Volume 6, No. 1, Spring 1995

General Announcements

ISEE Incoporated
The International Society for Environmental Ethics is now incorporated as a non-profit organization in the state of Montana, since April 29, 1994, which conveys this status throughout the United States and in other nations. But we have not yet completed the procedures to gain federal tax-exempt status [a Section 501 (c) 3 organization under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954]. This is in progress. To this end, Mark Sagoff, President, convened a Corporation Board of Directors meeting (via telephone) on January 31, 1995, with Jack Tuholske, Attorney, Missoula, Montana, to pursue this application. The Corporation Directors include the same officers as ISEE: Mark Sagoff, President; J. Baird Callicott, Vice-President; Laura Westra, Secretary; Ned Hettinger, Treasurer; with Holmes Rolston, III, Eric Katz, and Kristin Shrader-Frechette also named to the Corporation Directors.

Election for ISEE Secretary
Ballots were sent out April 4th in a separate mailing to members. The candidates are: Laura Westra (University of Windsor) and Roger Paden (George Mason University). Current officers and their terms of service are: President: Mark Sagoff (Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy), term to expire end of academic year 1997 Vice-President, J. Baird Callicott (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point), term to expire end of academic year 1997 Secretary: election underway, term to expire end of academic year 1998 Treasurer: Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), term to expire end of academic year 1996

Nominations (and Volunteers) Needed During the next year, ISEE will hold elections by mail ballot for membership on the Nominating Committee and for Treasurer. The current Nominating Committee hopes to conduct the mail ballot in January 1996 but needs to prepare a ballot before then. By September 1, 1995, please send your suggestions for candidates Ðfor Treasurer and for the Nominating Committee (please include a 10-12 line biosketch and confirmation that the person is willing to be nominated) either to: Mark Sagoff, President of ISEE, Inst. for Philosophy and Public Policy, SPA Bldg. 039, 3rd Floor, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA; or Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Chair of the Nominating Committee of ISEE, Dept. of Philosophy, 107 Cooper Hall, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5550 USA.
The present nominating committee is:
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida), Chair; Jack Weir (Morehead State University); George Sessions (Sierra College); Robin Attfield (University of Wales).

The Central Division of the APA meets 26-29 April 1995, Palmer House Hilton Hotel, Chicago, IL. ISEE sessions are: Thursday, April 27, 7:30-10:00 (Wabash Parlour), L. Westra, Chair, on the topic: "Environmental Ethics in Europe," with papers- by Jan Wawrzyniak, "The Social Self-Delusion of Utilitarian Philosophy of Environmental Policy," Konrad Ott, University of Tubingen, Germany, "Can One Coherently Argue Both in Support of Discourse Ethics and Deep Ecology?" and Adrian Miriou, Romania. Friday, April 28 (Private Dining Room #6), Panel Discussion on "Environmental Racism," James Sterba, Chair; speakers: Robert Bullard, Clarke University, "Justice in Environmental Decision-Making," Bill Lawson, University of Delaware, "Environmental Justice in the Urban Setting," Laura Westra, University of Windsor, "Titusville, AL and BFI: A Case Study," Peter Wenz, Sangammon State University, "Just Garbage."
The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:
-Eastern Division: March 1
-Central Division: proposals by October 15, papers by January 1
-Pacific Division: proposals by October 15, papers by January 1
-Submit Eastern Division proposals to Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102.
-Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4.
-Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211.

Environmental Ethics and Geography
The Association of American Geographers, 91st Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 1995, in Chicago had three sessions on "Geography and Environmental Ethics." Session I. "Overlapping Terrain," with half a dozen panelists. Session II. "Nature, Culture, and Value," with more panelists. Session III. "Equity and Justice," a concluding panel. The organizers were James D. Proctor, University of California, Santa Barbara; Jacque L. Emel, Clark University; and William S. Lynn, University of Minnesota.

The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its annual meeting 7-10 June 1995 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. SCB is the largest scientific organization in the world of professional conservation biologists (over 5,000 members). The program includes research reports from around the world, and symposia on: Habitat Conservation and Planning, Theory and Design of Nature Reserves, The Wildlands Project: Underlying Ecological Principles, Sustainability and Conservation Biology: Common Ground or Points of Departure? Fieldtrips include: Phantom Canyon (Nature Conservancy), Pawnee National Grasslands, Rocky Mountain National Park, Denver Zoo, and Denver Museum of Natural History.
ISEE will have a session on June 9th from 7-9:00 PM. Phil Pister of the Desert Fishes Council, will serve as Moderator of the ISEE session. Presenters and topics are: Will Aiken, Department of Philosophy, Chatham College, "TOO MANY PEOPLE? ISSUES ARISING FROM RIO AND CAIRO," Jack Weir, Department of Philosophy, Morehead State University, "POVERTY, DEVELOPMENT, AND SUSTAINABILITY: THE HIDDEN MORAL ARGUMENT," Ned Hettinger, Department of Philosophy, College of Charleston, and Bill Throop, Department of Philosophy, St. Andrews College, "CAN ECOCENTRIC ETHICS WITHSTAND CHAOS IN ECOLOGY?" and Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, "WINNING AND LOSING IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS." For general information, contact: Rick Knight, Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, Tel. 970-491-6714 (note the new Area Code for most of Colorado); or Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, Tel. 606-784-0046, Email j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu.

The Eighth Annual Animal Rights Symposium will be held 23-25 June 1995 in Washington, DC. The symposium is sponsored by the National Alliance for Animals, and invited speakers include: Peter Singer, Ingrid Newkirk, Cleveland Amory, Zoe Weil, Alex Pacheco, Carol Adams, Priscilla Feral, Steve Wise, Roger and Debbie Fouts, Marjorie Spiegel, Peter Gerard, Lawarence and Susan Finsen, Jane Goodall, Wayne Pacelle, Holly Hazard, Neal Barnard, Don Barnes, Howard Lyman, Kim Sturla, and Michael Fox. For information, contact National Alliance for Animals, P.O.Box 77591, Washington, DC 20013-7591; Tel. (703)837-1203; Fax (703)837-1452.

The Institute for Social Ecology will hold several workshops and courses throughout the spring and summer in Plainfield, Vermont. Workshops/courses include: Community Development, Global and Local Health, Lessons from Ladhak: "Counter Development," Agriculture and Food Systems, Appropriate Technology, Reconstructive Anthropology, Feminism and Ecology, Anarchist Education, Ecology and Spiritual Renewal, Biological Agriculture, Cooperatives and Ecological Democracy, Environmental Racism, Ecological Activism, Radical Democracy and Our Future, and more. Faculty includes: Margot Adler, Janet Biehl, Murray Bookchin, Helen Norberg-Hodge, Daniel Chodorkoff, Dave Dellinger, Chaia Heller, Isola Kokumo, Susan Meeker-Lowry, Beverly Naidus, Brian Tokar, and others. In conjunction with Goddard College, the Institute offers an MA degree in Social Ecology (36 credit hours). The Institute has applied to the Vermont Department of Higher Education for authority to grant PhD degrees in Social Ecology with concentrations in philosophy, anthropology, education, social theory, and individually designed programs. Admission is highly selective, and applicants must have a faculty sponsor. The Institute publishes a bi-annual newsletter and sponsors the scholarly journal, Society and Nature, edited by Takis Fotopoulos. For additional information, contact: Claudia B. Maas, Associate Director, Institute for Social Ecology, P.O. Box 89, Plainfield, VT 05667 USA, Tel. 802-454-8493.

The Kennedy Institute for Ethics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, is offering a course on "Ethical Issues of Animal Research" from 24-29 June 1995. Speakers include: Tom Beauchamp, Carl Cohen (provisional), R. G. Frey, Tom Regan, Robert Veatch, John P. Gluck, Josina Makau, David B. Morton, Joanne Zurlo, Rebecca Dresser, and Edmund D. Pellagrino. Registration is $500. Contact: Moheba Hanif, Course Coordinator, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 USA; Tel. 202-687-6833; Fax 202-687-6770.

Schumacher College, Dartington, Devon, United Kingdom, will offer three summer courses in environmental philosophy: "Deep Ecology," May 7-27, will be taught by Arne Naess, Stephan Harding, Per Ingvar Haukeland, and Harold Glasser; "Gaia Theory," June 4-24, will be taught by Lee Klinger and Stephan Harding; and "Ecology and Sustainability in the New World Order," July 3-20, will be taught by Vandana Shiva. The courses are available for Masters Level Credits to those with a first degree or equivalent work experience. The cost is £900, £900, and £850 respectively. For information, contact: Course Administrator, Schumacher College, The Old Postern, Dartington, Devon TQ9 6EA, UK; Tel. (44) 1803 865934; Fax (44) 1803 866899.

A conference on forest ecology was held at Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, on 31 March and 1 April. Speakers included Wendell Berry, Eugene C. Hargrove, and Kristin Shrader-Frechette.

A conference on The Artist in Cultural and Environmental Context will be held April 26-28 at Salisbury State University. Invited speakers include Roderick Nash (author of Wilderness and the American Mind), Kay Walkingstick (Professor of Art, Cornell University), Karim Alrawi (Egyptian playwright). For more information, contact: Andrew Hepburn, Dept. of Communication Arts, Salisbury State University, Salisbury, MD 21801-6860; Tel. 410-543-6233; Fax 410-548-3002.

A conference on Environmental Ethics and the Global Marketplace will be held 27-29 April 1995 at the University of Georgia. Speakers include Baird Callicott, Professor of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, Andrew Young, Law Companies, Inc., and Mark Sagoff, University of Maryland and ISEE President. Registration is $175. For information, contact: Margaret Caufield, Conference Coordinator, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3603, Tel 706-542-1585, Fax 706-542-6596, Email mcaufield@gacsrv.gactr.uga.edu

Call for Papers: The Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics has begun a section called "Global Bioethics," and the journal is interested in receiving papers. Bioethics and environmental ethics blossomed in the 1970s, but the disciplines developed largely independent of each other. As environmental crises deepen and the need for health care reform increases, it is essential that the interrelationship of the two be explored and the gap bridged. Possible topics include: explorations of human health and welfare, resource use, technology, justice, environmental ethics, and the place of humans in nature. This is the official journal of the International Bioethics Institute. To join an E-mail discussion group on "Environmental Bioethics," send your name and Email address to Andrew Jameton: ajameton@unmcvm.unmc.edu. Submit manuscripts to: Andrew Jameton, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 600 S. 42nd St., Omaha, NE 68198-4350 USA; Tel. 402-559-4680; Fax 402-559-7259.

An entire issue of the journal The American Sociologist (Vol. 25, no. 1, Spring 1994) has been devoted to "Natural Resources and the Environment and Sociology." Articles in the issue are: Dunlap, Riley E., and William R. Catton, Jr., "Struggling with Human Exemptionalism: The Rise, Decline, and Revitalization of Enviromental Sociology," pp. 5-30; Weingerg, Adam S., "Environmental Sociology and the Environmental Movement: Towards a Theory of Pragmatic Relationships of Critical Inquiry," pp. 31-57; Lutzenhiser, Loren, "Sociology, Energy and Interdisciplinary Environmental Science," pp. 58-79; and Weigert, Andrew J., "Lawns of Weeds: Status in Opposition to Life," pp. 80-96.

Call for Papers: The Interdisciplinary Research Network on the Environment and Society (IRNES) will host its 4th annual conference at the University of Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK. Themes include, Women and the Environment, Popular Protest and Environmental Change, Ecology: Connecting the Natural and Social Sciences, Environmental Policy After Rio, Sustainable Development and the Global Economy, Environment and Health. Papers are invited on these and any topic on the relationship between environment and society. Contact: John Barry, Dept. of Politics, University of Keele, Keele, Staffs., ST5 5BG, Email poa19@cc.keele.ac.uk.

Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff) recently spoke on "Technology, Ethics, and the Environment" at the International Conference on Ethics and Environment, organized by the Institute for Policy Research (IKD) and UNESCO at the Pan Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpar, 13-16 January 1995. The conference was officially opened by the Malaysian Government Minister of Youth and Sports, and received a message of support from the Deputy Prime Minster. A principal organizer was Dr. Azizan Haji Baharuddin (University of Malaya and Institute for Policy Research). The conference included the launch of Environment and Development: Ethical and Educational Considerations, edited by Dr. Azizan, and published by the Institute for Policy Research (Insistut Kajian Dasar), Kuala Lumpar (ISBN 983-884-035-1), including papers by Alastair S. Gunn, Padmasiri de Silva and Robin Attfield.
Other speakers included Professor Jim Dator (University of Hawaii), "Coming Ready or Not: The World We Are Leaving Future Generations"; Dr. Sharon Beder (University of Wollongong), "Economy and Environment: Competitors or Partners"; Robert Ferguson (Metropolitan Works Dept., Canada), "Environmental Ethics, Business and Politics"; Professor Alastair S. Gunn (University of Waikato), "Ethics and Technology: Managing the Human-Made Environment"; Professor Kriton Curi (University of Bogacizi, Istanbul), "Man-Made Environmental Deterioration and Ethics"; Dr. Padmasiri de Silva (Sri Lanka and Monash University, Melbourne), "Ethics and Paradigms of Economic Growth"; Dr. Ghafoor Ghaznawi (Egypt and UNESCO), "Environmental Ethics: Overview and Perspectives"; Dr. Saadia Chisti (Centre for Human Ecology, Pakistan, and Cross Cultural Unit for Women's Studies, Oxford), "Literacy and Rural Conservation"; and others. Most notable, perhaps, was the address of Professor Mohd. Kamal Hassan (Deputy Rector, International Islamic University, Malaysia), "World-View Orientation and Ethics: A Muslim Perspective", who explained how the Koran requires respect for and stewardship of nature, and also a proper treatment by employers of their workforce.
In a subsequent visit to Melbourne, Attfield had conversations with Freya Matthews, Janna Thompson and Robert Young (La Trobe University) and with Robyn Eckersley and Peter Singer (Monash University). Standing as a Green candidate at an election in Victoria, Professor Singer recently attained 29% of the votes cast and is considering standing for the Victoria Senate.

The School for Field Studies offers semester and summer environmental field studies programs. Wildlife management studies in Kenya. Marine resource studies in the Carribean. Coastal studies in Pacific Northwest Canada. Island management studies in Palau. Sustainable development studies in Costa Rica. Rainforest studies in Australia. About $2,500-3,000 for summer programs; $11,000 for semester programs, plus transportation. 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915-4499. Phone 508/927-7777. Fax 508/927-5127.

The Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society (OCEES), at Mansfield College, Oxford University, is holding a series of Head-to-Head Debates during the spring 1995, which include: "The Politics of Environmentalism" (16 February 1995), Martin Lewis (University of Wisconsin) vs. Vandana Shiva (Director of the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy, India), Chair: Professor Andrew Dobson (University of Keele). "Ecocentrism versus Anthropocentrism" (2 March 1995), Tim Ingold (University of Manchester) vs. J. Baird Callicott (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point), Chair: Mary Midgley (formerly of University of Newcastle). "Economic Valuation of the Environment" (March 1995), Wilfred Beckerman (Emeritus Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford) vs. Michael Jacobs (University of Lancaster), Chair: Dieter Helm (Fellow of New College, Oxford). "Free-Trade and the Environment" (27 April 1995), Herman Daly (University of Maryland) vs. Frances Cairncross (The Economist), Chair: James Cameron (Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development).

