Volume 5, No. 3, Fall 1994

General Announcements

The American Philosophical Association: Eastern Division meets 27-30

December 1994, Boston (Marriott Copeley Place, tel.1-800-225-6008), and will include two ISEE sessions: Session I (Wednesday morning, December 28): New Directions in Environmental Ethics. Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston) and Bill Throop (St. Andrews College, NC), "Can Ecocentric Ethics Withstand Chaos in Ecology?"; Amy Lee Knisley (University of Colorado, Boulder), "Talking Trash." Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology) moderates. Session II (Thursday evening, December 29). Sustainable Development and Spirituality. Jack Weir (Morehead State University, KY), "Sustainable Development, Flourishing, and Poverty"; Dieter T. Hessel (Program on Ecology, Justice, and Faith), "Naturalist and Covenantal Aspects of Spirited Earth Ethics." Chair: Eric Katz, who is program organizer for Eastern APA.

Also at the APA in Boston:

--Erazim Kohak (Boston University and Prague University), author of The Embers and the Stars, will be giving an invited paper, "Varieties of Ecological Experience." The entire session is devoted to Kohak's paper. Frederick FerrÇ (University of Georgia) will chair the session, and Barry Smith (SUNY Buffalo) will comment on Kohak's paper.

--Jack Weir (Morehead State University) will present a paper on "Gandhi, Deep Ecology, and the Environmental Crisis" in the joint meeting of the Gandhi-King Society and the Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World.

--The Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals will have two sessions, "Comparing the Value of Human and Nonhuman Lives: How Are We To Do It, and Where Will It Lead Us?" with R. G. Frey and Steve F. Sapontzis, and "Animals, Evil, Theodicy," including a paper by Robert Rosenfeld, "Can Animals Be Evil?"

The Central Division of the APA meets 26-29 April 1995, Palmer House Hilton Hotel, Chicago, IL. Two ISEE sessions are planned: "Environmental Ethics in Europe," with papers by Klaus Meyer-Abich, Konrad Ott, and Jan Wawrzyniak; and "Environmental Racism," with papers by Peter Wenz, Laura Westra, and Robert Bullard. Laura Westra will Chair the first session, and Jim Sterba the second. Contact Laura Westra for more information.

The Pacific Division of the APA meets 29 March to 1 April 1995 in San Francisco, Myako Hotel. The ISEE session will feature papers by William J. McKinney (Southeast Missouri State University), "Rolston and the Presumption of Guilt: Some Epistemic Problems in Environmental Ethics"; Harold Glasser (University of California at Davis), "How `Deep' is Transpersonal Ecology," with further details of the program there pending. Contact Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211. Phone 209-946-2881.

In general, the annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are: Eastern Division, March 1
Central Division, proposals by October 15, papers by January 1
Pacific Division, proposals by October 15, papers by January 1


Submit Eastern Division proposals to Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102. Submit Central Division proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4. Submit Pacific division proposals to Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211.

Annual membership dues for ISEE rise to $ 15 per year in 1995 in the United States and Canadian $ 18 in Canada. Dues overseas remain unchanged (ú 6.50, or the equivalent, or about US $ 10), both in Australia and in Europe, where the ISEE representatives (Robert Elliot and Wouter Achterberg, see below), report sufficient funds to continue their distribution of the newsletter. Students are half price.

David Rothenberg and Andrew Light are collecting manuscripts for a special issue of the journal Inquiry that will be devoted to Arne Naess. They are looking for insightful, detailed, but non-jargonistic essays on any of Naess' philosophy, with a particular interest in the more recent writings.

Drafts of papers or detailed abstracts are due by January 1, 1995. Contact either Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, University of Alberta, 4-108 Humanities Centre, Edmonton, Alberta CANADA T6G 2E5; 403-492-8854, <alight@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca>; or, David Rothenberg at the Department of Social Science and Policy Studies, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ, 07102 USA, 201-596-3289, <rothenberg@admin.njit.edu>.

In June 1994, a small group of psychologists and ecologists met to discuss the interrelationship of the two disciplines. Among those attending were Theodore Roszak (The Voice of the Earth), Catherine Caufield (In the Rainforest), James Hillman (Re-Visioning Psychology), and David Abram. The group has begun a newsletter. For information and subscriptions, contact the Ecopsychology Institute, California State University, Carlos Bee Blvd., Hayward, CA 94542-3045 USA.

The Institute of Global Cultural Studies, SUNY at Binghamton, held a conference on "Global and Multicultural Dimensions of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy," 14-16 October 1994. Next year's conference is 13-15 October 1995 (see below). This year Laura Westra organized a session on "Environmental Racism," with papers by Clarice Gaylord (EPA Director of Environmental Justice), "Environmental Practice: A National Priority"; Omari H. Kokole (SUNY Binghamton), "Ecophilia and African Cultures"; Sulayman Nyang (Howard University), "Ethnicity, Race and Political Ecology in Africa"; Augustine Frimpont-Mansoh (University of Windsor), "Environmental Racism in Ghana"; and Laura Westra (University of Windsor), "Titusville, AL and BFI: A Case Study in Environmental Racism." The papers will be published in a forthcoming volume edited by Westra and Peter Wenz. Papers and proposals for next year are being actively solicited, and they should be sent to Laura Westra (address below in this Newsletter).

A new organization, the Society for Global Africa (SGA), has been formed. The society's purpose is to promote scholarly African Studies from a global perspective. SGA will share its executives (Ali A. Mazrui, Omari H. Kokole, and Parviz Morewedge) with the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at SUNY, Binghamton. SGA's executive committee has commissioned Laura Westra to collect papers for a volume on the theme of Global African Studies from an environmental perspective. For more information, contract Laura Westra (address below).

