gave a dramatic, emotional appeal for regulation: Amos, her aged father, had died of a heart attack while trying to clear a fallen tree off his road, a tree fallen due to irresponsible logging. Herby Smith, another local property owner, argued that regulation doesn't hurt responsible loggers, only the bad guys. Maybe next time the good guys will win. (Story by Karen Samples, Lexington Herald-Leader, June 21, 1995, pp. B1, B12.)

Fire Ants, Pesticides, and Parasitic Maggots. Arriving in the 1930s, likely in Mobile, Alabama, in shiploads of lumber from South America, fire ants have now spread across the southern U.S. from Florida to California and as far north as Tennessee and Virginia Beach, Virginia. Frost has kept the ants in the south, although in the mountains of east Tennessee as much as 7% of the ant population survived the frigid winter of 1993-94. They are amazingly adaptive, and have an unexplained attraction to electrical current. The ant's bite feels like being stuck with a hot needle and causes an infection that usually scars. The ants are aggressive, attacking anyone near or on their mounds, although there are reports of the ants in hospital beds and disrupting football games. They are crowding out and killing other insects, lizards, birds, and other small mammals. In the 1950s and 1960s, government officials tried to eradicate the ants with such powerful chemicals as hephtachlor and mirex, but instead killed most wildlife in the targeted areas. Now the Agriculture Department hopes that a tiny parasitic fly will end the ant epidemic. The fly lays its eggs on the ants, and the maggots then feed on the ant's head, eventually severing it from the ant's body. The feds are still testing the fly to make sure it's safe. (Story in Time, June 5, 1995, p. 57.)


Report from Laura Westra, Secretary of ISEE
Because the date of our incorporation was April 1994, Westra Accounting Ltd. produced two separate Financial Statements, for the periods January-April 1994 and April-December 1994; the latter, an interim statement. Combined total fees received were $4,372.00, including Canadian Fees, and that total included donations and prepaid fees. As the total membership to which Newsletters are sent is at least 550 effective members, many are still not paying, or paying late, or skipping a year altogether. We hope to indicate on our labels the last date paid with the next mailing (Summer 1995). If you have not paid in 1995, please use the enclosed pink slip to catch up on what you owe, at $15.00 U.S. per year or $20.00 CND; $10.00 for students in either currency.
Not all the statements from other groups were available (more to come). Western Europe had total revenues of $286.00 U.S. and a net balance of $91.00 U.S. retained earnings. Dr. Achterberg reports that not even half of the roughly 70 members pay regularly. South Africa now has 16 members, revenues of $111.00 U.S. and retained earnings of $55.00 U.S.; again, not everyone pays.


Events

1995
--July and August. New Jersey School of Conservation, Montclair State University, Branchville, NJ, offers various conservation courses, outdoors and in the classroom. This is the largest resident center for environmental studies in the Western Hemisphere, serving over 11,000 students annually, located on a 240 acre tract of land within Stokes State Forest, and surrounded by 30,000 acres of natural area, all in New Jersey! Contact: New Jersey School of Conservation, Montclair State University, 1 Wapalanne Road, Branchville, NJ 07826, USA.

--July 2-7. Australian Association of Philosophy (Australian Division), annual conference at University of New England, Armidale, NSW. ISEE section and papers are invited. See the announcement above.

--July 7-16. 10-day Summer School in Applied Deep Ecology, Chinook Learning Center, Whidbey Island, Washington. Contact The Institute for Deep Ecology, P. O. Box 1050, Occidental, CA 95465, USA. Phone 707-874-2347.

--July 16-20. Amsterdam. Fourth International Conference of the American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics, the University of Amsterdam, and the Dutch Society of Health Law. A theme (no. IV) is "Health, Ecology, Persons and Planet." The connections between human health and ecological health, including how new concepts developed in medicine, ethics, and law might be applicable to the promotion of ecological health, and vice-versa. These include resource allocation; justice (including inter-generational justice) in health care; open and closed legal systems and concepts of trust, covenant and quality of life.