The journal Studies in Interreligious Dialogue will publish in May 1995 an article relevant to environmental ethics entitled "Beyond Praise of `The Declaration of the Parliament of World Religions.'" This Declaration was signed in Chicago in 1993 by many representatives of religious traditions and institutions. While the declaration often mentions "environmental concerns," it suffers from the major shortcoming of being overwhelmingly anthropocentric. The article analyzes the language and reasoning of the declaration for the purpose of showing the manner in which anthropocentrism pervades the thinking of the drafters of this document, and the article also argues that the current draft ignores many of the resources in the world's religious traditions that are sensitive to other animals, species, and the nonhuman world in general. The article concludes that the Declaration threatens to perpetuate the standard views that (1) only humans really count, and (b) one is "environmentally concerned" if one cares only about the environment of humans but not that of other animals. The article ends with a suggestion that amendment is the only route for correcting the imbalance in the current draft of the Declaration. (Contributed by Paul Waldau, Christ Church, University of Oxford)

An environmental ethics course is being taught at Oxford University this term. Roger Crisp is the organizing figure, and he has invited seven scholars to present papers, including Dale Jamieson, Bernard Willliams, the animal rights theologian Andrew Linzey, the American philosopher Brian Klug, and Paul Waldau, who will speak on "Environmental Ethics and the Problem of the Individual." A complete list of speakers and topics will be in the next ISEE Newsletter. (Thanks to Paul Waldau, Christ Church, University of Oxford for this information.)

The 6th Annual National Conference on Ethics in America met 22-24 February 1995 in Long Beach, CA. The conference was devoted to business ethics, and included were breakout sessions, interactive workshops, and "Nationally Known Guest Speakers." Few philosophically trained ethicists were present. Philosophers present were Ronald Duska (representing the Society for Business Ethics) and Laura Westra (representing ISEE), both in a session on "Ethics Newsletters ," a small concurrent session intended to describe how to start a Newsletter and what purposes it could serve. Most of those in the session were producing internal newsletters for a company, mainly to provide some information about the existence of an "ethics officer" in each enterprise, to whom one could "blow the whistle" without repercussions. As ISEE's Newsletter and that from the Society for Business Ethics are quite different in aim and content, the session did not appear to be as cohesive as the organizers had hoped.

The 4th International Conference on Aquatic Ecosystem Health will meet 14-18 May 1995 at the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. On May 17th a session will be devoted to "Society, Ethics, and Ecosystem Health ," and L. Westra will present a paper on "The Ethics of Integrity: Health, Sustainability and the Fish Wars." A plenary session will be devoted to environmental ethics.

From 25-28 May 1995, a conference will be held on "Surviving Globalization: Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions Conference." It is being organized by the Westminster Institute for Ethics and Human Values, Faculty of Law, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. Speakers on the topic of "International Environmental Justice" will include M.P. Marchak (University of British Columbia), Peter Penz (Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University), John Robinson (University of British Columbia), and Laura Westra (University of Windsor).

ISEE will meet in conjunction with the American Institute for Biological Sciences (AIBS) in San Diego, CA, 6-10 August 1995. ISEE's session is entitled"Science and Ethics," and speakers and topics are: Charles R. Malone (Environmental Scientist with the Nuclear Waste Project Office [NV]),"Ecology, Ethics and Professional Environmental Practice: A Case Study"; Larry Stowell (Plant Pathology) and W. D. Gelenter (Entomology),"Ethical Challenges Faced by Professionals in Modern Agriculture"; Laura Westra (University of Windsor), "The Ethics of Integrity and the Canadian Fish Wars." George Sessions and Cory Briggs will also speak, titles to be announced. (Thanks to Laura Westra for organizing and chairing this meeting.)

Call for Papers Extended: A conference on Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Ecology and Bioethics, will be held 26-29 August 1995 in Cortona, Italy. The meeting is co-organized by Laura Westra, the IREE Institute in Ottawa, Ontario, Global Bioethics, and the Faculty of Economics, University of Siena. About sixty participants are expected, about twenty from Italy. The non-Italian participants include speakers from Canada, the U.S., Russia, Finland, Switzerland, England, and Japan. The deadline for submissions has been extended to 1 June 1995. If interested, please contact Laura Westra (address below) or at 10 Lynch Rd., Willowdale, Ontario, M2J 2V5, Canada; Fax 905-738-4421.

The Ometeca Institute presents Working Conference IV on the Relations Between Humanities and Science, at Rutgers University, 24-28 July 1996. Three copies of complete papers are due 15 November 1995. Conference languages include Spanish and Portuguese, as well as English. Topics include "Theoretical Aspects of the Relationship Between Science and the Humanities ," "Ecocentrism: the New Paradigm?" "Science, Aboriginal Cultures, and the Role of `Story,' " and many others. For a brochure and further information, write: The Ometeca Institute, P. O. Box 38, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903-0038 USA, Fax 908-932-6916, or Dr. James Anderson, Communications, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University, 4 Huntington St., Room 316, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901-1071, USA, Fax 908-932-6916.

The First World Conference of Business, Economics and Ethics will be held 25-28 July 1996 in Tokyo, Japan. Topics include: Ethics and International Business, Specific Challenges for Business Ethics in Developing Countries, and Practical and Theoretical Relevance of Religious Traditions. Papers in triplicate are due by 15 December 1995. Notification of acceptance will be 1 March 1996. For papers and additional information, contact Prof. Georges Enderle, University of Notre Dame, College of Business Administration, Notre Dame, IN, 46556 USA, Fax 219-631-5255.

Jame Schaefer recently completed a Ph.D. dissertation, Ethical Implications of Applying Aquinas' Notions of the Unity and Diversity of Creation to Human Functioning in Ecosystems, at Marquette University. Aquinas' ideas about the need for a diversity among creatures and how they interact to form a unity have affinity with some ecologists' perception of the makeup and functioning of ecosystems. There is an orderly and hierarchically structured dynamic whole. All creatures, including humans, are both interconnected and related to God as their creator, sustainer, and ultimate end. They are good and ought to be valued for the roles they play; ecosystems are sacramental signs of God's presence; humans ought to use creation virtuously; the misuse of ecosystems is sinful and from this humans need to be redeemed. Aquinas can help Roman Catholics in their search for an environmental ethic. Michael Duffey was the thesis director. Jame Schaefer, 3741 Koehler Drive, Sheboygan, WI 53083.

Conference Report: "Environmental Perspectives," University of Manchester, England, 21 October 1994. A multidisciplinary array of UK environmental thinkers participated in this conference, which was organized by Keekok Lee of Manchester's Centre for Philosophy and the Environment (which is supported by the University's Research Fund and the Society for Applied Philosophy). Tim Ingold spoke on the different interpretations of "environment" in anthropology, particularly, the old "man in the environment" and the relational perspective in deep ecology. The latter was the theme of John O'Neill's paper. Rejecting environmentalist criticisms of the epistemic subject-object dichotomy, O'Neill concentrated on possibilities within the traditional framework. The geographer I. G. Simmons argued that the impact of probabilistic revolution in natural science has caused difficulties of historical explanation regarding attitudes toward the natural world. Sir Crispin Tickell espoused reformism and a value-centered approach to education, and Ted Benton canvassed radical green politics and argued that the social status quo is not sustainable.

The Center for Bioregional Studies and Conflict Resolution has been established. Co-directors are Drs. John K. Gamman and Michael V. McGinnis. The Center hopes to develop a bioregional theory of transition and practice, and associates have published cultural and ecological studies in ethics, place-oriented behavior, ecosystem administration, and environmental dispute resolution (EDR). For more information, contact: Michael V. McGinnis, 7602 Hollister Ave, Suite 202, Goleta, CA 93117.

Michael V. McGinnis announces three articles: "Collective Bads: The Case of Low-level Radioactive Waste Compacts," Natural Resource Journal 34, no. 3 (July 1994), 25 pp.; "On the Verge of Collapse: The Columbia River System, Wild Salmon and the Northwest Power Planning Council," Natural Resource Journal 35, no. 1, 42 pp.; and "The Politics of Restoring Versus Restocking Wild Salmon in the Columbia River," Restoration Ecology 2, no. 3, 7 pp. (On restoring the Columbia River, see Peter List's discussion in the Issues section of this Newsletter.)

Prof. Adrian Miroiu, Dean of the Philosophy Faculty at Bucharest University, Romania, is visiting scholar in the Philosophy Department at Cornell University for the 1994-95 academic year. He is doing research in environmental ethics and will give a course on it next year at Bucharest University. Prof. Miroiu may be reached at 218 Goldwin Smith Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3201.

The First International Future Generations Forum was held in Kyoto, Japan, 22-27 November 1994. The conference was organized by the Kyoto Forum and Future Generations Alliance Foundation. Some fifty academics and activists from universities, United Nations programs, the Centre for Our Common Future, and other organizations were present. Major issues emerging were anthropocentricity and the disparity between North-South and present-future generations. Philosophers contributing papers were Per Ariansen (Norway), Norman Care (U.S.), Ernest Partridge (U.S.), Christopher Stone (U.S.), and Keekok Lee (UK).

Providence College wishes to announce its Environmental Studies Program. The program's Director is Laura L. Landen, PhD, Associate Professor of Philosophy. For more information, contact Prof. Landen, Providence College, Providence, RI 02918-0001 USA; Tel. 401-865-2255; Fax 401-865-1222; Email: llanden@providence.edu.

Finn Arler is a good contact in Denmark for environmental ethics. He is organizing a workshop on environmental ethics at a Nordic Philosophy Symposium in August, on "Nature and Lifeworld," at which Robin Attfield is a speaker, and he has research in progress on man and nature at a research center in Odense. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of Aarhus, Bygning 328, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Phone: 45 8942-1111. Fax: 86 19 16 99.
Ethics, Environment, and Agricultural Quarantine: Walter A. Pokines, Jr. is pursuing a Ph.D. dissertation in this area with the Union Institute, and invites correspondence. He is a senior quarantine officer for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 7845 South County Road, Tipp City, Ohio 45371.

"Presbyterians for Restoring Creation" is a new organization for Presbyterians who are concerned about the ecological crisis. Materials, network contacts, ideas for local churches, support for eco-justice concerns. Contact: Membership Secretary, P. O. Box 2146, Boone, NC 28607. Phone 704/262-3881.

A new journal, Environment and History, specializing in environmental history, is based in the U.K. Papers are invited. Contact Richard H. Grove, Global Environmental History Unit, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge, Free School Lane, Cambridge CB2 3RH, UK. Fax 44 1223-332333.

Call for Papers: Dialogue and Humanism: The Universalist Journal, published in English by Warsaw University, Poland, plans a special issue on "Nature & Humanism." Papers are invited on environmentally related issues from a broad philosophical and cultural context. Send papers to guest editor Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacan y Purisima, 09340, Mexico D.F., Mexico, by May 30, 1995.

Jack Weir is co-editor of the ISEE Newsletter, and Holmes Rolston continues as co-editor as well. Jack is the producing editor, and items should preferentially be sent to him. Send information for the Newsletter to Jack via Email where possible since this saves re-typing:
j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu (Note the hyphen!)
Postal address: Jack Weir, Dept. of Philosophy, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).

Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $15.00 Australian ($7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67 732657 (direct line). (0)67 732896 (Dept. office). Fax 61 (country code) (0)67 733317. E-mail: relliot@metz.une.edu.au

Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below.) Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (£ 6.50, or the equivalent of $10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48-61-417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.

Professor Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa, is the ISEE contact for Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues payable, again the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China, is the contact person in mainland China.

Annual membership dues for ISEE are US $15 per year in 1995 in the United States and Canadian $20 in Canada. Dues overseas remain unchanged (£ 6.50, or the equivalent, or about US $10), both in Australia and in Europe. Students are half price. If you've not done so, please send in your dues now, to L. Westra (address below).

ISEE Newsletters on Internet

Back issues of the ISEE Newsletters are available, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world, if you have access to the educational network. There is a new gopher address and menu procedure for getting the ISEE Newsletter on internet.

At your local telnet prompt, enter: gopher infoserv.morehead-st.edu (Note that this is different from the previous address.) You will get a welcome screen with seven choices. Take: 7. Search MSU Gopher Server Using Jughead.

You will get a window screen asking for words to search for. Enter: Words to search for: International Society for Environmental Ethics

You will get a screen with this as the option. Enter.

You will get a screen:
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Continue and retrieve the issues you desire. Find the newsletter(s) you wish, either read on screen, or, better, at any point after the file has been retrieved and is on screen, e-mail it to yourself. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (this issue of the newsletter) to your e-mail address. Download this to a disk on your local computer. You can retrieve it into WordPerfect or whatever wordprocessing software you wish.

Master Environmental Ethics Bibliography

The Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics is available with the completed 1994 update. This bibliography contains all the bibliographic entries from the Newsletter of the society, volumes 1(1990) - 5(1994), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Ethics, volumes 1(1979) - 16(1994), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Values, volumes 1(1992) -3(1994), and the other bibliographies. It is available in either WordPerfect 5.1 (DOS format) or in Macintosh format (also WordPerfect). The bibliography is in two halves, A-L and M-Z. One way to use it is simply to print out each half, take it to Kinko's, have it spiral bound, label the covers, and you instantly have as full a reference base as otherwise exists in print. Another way to use it is to search through it and copy out the various entries in which you are interested, stringing these together into a text of your own on the second screen in your software. The bibliography can be searched for key words, depending on your software.
Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world (see their names and addresses below) and at selected other locations. The compiler of the bibliography, from whom disks may be obtained is: Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Phone: 303/491-6315 - office. Fax: 303/491-4900. E-mail: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu. Send $5 to Rolston, stating whether you wish the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disk.

Position Available

Antioch University, Yellow Springs, Ohio, near Dayton, is starting an M.A. program in Environment and Community, April 1996, and searching for a chair for the program. This will be a social-science based, limited-residency M. A. program for adult students, focusing on the interdependence of environmental and social issues and change. This is a full-time core faculty position. Detailed position notice and contact is in the Chronicle of Higher Education, January 20.

Videotapes and Media

Takings. A videotape on the "takings" issue ("Does environmental regulation that reduces property value require government compensation?") is available for $9 from David Frey, Distance Education and Instructional Support, 800 Assembly Street, Columbia, S.C. 29208. Make checks payable to DEIS and include a street address for UPS delivery. This is a high level and insightful debate among attorneys representing both the environmental and property rights side of this issue. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger, Philosophy, College of Charleston.)

Debate: Tom Regan (North Carolina State University) vs. R. G. Frey (Bowling Green State University), "Should We Attribute Moral Rights to Animals?"
Debate: Jan Narveson (University of Waterloo) and Tony Smith (Iowa State University), "Can a Free Market Economy Internalize External Environmental Costs Before It Is Too Late?"
Debate: Dale Jamieson (University of Colorado) and Robert Fullinwider (University of Maryland), "Can Ethical Theories Resolve Disagreements about Agricultural Biotechnology?"
All videotaped from the 1993 Iowa State Bioethics Institute, produced at the WOI-TV Studios, available from Iowa State University, Parks Library Media Resources Center, Ames, IA 50011.

Recent Articles and Books

-Elliot, Robert, ed. Environmental Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 272 pages. paper, $16.95. Contains: Mary B. Williams, "Discounting Versus Maximum Sustainable Yield"; J. Baird Callicott, "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Duties to Endangered Species"; Robert Elliot, "Faking Nature"; Mary Midgeley, "Duties concerning Islands"; Richard Routley (Sylvan) and Val Routley (Plumwood), "Against the Inevitability of Human Chauvinism"; John Passmore, "Attitudes to Nature"; Freya Mathews, "Value in Nature and Meaning in Life"; Val Plumwood, "Nature, Self and Genger: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy and the Critique of Rationalism"; Mark Sagoff, "Can Environmentalists be Liberals?"; Andrew A. Brennan, "Ecological Theory and Value in Nature"; Colleen D. Clements, "Stasis: The Unnatural Value"; Elliott Sober, "Philosophical Problems for Environmentalism." Inexpensive, as these anthologies go, and focuses on philosophically seminal articles, rather than seeking more comprehensive coverage by extracts from several dozen articles. Oxford's other offering is Gruen and Jamieson, eds., Reflecting on Nature: Readings in Environmental Philosophy. Elliot is in philosophy at the University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W., Australia.