The Society for Philosophy and Geography is newly formed. The group will meet in conjunction with the American Philosophical Association and the Association of American Geographers. Annual conferences are anticipated, and the journal Ecumene has agreed to consider publishing the proceedings.
Areas of interest include but are not limited to: cultural geography, iconography of landscape, social constructions of nature, and political, social, and environmental philosophy. Dues include the society's newsletter: $5 faculty, $3 students. Proposal deadlines for the APA:ED and PD are 15 October. Philosophy contact: Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, 4-108 Humanities Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA T6G 2E5; tel. 403-492-8854; e-mail <alight@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca>. Geography contact: Jonathan Smith, Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3147 USA; tel. 409-845-7155; e-mail <jOs7507@tamvm1.tamu.edu>.

Andrew Light is collecting manuscripts for an anthology on technology and local traditions. The volume will focus on the way in which some technologies are adapted by and take on the specific character of local communities, including those communities' relationships with their local environment. Papers on related topics are welcome, including: folk technology and folk art, technological systems and landscape formation, political and social philosophy of local technology use, relationships between technology and nature in a local context, game formation and history. Send papers, proposals, inquiries to Andrew Light (address above).

David Abram (PhD, SUNY Stony Brook, 1993) was the 1993-94 Rockefeller Fellow in Nature, Culture, and Technology at the University of Kansas. In his PhD dissertation, Abram examined perception and language in environmental philosophy, and he continued this research as a Rockefeller Fellow. The research is presented in Abram's forthcoming book, The Eclipse of the Earth: Animism, Language, and the Ecology of Sensory Experience (Pantheon, September 1995). Also included is the author's fieldwork with indigenous peoples in rural Asia and North America. The ecological predicament is analyzed in light of both the participatory nature of perception and the influence of language on experience. The book is one of the first to examine the relationship of language and ecology. Abram can be reached by phone or FAX at 516-223-0454.

Meetings, retreats, and workshops can be organized at the Centre for Ecology and Spirituality at Holy Cross, Port Burwell, R.R. #1, Ontario NOJ 1TO, CANADA; tel. 519-874-4502. Through the Toronto School of Theology, a certificate in theology and ecology, while pursuing a graduate degree, is offered. Call or write for information.

The Environmental Risk Program at the University of Alberta is now publishing a working-papers series on environmental risk. Papers on any aspect of environmental risk management or assessment are welcome. Contributions from an interdisciplinary perspective are encouraged; philosophical papers that relate to risk assessment, management, or communication, are particularly needed. Accepted papers will be advertised in the program's newsletter and sent out with a program cover, upon request, until the papers are published or for a duration of two years. The Environmental Risk Program is funded by the Eco-Research Chair in Environmental Risk Management, Dr. Steve Hrudey. Dr. Hrudey's chair is funded by public and private sources at the direction of the Canadian Tri- Council, the federal administrator of Canada's Green Plan. Send two copies of papers and a copy on a small computer disk (please indicate format and word processing program) to: Andrew Light, Environmental Risk Program, 13- 103 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, CANADA T6G 2G3; tel. 403-492-8854; e-mail <alight@gpu.srv.ualberta.ca>.

To subscribe to an Internet environmental ethics email list, send the line <join enviroethics yourfirstname yourlastname> to <mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk>.

For more information, contact Clare Palmer <C.A.Palmer@greenwish.ac.uk>.

ISEE Newsletter is now available on Internet. Back issues, though not the current issue, are available 24 hours a day from anywhere in the world with access to Internet. See details on this in separate section below.

Environmental Values, the British-based international and interdisciplinary journal on ethical and policy issues in environmental affairs, is now available in an electronic on-line version through Bioline Publications. Contents lists and abstracts of all articles are available free of change, and users registered with Bioline can subscribe to the full text of Environmental Values for half the price of the printed version. Access is available through: Gopher - point to point gopher.ftpt.br.70
World Wide Web - http:/www.ftpt.br/cgi-bin/bioline/bioline
Telnet - (a) to a public gopher site and locate Base de Dados Tropical in
Brazil (b) directly to bdt.ftpt.br (192.207.195.1) For more details contact Bioline Publications on E-mail: bio@biostrat.demon.co.uk Details and sample copies of the traditional printed version are available from The White Horse Press, 1 Strond, Isle of Harris PA83 3UD, UK. Fax 44 (country code) (0)859 (city code) 520 204

ISEE Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics is now available on disk in WordPerfect and in Macintosh. See details on this in separate section below. In the Internet ISEE Newsletter and the Master Bibliography, reference is made (we believe) to more information on environmental ethics than anywhere else on Earth!

Peter Singer was in the United States in August, attending the Annual Conference of the Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World (SPCW) at Estes Park, Colorado. He responded to a paper by Erin McKenna (Pacific Lutheran University), "The Work of Peter Singer: A Feminist Perspective." She argued that Singer depends so much on rationality that he underestimates the need for compassion in an ethic of respect for animals. Singer also responded to a paper by William Stephens (Creighton University, Omaha), "Five Arguments for Vegetarianism," arguing that perhaps no single argument for vegetarianism is persuasive but that various arguments cumulatively are. These papers, including Singer's response, will be published in SPCW's journal, Philosophy in the Contemporary World, Fall 1994 issue. Singer had earlier been at the International Vegetarian Congress in Amsterdam. Some other papers at this conference: Eleonore Adams (Cuyahoga Community College, Ohio), "Environmental Policy and Practice in a Diverse Society"; Cheryl Cline (University of Toronto), "Liberalism and the Environment: Redrawing the Limits of Autonomy"; Peter List (Oregon State University), "Environmental Scientists as Advocates for Nature: Some Medical Models"; Jack Weir (Morehead State University, Kentucky), "The Environmental Crisis as a Crisis of the Spirit." SPCW's Annual Conference next summer will again be at the YMCA of the Rockies, near Estes Park, Colorado. Proposals on topics in environmental ethics, animal ethics, and ecophilosophy are welcome. Scheduling allows opportunities for hiking in the Rockies (and rumor has it Holmes Rolston is considering leading a group to the top of Long's Peak). Accomodations for children; families welcome. Contact: Prof. John Jones, Program Chair, Department of Philosophy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233 USA, tel. 414-288-6857; Email <6563jonesj@vmsa.csd.mu.edu>; or Jack Weir (address elsewhere herein)