--July 16-20. Conference, International Association for Bear Research and Management, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. With a session on bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Papers invited. Contact: Harry Reynolds, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701-1599, USA. Fax 907-452-6410

--July 30-August 3. Ecological Society of America, in Snowbird, Utah. ISEE sponsored a session last year (in Knoxville, Tennessee) and interested persons should contact Laura Westra, address below. The Ecological Society of America has 6,300 members and this is an excellent opportunity for philosophers, ethicists, and others to interact with them. For conference details: Ecological Society of America, 2010 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Suite 420, Washington, DC 20036. Phone 202-833-8773.

--August 1-5. XIII International Congress of Aesthetics, Lahti, Finland. Theme: Aesthetics in Practice: Connections between Academic Research in Aesthetics and Everyday Life, especially Concerning the Environment." This follows and continues a very successful First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics held at Koli National Park in Finland this past June. Papers on the aesthetics of nature are especially welcomed. Contact: Sonja Servomaa, University of Helsinki, Lahti Research and Training Centre, Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 Lahti, Finland. Phone 358-18-892-11. Fax: 358-18-892-219.

--August 3-10. YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado. Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World (SPCW). Conference theme: Human Nature, Human Habitat. Several environmental papers have been submitted, including ones by Mel Boulter (Kent, UK, on Callicott's misinterpretation of Leopold), Val Plumwood, and Jack Weir (on the political implications of comprehensive religio-environmental philosophies for politics in a secular state). Proposals on topics in environmental ethics, animal ethics, and ecophilosophy are welcome. Opportunities for hiking in the Rockies. Accommodations for children and families. Contact: Prof. John Jones, Program Chair, Department of Philosophy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA, tel. 414-288-6857; Email 6563jonesj@vmsa.csd.mu.

--August 6-10. American Institute of Biological Sciences meets in San Diego, Town and Country Hotel. Contact AIBS, 730 11th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20001-4521, Phone: 202-628-1500; Fax: 202-628-1509.

--August 6-12. International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), 20th World Congress, Tampere, Finland.

--August 9-12. Turku, Finland, International Conference on "Doing the Decent Thing with Genes". Topics include the Human Genome Project, the ethics of genetic intervention, Defective Genes, and the Commercial Use of Genetic Inventions in Agriculture and Animals. Invited speakers include Gregory Fowler, Ruth Chadwick and Laura Westra.

--August 19-25. Firenze, Italy. The International Conference of Logic and Philosophy of Science. Laura Westra and John Lemons will read a paper on "The Ethics of Ecosystem Integrity."

--August 25-27. Aspen, Colorado. Windstar Choices Symposium, David Brower, Frances Moore Lappé, Mary Catherine Bateson, Matthew Fox, David Suzuki (PBS, Nature), Jean-Michel Cousteau, and others. Contact: Windstar Foundation, Aspen, Phone 303-927-4777.

--August 26-29. Cortona, Italy. Centro Conferenze Sant'Agostino, Conference on Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Ecology, and Bioethics. Papers by ecologists, biologists, economists and other scientists, as well as philosophers. Speakers include: James Karr, Reed Noss, Robert Goodland, Orie Loucks, Philippe Crabbé, Klaus Meyer-Abich, Alan Holland, Ernest Partridge, Michael Jacobs, Leena Vilkka, Greg Cooper, Laura Westra, and many others (about 50 participants). Contact Westra for more details.

--September 3-23. Ecology and Psychology with James Hillman and James Cowan. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact: Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel: 44-1803-865934; Fax: 44-1803-866899

--September 11-12. European Environment Conference, University of Nottingham. Contact: ERP Environment, P. O. Box 75 Shipley, West Yorkshire, BD17 6EZ, UK. Fax 44-1274-530409.

--September 11-12. 4th IRNES Conference. University of Keele, UK. See Announcement above.

--September 11-14. Second Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference, Flagstaff, AZ. Contact: Joyce Maschinski, The Arboretum at Flagstaff, P. O. Box 670, Flagstaff, AZ 86002, USA; Tel. 602-774-1441; Email jmm@nauvax.ucc.nau.edu.