-Palmer, Joy and David Cooper, eds. Just Environments: Intergenerational, International and Inter-Species Issues. New York: Routledge, 1995. 208 pages. $16.95. Obligations to future generations, to the developing world, and to the non-human species. Social, political, and ethical aspects of ecology from the perspective of moral philosophy and from a scientific perspective. Palmer is in education, Cooper in philosophy at the University of Durham, U.K. The Elliot volume and this one make twenty anthologies issued in environmental ethics; see this Newsletter, 5, 4, Winter 94 for a list.

-Echeverria, John, and Raymond Booth Eby, eds. Let the People Judge: Wise Use and the Private Property Rights Movement. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995. 369 pages, hard and soft cover. Wise Use and related organizations are difficult to characterize in terms of either membership or goals, but they share certain tactics. In general Wise Use supporters attack environmental protection and conservation efforts as harmful to the economy and job creation, insensitive to the needs and desires of local communities, and inconsistent with certain traditional American values, including constitutionally protected property rights. There is an alliance between small landowners but the movement is often funded and organized by corporations with an interest in preventing further environmental gains. There is also a serious call to work toward solutions to resource conflicts in cooperation with local communities and citizens. This volume collects a wide range of different and sometimes divergent articles on the Wise Use movement. Samples: Thomas Lewis, "Cloaked in a Wise Disguise"; Philip Brick, "Taking Back the Rural West"; John D. Echeverria, "The Takings Issue"; Mary Ann Glendon, "`Absolute' Rights: Property and Privacy"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Winning and Losing in Environmental Ethics"; Teresa Erikson, "Finding the Ties that Bind: Coalitions with Agriculture Groups"; and many others. Thirty-five articles. Escheverra is chief legal counsel for the National Audubon Society; Eby is a graduate student, St. John's College, Annapolis, MD.

-Brussard, Peter F., Dennis D. Murphy, and C. Richard Tracy. "Cattle and Conservation Biology-Another View." Conservation Biology 8 (1994): 919-921. More on a debate in this journal (September 1994, by Reed Noss, editor, and others) on cattle on public lands and the extent of their ecological degradation, mixed here with questions about the extent of advocacy legitimate to conservation biologists. The Society for Conservation Biology "differs from environmental advocacy groups because it promotes science rather than any partisan agenda. If the Society becomes too strident in advocating specific political prescriptions to preserve ecological systems, it may gamble away more than its credibility. It risks losing the opportunity to apply that mission within the broadest possible community of interests. The September 1994 issue of Conservation Biology takes us dangerously close to that state of affairs. ... We obviously can also contribute as activists, but this should be done outside our society." An interesting editorial quite suitable for use in classroom discussions of science and advocacy. Brussard, President of the Society for Conservation Biology, is in biology at the University of Nevada/Reno; Murphy, President-Elect, is in biology at Stanford University, and Tracy is in biology at Colorado State University.

-Noss, Reed. "Equal Rights for Parasites." Conservation Biology 9 (no. 1, 1995): 1-2. "Parasites and their hosts evolved-better, co-evolved-together. They really do deserve each other. Parasites are part of our biosphere and, we, as biologists, must accord them the same respect we exhibit for their hosts. If we truly appreciate biological diversity, we must advocate that all species are precious, even parasites." Another good editorial for classroom discussion. Noss is editor of Conservation Biology.

-Jacobson, Susan K., Eleta Vaughan, and Sara Webb Miller. "New Directions in Conservation Biology: Graduate Programs." Conservation Biology 9 (no. 1, 1995):5-17. A summary of 51 programs, with representative faculty. Jacobson earlier wrote a 1990 account of the state of the discipline at that time. All authors are with the Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation, Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Florida.

-Schupp, Jonathan. Environmental Guide to the Internet. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes (4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, MD 20850), 1995. 200 pages. $49. 94 listservs, 11 usenet news groups, 45 electronic journals, 29 bulletin board systems.

-Environmental Grantmaking Foundations. 3rd edition, 1995. 600 foundations. Environmental Data Research Institute, 1655 Elmwood Ave., Suite 225, Rochester, NY 14620-3426. $70.

-Sorabji, Richard. Animal Minds and Human Morals: The Origins of the Western Debate. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. 267 pages. $39.95 cloth. Tracing the roots of our thinking about animals to Aristotelian and Stoic beliefs, Sorabji shows that today's controversies about animal rights represent only the most recent chapter in millennia-old debates.

-Dworkin, Ronald. Life's Dominion: An Argument about Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. 273 pages. Dworkin's main argument is that debates here are fundamentally religious disagreements, and so he asks, in Chapter 3, "What Is Sacred?" He is led to some reflections on intrinsic value in nature: "In our culture, we tend to treat distinct animal species (though not individual animals) as sacred ... another important example of something many of us take to be of intrinsic rather than instrumental value" (p. 75). "Our concern for the preservation of animal species is also based on respect for the way they came into being rather than for the animals independently of that history. The natural processes of evolution and development themselves have a normative significance for us and this is not because the species they generated-the rhinoceros or the horned owl, for example, are superior on some independent test of animal worth to others that might have evolved if they had not, but because we consider it wrong, a desecration of the inviolable, that a species that evolution did produce should perish through our acts. Geneticists have created plants that we find instrumentally valuable: they produce food and may save lives. But we do not think artificially produced species are intrinsically valuable in the way that naturally produced species are" (pp. 78-79). Dworkin does not undertake to defend this position but rather to recognize it as a plausible and widespread conviction, one that any just law must take into account. Dworkin is professor of law at New York University and at Oxford University.

-Carrier, Jim. "Unbearable Futures: Behind the Cuteness Lies an Ethical Debate." The Denver (Colorado) Post, 3 April 1995, 1A, 12A. The Denver Zoo has two polar bear cubs, Klondike and Snow, stars in a zoo of ooohs, in an exhibit with lines waiting to see them a quarter of a mile long, and March was the biggest month in zoo history. Polar bear doll sales were $7,000; the bears even have their own touch-tone button on the Denver Zoo switchboard. But University of Colorado philosopher, Dale Jamieson, says the bears are condemned to a life of captivity, and there is a "moral presumption against keeping wild animals in captivity." University of Colorado zoologist, Mark Bekoff says that "a polar bear in captivity is not a polar bear," since the public sees them, unrealistically, as cute and cuddly creatures, and that "it's extremely self-centered [of humans] to have cute little polar bears in captivity." William Conway, director of the New York Zoo, replies that the most serious threat to wild creatures" is that they will be ignored ... the most profound and moving lessons zoo education has to offer are simply well cared-for, well-exhibited, living animals."

-Diamond, Jared. "Playing God at the Zoo." Discover, March 1995, pp. 79-85. Should we feed live lambs to tigers? When zoo directors put the interests of animals first, they find themselves facing thorny moral questions. Diamond is a UCLA physiologist, cultural ecologist, and anthropologist.

-Thompson, Paul B. The Spirit of the Soil: Agriculture and Environmental Ethics. New York: Routledge, 1995. 196 pages. $14.95 paper. Environmentalists should think more deeply about the ethical dimensions of agriculture's impact on the environment. Environmental problems in industrial agriculture such as the use of chemical pesticides and biotechnology. Four worldviews that frame these issues: productionism, economics, stewardship, and holism. Potential responses in environmental ethics according to differing philosophical priorities. An open-ended account of sustainability designed to minimize hubris and help recapture the spirit of the soil. Thompson teaches philosophy at Texas A & M University.

-Thompson, Paul B. "Conceptions of Property and the Biotechnology Debate." BioScience 45 (no. 4, April, 1995): 275-282. Philosophical concepts of property applied to biotechnology can help evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of arguments offered to justify alternative political positions. Two broad philosophical approaches to property are: (1) one in terms of rules to produce ethical goals such as social welfare or personal liberty, and (2) one that treats the property status of an entity as an ontological question. Natural law and labor theories are ontological approaches, the former influential in Europe. Protection through patents and copyrights has largely been defended on instrumental grounds, such as enhancing economic growth, especially in the United States. Thompson is in philosophy at Texas A & M University.

-Rapport, David J., Connie L. Gaudet, and Peter Calow, eds. Evaluating and Monitoring the Health of Large-Scale Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, 1995. $60. Defining ecosystem health, quantitative indices for ecosystem health assessment, diagnostic approaches, recovery and rehabilitation, methodological issues on design and analysis. Rapport is at the University of Guelph, Ontario and president of the International Society for Ecosystem Health.

-Warren, Karen, ed. Ecological Feminism. New York: Routledge, 1994. 224 pages. $14.95. Focuses on the philosophical aspects of ecological feminism. The conceptual underpinnings of "women-nature connections" and the importance of seeing sexism and the exploitation of the environment as parallel forms of domination. Basic questions of conceptual analysis and justification concerning eco-feminism and its philosophical foundations. Contains: Victoria Davion, "Is Ecofeminism Feminist?"; Deborah Slicer, "Wrongs of Passage: Three Challenges to the Maturing of Ecofeminism"; Douglas J. Buege, "Rethinking Again: A Defense of Ecofeminist Philosophy"; Val Plumwood, "The Ecopolitics Debate and the Politics of Nature"; Christine J. Cuomo, "Ecofeminism, Deep Ecology, and Human Population"; David Kenneth Johnson and Kathleen R. Johnson, "The Limits of Partiality: Ecofeminism, Animal Rights, and Environmental Concerns"; Lori Gruen, "Towards an Ecofeminism Moral Epistemology"; Philip Payne, "Restructuring the Discursive Moral Subject in Ecological Feminism"; Jim Cheney, "Ecofeminism and the Reconstruction of Environmental Ethics"; Karren J. Warren, "Toward an Ecofeminist Peace Politics." Warren teaches philosophy at Macalester College.

-Lehman, Scott Privatizing Public Lands. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 240 pages. $45. The federal government retains roughly a quarter of the U.S. lands, and managing them is often expensive and contentious. A solution, some argue, is privatization. A free market directs privately-owned resources to their most productive uses. Lehman argues that there is no sense of "productivity" for which it is true that greater productivity is both desirable and a likely consequence of privatizing public lands or "marketing" their management. Lehman is in philosophy at the University of Connecticut.

-Callicott, J. Baird. "Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Metaethical Analysis." EJAP, The Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy. A topical issue on foundational justifications of intrinsic value in environmental ethics. This journal does not appear in paper, only on internet. A phenomenological proof and a teleological proof for intrinsic value in nature. An answer to Norton's claims that anthropocentric and nonanthropocentric environmental ethics converge. Kant on objective intrinsic value. The Biocentrists (Albert Schweitzer, Paul Taylor, Holmes Rolston) and their insights and inadequacies. Callicott argues that we should "base environmental ethics on our human capacity to value non-human natural entities for what they are-irrespective of what they may do for us and of whether or not they can value themselves." Suggestions how to envision a postmodern account of value in nature, one still in the making.
Other papers are by Robin Attfield and Stephen R. L. Clark. More detail when available. Contact the guest editor for this issue, Martin Schönfeld, Department of Philosophy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405; ejap@phil.indiana.edu.

-Oraezie Vallino (Oräzie Vallino), Fabienne-Charlotte. "Alle radici dell'etica ambientale: pensiero sulla natura, wilderness et creatività artistica negli Stati Uniti del XIX secolo" (The Roots of Environmental Ethics: Thoughts on Nature, Wilderness, and Artistic Creativity in the United States in the 19th Century). Part I, Storia dell' Arte (History of Art), no. 78, 1993, pp. 183-257; Part II, no. 79, 1993, pp. 355-410. In Italian, an extensive treatment of the roots of environmental ethics in American Romantic aesthetics of nature, includes color reproductions of American artists. Oräzie Vallino is a French/Italian professor at the Universita' Degli Studi Della Tuscia in Viterbo, near Rome, who teaches art, geography, and ecology and has studied extensively in the United States. She edited an Italian version of George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature (Marsh was the first U. S. ambassador to the unified Italy.) Address: 1 Largo Amba Aradam, 00184 Rome, Italy.

-Cobb, John B., Jr. Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology. Revised edition. Denton, TX: Environmental Ethics Books, 1995. First edition published by Bruce, a division of Bensinger, Bruce and Glencoe, in 1972. With minor revisions in the main text and an afterword for the new edition, also an updated bibliography. "Is It Too Late? was one of the very few pioneering works in ecological ethics and theology. It remains richly relevant, indicative of the author's seminal insight and foresight. ... Although written for a general audience, it is also an essential resource for ecophilosophers and ecotheologians." - James A. Nash, The Churches' Center for Theology and Public Policy. Cobb is professor of philosophy at the School of Theology at Claremont.

-Gustafson, James M. A Sense of the Divine: The Natural Environment from a Theocentric Perspective. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1994. Chapter 1: For many people there is at least an implicit "sense of the divine" in nature that often underlies other reasons for concern for the environment. A theocentric perspective provides one way to describe and understand this sense of the divine and in turn to elicit it more deeply and fully. Chapter 2: Human accountability and the conflicts of purpose that lead inevitably to ambiguous moral choices, and perhaps in some cases to tragic ones. Moral ambiguity pervades medical and economic choices as well, but in ecological issues it has particular dimensions, as humans intervene with the natural world. The task of ethics is to reduce, if not eliminate it, but success can only be limited. Chapter 3: An ideal-typology of different stances of responsibility toward nature, with some discussion of the religious or theological correlates of each type. One type, humans as participants in nature, is appropriate to a theocentric perspective. Chapter 4: Some relevant academic disciplines, those that contribute to discussion and resolutions of environmental policy. Can the disciplinary arcs be closed to form an integrated view of the environment? This is our human responsibility, but premature closure is likely to lead to policies and actions that are directed by limited values and interests. The parts seldom, if ever, come into a whole harmonious equilibrium. Nothing can exist independently; everything exists interdependently. Anything which exists in a proper condition is in equilibrium with everything else. Well balanced treatment. Anyone who thinks that theologians do not do their homework in other disciplines should read this book. Gustafson is in theological ethics at Emory University and the author of Ethics from a Theocentric Perspective, 2 vols, University of Chicago Press, 1981 and 1984, a widely discussed work, which he here elaborates in the direction of ecological ethics.

-Thomas, J. Mark, ed. Evangelicals and the Environment. Theme issue of Evangelical Review of Theology 17 (no. 2. 1993). (Paternoster Periodicals, P.O. Box 300, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA3 OQS, U.K.) Thirteen articles under the headings: Biblical and Theological Perspectives, The Praxis of Sustainable Development, Case Studies in Christian Environmental Stewardship. Thomas teaches social ethics at Madison Area Technical College, Madison, WI.

-Snyder, Howard A. Earth Currents: the Struggle For the World's Soul. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995. 334 pages, hardbound, $19. Global culture, world economy, the feminist revolution, the environment at risk, western decline, Gaia, God in the shadows, determinism revisited, postmodernism, the ecology of meaning: story, history, and truth. Snyder lives in Dayton, Ohio.

-VanRossum (Van Rossum), Mary Lou. Reinhabiting the Earth: Biblical Perspectives and Eco-Spiritual Reflections. Liguori, Missouri: Triumph Books, 1994. 198 pages, $17 hardbound. Hebrew and Christian scriptures highlight ecological concerns.