University of Manchester, Centre for Philosophy and the Environment, is sponsoring a symposium, "Environmental Perspectives," on October 21, in Manchester. Papers include: Tim Ingold (Anthropology, University of Manchester), "New Perspectives in Ecological Anthropology"; John O'Neill (Philosophy, University of Lancaster, "Communities and Strangers"; I. G. Simmons (Geography, University of Durham), "Back Down the Mine: Environment and Human History"; Crispin Tickell (Warden, Green College, Oxford), "Education for Sustainability"; Ted Benton (Sociology, University of Essex), "Green Futures--Who Are the Real Utopians?" Contact: Keekok Lee, Centre for Philosophy and the Environment, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, U.K. Phone 44 (country code) (0)61 (city code) 275-3196/3204. Fax: 275-3031.

Mansfield College, Oxford University, has recently made three appointments in the environmental field. One is a Fellowship, "Ethical Concern for Animals," the world's first academic post in the ethical and theological aspects of animal welfare. Andrew Linzey, a current faculty member at Mansfield, has been named to the post. The fellowship is sponsored by the International Fund for Animal Welfare. A 17-page color booklet announcing the fellowship contains a short essay reviewing animal concern and misuse in Western history, with particular reference to centuries of debate at Oxford University, with many quotations from Oxford faculty, graduates, lecturers, and other notables, and the aims of the fellowship, all nicely illustrated. IFAW is one of the largest animal welfare societies in the world, with over a million supporters. See also Linzey, Animal Theology, in bibliography below. Contact: Andrew Linzey, Mansfield College, Oxford OX1 3TF. Phone and Fax (0)865 270983. In a second appointment, the Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society has named Bhaskar Vira as the Waste Management International Research Fellow. He holds a BA in economics from St. Stephen's College, University of Delhi, and a M. Phil in economics from the University of Cambridge, where he is completing a Ph.D. thesis, Institutional Change and Natural Resource Management: The Case of Forest Policy Reform in India. He analyzes environmental policy, property rights, entitlement rules, and management regimes, especially in two recent policy documents issued by the government of India. At Oxford, he is to study environmental regulation in developing countries. In a third appointment, Ms. Antonia Layard, a newly qualified solicitor, will take up the post of Berrymans Research Fellow in Environmental Law. She has a degree in jurisprudence from Keble College, Oxford, a master's degree in Public Administration and Public Health from Columbia University, and is studying for an LLM in Environmental Law and Policy. She is to analyze environmental liability for environmental damage, particularly within the European Community. For earlier appointments, see Newsletter, vol. 4, no. 3, Fall 1993; vol. 4, no. 4, Winter 1993). A Director of the Centre has yet to be named. Further information from the Administrator, Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, Oxford OX1 3TF. Phone: (0)865-270886 (Thanks to John Muddiman.)

Organizations and the Natural Environment is a new interest group created within the Academy of Management, the professional group of management professors, with environmental ethics as a central concern. Major topics include: ecological sustainability; environmental philosophies and strategies; environmental entrepreneurship; environmental products and services industries; pollution control and prevention; waste minimization; industrial ecology; total quality environmental management; environmental auditing and information systems; ecological crisis management; natural resources and systems management, protection and restoration; interactions of environmental stakeholders; environmental policies; environmental attitudes and decision-making; and international/comparative dimensions of these topics. For membership, send $2.50 to the Academy office: Ken Cooper, Academy of Management, Ohio Northern University, P.O. Box 39, 300 South Union Street, Ada, OH 45810. (Thanks to Paul Shrivastava, ONE Interest Group Chair, Management Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837. 717-524-1821; Fax: 717-524-1338, e-mail: shrivast@bucknell.edu)

The Third International Conference on Environmental Ethics. The University of Georgia is hosting an International Conference on Environmental Ethics and the Global Marketplace, on April 27-30, 1995, at Athens. This conference will focus on the apparent divergence of interest and opinion concerning environmental and economic goals. Invited speakers include representatives from the business and policy communities as well as leading scholars in economics, environmental law, international development, and environmental policy. Other sessions will feature solicited papers from younger scholars in the fields of ethics and commerce. Contact: Dr. Albert F. Ike, Chair of the Environmental Ethics Certificate Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 1691. Phone: 706-542-6167. Fax: 706-542-6278. E-mail: ALIKE@uga.cc.uga.edu.

The University of Georgia's Environmental Ethics Certificate Program has now been operating ten years and has awarded 24 certificates. Speakers at fall seminars have included: Dale Jamieson, Mark Sagoff, and J. Baird Callicott. A newsletter, EECPerspectives, is regularly produced. Contact address above.

In Chicago, a Conference on Human Health and the Environment was held September 24-25, and was sponsored by the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Rush Medical School, the United Nations Environment Programme, and Physicians for Social Responsibility. Session themes were Health and the Environment, Population and the Environment, Energy and the Environment, and Ethics and the Environment. Keynote speakers were Barry Commoner, Anne Ehrlich, Thomas Lovejoy, and Noel J. Brown. The session on Ethics and the Environment was moderated by Daniel Hryhorczuk, M.D., an environmental health specialist who directs the Great Lakes Center for Occupational and Environmental Safety and Health at the University of Illinois School of Public Health. (Thanks to Kristin Cargill for this story.) A study, directed by Ingrid Leman Stefanovic and nearing completion, is on the role of codes of ethics in encouraging environmental care in Canadian provincial parks. The research project addresses two problems: how to minimize existing and potential conflicts among user groups, and how to help ensure environmental protection by a wide variety of user groups within a park in the Niagara escarpment in Southern Ontario, Canada. There is some attention to the role of narrative in articulating what people most care about in Short Hills Provincial Park. Further information from Dr. Ingrid Leman Stefanovic, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, 215 Huron Street, Toronto, Ontario. M5S lAl. Email: stefanov@epas.utoronto.ca

Michael P. Nelson (Lancaster University) and J. Baird Callicott (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point) are coediting an anthology, tentatively titled The Great Wilderness Debate. Papers are invited, which should focus on the concept of wilderness as much as on wilderness itself. Three sections are anticipated: The Received Wilderness View (both historical and legal), The Wilderness Idea Criticized (centered around the Callicott/Rolston debate in The Environmental Professional, the third-world critique, and the feminist challenge), and Beyond the Wilderness Idea (including the Wildlands Project and the future of wilderness). Send papers to either Michael P. Nelson, Furness College, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG, U.K., or to J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481.