--September 14-16. The Society for Ecological Restoration. 1995 Annual Meeting: Taking a Broader View. Seattle, WA, USA. Sessions include: the importance of scale in restoration, ecology in the Pacific Northwest (USA), politics, education, theory, implementation. Contact: SER Conference Registration, 1207 Seminole Highway, Madison, WI 53711, USA; Tel. 608-262-9547.

--September 20-21. Business Strategy and the Environment Conference, University of Leeds. Contact: ERP Environment, P. O. Box 75 Shipley, West Yorkshire, BD17 6EZ, UK. Fax 44-1274-530409.

--September 20-23. National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Estes Park, Colorado, adjacent to Rocky Mountain National Park. The conference will be combined with watching wildlife! Contact: National Watchable Wildlife Conference, 4800 Baseline Rd., # A-112, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. 800-499-6336.

--October 1-21. Rethinking Progress with Helena Norberg-Hodge, Susan Griffin and Mira Shiva. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact: Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel: 44-1803-865934; Fax: 44-1803-866899

--October 26-28. Grassland birds. International Conference on the Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Grassland Birds, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Special attention to Latin American conservation and research. Proceedings will be published. Contact Dan Reinking, Sutton Avian Research Center, P. O. Box 2007, Bartlesville, OK 74005-2007, USA. 918-336-7778.

--October 29-November 3. Large Organisations in the 21st Century with Jonathon Porritt. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact: Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel: 44-1803-865934; Fax: 44-1803-866899

--November 5-25. Ecology and Theology with Thomas Berry and Rupert Sheldrake. Residential course at Schumacher College, Devon. Contact: Schumacher College, Dept. IE, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon, TQ9 6EA, UK. Tel: 44-1803-865934; Fax: 44-1803-866899

--November 13-15. Fire and Rare and Endangered Species and Habitats, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The International Association of Wildland Fire. Contact: Dr. Jason Greenlee, IAWF, P. O. Box 328, Fairfield, WA 99012, USA. Phone 509-283-2397. Fax 509-283-2264.

--December 8-15. Encuentro Centroamericano de Filosofia, Universidad Centroamericana, Managua, Nicaragua. Theme: "Philosophical Implications of Globalization." Papers due: August 30, 1995. Contact: Joroi Corominas, UCA-Nicaragua, Apdo. 69, Managua, Nicaragua CA. cong@nicarao.apc.org

--December 27-30. American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division. New York. APA contact: Linda Smallbrook, APA, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. ISEE sessions: contact Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

1996

--January 2-9, 1996. International Development Ethics Association (IDEA), Fourth International Conference, on Globalization, Self-Determination, and Justice in Development, in Tamil Nadu, India. Contact: Peter Penz, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Fax 416-736-5679. es_ppenz@orion.yorku.ca

--February 8-13, 1996. Baltimore, MD. AAAS will meet. ISEE has successfully arranged a joint session with another ISEE (International Society for Environmental Epidemiologists) on "Intersection of Environment, Health, Professional Ethics and Law." Laura Westra is co-organizer with Colin Soskolne, University of Alberta, Department of Public Health. Complete roster of speakers in next Newsletter.

--March 7-9, 1996. Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy. University of Toronto. Theme: "Contingency and Continuity." Papers due 15 October 1995. Contact: Kenneth W. Stikkers, Philosophy, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, USA. ISEE Session? If interested, contact Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, USA, or Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 Canada.

--April 3-6, 1996. American Philosophical Association: Pacific Division. Seattle, WA, USA. Papers due: September 1, 1995. Contact: Anita Silvers, Philosophy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132. ISEE sessions: contact Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211, USA.
--American Philosophical Association: Central Division. Chicago. Papers due: September 1, 1995. Contact: Hugh McCann, Philosophy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843. ISEE sessions: contact Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 Canada.
--May 18-23, 1996. Sixth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.

--July 25-28, 1996. International Society of Business, Economics, and Ethics: First World Congress. Tokyo, Japan. Papers due: December 15, 1995. Contact: Georges Enderle, College of Business Administration, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.


The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Holmes Rolston, III, and Jack Weir are co-editors. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions should be sent to Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email where possible. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, September 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu (Note the hyphen!)
or
iseenewsletter@msuacad.morehead-st.edu
Postal address: Jack Weir, Dept. of Philosophy, 103 Combs Building, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689, USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).