-Krause, Tina B., ed. Care of the Earth: An Environmental Resource Manual For Church Leaders. Chicago: Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1994. 98 pages. Green Theology, Eco-action by Congregations, Worshiping in a Green Congregation, Grassroots Action. Short articles and extracts by two dozen contributors. Samples: Mike Isensee, "Who Speaks for the Owls, Trees and Human Needs: The Church and Environmental Advocacy"; H. Paul Santimire, "Healing the Protestant Mind: Beyond the Theology of Human Dominion." A bibliography is included, and lists of other resources.
-Schwab, Jim. Deeper Shades of Green: The Rise of Blue Collar and Minority Environmentalism in America. San Francisco: Sierra Club Room, 1994. 490 pages hardbound, $30. Schwab, who is with the American Planning Association in Chicago, presents the case that people are fighting for the basic right to participate in decisions about their environment.

-Swan, James A. In Defence of Hunting. San Francisco: Harper, SanFrancsco, 1995. 290 pages. $20. Hunting is not cruel or contrary to ecological training, but rather offers modern people an opportunity to experience some of the most basic impulses of existence: the desire to hunt. Within each of us there lives a hunter, and repressing this instinct can result in personal and societal strife and violence. Swan is an environmental author and has taught natural resources and recreation at various universities.

-Sutherland, Anne and Jeffrey E. Nash. "Animal Rights as a New Environmental Cosmology." Qualitative Sociology 17 (no. 2, 1994): 171-186. The secularization and modernization of society have created opportunities for broad interpretations of fundamental questions of life. The Animal Rights Movement challenges Judeo-Christian cosmology and offers an alternative. It redefines the distinctions between humans and animals and gives them a new meaning within the generalized environmental other. As an emerging cosmology, it functions to give believers a means of dealing with questions of order and chaos, suffering, good and evil, and justice. It also creates a community of people who seek redemption through saving animals. The animal rights movement goes beyond moral protest and takes on the role of a religious cosmology. Sutherland is in anthropology at Macalester College, St. Paul, MN.

-ONeill (O'Neill), John. "Humanism and Nature." Radical Philosophy 66 (Spring 1994): 21-30. Those who aim to construct links between Marxism and the green movement often link to Marx's early work on alienation as a source for a green Marxism. There is an immediate apparent problem with any such attempt to marry the early Marx and the greens, viz. that Marx's early works are humanist. Doesn't humanism necessarily entail that only humans, their states and achievements, have value? And isn't this immediately incompatible with modern green thought which allows that non-humans, their states and achievements, also have intrinsic value? This argument as it stands is too hasty. The term "humanism" is an ambiguous one and it need not immediately entail that only the states and achievements of humans have value. Humanism can have other meanings. O'Neill is in philosophy, University of Lancaster.

-Kim, Ke Chung, and Robert D. Weaver, eds. Biodiversity and Landscapes: A Paradox of Humanity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 431 pages. Hardbound only and expensive, $60. Can civilization be sustained, and for how long, without fundamental changes that ensure the conservation and restoration of natural landscapes and biological diversity? What role will science and technology play? What fundamental changes must we make for the sustained evolution of human civilization? 22 contributors. The philosophers are: Bryan G. Norton, "Thoreau and Leopold on Science and Values"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Creation: God and Endangered Species"; Eric Katz, "Biodiversity and Ecological Justice"; and Eugene Hargrove, "The Paradox of Humanity: Two Views of Biodiversity and Landscapes." Many other contributors address ethical questions as well, and all of them have policy implications. Samples: James Karr, "Landscapes and Management for Ecological Integrity"; Alan Randall, "Thinking about the Value of Biodiversity"; M. Rupert Cutler, "The Watchdog Role of Nongovernmental Environmental Organizations." Kim is at the Center for Biodiversity Research, Pennsylvania State University; Weaver is in agricultural economics and rural sociology there.

-Urbanska, K. M. and K. Grodzinska. Restoration Ecology in Europe. Zurich: Geobotanisches Institute SFIT Zurich, 1994. $50. (Zurichbergstrasse 38, CH 8044, Switzerland). Restoration at site, population, community, and landscape levels.

-Russian Conservation News is a quarterly publication of the Biodiversity Conservation Center, a Moscow-based center that coordinates a wide range of conservation projects. Contact: Eugene Simonov, 4 Cherniakovskogo Street, Apt. 10, Moscow 125319. In the U.S., contact: Mikhail Binnikov, 2126 West 16th Ave., Eugene, OR 97402. Subscriptions in U.S. $10 to PEEC/RCN, RR 2, Box 1010, Dingman's Ferry, PA 18328.

-"National Estuary Program: Bringing Our Estuaries New Life." A brochure describing one of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's foremost efforts in ecosystem management. National Clearinghouse for Environmental Publications and Information, 11029 Kenwood Road, Building 5, Cincinnati, OH 45242.

-Fragomeni, Richard N. and John T. Pawlikowski, eds. The Ecological Challenge: Ethical, Liturgical, and Spiritual Responses. Collegeville, MI: Liturgical Press, 1994. 140 pages, softbound. Thirteen contributors provide insights, coupled with practical suggestions, for an authentically religious response to the ecological crisis. Drawing upon the biblical, ethical, liturgical, and spiritual wisdom of the convenantal traditions of Judaism and Christianity, they emphasize what they think are frequently underemphasized aspects of their religious heritage. They also suggest areas that require new creative reflection that will push beyond traditional understandings. In several chapters they suggest ways in which ecological concerns might be concretely included which retain the integrity of the Church's liturgical and spiritual traditions. A sample: Thomas A. Nairn, "The Roman Catholic Social Tradition and the Question of Ecology." Nairn claims, "A contemporary ethic, using the signs of the times, would challenge Christians to move from a point of view in which nature has little or no value apart from human choices to one which sees humanity itself as part of the larger ecosystem" (p. 37). Fragomeni and Pawlikowski are both professors Catholic Theological Union, Albany, New York.

-LaChance, Albert J. and John Carroll, eds. Embracing Earth: Catholic Approaches to Ecology. Maryknoll. NY: Orbis Books, 1994. 280 pages. $18.95 paper. Contemporary Catholic writers explore that Christian view of nature, the human place in it, and the need to respond to the planetary crisis.

-Primack, Richard B. A Primer of Conservation Biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1995. 230 pages. $18.95. A short course for those who are not up to Primack's longer Essentials of Conservation Biology, now widely used in colleges, but over twice as long and twice as expensive. Primack is in biology at Boston University.

-Kutner, Laurie A, and Rafael Mares. Environmental Discrimination: An Annotated Bibliography. Council of Planning Librarians Bibliography Series, Issue # 306, 1995. $24.00. Available from Justice Booksellers, Washington, DC, 20009. 202/332-5324.

-Scherer, Donald. "Between Theory and Practice." Restoration and Management Notes 12 (no. 2, Winter 1994): 184-188. Popular views on exotics, intervention, and technology are obscuring important issues in restoration. Not all migrating plant species are exotics; seeds in nature stick to animals and migrate, and one such animal is Homo sapiens. Human intervention has conditioned the character of certain environments in which certain species are well adapted, there is nothing unique about human intervention. The fact that humans use technology is a difference of degree not of kind. Restoration need not be to some pristine ecosystem free of humans, but restoration can be to a world that humans inhabit. Scherer teaches philosophy at Bowling Green State University, Ohio.

-Friedmann, John and Haripriya Rangan, eds. In Defense of Livelihood: Comparative Studies on Environmental Action. Kumarian Press, 1993. 220 pages, $21.95. The product of a research program at the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, this book presents case studies of struggles and innovative practices of local groups in seven regions of the developing world. The researchers asked the question: What happens when people unite to defend the land and natural resources that are the immediate sources of their livelihood?

-Pye-Smith, Charlie and Grazia Borrini Feyerabend, with Richard Sandbrook. The Wealth of Communities. Earthscan Publications (UK) amd Kumarian Press (USA), 1994. 224 pages, £10.95. $18.95. Ten case studies of community-based, environmentally sound development in support of a strategy called Primary Environment Care (PEC), in which a people organize and act to meet needs (income, health, housing), while taking care of their environment.

-Johnston, Barbara Rose, ed. Who Pays the Price? The Sociocultural Context of Environental Crisis. Island Press, 1994. 272 pages, cloth $45, paper $19. The authors of the papers in this volume, sponsored by the Committee on Human Rights and the Environment of the Society for Applied Anthropology, look at the links between environmental degradation and human rights abuse. Inclueded are case studies from China, Papua New Guinea, the Russian Far East, the Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon, the highland Yanomami people of Brazil and Venezuela, Southern Africa, Alaska, the U.S. Southwest, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

-Jiggins, Janice. Changing the Boundaries: Women-Centered Perspectives on Population and the Environment. Island Press, 1994. 316 pages, Cloth $45, paper $22. An iconoclastic book that focuses on the role of women but has an even broader message: "The idea that urgent global environmental action and population control are needed is both exaggerated and misdirected. Although serious and growing problems exist, police and action will not accomplish their goals unless they are accompanied by an understanding of the relationship between the laws of nature and the patterns of human behavior that drive global change."

-Mies, Maria and Vandana Shiva. Ecofeminism. London: Zed Books, 1993. 328 pages, $19.95. Mies, a German social scientist, and Shiva, an Indian physicist, provide a critique of prevailing economic theories, conventional concepts of women's emancipation, and the myth that "the good life" can only be reached by catching up to Europe, North America, and Japan on an identical path of industrialiation, technological progress, and capital accumulation.

-Loudiyi, Dounia and Alison Meares. Women in Conservation: Tools for Analysis and a Framework for Action. IUCN Social Policy Service, 1993. 164 pages, $20.00. An annotated bibliography on the roles and responsibilities of rural women in managing natural resources. Books and unpublished materials are grouped under such themes as forest conservation, water, and training.

-Jansson, Ann Mari, Monica Hammer, Carl Folke, and Robert Costanza, eds. Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Island Press, 1994. 520 pages, $35. The papers in this book, the product of a meeting sponsored by the International Society for Ecological Economics, supply a thorough exploration of this alternative to conventional economics. Contributors include Fikret Berkes and Rudolf de Groot.

-Project and Policy Appraisal: Integrating Economics and the Environment. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1994. 346 pages, $40. Also available in French. This manual provides a detailed description of such techniques as the monetary valuation of environmental damage, the pricing of environmental resources, and the role of discounting. Practical examinations of the use of these techniques in both industrial and developing countries are given.

-VandenBerg (Van den Bergh), Jeroen C. J. M. and Jan van der Straaten. Toward Sustainable Development: Concepts, Methods, and Policy. Island Press, 1994. 302 pages, $30. Papers presented at a meeting of the International Society for Ecological Economics, slanted toward theoretical economic dimensions of sustainable development.

-Strauss, D.F.M. "Thought and Language: On the Line of Demarcation Between Animal and Human Abilities." South African Journal of Philosophy 13(no. 4, 1994): 175-182. Although an anthropomorphic mode of expression may easily tempt us to attribute human abilities to animals, a closer investigation shows that animals are neither able to think logically, nor do they share in the dimension of human language. It is argued that if animals did have logical concepts at their disposal, then they should have been able to express logical judgments-something explicitly denied by prominent advocates of the idea that animals possess a-verbal concepts. A negative test is given in the question: Is it possible for animals to think illogically?-something never demonstrated experimentally. Crucial differences between human and animal communication are highlighted. Strauss in is philosophy, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

-Knickerbocker, Brad. "Earth Day at 25: A US Environmental Report Card." The Christian Science Monitor, 18 April 1995, pp. 10-11. Excellent summary and chronology of developments since the first Earth Day in 1970.

-Knickerbocker, Brad. "Americans Go `Lite Green.'" The Christian Science Monitor, 18 April 1995, pp. 1, 11. On current legislative changes before Congress from the perspective of the first Earth Day in 1970.

-Wrangham, Richard W., W. C. McGrew, Frans B. M. De Waal, and Paul G. Heltne, eds. Chimpanzee Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. 424 pages. $40. Despite the title, the editors begin by admitting that "cultural transmission among chimpanzees is, at best, inefficient, and possibly absent" (p. 2). This is because there is scant (and in some cases negative evidence) for active imitation or teaching of tool-using techniques. Many cognitive scientists believe that imitation and teaching require the ability to attribute mental states to others. Do chimpanzees conscious model their behavior on that of others, or are they "restricted to private conceptual worlds" (p. 2) If chimpanzees do differ from humans in being unable to attribute intentions, beliefs, and ignorance to others, they will inevitably lack the full capacity to imitate, to inform, and to teach. They will also lack all but the most rudimentary forms of culture. The various authors tackle this question as they are able to, especially with captive animals.

-Erwin, Edward, Sidney Gendin, and Lowell Kleiman, eds. Ethical Issues in Scientific Research. Hamden, CT: Garland Publishing Co., 1994. 430 pages. $18.95, paper. $60, cloth. Five articles on the ethics of animal research, including Peter Singer, Dale Jamieson, and Tom Regan.

-Science and Engineering Ethics. An international quarterly launched in January 1995, exploring ethical issues confronting scientists and engineers. Papers are invited. Editors: Stephanie J. Bird, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 12-187, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139; or Raymond Spier, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 5XH, U.K.

-Ecology of Industrial Regions is an international journal, founded in 1994 by the V. Vinnichenko International Foundation. Articles are invited covering ecological problems of industrial regions in the broadest sense, including zoological, botanical, medical, geographic, economical, ethical, philosophical and other aspects. Contact: Vladimir Dvornik, Editor, 10 ul. Komsomolskaya, Gorlovka 338001, Ukraine. E-mail root@wave.donetsk.ua. Thanks to Baird Callicott, who is a contributor the first issue with a paper, "Whaling in Sand County: A Dialectical Hunt for Land-Ethical Answers to Questions about the Morality of Norwegian Mink-whale Catching."

-Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Started in 1993. Articles invited. Editors: Bill Bramwell and Bernard Lane, Channel View Publications, Frankfurt Lodge, Clevedon Hall, Victoria Road, Clevedon, Avon, U.K. BS21 7S.

-Boo, Elizabeth. Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls. 2 vols. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund, 1992. Especially Belize, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, and Mexico. Provisions must be made for protecting the "carrying capacity" of natural sites; local people must have a say in the management of ecotourism; and resources must be invested in access to and care of the amenities. But here is a cautious recommendation of ecotourism.

-Brown, Beverly A. In Timber Country: Working People's Stories of Environmental Conflict and Urban Flight. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. 300 pages. $18.95 paper. $49.95 paper. Mostly poor and lower-middle class income people, they do belong to a large and crucial segment who are often presented as scapegoats or stereotypes: the liberal's "rednecks" and industry's and the right wings "silent majority." These are the people of the Rogue Valley in Southwest Oregon, where there is a volatile clash of logging and environmental interests, and with an influx of wealthy suburbanites from California. Brown is an independent scholar and activist.

-Knight, Denis H. Mountains and Plains: The Ecology of Wyoming Landscapes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. 352 pages. $40.00. Includes Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, the Black Hills, as well as the general landscape of Wyoming. Knight is in botany at the University of Wyoming, a past president of the Ecological Society of America.

-Gottfried, Robert R. The Economics of the Garden: Perspectives from Ecology and the Roots of Western Faith. Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995. 160 pages. $18.95 paper. $47.50 cloth. The ancient Hebrew worldview, found in the Torah and the New Testament, is remarkably "green." Its holistic approach and emphasis on the importance of relationships bear a striking resemblance to ecology and can serve to reorient Western thinking without the necessity of leaving Western tradition.