In July of 1995 the Australian Association of Philosophy (Australian Division) will hold its annual conference at University of New England, Armidale, NSW. There will be an ISEE section and papers are invited. They should be sent to Dr. F. D'Agostino, Department of Philosophy, University of New England, NSW, 2351, Australia by March 1, 1995. Fax: 61 (country code) 67 733317. E-mail: lportell@metz.une.edu.au Abstracts will be due two months later. Anyone wishing to attend but not to give a paper should also contact Dr. D'Agostino for information about registration and accommodation.

The Society for Conservation Biology will meet 7-11 June 1995 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins. SCB is the largest organization of research conservation biologists and environmentalists in the world (over 5,000 members). Virtually all of these scientists are convinced that ethics and advocacy are central to what they do, and they openly welcome and encourage help from philosophers and ethicists. The SCB program deadline will be March 1995, and papers or well-formulated abstracts will be needed by then.

ISEE will sponsor one or more sessions. If interested in reading a paper or organizing a panel or session, get in touch with one of ISEE's contact persons for SCB: Jack Weir, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351 USA, phone: 606-784- 0046, E-mail: <j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu>; or Phil Pister, Desert Fishes Council, P. O. Box 337, Bishop, CA 93514, phone: 619-872-8751. The official SCB call for papers will be mailed in December 1994. Information is also available from the meeting organizer: Richard L. Knight, Department of Fisher and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA.

David Abram spoke at a conference on ecology and psychology, June 1994. Other speakers were Theodore Roszak, Catherine Caulfield, and James Hillman. For more information, contact the Ecopsychology Institute, California State University at Hayward, 25800 Carlos Bee Blvd., Hayward, CA 94542-3045. The group is publishing a newsletter.

A conference on "Global Bioethics" is being planned at a center near Firenze, Italy, tentatively August 15-18, 1995, immediately proceeding a Philosophy of Science conference also to be held there. Professor Guiseppe Catture, Dean, Faculty of Economics, University of Siena is involved. Interested persons should contact Laura Westra, address below.

In August 1994, Angelika Krebs (Faculty of Philosophy, University of Frankfurt, Germany) gave a lecture on ecoethics at the Instituo de Filosofia e Ciàncias Humanas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Institute of Philosophy and Human Sciences of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul), Porto Alegre, Brazil. This Institute, headed by Fernando JosÇ R. da Rocha, chair of the department there, sponsored a Conference on Ethics, University, and Environment," May 1992, a pre-conference for the UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero. The proceedings of this conference are being published as Earth Summit Ethics: Toward a Reconstructive Postmodern Philosophy on the Atlantic Rim, eds. J. Baird Callicott and Fernando JosÇ R. da Rocha (Albany: State University of New York Press, forthcoming).

Intecol VI: The Sixth International Congress of Ecology was held in Manchester from 21-26 August 1994. For the first time, there was a symposium on Ecologists and Ethical Judgments. This was held over two days, and included papers from philosophers, social scientists and ecologists. These were organized under a number of headings--environmental ethics, experimental and theoretical science, conservation issues, and political impacts. Among the philosophers speaking about environmental ethics were Alan Holland (Lancaster) and Keekok Lee (Manchester). Jane Howarth (Lancaster) talked about the crisis of ecology in the section on experimental and theoretical science, and Andrew Brennan (Western Australia) and Susan P. Bratton (North Texas) both gave talks in the session on political impacts. The sessions were a great success, and it was striking that they attracted capacity audiences for the rooms in which they were scheduled. There are plans to publish some of the papers presented in a volume of proceedings. For further details contact the symposium organizer: The Rev. Nigel Cooper, The Rectory, 40 Church Road, Rivenhall, Witham, Essex CM8 3PQ, United Kingdom. (Thanks to Andrew Brennan for this report, also Keekok Lee.)

The Canadian Society for the Study of Practical Ethics (CSSPE) again welcomes submissions on Environmental Ethics and other areas of applied ethics for its annual conference, 2-3 June 1995, in Montreal, Quebec. Papers should be limited to a reading time of 25 minutes. The program committee will entertain proposals for presentations in other formats, such as panel discussions, book symposia, pedagogical demonstrations, case studies, displays and joint sessions with other societies; the earlier such suggestions arrive, the better. Deadlines (submit three copies): November 15, 1994 for proposals and abstracts; January 15, 1995 for completed papers. Send to Mary Richardson and Peter Miller, Program Co-Chairs, c/o Department of Philosophy, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. E-mail: miller@uwpg02.uwinnipeg.ca Phone: (204) 786-9832.

Douglas J. Buege is teaching in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Cincinnati this fall. Buege recently completed a Ph. D. thesis at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Intrinsic Value, Organic Unity and Environmental Philosophy: Grounding our Values.

Ecology and Buddhism (EVST 594) is a course being taught this fall at the University of Montana by Fred Allendorf, Biological Sciences, a geneticist and a Buddhist, and Alan Sponberg, religious studies, in the Liberal Studies Program. University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. Allendorf's e-mail: bi_fwa@lewis.umt.edu (Thanks to Phil Pister.)