-Gamman, John K. Overcoming Obstacles in Environmental Policymaking: Creating Partnerships Through Mediation. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994. 250 pages. $18.95 paper. $57.50 cloth. Why policies and laws intended to protect the environment often do not work. The fundamental reasons why efforts to protect natural resources in the developing world generally fail. Why environmental initiatives originating in national governments, international foreign assistance agencies, and environmental groups suffer from a dysfunctional decision-making process. How to improve environmental policymaking by creating partnerships for sustainable development. Gammon is with the Collaborative for Environmental Analysis and Conflict Resolution, Santa Cruz and Berkeley, CA.

-Partridge, Ernest. "If Environmental Education Is the Answer, Then What Is the Question?" Annual Hulings Lecture, Northland College, February 15, 1995. How did Western civilization fall into the environmental trap in which we now find ourselves? We did so by allowing our cleverness to outpace our intelligence, our facility to outdistance our foresight, and our decision-making procedures to evolve without moral charts and compasses, secure in the belief that our lives and institutions were being moved by such benign "invisible hands" as consumer preferences, market forces, and cultural drift. If environmental education is the answer, then many questions follow: How do we get environmental education into the college and university curriculum? Copies from Ernest Partridge, Northland College, Ashland, WI 54806.

-MacKinnon, Mary Heather and Moni McIntyre, eds. Readings in Ecology and Feminist Theology. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward, 1994. 360 pages. $19.95. This anthology features key essays which have helped shape the current understanding of the essential relationship between ecology and theology. Selections offer a variety of voices which link the growing insights and concerns of ecology, science, feminism, and theology. Contributors include John Cobb, Ray Griffin, Sallie McFague, and Anne Clifford.

-Singh, Rana P.B., ed. The Spirit and Power of Place: Human Environment and Sacrality: Essays dedicated to Yi-Fu Tuan. Varanasi, India: National Geographical Society of India, 1994. 364 pages $70, Rs. 500/-. A multidisciplinary perspective toward the idea of "environmental sensitivity"-searching and understanding the meanings with reference to human identity in the cosmos and human reflection on the earth. Samples: J. Donald Hughes (U.S.), "The Integrity of Nature and Respect for Place"; O. F. G. Sitwell (Canada), "Sacred Space Reconsidered"; Ramesh C. Dhuss, "Phenomenology of Place in Indian Culture-Case of Delhi." Contributors are from diverse disciplines and from diverse cultures. However, at some level there appears similarity in their approaches and expositions.

-Our Changing Planet. The FY 1995 U.S. Global Change Research Program. 132 pages. This is a report by the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research of the National Science and Technology Council, a supplement to the President's Fiscal Year 1995 Budget. 300 D St., S.W., Suite 840, Washington, DC 20024.

-Hettinger, Ned. "Patenting Life: Biotechnology, Intellectual Property, and Environmental Ethics." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 22 (1995): 267-305. Argues that our social policy of issuing patents in organisms and genes is not easily justified by traditional arguments for intellectual property and that these types of patents should be abolished because they manifest disrespect for life.

-Marshall, Peter, Nature's Web: An Exploration of Ecological Thinking (London: Simon & Schuster, 1992) has been republished in the US as Nature's Web: Rethinking Our Place in Nature (New York: Paragon House, 1994), $29.95. A paperback edition published by Cassell is coming out this year in UK. The book has received some excellent reviews, and Choice calls it "a wonderful hisory of `green' ideas."

-Walters, Laurel Shaper. "Rare Plants Are Stalked and Captured on Film." The Christian Science Monitor, 14 March 1995, p. 10. An exhibit of 35 rare, fragile, and beautiful plants, by photographer Maryl Levine, will be at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, and the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque.

-Westra, Laura, and Peter S. Wenz, eds. Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, forthcoming (August 1995). 300 pp. $57.50 cloth; $21.95 pb. Contributers: Hussein Adam, Robert D. Bullard, Clarice Gaylord, Robert Goodland, Omari Kokole, Bill Lawson, Howard McCurdy, Richard Phillips, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Peter S. Wenz, and Laura Westra.

-Ross, Stephen David, ed. Plenishment in the Earth: An Ethic of Inclusion. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995. 440 pp. $74.50 hardcover; $24.95 pb.
-Mann, Charles C., and Mark L. Plummer. Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species. New York: Knopf, 1995. 302 pp. $24. ". . . an excellent review of the goals and workings of the law, . . . presents what likely will continue to be an unavoidable class among society's fundamental values"-Brad Knickerbocker, The Christian Science Monitor, 14 March 1995, p. 11.

-Spotts, Peter N. "Where Should All the Spent Fuel Go?" The Christian Science Monitor, 3 March 1995, p. 4.

-Shillinger, Kurt. "Property Rights Becomes Hot Battle." The Christian Science Monitor, 2 March 1995, p. 4. Concerns "takings" and includes an interesting case, the John and Josephine Bronczyk Farm, in Minnesota.

-Parton, Glenn. "The Rise of Primitivism and the Fall of Civilization: A Reply to J. B. Callicott and Holmes Rolston, III, on Wilderness." The Environmental Professional 16 (1994): 366-71. Parton offers criticism on the debate on wilderness between Callicott and Rolston in The Environmental Professional 13, no. 3 and no. 4. Parton argues that wilderness is a medium that enfolds everything. It is not the far-removed place "out there" envisioned by Callicott and Rolston. Wilderness is common ground for humans and nonhumans. Parton expects slow convergence in environmental work toward this conception of wilderness.

-Clugston, Richard M., ed. "The Ethics of Genetic Engineering." Earth Ethics 6, no. 1 (Fall 1994): 1, 3-7. Brief contributions (dialogue) by Michael Fox, Thomas Berry, Robert Welborn, Dieter Hessel, and Stephanie Kaza. The common theme is that current genetic engineering research lacks ethical restraint based on respect for the integrity of nature. The contributors were participants in a symposium on 7 May 1994 at the Center for Respect of Life and Environment.

-Schlickeisen, Rodge. "Protecting Biodiversity for Future Generations: An Argument for a Constitutional Amendment." Tulane Environmental Law Journal 8 (1994): 181-212. Society's need and duty to protect living nature. The emergence of scientific consensus. Society's moral responsibility to future generations. Lawmaking prejudiced against the future. The limitations of the traditional legal system. A proposed U.S. constitutional amendment: "The living natural resources in the United States are the common property of all the people, including generations yet to come. All persons and their progeny have an inalienable, enforceable right to the benefits of those resources for themselves and their posterity. The United States and every State shall assure that use of those resources is sustainable and that they are conserved and maintained for the benefit of all the people." Constitutional provisions elsewhere. Does the proposed amendment go far enough? The amendment is needed because, to the extent that elected officeholders do enact statutes to protect biodiversity, unless supplemented by a constitutional amendment, enforcement will be slow, unwieldy, and unsuccessful, especially because judicial interpretation of standing and constitutional private property rights will defeat meaningful implementation and enforcement. A plausible case, and one where the author has done his philosophical and legal homework. Schlickeisen is president of the Defenders of Wildlife.

-Grunert, Suzanne C. Environmental Economics, Sustainable Development, "Green" Marketing, Eco-management, and the Like: A highly selective, partly annotated bibliography of research conducted in Europe and North America since the 70's. Aarhus, Denmark, CeSaM Working Paper No. 5 (Science Park Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej 10, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark), 1995. 112 pages. This bibliography contains some 800 references on all kinds of aspects under the general heading "ecology and economy." It picks up the European references likely to be missed in American-based bibliographies. Books, anthologies, articles, working papers, and conference papers are listed. Most articles are provided with a summary and many books are annotated descriptively by the author. Also available as a database on Macintosh "Endnote." Grunert is in marketing at Odense University, Odense, Denmark. (Thanks to Martin Ishoy, Theology, University of Aarhus.)

-Bakken, Peter W., J. Ronald Engel, and Joan Gibb Engel. Ecology, Justice, and Christian Faith: A Guide to the Literature 1960-1993. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. An annotated bibliography of literature published in English that expresses, analyzes, or critiques Christian perspectives on the relationship between social justice and ecological integrity. There is an introductory review essay followed by over 460 complete annotations by over 250 authors. The annotations focus on works that include each of the following three components: (1) attention to ecological issues such as environmental quality, resource limitations, and biotic diversity; (2) attention to social-ethical values and problems such as distributive justice, community, racism, and sexism; and (3) explicitly theological or religious reflection on ecological and social ethics and their interrelations.

-Frankenfeld, Philip J. Bibliography for Technological Citizenship: Public Participation in Environmental Policy and Risk Policy. Organized by subject and includes such headings as: Environmental Justice; Ethics of Uncertainty; Environmental Policy; Consumer Environmentalism; Environmental Law; Whistleblowing, and others. Hardcopy (offprinted) by request, although the author also has it on disks, Microsoft Word. Address: 1671 North Prospect #304, Milwaukee, WI 53202. 414/272-6765.

-Capture, Care and Management of Threatened Mammals. Onderstepoort, South Africa: Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association, 1993 (P. O. Box 12900, Onderstepoort, 0110 R. South Africa). 84 pages, R30.00 (RSA), $30 (USA). The capture, care, and management of threatened mammals. The data presented are the proceedings of an international symposium held at Skukuza, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

-Soulé, Michael E. and Gary Lease, eds. Reinventing Nature? Responses to Postmodern Deconstruction. Island Press, 1995. 186 pages. The rhetorical storm over "nature," and the practical consequences. "A wave of relativistic anthropocentrism originating in the humanities and social sciences with clear implications for a wide range of biodiversity conservation policies and actions." An interdisciplinary investigation of how perceptions and conceptions of nature affect both the individual experience and society's management of nature.
Chapter One: "Nature Under Fire" by Gary Lease. The boundary between the world and human beings is under fire. On the one hand nature is personified; on the other hand the idea that nature needs protection from humankind's onslaught begs the definition of the boundary and turns our attention to contesting constructions of nature and to competition among human groups for access to resources and power.
Chapter Two: "Virtually Hunting Reality in the Forests of Simulacra" by Paul Shephard. The postmodern constructionist view is that all texts, reports, narratives are but descriptions-focused chatter about an unknowable external world, psychobabble, webs of words that serve as ammunition in struggles over who dominates whom.
Chapter Three: "The Nature of Reality and the Reality of Nature" by Albert Borgmann. The substitute for the dualism of natural and artificial is a new continuum: reality-hyperreality. And even if nature (reality) is to some extent a human invention, it still can be eloquent and inspiring and still can invigorate the notion of excellence.
Chapter Four: "Searching for Common Ground" by N. Katherine Hayles. The notions of interactivity and positionality enliven the stakes in contesting for the integrity of the environment. Those in power, therefore, should consider marginal points of view, including those of other species.
Chapter Five: "Nature and the Disorder of History" by Donald Worster. A less extreme interpretation of contemporary history and ecology might stress two principles: one is social and biological interdependence; the other is successful adaptation to situation and place by human groups and species.
Chapter Six: "Cultural Parallax in Viewing North American Habitats" by Gary Paul Nabhan. The polarized debate about aboriginal impacts obscures the complexity and diversity of old cultures in North America and ignores cultural adaptation and change.
Chapter Seven: "Concepts of Nature East and West" by Stephen R. Kellert. Even though nature evokes common emotional and intellectual structures in humans (evidence for a shared understanding), cultures are heterogeneous in how they value nature.
Chapter Eight: "Resolute Biocentrism: The Dilemma of Wilderness in National Parks" by David M. Graber. National parks (and wilderness in general) are by default the sites where the values of solitude, wildness, and otherness reside. Yet the baseline criteria for original, natural, or pristine states still elude managers.
Chapter Nine: "The Social Siege of Nature" by Michael E. Soulé. Humanity entertains manifold representations of living nature-from quite pagan/spiritual views to the more utilitarian (Judeo-Christian) and scientific conceptions displayed on television documentaries.
Soulé is in environmental studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz; Lease is dean of humanities there.

-Fisher, William F., ed. Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over India's Narmada River. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995. 500 pages. $24.95 paper. $70.00 hardcover. Diverse opinions of proponents and opponents of the project and the complex issues involved, including economics, sociology, law, and governance. Studies on human rights issues that arise when large numbers of people, particularly marginal, disadvantaged groups, and women, are displaced from their homes and villages. See note in the Issues section, below on the wildlife and endangered species issues here. Fisher is at Harvard University.

-Mann, Charles C. and Mark Plummer. "Is Endangered Species Act in Danger?" Science 267 (March 3, 1995): 1256-1258. The Act needs to be reauthorized, and refunded, this year. Far more plants and animals are being added to the list than are leaving it. Critics say that act is as fault; supporters say the budget for enforcement is far too small. Critics say few species are being recovered; supporters say that you should not expect high recovery rates in an intensive care emergency room. A frequent theme is rather pragmatic: since the Act isn't working, and can't be made to work because it is too expensive and landowners won't cooperate, maybe we should do something else. Mann and Plummer are co-authors of Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species.

-Christian, Colmore S., Michael P. Zamore, Adolphus E. Christian. "Parrot Conservation in a Small Island-Nation: Case of the Commonwealth of Dominica." Human Ecology 22 (no. 4, 1994): 495-

-Oruka, H. Odera, ed. Philosophy, Humanity and Ecology. Volume 1: Philosophy of Nature and Environmental Ethics. Nairobi, Kenya: African Centre for Technology Studies, 1994. US$20.00 (ISBN 9966-41-086-4). This volume contains papers presented at the World Conference of Philosophy held in Nairobi, Kenya, in July 1991. The general theme of the conference was Philosophy, Humanity and the Environment. Attracting almost six hundred participants and observers, representing 55 countries, the papers in this volume incorporate contributions from Europe, North America, Asia and Africa, including Evandro Agazzi, Wolfgang Kluxen, Jerzy Pelc, Richard T. De George, S.S. Rama Pappu, Tomonobu Imamichi, Ali Mazrui, Kwasi Wiredu and Thomas R. Odhiambo. Chair of the organizing committee of the World Conference, H. Odera Oruka is Professor of Philosophy, University of Nairobi, and founder chair of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. To order, send a cheque or money order to either of the institutions below. If out of Kenya, add US $8.00 for airmail postage (or US $2.00 for surface postage) and US $5.00 for bank charges. African Centre for Technology Studies, P.O. Box 45917, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. 254-2-565173, 569986 Or: African Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 14798, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. 254-2-884401/6. (Thanks to Johan Hattingh, University of Stellenbosch.)

-Azizan Haji Baharuddin, ed. Environment and Development: Ethical and Educational Considerations. Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia: Institute for Policy Research (Insistut Kajian Dasar), 1995. (ISBN 983-884-035-1). Includes papers by Alastair S. Gunn, Padmasiri de Silva and Robin Attfield. Dr. Azizan is at the University of Malaya and Institute for Policy Research. (Thanks to Robin Attfield.)

-Cross, Frank B. "Natural Resource Damage Valuation." Vanderbilt Law Review 42 (March 1989): 269-341. Natural resource destruction results from the status of public lands as a common good in a capitalist system. Establishing accurate means for valuing natural resources transcends the current procedures. Broadly used, the right to recover natural resource damages can force the internalization of many pollution costs and thus create a powerful deterrent to future environmental charm. Government action has achieved some success, but the mechanism has inherent limitations and may always trail behind the creative force of the market and the harm that it may cause. The job of protecting natural resources pertains to government functions that are too large, complex, or widely dispersed for government to perform. Instilling private marketplace decisions with a concern for harm to nature is a vital and necessary complement to government intervention in the market. To be truly effective, however, such recovery must capture the full value of harm done to resources. At present, natural resource valuation seriously understates the true social harm done to natural resources. The author proposes better valuation procedures, with special reference to Superfund. Another good example of an article that philosophers should read before they complain that lawyers do not do their philosophical homework. Cross teaches business law in the Department of Management, University of Texas.