Jack Weir is co-editor of the ISEE Newsletter, and Holmes Rolston continues as co-editor as well. Weir is the producing editor, and items should preferentially be sent to him. Send information for the Newsletter to Jack via Email where possible: Address: <iseenewsletter@msuacad.morehead- st.edu> Note the hyphen! You can also send Email to Weir's box: <j.weir@msuacad.morehead-st.edu>. Postal address: Jack Weir, Dept. of Philosophy, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office); 606-783-2785 (Campus Office); 606-783-2185 (Secretary, Dept. of English, Foreign Languages and Philosophy); FAX 606-783-2678 -- include Weir's name on the FAX). Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67 732657 (direct line). (0)67 732896 (Dept. office). Fax 61 (country code) (0)67 733317. E-mail: <relliot@metz.une.edu.au> Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below.) Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (ú 6.50, or the equivalent of $ 10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530. Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48/61/417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security. Professor Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa, is the ISEE contact for Africa. Contact him with regard to membership and dues payable, again the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za. Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China, is the contact person in mainland China. He is the chair of the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics, see below.

Issues

--The 1994 Draft Declaration of Principles on Human Rights and the Environment has been released. This document was prepared by a group of NGOs convened by a UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment, Mme Fatma Zohra Ksentini. Mme Ksentini has presided over a study group since 1989 and is due to present a final report to a UN Sub- Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities in August 1994 (a report now over a year overdue). Among the proposed principles: "All persons have the right to a secure, healthy and ecologically sound environment." "All persons have the right to safe and healthy food and water adequate to their well-being." "All persons have the right not to be evicted from their homes or land for the purpose of, or as a consequence of, decisions or actions affecting the environment, except in emergencies or due to a compelling purpose benefitting society as a whole and not attainable by other means." (Might a person be evicted to save a socially worthless endangered species?) "Indigenous peoples have the right to protection against any action or course of conduct that may result in destruction of their territories, including land, air, water, sea-ice, wildlife or other resources." (Do indigenous peoples own migratory or other wildlife species?) The declaration is worth a philosopher's analysis, and comments are encouraged. Copies from: International Program, Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, 180 Montgomery St., 14th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104- 4230 USA. Phone 415-627-6700. Fax: 415-627-6740.

--Takings, unfunded mandates, and risks continue to be major issues in reauthorized and new legislation, and in funding legislation, in various state legislatures and court cases, as well as in the US federal government.
Takings issues ask whether and how far regulation (such as the Endangered Species Act), especially environmental regulation, that affects private property (such as prohibiting building a summer home where bald eagles nest) involves a "taking" under the US fifth amendment, requiring compensation to property owners. Takings debates are intense, though landowners lose some 90% of takings lawsuits brought nationally. Courts regularly (though not always) say that a takings does not occur simply because regulation has reduced the market value or profit from an intended use of a parcel of land, though they typically say that landowners cannot be deprived of traditional uses or be left with no viable economic use. Unfunded mandates ask whether and how far a government body (such as the US Congress or the E.P.A.) can require other government bodies (such as states or counties) to do something (such as cleaning up a dump or monitoring air quality) without funding the cost of that requirement. This may apply to states that require counties to do land use planning. The U. S. Conference of Mayors and the National Association of Counties did a survey claiming their budgets were crushed under unfunded mandates, but the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee has released a report claiming numerous fatal flaws in the survey, including biased questions, non- representative sampling, and inclusion of many unmandated costs that are the ongoing obligation of state, city, and county governments. Risk issues generally claim that the environmental health risks involved may be quite low, orders of magnitude lower than risks persons take all the time voluntarily (such as driving a car to work) or involuntarily, such as getting struck by lightning, and that legislation requiring attention to low environmental risks is uneconomic and unreasonable. Some good philosophical analysis is needed here; lawyers need all the help they can get from ethicists. And there are lawyers out there who can give philosophers some help. For a sample effort on the takings issue see, Holmes Rolston, III, "Property Rights and Endangered Species," University of Colorado Law Review 61(1990):283-3-6; Gary Varner, "Environmental Law and the Eclipse of Land as Private Property," in FerrÇ and Hartel, eds., Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice (see bibliographic listing above); or the takings discussions in Lynton Keith Caldwell and Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Policy for Land: Law and Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993). "There is probably no matter of land policy in the United States on which there is less consensus that on the justification and compensation for `takings'" (p. 140). For the risk issue, start with Kristin S. Shrader-Frechette, Risk and Rationality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).

--Wolves are being returned to Yellowstone this fall. "In the northern Rockies, and throughout America, the green fire that Aldo Leopold saw in the eyes of a wolf will live again. ... If wolves can be restored to Yellowstone, what else may be possible for the wild?" Bruce Babbitt, Secretary, US Department of Interior (in "The Fierce Green Fire," Audubon, September-October, 1994, p. 120). The population is to be considered "experimental, non-essential," giving them less than the full protection they have now have under the Endangered Species Act. Specifically, this means that livestock owners, adjacent to the park, could shoot wolves on their land caught in the act of killing livestock (rather than having to contact wildlife agencies to trap such wolves). Lawsuits to address these and other concerns are being prepared by both sides. Bob Barbee, Yellowstone Park superintendent for ten years, moves to Alaska to oversee thirteen units of the National Park Service there. Mike Finley, previously superintendent of Assateague (in Virginia), the Everglades, and, most recently, Yosemite, becomes the new Yellowstone superintendent in October.

--Monster homes? US Western resort towns are battling enormous homes, often second homes, with 15,000 and more square feet of floor space. Prince Bandar of Saudi Arabia built a home of 55,000 square feet, about the size of the US White House, near Aspen, Colorado. Teton County, Wyoming, in the Jackson Hole area, now limits single family homes to 8,000 square feet. Many communities are considering, a number have passed ordinances regulating monster homes, limiting floor space or imposing heavy taxes. Such homes are perceived as breaking up middle class community structures and imposing undue demands on resources. Story in High Country News, Sept. 5, 1994.

--Underground business: In Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico, a lunchroom cafe was built 750 feet underground 67 years ago. Park officials are planning to remove the cafe as an inappropriate relic, also finding that food particles have attracted a menagerie of exotic organisms that displace cave-dwelling organisms. But New Mexico Representative Joe Skeen (R) and Senator Pete Domenici (R) have so far successfully opposed this, defending the business. A cadre of local businesses say the cafe offers an important nutritional service to visitors who may be walking a mile underground--but who are, at the cafe, only 60 seconds elevator ride to other food services at the surface. Story in High Country News, Sept. 5, 1994.

-The Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary has been established, off the coast of Olympic National Park in Washington state. Efforts to establish the sanctuary have been ongoing for at least twelve years, and it has been six years since Congress authorized the sanctuary but left details to the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA). Issues have been commercial shipping, especially tanker traffic, in the area, oil lease sales, and military bombing of Sea Lion Rock. The refuge is 3,300 square miles, twice the size of Yosemite National park, and protects one of the largest concentrations of breeding sea birds in the country. This is the United States' fourteenth national marine sanctuary.

--Fighting forest fires is getting more expensive because of a dramatic increase in the number of houses in forested areas. Fighting a forest fire in an area with houses takes twice the number of fire fighters. Urban refugees are building houses in areas where frequent fires occur and many aren't building with fire in mind. Attempts to control building in fire- prone areas are opposed by property-rights advocates who chafe at restrictions about where and how to build on private property. Jack Ward Thomas, Chief of the US Forest Services, says "We are losing a hell of a lot of natural resources because we're spending so much effort saving people's property." Twenty-five people have died so far this year fighting forest fires. (New York Times, 16 September 1994, A1)

--New projections for the Earth suggest it may escape being swallowed up by the Sun when it turns into a huge, ultra hot, red giant. Nevertheless astrophysicists are still predicting that the Sun will scorch and melt our planet wiping it clean of life in about 1.1 billion years. This means that life has already used up 3/4 of its allotted span since life originated 3.5 billion years ago. What will remain is a blob of matter and eventually a frozen cinder. Any implications here for biocentrism or a land ethic? (See New York Times, 20 September 1994, B5.)

--A jury ordered Exxon Corporation to pay $5 billion in punitive damages for what they judged to be reckless behavior that resulted in the Exxon Valdez oil spill off the coast of Alaska in 1989. This is approximately one year's profit for Exxon. After the verdict was announced, Exxon's stock rose 1 1/2 points (investors apparently expected a bigger award and figured Exxon could handle it). Earlier the jury had awarded $287 million to compensate fisherman for economic losses. The hope is that the verdict will give the oil industry an incentive to replace old tankers with double- hulled models. Exxon is expected to appeal. (Charleston Post and Courier, 17 September 1994)

Report on the UN Conference on Population By Ned Hettinger, Department of Philosophy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 USA: 803-953-5786 (office) 803-953-5687 (FAX) 803- 883-9201 (home) <HettingerN@CofC.edu> (email). The United Nations Conference on Population and Development met in Cairo in early September. News reports about the conference focussed on the Vatican's (and some conservative Muslim countries') objections to specific wording in the conference document. A few countries (e.g., Iraq, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, and Lebanon) boycotted the meeting because, as one leader said, the Conference agenda encouraged "Western immorality" and was "incompatible with the Muslim religion" (New York Times, 30 August 1994, A3). Although at the end of the conference the Vatican did "associate itself with the consensus" in the document (something it did not do at the two previous world population conferences in 1974 and 1984), it did so incompletely and with reservations. It opposed language suggesting that in countries where abortion is legal it should be safe, wording that encouraged the use of contraceptives, and language acknowledging that sex occurred outside traditional marriages. See New York Times, 14 September 1994, A2. Publicity associated with the conference included a Vatican spokesperson criticizing Vice President Gore; Catholic groups criticizing the Clinton administration for being "bigoted" toward Catholics because the US State Department's Population Coordinator allegedly suggested that the Vatican opposed the conferences' call for a new role for women; and other Catholic groups criticizing the Vatican for being anti-women and anti- contraceptives. (See advertisements in New York Times, 29 August 1994, 2 September 1994, 6 September 1994.) This was also an opportunity for conservative editorialists, such as Cal Thomas (Charleston Post and Courier, 5 September 1994) and Malcolm Forbes Jr. (Forbes, September 12, 1994) to deny that population growth is a real problem. Perhaps the most significant aspect of the conference was that the role and welfare of women was placed at center stage of the population issue. Rather than focus on family planning or economic development, the new consensus holds that the key to controlling population is to encourage women's education, health, economic status, and equality in general. Population growth in the poorest countries will not be effectively slowed unless we realize it is part of a larger problem: Poor health care, lack of choice in family planning, and the general powerlessness suffered by millions of women in the developing world. The conference document puts forward the right of women to make their own decisions concerning the number of children they will have and when. The belief is that women who are educated, healthy, and not economically and socially disadvantaged will choose to have fewer children. (New York Times, 2 September 1994.) There were numerous reports both before and during the conference suggesting that population growth in a number of countries had dramatically slowed. One example is Brazil, where the fertility rate has dropped from an average of 5.8 children born per woman of childbearing age in 1970, to 2.3 today. Although 75% of the 154 million Brazilians are Catholic, one survey indicated that 88% of Brazilians say "they don't follow the Catholic Church's teaching on birth control and abortion." Although abortion is not legal in Brazil, roughly the same number of abortions are performed annually in Brazil and in the US. In Brazil, however, 400,000 women (as opposed to 10,000 in the US) are hospitalized annually from medical complications resulting from abortion. See New York Times, 9 September 1994, A1. The goal the conference set for controlling population was to limit growth from 5.7 billion today to 7.27 billion in 2015. Without taking the measures the conferences suggests, population will grow to 8 billion in 2015 and 12.5 billion in 2050. The conference foresees a rise in spending on population stabilization from $5 billion today (4/5 of this is paid for by developing countries) to about $17 billion by the turn of the century. The conference document is not binding and relies on voluntary compliance. There is dissension about the appropriate relative contributions of the North and the South to funding the envisioned programs (an issued to be discussed at a UN gathering in Copenhagen next year). The US Congress recently approved spending $1/2 billion for population programs, double the 1992 rate, but far short of the $2 billion that one population control advocate suggests we need to spend by 2000. See New York Times, 6 September 1994, A6.