-Landman, Willem A. "Moral Standing, Value and Environmental Ethics." South African Journal of Philosophy 14 (# 1, February 1995): 9-19. How should an environmental ethic be grounded? An answer involves a commitment to a criterion of moral standing and its application, and a wider commitment to a taxonomy of the senses of "value" that inform our relationship with nature. I begin by mapping the different environmental philosophies in order to contextualize my argument. After an analysis of the concept of moral standing I analyze why being a person is a sufficient condition of moral standing. I defend sentience as a condition of moral standing that is not only sufficient but also necessary, and I set out the taxonomy of the senses of "value" that informs a sentience-based environmental ethics. I reject life as a criterion of moral standing and the value commitments of a life-based environmental ethic. I end with some remarks that a sentience-based environmental ethic might be inadequate if we should lose our aesthetic and spiritual sense. Landman is in philosophy at the University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa.

-Voice, Paul. "What Do Animals Deserve?" South African Journal of Philosophy 14 (no. 1, February 1995): 34-38. The failure of contractarianism to assign substantive moral weight to the interests of non-human animals does not count against contractarianism as a moral theory. I show why contractarianism excludes animals from the moral domain, and go on to argue that, when proper attention is to paid to the scope of moral theory, it is easily seen why animals lack full moral standing. Voice is in philosophy at the University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, Pretoria 0001, Republic of South Africa.

-Lord, Charles P. and Willian A. Shutkin. "Environmental Justice and the Use of History." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 22 (no. 1, Fall 1994): 1-26. An analysis of two communities fighting for environmental justice reveals that a flawed or careless approach to history is often a root cause of environmental injustice. In each community, the legal system has perpetuated environmental injustice by misreading or disregarding that community's history. Communities fighting environmental injustice must vigorously prepare and proclaim their own histories and must urge courts and other decisionmakers to examine history carefully and justly. The two communities are one in inner-city South Boston and the Abenaki, a Native American tribe of northern New England. Lord and Shutkin are Visiting Scholars at Boston College Law School.

-Plater, Zygmunt J. B., Robert H. Abrams, and William Goldfarb. Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1992. 1033 pages, plus indexes. About $50. With a periodic supplement, keeping it current, in a rather rapidly changing field. Supplement for Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society. St. Paul, MN, West Publishing Co., 1994. Softcover, 355 pages. One of the better, and halfway reasonably priced, introductions to environmental law, suitable also for use with undergraduates. Based on cases by subject area, with interpretive text. The supplement, for example, contains a new chapter "Environmental Justice-Race, Poverty, and the Environment" (with analysis of the East Bibb Twiggs Neighborhood Association vs. Macon-Bibb County, Georgia case) and a current bibliography on environmental justice (pp. 40-45 in appendix) that lists many yet forthcoming articles. Also recent relevant documents, such as the President's Executive Order 12898 (February 11, 1994) on environmental justice, and the EPA Title VI Rules. Plater is at Boston College Law School, Abrams at Wayne State University Law School, and Goldfarb at Cook College, Rutgers.

-Valente, Christina M., and William D. Valente. Introduction to Environmental Law and Policy: Protecting the Environment through Law. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1995. 441 pages. Hardcover. An excellent introduction that is half the length of the Plater et al volume (also by West Publishing), suitable for semester-length course. Both Valentes are at Villanova University; Christina Valente is also with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

-Gerrard, Michael B. Whose Backyard, Whose Risk: Fear and Fairness in Toxic and Nuclear Waste Siting. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994. 335 pages. $39.95 cloth. Gerrard criticizes the government for waffling on the problem, the media for trivializing the subject by using terms such as NIMBY ("not in my backyard"), and the fairness of forcing the facilities on economically less advantaged families. We ought not to try to find the best new locations for such sites, but reuse already contaminated Superfund sites. Gerrard is an environmental lawyer in New York.

-Shulman, Seth. The Threat at Home: Confronting the Toxic Legacy of the U. S. Military. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. 254 pages.

-Maggitti, Phil. "The Stray Cat: Whose Life Is It, Anyway?" The Animals' Agenda 14 (no. 6, 1994): 22- . They're everywhere! They're everywhere! It's raining cats and cats. And no one seems to know for sure what to do about the situation-except to attack everyone else's solutions. A report on the state of the (dis)union among feral cat advocates.

-Feller, Robert H. "Environmental Disclosure and the Securities Laws." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 22 (no. 2, 1995): 225- .

-Wegman, Richard A. and Harold G. Bailey Jr. "The Challenge Of Cleaning Up Military Wastes When U.S. Bases Are Closed." Ecology Law Quarterly 21 (no. 4, 1994): 865- .

-Albritton, Eric M. "The Endangered Species Act: The Fountain Darter Teaches What The Snail Darter Failed To Teach." Ecology Law Quarterly 21 (no. 4, 1994): 1007- .

-Gaard, Greta. "Milking Nature: an Eco-Feminist Critique of rBGH." The Ecologist 24 (no. 4, July, 1994): 202- .

-Wyshaam, Daphne. "Ten-to-One-Against: Costing People's Lives for Climate Change." The Ecologist 24 (no. 4, July, 1994): 204- .

-Jardine, Kevin. "Finger on the Carbon Pulse: Climate Change and the Boreal Forests." The Ecologist 24 (no. 4, July, 1994): 220- . There are alarming signs that global warming is already affecting the boreal forests, increasing the intensity and frequency of fires, storms, and insect attacks. Many studies project that, as the forests decline, there will be a massive net release of carbon into the atmosphere, triggering a runaway greenhouse effect.

-Wilks, Alex and Nicholas Hildyard. "Evicted! The World Bank and Forced Resettlement." The Ecologist 24 (no. 4, July, 1994): 225- . At least two million people currently face forcible eviction as a result of infrastructure development projects-from dams to roads-financed by the World Bank. Yet an internal review of the Bank's resettlement record from 1986 to 1993 reveals that mandatory policies intended to minimize the impact of resettlement are being systematically flouted.

-Andreas, Peter. "Border Troubles: Free Trade, Immigration and Cheap Labour." The Ecologist 24 (no. 4, July 1994): 230- . As millions of people are uprooted by the increasing integration of the global economy, pressure has mounted on governments to impose more restrictive immigration controls. But attempting to stop people moving around while encouraging the mobility of everything else is a recipe for policy frustration. Illegal immigration from Mexico into the US Illustrates the problems.

-Juang, C.H., Soushan Wu, and Her-Jiun Sheu. "A Group Decisionmaking Model for Siting LULUs." The Environmental Professional 17 (no. 1, 1995): 43- .

-Magill, Arthur W. "Multicultural Wildland Users: A Growing Communication Challenge." The Environmental Professional 17 (no. 1, 1995): 51- .

-Birkeland, Janis. "The Relevance of Ecofeminism to the Environmental Professions." The Environmental Professional 17 (no. 1, 1995): 55- .

-Lemons, John. "Shrader-Frechette's Schemata for Scientific Research: Implications for Environmental Professionals." The Environmental Professional 17 (no. 1, 1995):72- .

-Fowler, Robert. "International Environmental Standards for Transnational Corporations." Environmental Law 25 (no. 1, 1995): 1- . The challenges inherent in applying environmental standards to transnational corporations, the various methods that could be used to regulate transnationals, and a concluding argument for extraterritorial application of disclosure statutes as a means of imposing stricter self-regulation.

-Raustiala, Kal. "The Political Implications of the Enforcement Provisions of the NAFTA Environmental Side Agreement: The CEC as a Model for Future Accords." Environmental Law 25 (no. 1, 1995): 31- . A powerful and effective Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) could use the enforcement provisions of NAFTA's environmental side agreement against the United States in a way that would reduce agency- and technology-forcing statutes and lessen the substantive scope of environmental legislation.

-Blumm, Michael C. "The End of Environment Law? Libertarian Property, Natural Law, and the Just Compensation Clause in the Federal Circuit." Environmental Law 25 (no. 1, 1995):171- . Florida Rock Industries and Loveladies Harbor, two recent cases from the Federal Circuit, represent a radical, libertarian view of property and are not supported by either Supreme Court opinions or the history of American property law.

-Watters, Larry. "The Takings Clause and the Future of Environmental and Land Use Regulation." Environmental Law 25 (no. 1, 1995): 199- . A panel of speakers, moderated by Larry Watters.

-Searles, Janis. "South Dakota v. Bourland: Another Supreme Court Move Away from Recognition of Tribal Sovereignty." Environmental Law 25 (no. 1, 1995): 209. This recent case continues the Supreme Court's trend of eroding Indian Sovereignty, but Searles suggests ways that the Army Corps of Engineers can protect tribal interests within its current statutory framework.

-Bosselman, Fred. "Four Land Ethics: Order, Reform, Responsibility, Opportunity." Environmental Law 24 (no. 4, 1994): 1439- . Aldo Leopold's hope that American thinking would converge toward a single land ethic is futile; instead Americans should accept that they have inherited four different land ethics, which are explained using King Arthur, David Ricardo, John Muir, and Scalia as prototypes.

-Daugherty, Steven A. "The Unfulfilled Promise of an End to Timber Dominance on the Tongass: Forest Service Implementation of the Tongass Timber Reform Act." Environmental Law 24 (no. 4, 1994): 1573- Ways that the U. S. Forest Service has failed to carry out the intent behind the Tongass Timber Reform Act; the U. S. Congress should enact further legislation that imposes clearer standards.

-Earp, David J. "The Regulation of Genetically Engineered Plants: Is Peter Rabbit Safe in Mr. McGregor's Transgenic Vegetable Patch?" Environmental Law 24 (no. 4, 1994): 1663- . Recent changes in federal regulations of genetically engineered plants, with a conclusion that they generally provide adequate environmental protection but, because the science is outpacing the laws, the Department of Agriculture needs additional statutory authority to prevent all risks.

-Barry, John. "The Limits of the Shallow and the Deep: Green Politics, Philosophy, and Praxis." Environmental Politics 3 (no. 3, 1994): 369- .

-Milbrath, Lester, Yvonne Downes, and Kathleen Miller. "Sustainable Living: Framework of an Ecosystemically Grounded Political Theory." Environmental Politics 3 (no. 3, 1994): 421- .

-Eckerberg, Katarina. "Environmental Problems and Policy Options in the Baltic States: Learning from the West?" Environmental Politics 3 (no. 3, 1994): 445- .

-Fagin, Adam. "Environment and Transition in the Czech Republic." Environmental Politics 3 (no. 3, 1994):479- .

-Montgomery, Mark A. "Reassessing the Waste Trade Crisis: What Do We Really Know?" The Journal of Environment and Development 4 (no. 1, 1995): 1- .

-Clemencon, Raymond. "Global Climate Change and the Trade System: Bridging the Culture Gap." The Journal of Environment and Development 4 (no. 1, 1995): 29- .

-Mirovitskaya, Natalia, and Marvin S. Soroos. "Socialism and the Tragedy of the Commons: Reflections on Environmental Practice in the Soviet Union and Russia." The Journal of Environment and Development 4 (no. 1, 1995): 77- .

-Spalding, Mark J. "Resolving International Environmental Disputes: Public Participation and the Right-to-Know." The Journal of Environment and Development 4 (no. 1, 1995): 141-

-Dompka, Victoria. "Environment and the United Nations World Population Conference." The Journal of Environment and Development 4 (no. 1, 1995): 155-

-Nadkarni, M.V. and V. Govindaru. "Nobody's Child: The Economic and Institutional Aspects of Soil Conservation in India." The Journal of Environment and Development 4 (no. 1, 1995):171- .

-Ferrey, Stephen P. "Allocation and Uncertainty in the Age of Superfund: A Critique of the Redistribution of CERCLA Liability." New York University Environmental Law Journal 3 (no. 1, 1994): 36- .

-Kleese, Deborah A. and Michael R. Edelstein. "Cultural Relativity of Impact Assessment: Native Hawaiian Opposition to Geothermal Energy Development." Society and Natural Resources 8 (no. 1, 1995): 19- .

-Gottlieb, Paul D. "The `Golden Egg' as a Natural Resource: Toward a Normative Theory of Growth Management." Society and Natural Resources 8 (no. 1, 1995):49- .

-Albrecht, Stan L. "Equity and Justice in Environment Decision Making: A Proposed Research Agenda." Society and Natural Resources 8 (no. 1, 1995): 67- .

-Yu, Douglas. "Free Trade Is Green; Protectionism Is Not." Conservation Biology 8 (1994): 989-996. Many hold that free trade will lead to environmental degradation. But industries that benefit from protection by tariffs also frequently benefit from subsidy by lax environmental standards. Environmentalists can ally themselves with free traders and learn how to use free trade as an ally in environmental reform. Yu is in biology at Harvard University.

-Warshall, Peter. "The Biopolitics of the Mt. Graham Red Squirrel (Tamiasciuris hudsonicus grahamensis)." Conservation Biology 8(1994):977-988. Specific administrative actions within the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and special interest politics by the Arizona Congressional delegation and the University of Arizona, together with an astronomical consortium, prevented an accurate assessment of the status of the Mt. Graham red squirrel and implementation of alternatives to insure its survival and recovery. Two telescopes have been constructed in the squirrel's critical habitat. Warshall is with Scientists for the Preservation of Mt. Graham, Tucson, AZ.

-Seidel, Amy L., and Paul A. Opler. "Uncompahgre Fritillary Butterfly Demographics: Response to Britten et al." Conservation Biology 8(1994):1156-1157. With response by Britten et al. This butterfly, an endangered species, came into controversy when studies showed that it was going extinct naturally, due to changing climate, and scientists recommended taking no heroic actions to save it, since it was a natural extinction. Seidel and Opler claim that the population is stable, since collection pressures have been removed. Britten et al respond that the data are more equivocal. Seidel is at Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Crested Butte, CO; Opler is with the National Biological Survey, Fort Collins, CO.

-Pearce, David. "Dead in the Water." New Scientist, 4 February 1995. Attempts to save the grossly polluted Mediterranean Sea seem as doomed as the sea itself. The Mediterranean Action Plan, a convention organized by UNEP and agreed to 20 years ago by every nation bordering the sea (except Albania), has failed. More than 130 million people live along the coastline, with an additional 100 million tourists, and 80% of their sewage goes untreated into the sea. Add to that enormous amounts of industrial wastes and marine ecosystems are everywhere collapsing.

-Perry, David A. Forest Ecosystems. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. 500 pp. Cloth, $80.00. Paper, $50.00. Twenty-three chapters in comprehensive survey of the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems worldwide: temperate, tropical, and boreal. Climatic influences on the distribution of forests and how global warming might shift that. Forest dynamics, biological diversity, soils. Primary productivity, nutrient cycling, herbivory, ecosystem stability, and factors contributing to ecosystem collapse, such as acid rain and mismanagement. Principles of sustainable forest management. Perhaps the most outstanding work on forest ecosystems in print. Perry is in ecosystem studies at Oregon State University.

-Helvarg, David. The War Against the Greens: The Wise Use Movement, the New Right and Anti-Environmental Violence. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994. 502 pages. $25. The growing effort to stifle environmental progress now includes, the author maintains, not only legitimate, if wrong-headed opposition, but, increasingly, the use of devious techniques that can include incrimination, threats against property and persons, vandals, and even violence against environmentalists. Helberg is a journalist and private investigator.