ISEE Newsletter on Internet (Gopher)

The ISEE Newsletters are now available, all issues except the current one, 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world, if you have a network terminal and access to the educational network. To receive the Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics via e-mail/internet: At your internet system prompt, send the telnet message: <gopher msuacad.morehead-st.edu> You will get a welcome screen at Morehead State University, Morehead, Kentucky, and a menu with several choices. Take: 6. Electronic Journals [Press ? for Help, q to Quit, u to go up a menu] You will get a menu: Electronic Journals 1. International Society for Environmental Ethics Newsletter/ 2. Library Bits and PCs/ Take 1. The next menu offers you the various newsletters: ns1-1-90 is Newsletter volume 1, issue no. 1 (spring, mailed mid-April), year 1990.

Issue no. 2 is summer (mailed mid-July); Issue no. 3 is fall (mailed mid- October); Issue no. 4 is winter (mailed at the end of the year).
1. ns1-1-90
2. ns1-2-90.
3. ns1-3-90.
4. ns1-4-90.
5. ns2-1-91.
6. ns2-2-91.
7. ns2-3-91.
8. ns2-4-91.
9. ns3-1-92.
10. ns3-2-92.
11. ns3-3-92.
12. ns3-4-92.
13. ns4-1-93.
14. ns4-2-93.
15. ns4-3-93.
16. ns4-4-93.
17. ns5-1-94.
18. ns5-2-94.
[Press ? for Help, q to Quit, u to go up a menu]

Use the arrow to highlight the issue you want, enter this, and the file will be retrieved (which will take a minute with a small indicator circle at the bottom of the screen showing the retrieval in progress). Read the newsletter file as you wish, though a single issue will fill some fifty or sixty screens and this will take some time. A better procedure is, at any point after the file has been retrieved and is on screen, to e-mail it to yourself. When you take q to Quit, you will be given a menu opportunity to mail the entire file (this issue of the newsletter) to your e-mail address. It should be sent there in a few seconds. Leave gopher, return to your host network terminal and read your e- mail. The file will be there, as a DOS file. Download this e-mail to a disk on your home or office computer. You can retrieve it into WordPerfect or whatever wordprocessing software you wish. At this point you can search the file as any other wordprocessing text, or process it any way you wish.

Master Environmental Ethics Bibliography

The "Master Bibliography in Environmental Ethics" is now available. Below is the README file contained with it, which will serve as an introduction to the bibliography.

README
This bibliography is an ongoing project of the International Society for Environmental Ethics. It contains all the bibliographic entries from the Newsletter of the society, volumes 1(1990) - 4(1993), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Ethics, volumes 1(1979) - 15(1993), all the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Values, volumes 1(1992) -2(1993), and the two Eric Katz bibliographies, see below.

The bibliography software is WordPerfect 5.1, which has been translated and is also available in Macintosh format. The WordPerfect text can be easily exported from WordPerfect 5.1 into a DOS text, or translated into any of various other software programs. Since the files are large, Macintosh users will have to retrieve them using a wordprocessing format. Underlined titles and diacritical marks may be lost in these translations.

This bibliography is in two halves. The first half is A-L; the second half is M-Z. Both these are sizeable files, upward of 700,000 bytes. When you load them, your software program can take 1-2 minutes to load a file, and 2 minutes or so to move the cursor through a file, or to search for a word, depending on the speed of your processor.

One way to use it is simply to print out each half, take it to Kinko's, have it spiral bound, label the covers, and you instantly have as full a reference base as otherwise exists in print.

If you are in an academic department, put a copy in the departmental office for undergraduate and graduate students to consult. You may wish also to tape a small manilla envelope in each volume with a copy of the disk, A-L or M-Z, which students can use with their software to search. Also, put a copy in your school library.

Another way to use it is to search through it and copy out the various entries in which you are interested, stringing these together into a text of your own on the second screen in your software.

These entries come from various places. Those from the Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics have in parentheses at the end of the entry the volume and issue number from which they came. For example (v4,#2) comes from volume 4 (1993), issue no. 2 (spring). This information can be useful when a sometimes now dated comment is made in the entry.

Entries from Eric Katz's two bibliographies are here. These are:
Katz, Eric, Environmental Ethics: A Select Annotated Bibliography, 1983- 1987. Research in Philosophy and Technology 9(1989):251-285.
Katz, Eric, Environmental Ethics: A Select Annotated Bibliography, II 1987- 1990. Research in Philosophy and Technology 12(1992):287-324.
Entries from the two Katz bibliographies have a (Katz-Bib) at the end. We thank Eric Katz for making these two important bibliographies available in this database.

All of the articles and abstracts from the journal Environmental Ethics, volumes 1-15 (1979-1993) are included. These abstracts or listings have an (EE) at the end, and are ordinarily written by the authors themselves.

Book reviews from Environmental Ethics are listed twice, once under the name of the author of the book, again under the name of the book reviewer.

Simply going to an author's name will locate the principal entries. However, you also may want to search for an author's name, and this will locate places where the author is not listed as the first author, or has an article listed in an anthology, entered elsewhere in another bibliographic reference under the editor(s) names. If your software searches only for a string of letters, you may need to search for "John Doe", for John Q. Doe, and for "Doe, John" to find these entries. Such a search will also locate places in abstracts or titles where an author is mentioned or criticized by other authors.

There are no identified keywords as such in the bibliography (except in entries from Environmental Values). However, you can search for words or phrases with any wordprocessing with a search feature. This will find such words in the title, abstract, or commentary. Certain words are obvious candidates for a search: "hunting," "biodiversity," "animal rights," "endangered species," "wilderness," "Amazon," "pollution," "ecofeminism," "deep ecology." Other topics do not so readily come to focus in single words or phrases.