-Kohák, Erazim. "Speaking to Trees." Critical Review 6 (1992): 371-388. What is the epistemological status of a world within which speaking to trees would appear as appropriate behavior? It would be a world perceived as a community of autonomous beings worthy of respect. Such a world contrasts with the anthropocentric conception of the world as a value-free reservoir of raw materials, but neither worldview can or should claim descriptive accuracy. Both are equally "manners of speaking" and the choice between them must rest on whether they are conducive to ecologically constructive or ecologically destructive behavior. On that basis, speaking to trees is a legitimate, speaking of biomechanisms an illegitimate form of verbal behavior. Kohák is professor of philosophy at Boston University, and also in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

-Milton, Kay, ed. Environmentalism: The View from Anthropology. London: Routledge, 1993. 240 pages. £ 14.99 paper. Stressing the cultural dimensions of green issues, the contributors maintain that anthropology has a distinctive contribution to make to the ecological debate.

-Marvin, E. Olsen, Dora G. Lodwick, and Riley E. Dunlap. Viewing the World Ecologically. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992. 214 pp. $28.00 paper. The authors use surveys to look at how strongly society adheres to the prevailing paradigm of the twentieth century, the technological social paradigm of the industrial period, compared with a shift to a sustainable development paradigm. Many persons hold attitudes that relate to both paradigms. Most of the data are about a decade old.

-Sagoff, Mark. "Population, Nature and the Environment." In Beyond the Numbers: A Reader on Population, Consumption and the Environment, ed. Laurie Ann Mazur. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1994.

-Dobbins, Jeffrey C. "The Pain and Suffering of Environmental Loss: Using Contingent Valuation to Estimate Nonuse Damages." Duke Law Journal 43 (1994): 879-946. The various economic, philosophical, and legal arguments posed against the validity of contingent valuation will continue for some time to come. Despite uncertainties in contingent valuation methodologies, however, agencies and courts should permit contingent valuation to serve as one pieces of evidence in the effort properly to assess the value of natural resource damages. The consistently positive response to contingent valuation studies and our own experience indicate that many of us do place a value on the mere existence of natural places and organisms. The difficulties involved in translating this value into monetary terms do not justify the complete rejection of a method that has the potential for reporting useful information. Although a significant body of criticism regarding the mechanics of contingent valuation methodology has been developed, caution in design and administration can resolve most of the difficulties. To the extent that even well-conducted contingent valuation studies remain doubtful, they involve questions regarding the appropriateness of inserting these sorts of cash values into the litigation and policymaking process. The decision then is a political, moral, and legal one. Are existence values the sorts of things that we consider an important part of natural resource damage recovery? Do we want to reduce such values to cash as a common denominator or does ethics reject common denominators as a vehicle by which values are compromised.

Wildfire and the International Journal of Wildland Fire are two publications of the International Association of Wildland Fire, featuring technical and policy articles on wildfire. Dr. Jason Greenlee, IAWF, P. O. Box 328, Fairfield, WA 99012. Phone 509/283-2397. Fax 509/283-2264.


Contract With America
The Sierra Club and other activist groups are determined to expose the "War on the Environment" concealed inside the Contract with America. The Contract never mentions the environment, yet its provisions could radically roll back decades of hard-won laws and policies for public lands, health, and safety. The Contract is a "Polluter's Bill of Rights," according to the The Planet (Feb/March 1995), which is an activist newsletter published by the Sierra Club. The Contract's "Hidden War" on the environment will erode environmental protection in four ways: (1) reverse the principle that polluters should pay to clean up their own mess; (2) allow state and local governments to shirk their responsibility to protect citizens from unsafe and unhealthy environments; (3) implement a new "risk assessment" for chemicals that will assume they are "safe until proven guilty"; and (4) remove constraints on corporate misconduct by making it more difficult for citizens to take corporations to court. For instance, Section 9 of the Contract With America, requires that in any federal court action between citizens of different states, the loser must pay the attorney fees of the winner-even if its a corporate giant like Exxon-and limits punitive damages to three times the economic damages awarded in the case, regardless of how egregious the misconduct. For legislative updates, you may call the Sierra Club Legislative Hotline at 202-675-2394.

Cost-benefit, Human Health, and Pollution
The U.S. House passed a bill that would change how Federal agencies enforce health, safety, and environmental laws. It would replace health-based standards with risk assessment procedures that require any new regulations to show that the financial costs to industry are not greater than the anticipated benefits to the public. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner claims "this legislation is not reform, it is a full frontal assault on protecting public health and the environment." See John Cushman, "House Approves A New Standard for Regulations," The New York Times,1 March 1995, A1.
This legislation ignores basic considerations of distributive justice. It allows regulated businesses to externalize their costs onto the public-increasing the frequency of sickness or shortening lives-if it is judged that the increase in health or length of life is not a sufficiently great benefit to outweigh the cost that business would have to pay under the proposed regulation. This is a simple-minded utilitarianism that ignores that people have no right to impose their costs on others, even when the others stand to lose less. Clearly costs and benefits of regulations should be assessed before regulations are instituted, but other considerations need to be taken into account as well.

Logging Improves Forest Health?
"Salvage logging"-removing dead or dying trees-is being supported by the U.S. Forest Service and some in Congress with the argument that this improves forest health and protects against forest fires. The argument is being used to increase the level of logging on national forests. The claim is that forests throughout the West are overgrown and increasingly susceptible to fire, drought, and pestilence. The president of the American Forests and Paper Association argues that we should remove the "21 billion board feed of dead timber that has accumulated on Forest Service lands," because "this represents a potential valuable ]i!!, that can be reclaimed, as well as a serious wildfire hazard that poses a threat to forest health and forest communities." Environmental groups oppose the idea that "the best prescription for a frail forest is surgery with a chain saw," and they favor allowing nature "to run its course, especially in roadless areas and along ecologically fragile streams." Environmental ethicists who appeal to "ecosystem health" should be particularly interested in this development. See John Cushman, "U.S. Sees Project as Model for Ailing Forests, But Critics See it as a Model of What Not to Do," The New York Times, 10 March 1995. Both the House and Senate have passed related "salvage" logging bills that double logging in publicly owned forests that are "damaged or threatened" and that suspend applicable environmental laws (allowing appeals) in order to speed the process. See The New York Times, 31 March 1995, A11.

Endangered Ecosystems
In an attempt to categorize declining ecosystems in a manner similar to endangered species, a study commissioned by the National Biological Service identified 126 areas as imperiled to varying degrees. Thirty ecosystems are "critically endangered" as they have declined by over 98% from precolonial America, including the tallgrass prairies and oak savannas of the Midwest and the longleaf pine forests of the Southeast coastal plain. 58 others are "endangered" having declined over 85% and 38 are "threatened" having declined over 70%. There areas combined cover over 1/2 the American landscape. Many in the conservation community think it useful to shift the biodiversity debate from protecting single species to protecting ecosystems. Reed Noss, the editor of Conservation Biology was one of the reports authors. See William Stevens, The New York Times, 14 February 1995, A1.

Biodiversity Beyond Species
Because of their incredible species diversity (7% of earth's surface, with over 50% of species), tropical rain forests have received the greatest attention from those concerned to preserve biodiversity. But some biologists argue that other ways of calculating biodiversity suggest that rainforest preservation may be getting too much of limited conservation resources. Many species in rainforests are closely related to each other. In contrast, though composed of comparatively fewer species, some other habitats offer more genetic diversity because they have representatives from more genera, families, or phyla. Deserts, not rainforests, may have the greatest changeover in species types from one hectare to the next. Evolutionary ancient species may be more important to preserve from a biodiversity standpoint than the same number of recent species. One scientist suggests that the best way to save a great deal of the earth's genetic diversity would be to focus on preserving at least a few members of all extant families. See Angier, "Redefining Diversity: Biologists Urge Look Beyond Rain Forests, The New York Times, 29 November 1994, B5.

Niche Specialization in the Extreme
Some insect species are so specialized, that they have adapted to a single plant and will fail to thrive on a plant of the same species growing a few feet away. Insects achieve such specialization because individual long-lived plants will be prey for many generations of short- lived insects who spend their entire lives on one plant (in some cased on one twig). Thus natural selection adapts the insect species to a particular plant. Such intense specialization of insects points to a danger in planting hundreds of square miles of plants that are genetically uniform. Because individual plants can differ in their defensive mechanisms, more heterogeneity in crops or trees helps prevent pest outbreaks. Does such specialization dampen the moral force of a duty to preserve each and every species? Does it undermine the idea all species are equally morally important? See Carol Yoon, "Insects Adapted to a Single Twig: Specialization in the Extreme," The New York Times, 27 September 1994, B8.

U. S. Fails to Ratify the Rio Biodiversity Convention
President Clinton has signed the treaty, but the Senate has not ratified it. Some Republican Senators worry that language in the treaty "could be construed to undermine this nation's ability to strike its own balance domestically between environmental values and competing interests." See editorial, "Biodiversity Pact on the Ropes," The New York Times, 26 September 1994.

Jobs Versus Owls?
Despite predictions that restrictions on logging ordered in 1991 to protect the northern spotted owl would result in economic calamity, Oregon, the nation's top timber- producing state, has posted its lowest unemployment rate in a generation (about 5%). In the last five years, Oregon has lost 15,000 jobs in forest products but gained nearly 20,000 in high technology. In the last year alone, the state's growing economy added 100,000 jobs - the exact amount the timber industry said would be lost with restrictions. Even the most timber-dependent counties report rising property values and a net increase in jobs. See Timothy Egan, "Oregon, Foiling Forecasters, Thrives as It Protects Owls," The New York Times, 11 October 1994, A1.

Subterranean Biosphere
Microbes have been discovered living almost two miles beneath the earth's surface, lending support to a theory that the earth has a hidden biosphere of isolated and ancient life extending down many miles and whose total mass may exceed that of all surface life. See William Broad, "Drillers Find Lost World of Ancient Microbes," The New York Times, 4 October 1994, B5.

More Uses for the Yellowstone Thermophiles
Sulphur-loving bacteria from the hot springs in Yellowstone National Park could help reduce the mountains of used car tires that pose disposal great problems. Biochemists have found strains of Sulfolobus and other bacteria there that can upgrade the rubber so that it can be recycled. The U.S. has 2.5 billion scrap tires, and adds 200 million each year, and the main reason they cannot be recycled is the sulphur in them. Story in New Scientist, February 4, 1995. In rather dramatic earlier news, another of these thermophiles proved useful in the polymerase chain reaction techniques, used in DNA genetic fingerprinting, a process sold for $300 million and now earning $100 million a year.

Bacterium Banned That Makes Poison Plants Safe
Large numbers of cattle and sheep in northern Australia die from fluoroacetate poisoning after eating certain native plants, especially Acacia, Gastrolobium, and Oxylobium, to which they turn when pasture is poor in dry periods. In one incident in western Queensland, 17,000 sheep died from a flock of 70,000. Owners of cattle and sheep turned to genetic engineering, and biotechnicians inserted a gene from a soil bacterium Moraxella into the bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which lives in the rumen of sheep and cattle. The gene from Moraxella produces an enzyme which detaches the fluorine from fluoroacetate, turning it into a harmless compound call glycolate. The group planned to put the modified rumen bacteria into hundreds of animals from thirty stations in the Northern Territory and Queensland.
But Australia's Genetic Manipulation Advisory Board rejected the plan, fearing that it could be transmitted to other animals, especially to feral goats, also common in the area, also possibly to rabbits, which are controlled with the pesticide 1080, containing fluoroacetate. The bacterium can be transmitted from animal to animal in saliva, by licking or in droplets in the animal's breath, although it survives only a few minutes outside the rumen. Story in New Scientist, February 4, 1995.

Indian Dams Will Drive Out Rare Animals
Two large dams being built on the Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh will destroy prime wildlife habitat and drive some species to extinction locally. The dams will submerge 100,000 hectares of forest and agricultural land, including 40,000 hectares of prime wildlife habitat, home to endangered species such as the tiger and leopard, sloth bear, wolf, fishing cat, and ratel. Many dozens of plants are also involved. Some 160,000 people will also be displaced. Story in New Scientist, 4 February 1995. For a book-length treatment, see William F. Fisher, ed., Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over India's Narmada River, listed in the bibliography.

Debate Over Norwegian Climbing Expedition in Nepal. A Norwegian climbing expedition to Nepal, led by Arne Naess, Jr. (a relative but not the son of Arne Naess of deep ecology fame), left Norway on March 25, hoping to conquer a hitherto unclimbed peak in the Rolwaling region of Nepal, and expecting to reach the summit on May 17, the Norwegian national independence day. Critics complain that the region, though perhaps not the peak itself, is sacred to Buddhists as well as pristine; proponents claim that the Dalai Lama has given his permission. Critics complain that the whole expedition sets a bad example for the relations of Norway to the Nepalese, who do not wish these areas opened up to such ecotourism, as well as a bad model of the human relationship to the natural world; proponents see it as in the long Norwegian tradition of exploration. Contact: Sigmund Kvaloy, Setreng Institute of Ecophilosophy, 7494 Singsas, Norway. Phone 47 724 36340. Fax 47 724 36368. Or, in the U.S.: Eric H. Hol, Buddhist Perception of Nature, Fax 503/741-0251.

"Fish Wars" have erupted between Canada and Spain. England and Ireland have joined on the side of Canada. The disagreement hinges on the rights of all fishermen to fish beyond Canadian boundaries off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Combined with pollution, warming and other factors, overfishing has led to the virtual extinction of the cod, putting whole towns and villages out of a livelihood. After capture on the high seas of the Spanish trawler Estai, a pending trial for its Captain, and intense negotiations in Brussels between the European Commission and Canada, agreement has been reached. On Saturday, 15 April 1995, Canadian Fisheries Minister Brian Tobin announced an agreement allotting a total quota of 27,000 tons (Canada 10 tons, Spain 10, and all others 7). Tobin declared Canada's determination to embrace "a new conservation ethic " and to defend "world fisheries" with force if necessary. Spain's fishermen responded by criticizing their government for their agreement and insisting that they would abide by limits for turbot only if faced by guns. This may well happen, as shots were fired earlier across the bow of the Estai, a first in the history of Canadian fisheries. (Contributed by L. Westra)

The Pacific Northwest (U.S.) Salmon Extinction Crisis
The salmon extinction crisis in the Pacific Northwest (U.S.) continues to intensify while various government agencies and commissions search for solutions and publish competing "restoration" plans. Most of the attention centers on the Columbia River system, though there are grave problems with salmon runs in coastal streams as well. The Columbia River is now thoroughly industrialized and dammed, and the primary uses of the river in this century are, in order of decreasing importance, electric power generation, urban and industrial water consumption, agriculture, flood control, navigation, recreation, and, last of all, fish and wildlife. Over two-thirds of the salmon that swim the river today are hatchery fish, principally chinook, steelhead, and coho salmon. Hatchery production has shifted the species composition toward artificially-bred salmon and has imperiled the survival of wild salmon and genetic diversity. But the causes of damage to salmon runs are many; habitat degradation has resulted from logging, farming, and ranching, for example, and alteration of the river for power production figures very heavily in any equation. The power system has clearly fostered the economic development of the Pacific Northwest and made economic return the governing criterion for most river functions. Little wonder, then, that the interests of salmon, the cultural needs of Native Americans, and the health of the ecosystem as a whole have been slighted.
While there are some optimistic claims that some salmon runs can be restored at least in the long term, the management task is complicated by such factors as the sheer size and ecological complexity of the river system, overlapping national, federal, and state jurisdictions, competing economic and conservation goals, private control of water rights, and different philosophical attitudes about the depth of human responsiblities to nonhumans. Human chauvinism has carried the day thus far.
Clearly a fundamental change must be made in river management and in priorities for river uses, if salmon stocks are to be maintained and wild fish to survive. Eliminating dams and hatchery propagation are not practical options, so other choices are being explored, such as increased water flows in the spring to speed up young fish migration downstream. A more biocentric approach is needed; but some salmon species in the upper river may not be salvageable under any scheme, the financial costs of restoration will be huge, and there are uncertainties in the science underlying restoration. Kai Lee, author of Compass and Gyroscope and promoter of adapative management techniques in the Columbia basin, argues that rebuilding the fish and wildlife of an industrialized ecosystem of this size is "heroically optimistic," because rebuilding will require coordinated action and social learning on new and unprecedented scales, and planning and improving a system that is already inefficient. (Contributed by Peter List, Philosophy Department, Oregon State University)

Property Rights and "Takings" Legislation
The U.S. Congress and a number of states are considering "takings" or "property rights" legislation. This legislation requires government agencies to pay landowners when regulation of the land reduces property values by some specified amount (called a "trigger") from some baseline (usually "fair market value"). The U.S. House of Representatives passed a version whose trigger is 20% and applies to regulations preventing the filling of wetlands, protecting endangered species, or specifying private rights to use publicly-owned water. For example, if prohibitions on logging to protect endangered red-cockaded woodpecker habitat reduced someone's property value by more than 20%, then the landowner would have to be compensated the full amount of the reduction. Since the funds would come out of the Interior Department's budget, this would give it a powerful disincentive to aggressively enforce the Endangered Species Act. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt called the House bill "nothing but a thinly disguised attack on America's great natural resources." See John Cushman, "House Clears More Limits on Environmental Rules," The New York Times, 3 March 1995, A11. For an argument that including water rights in the bill amounts to welfare for Western farmers and miners (who pay only 10% the cost of federally provided water), see David Frum, "The GOP's `Takings' Sell-Out," Wall Street Journal, 16 March 1995. The Senate is considering a version (sponsored by Bob Dole and Phil Gramm) that sets the trigger at 33% and applies to any Federal regulation of property. Historically, a regulation only constitutes a taking under the Constitution's 5th amendment ("government may not take private property for public use without just compensation") if the regulation makes property virtually valueless. These new laws would significantly expand the scope of this idea. Critics fear that takings legislation will undermine ordinary zoning regulation and historic preservation legislation, as well as environmental regulation.
For good background articles, see Tom Kenworthy, "GOP Plan to Broaden Property Rights Could Cost Public Dearly," Washington Post,13 December 1994, A7, and Keith Schneider, "Fighting to Keep U.S. Rules from Devaluing Land," The New York Times, 9 January 1995, A1. For a debate on the issue, see articles by Dan Gordon and James DeLong, "The Environment vs. Property Rights," The New York Times, 15 March 1995, A15. For an attempt to mark out a middle position on this debate, see Charles Mann and Mark Plummer, "Environmental Law is Wrecking the Environment," The New York Times, 2 March 1995, A15. For a philosophically sophisticated legal discussion of the issue, see "Environmental Regulations and Private Property Rights" in the video section of this newsletter.
Here is one argument against "takings" legislation. Sponsors of "takings" and "property rights" bills assume that property rights are absolute. But when people act as a community to establish certain kinds of property, we both limit the bundle of rights extended to owners and attach responsibilities to those rights. For example, the right to own a gun does not allow the owner to do whatever he wants with it. Responsibilities for proper use go along with the limited rights of gun ownership. Other examples include owning a pet or a flag. Similarly, owners of land do not have rights to do anything they want with the land. In our society, land ownership does not include the right to hunt on the land out of season, to fill in the wet parts of that land, to tear down historic buildings on the land, to build on parts of the land in a tidal zone, or to drive endangered life forms on the land out of existence. When people buy land they realize (or should realize) that our society has committed itself to the protection of wildlife, wetlands, historic buildings, beaches, and endangered species. The bundle of rights one gets when one buys land does not include a right to destroy these things, but rather brings with it responsibilities to preserve them. Takings legislation requires communities to pay landowners not to destroy these things. The rationale is that prohibiting a landowner from destroying them makes the property less valuable and thus fairness to the landowner requires compensation from the community. But this is an illusion. The landowner was never given these rights to destroy in the first place and so the community is not taking anything from the landowner. Only if one mistakenly believes that property rights in land are absolute rights to do anything one wants to the land does the "takings" legislation make sense. There are extreme cases where communities enact dramatically new regulations that amount to an unfair and burdensome changing of the rules of property ownership in midstream. But the way to handle these situations is to modify these regulations, not to create legislation that establishes absolute rights of land ownership. Fundamentally changing institutions like land ownership based on extreme cases makes for bad public policy. (Contributed by Ned Hettinger, Dept. of Philosophy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424; Tel. 803-953-5786 (office) 803-883-9201 (home); Fax 803-953-5687; Email: HettingerN@CofC.edu).

Report from Laura Westra, Secretary of ISEE

Because the date of our incorporation was April 1994, Westra Accounting Ltd. produced two separate Financial Statements, for the periods January-April 1994 and April-December 1994; the latter, an interim statement. Combined total fees received were $4,372.00, including Canadian Fees, and that total included donations and prepaid fees. As the total membership to which Newsletters are sent is at least 550 effective members, many are still not paying, or paying late, or skipping a year altogether. We hope to indicate on our labels the last date paid with the next mailing (Summer 1995). If you have not paid in 1995, please use the enclosed pink slip to catch up on what you owe, at $15.00 US per year or $20.00 CND; $10.00 for students in either currency.
Not all the statements from other groups were available (more to come). Western Europe had total revenues of $286.00 US and a net balance of $91.00 US retained earnings. Dr. Achterberg reports that not even half of the roughly 70 members pay regularly. South Africa now has 16 members, revenues of $111.00 US and retained earnings of $55.00 US; again, not everyone pays.



-April 26-28. Conference on "The Artist in Cultural and Environmental Context." Salisbury State University. See Announcement above.

-May 8-10. International Conference on Energy and Environment, Shanghai, China. Contact: Prof. Zhi-Hang Chen, ECUT, P. O. Box 482, 516 Jun Gong Road, Shanghai 200093, P.R. China. Phone 86-21-5430569 Fax 86-21-5435883.

-May 25-27. "Surviving Globalization: Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions," London, Ontario, The Westminster Institute for Ethics and Human Values. See details earlier. Contact: Ted Schrecker, Associate Director (Environmental Ethics) Westminster Institute for Ethics and Human Values, 361 Windermere Road London, Ontario N6G 2K3 Canada. Phone (519) 673-0046; Fax (519) 673-5016. E-mail schrecker@sscl.uwo.ca

-June 2-3. The Canadian Society for the Study of Practical Ethics (CSSPE), at the Canadian Learned Societies Meetings, with section on Environmental Ethics, Montreal, Quebec. Contact: Mary Richardson and Peter Miller, Program Co-Chairs, c/o Department of Philosophy, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. E-mail: miller@uwpg02.uwinnipeg.ca Phone: (204) 786-9832; or Thom Heyd or Andrew Light (addresses above).

-June 2-3. Society for Philosophy and Geography, and Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas, at the Canadian Learned Societies Meetings, Montreal, Quebec, with section on "Ideas of Nature and Land." See announcement earlier.

-June 2-4. Natural and Human Introduced Change in Madagascar, at the Field Museum in Chicago. Contact B. D. Patterson, Center for Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. Phone 312/922-9410 x468.
-June 7-11. Society for Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. See announcement above.

-June 8-11. Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society, and the Association for the Study of Food and Society. Joint Meeting, Tuskegee University. Contact Duane Merlin Ford, Science Division, Northeast Missouri State University, Kirksville, MO 63501-0828.

-June 9-11. Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE), Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Speakers: SueEllen Campbell, John Elder, William Howarth, Scott Russell Sanders, Luci Tapahonso, Roderick Nash. Numerous contributed papers. Note that this is the same time and place as the Society for Conservation Biology, see below, also earlier. Contact: Scott Slovic, President, ASLE, English Department, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666.

-June 10-13. National Association of Environmental Professionals, 20th Annual Conference, on "Environmental Challenges: The Next 20 Years," Washington, DC. Call for papers. Papers welcome in ethics, values, and policy. Contact NAEP, 5165 MacArthur Blvd, NW, Washington, DC 20016. Fax 202-966-1977.

-June 21-24. Who Owns America? Land and Resource Tenure Issues in a Changing Environment. Land Tenure Center, 1357 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53715.

-June 21-25. Interdisciplinary Conference on the Environment, Park Plaza Hotel and Towers, Boston, Massachusetts. Call for papers. Contact Dr. Demetri Kantarelis, IEA, Economics/Foreign Affairs Dept., Assumption College, 500 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01615-0005. Phone 508-752-5615, ext. 557. Fax 508-799-4502.

-June 24-29. Ethical Issues of Animal Research, Georgetown University, Washington, organized by Kennedy Institute of Ethics. See Announcements above.

-June 25-30. Third International Conference on Ethics in the Public Service, "Politics, Ethics, and the Professions," in Jerusalem, June 25-30, 1995, with an ISEE section. See more detailed announcement above.

-June 26-29. Vienna, Austria: Sixth Annual Conference of the International Society for Business and Society (IABS). Topics include corporate social responsibility and environmental management. Three-page (maximum) abstracts are due 28 November 1994. Send to the Program Chair: Douglas Nigh, College of Business Administration, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 USA; tel. 803-777-6942; Fax 803-777-3609.

-July and August. New Jersey School of Conservation, Montclair State University, Branchville, NJ, offers various conservation courses, outdoors and in the classroom. This is the largest resident center for environmental studies in the Western Hemisphere, serving over 11,000 students annually, located on a 240 acre tract of land within Stokes State Forest, and surrounded by 30,000 acres of natural area, all in New Jersey! Contact: New Jersey School of Conservation, Montclair State University, 1 Wapalanne Road, Branchville, NJ 07826.

-July 2-7. Australian Association of Philosophy (Australian Division), annual conference at University of New England, Armidale, NSW. ISEE section and papers are invited. See the announcement above.

-July 7-16. 10-day Summer School in Applied Deep Ecology, Chinook Learning Center, Whidbey Island, Washington. Contact The Institute for Deep Ecology, P. O. Box 1050, Occidental, CA 95465. Phone 707/874-2347.

-July 16-20. Amsterdam. Fourth International Conference of the American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics, the University of Amsterdam, and the Dutch Society of Health Law. A theme (no. IV) is "Health, Ecology, Persons and Planet." The connections between human health and ecological health, including how new concepts developed in medicine, ethics, and law might be applicable to the promotion of ecological health, and vice-versa. These include resource allocation; justice (including inter-generational justice) in health care; open and closed legal systems and concepts of trust, covenant and quality of life.

-July 16-20. Conference, International Association for Bear Research and Management, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. With a session on bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Papers invited. Contact: Harry Reynolds, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701-1599. Fax 907-452-6410

-July 30-August 3. Ecological Society of America, in Snowbird, Utah. ISEE sponsored a session last year (in Knoxville, Tennessee) and interested persons should contact Laura Westra, address below. The Ecological Society of America has 6,300 members and this is an excellent opportunity for philosophers, ethicists, and others to interact with them. For conference details: Ecological Society of America, 2010 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Suite 420, Washington, DC 20036. Phone 202-833-8773.

-August 1-5. XIII International Congress of Aesthetics, Lahti, Finland. Theme: Aesthetics in Practice: Connections between Academic Research in Aesthetics and Everyday Life, especially Concerning the Environment." This follows and continues a very successful First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics held at Koli National Park in Finland this past June. Papers on the aesthetics of nature are especially welcomed. Contact: Sonja Servomaa, University of Helsinki, Lahti Research and Training Centre, Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 Lahti, Finland. Phone 358-18-892 11. Fax: 358-18-892 219.

-August 3-10. YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado. Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World (SPCW). Conference theme: Human Nature, Human Habitat. Several environmental papers have been submitted, including ones by Mel Boulter (Kent, UK, on Callicott's misinterpretation of Leopold), Val Plumwood, and Jack Weir (on the political implications of comprehensive religio-environmental philosophies for politics in a secular state). Proposals on topics in environmental ethics, animal ethics, and ecophilosophy are welcome. Opportunities for hiking in the Rockies. Accommodations for children and families. Contact: Prof. John Jones, Program Chair, Department of Philosophy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233 USA, tel. 414-288-6857; Email <6563jonesj@vmsa.csd.mu.edu>

-August 6-10. American Institute of Biological Sciences meets in San Diego, Town and Country Hotel. Contact AIBS, 730 11th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20001-4521, Phone: 202-628-1500; Fax: 202-628-1509.

-August 6-12. International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), 20th World Congress, Tampere, Finland.
-August 9-12. Turku, Finland, International Conference on "Doing the Decent Thing with Genes". Topics include the Human Genome Project, the ethics of genetic intervention, Defective Genes, and the Commercial Use of Genetic Inventions in Agriculture and Animals. Invited speakers include Gregory Fowler, Ruth Chadwick and Laura Westra.

-August 25-27. Aspen, Colorado. Windstar Choices Symposium, David Brower, Frances Moore Lappe, Mary Catherine Bateson, Matthew Fox, David Suzuki (PBS, Nature), Jean-Michel Cousteau, and others. Contact: Windstar Foundation, Aspen, Phone 303/927-4777.

-August 26-29. Cortona, Italy. Laura Westra, Brunetto Chiarelli, Dr. Pierre diToro, and Dr Phillipe Crabbe are co-organizing a conference on Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Ecology and Bioethics. You are invited to submit a manuscript or a two-page abstract to L. Westra (University of Windsor) by March 1, 1995. Invited speakers include Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Philippe Crabbe, Klaus Meyer-Abich, Mark Sagoff, James Sterba, Peter Wenz, Henry Regier, James Karr and other scientists and philosophers.

-September 11-12. European Environment Conference, University of Nottingham. Contact: ERP Environment, P. O. Box 75 Shipley, West Yorkshire, BD17 6EZ, UK. Fax 44 1274-530409.

-September 11-12. 4th IRNES Conference. University of Keele, UK. See Announcement above.

-September 11-14. Second Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference, Flagstaff, AZ. Contact: Joyce Maschinski, The Arboretum at Flagstaff, P. O. Box 670, Flagstaff, AZ 86002.

-September 20-21. Business Strategy and the Environment Conference, University of Leeds. Contact: ERP Environment, P. O. Box 75 Shipley, West Yorkshire, BD17 6EZ, UK. Fax 44 1274-530409.

-September 20-23. National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Estes Park, Colorado, adjacent to Rocky Mountain National Park. The conference will be combined with watching wildlife! Contact: National Watchable Wildlife Conference, 4800 Baseline Rd., # A-112, Boulder, CO 80303. 800/499-6336.
-November 13-15. Fire and Rare and Endangered Species and Habitats, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The International Association of Wildland Fire calls for papers. Contact: Dr. Jason Greenlee, IAWF, P. O. Box 328, Fairfield, WA 99012. Phone 509/283-2397. Fax 509/283-2264


-January 1-8, 1996. International Development Ethics Association (IDEA), Fourth International Conference, on Globalization, Self-Determination, and Justice in Development, in Tamil Nadu, India. Send abstracts to Peter Penz, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Fax 416/736-5679. E-mail: es050005@orion.yorku.ca

-May 18-23, 1996. Sixth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.

The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics is published quarterly by the International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE). Holmes Rolston, III, and Jack Weir are co-editors. The Spring issue is published and mailed in April; the Summer issue in July; the Fall issue in October; and the Winter issue in January.
Requests for subscriptions should be sent to Laura Westra, ISEE Secretary, at the address below.
Items for inclusion in future issues of the Newsletter should be sent to Jack Weir, the producing editor, via Email where possible. Deadlines for receipt of materials are: April 1st, July 1st, September 1st, and January 1st. Send items to:
j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu(Note the hyphen!)

Postal address: Jack Weir, Dept. of Philosophy, 103 Combs Building, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office, Voice Mail); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); Fax 606-783-2678 (include Weir's name on the Fax).