Names beginning with de, von, van, and so forth are difficult to handle with computer alphabetizing. They are here rewritten with spaces removed or with hyphens (van Dyke becomes vanDyke) (The author's preferred spelling may be in parentheses later), to avoid having the computer fragment the name.

The Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics contains from time to time bibliographies for particular nations. Examples: Norway, Finland, Israel, China. These entries have been tagged at the end of each entry: (Norway), (Finland), (Israel), (China), and so each of these entries can be searched out by searching, for example, for (Norway), and so forth.

Author identifications are those given at the time the book or article was written, and, needless to say, these may change. Look at later entries by the same author to see if institutional affiliations and addresses have changed. Author identifications are repeated with each entry, anticipating that users of this bibliography will be blocking out particular separate entries for transfer to their specialized needs and will want this identification.

There are two hard returns at the end of each entry, which amounts to a skipped line, which the alphabetizing program interprets as a paragraph unit to be alphabetized. Knowing this can be useful in adapting this bibliography to other bibliographic software programs, or in formulating searches.

There are also some glitches and mistakes. Be patient, call these to our attention and we will gradually get them out.

On some occasions, an entry does not begin with an author's name, but with the name of a title, a group, a journal, or other atypical format. These are alphabetized in with the authors. Any initial "The" is moved to the end of the group, title, or other name.

Other bibliographies: See longer entries in the bibliography itself.

Davis, Donald Edward, Ecophilosophy: A Field Guide to the Literature. San Pedro, CA: R.& E Miles, 1989. Some 300 books, also periodicals.

Anglemyer, Mary, and Eleanor R. Seagraves, The Natural Environment: An Annotated Bibliography on Attitudes and Values. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984.

Anglemyer, Mary, Eleanor R. Seagraves, and Catherine C. LeMaistre, A Search for Environmental Ethics: An Initial Bibliography. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980.

Sheldon, Joseph K., Rediscovery of Creation: A Bibliographical Study of the Church's Response to the Environmental Crisis. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, and The American Theological Library Association, 1992.

Environmental Philosophy: A Bibliography. The Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, 1990. 75 pages. Key books and articles, a thematic listing of recent work in environmental ethics, philosophy, and policy. Copies: ú3.00 in the U.K and the equivalent of ú4.00 elsewhere. Orders to Dr. John Haldane, Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, Scotland, UK.

Durrenberger, Robert W., Environment and Man: A Bibliography. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books, 1970. 118 pages. Paper. 2,225 entries. An older bibliography now mostly of historical interest. Durrenberger is at San Fernando Valley State College.

There are, of course, many important references not yet here. Some bibliographies that we sought would not be released for this use; others wanted fees that are prohibitive. This is not a commercial enterprise; it is a labor of concern and love. Additions are welcome and will be incorporated into the data base. Those that arrive on disk in WordPerfect 5.1 formatted as here will be given immediate attention; others will take longer. Keyboarding is time- consuming. Those that arrive on E-mail are essentially a DOS text and can be brought into WordPerfect rather easily.

Some of the main sources not yet systematically incorporated into this bibliography are: The Trumpeter
Between the Species
Conservation Biology
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics

Copies of these disks are available from any of the ISEE contact persons throughout the world and at selected other locations. These include:

Professor Robert Elliot Department of Philosophy
University of New England
Armidale, N.S.W., AUSTRALIA 2351
Phone: 61 (country code) (0)67 732657 (direct line)
(0)67 732896 (Dept. office)
Fax 61 (country code) 67 (city code) 733317


Professor Wouter Achterberg
Faculty of Philosophy
University of Amsterdam
Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15
1012 CP Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS
Phone: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 525-4500
Fax 31 20 525-4503.

Professor Jan Wawrzyniak
Institut Filozofii
Adam Mickiewicz University
60-569 Poznan
Szamarzewskiego 91c, POLAND
Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280
Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535

Dr. Johan P. Hattingh
Department of Philosophy
University of Stellenbosch
7600 Stellenbosch, SOUTH AFRICA
Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (Office)
808-2418 (Secretary)
887-9025 (Home)
Fax: 886-4343 (24 hours)
E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Professor Alan Holland
Department of Philosophy
Lancaster University
Lancaster LA1 4YG
Lancaster, U.K.
Fax: 44 (country code) (0)524 (city code) 846102

The compiler of the bibliography, from whom also disks may be obtained is:
Holmes Rolston, III
Department of Philosophy
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
Phone: 1 (country code) 303 (area code) 491-6315 - office
Fax: 1 303 491-4900 (24 hours)
E-mail: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu


To obtain a disk in the US or Canada, send $ 5 to Rolston at the above
address, stating whether you wish the WordPerfect or the Macintosh disk.


End of Readme file

EcoNet is a non-profit online service that offers access to a large amount of environmental information and provides a direct link to many internet services. An account costs $ 15 to set up, with a $ 10 monthly charge, and between $ 3-$7 per hour for online time. There is access to the Environmental Protection Agency's library catalog and Global Action and Information Network's congressional legislation tracking service. There are various e-mail conferences, alerts, and other information. Contact Institute for Global Communications, 18 De Boom St., San Francisco, CA 94107. Phone 415-442-0220. Fax: 415-546-1794. Michael Stein is EcoNet's program officer. See also Don Rittner, Ecolinking: Everyone's Guide to Online Environmental Information. Peachpit Press, 1992. $ 18.95. EcoNet, electronic newsgroups, listservs on the environment, accessing electronic libraries.

Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics

The Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics was established at the first Chinese conference on environmental ethics, held in Beijing, 25-27 August 1994. The society will form the Chinese section of the International Society for Environmental Ethics. Yu Mouchang, professor of ecophilosophy at the Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, was elected board chair. Address: Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China. Ye Ping, Social Science Department, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, was elected vice-- secretary general. Delegates at the meeting discussed the relations between humans and nature, anthropocentrism and nonanthropocentrism, the concept of natural value, the nature of ecology, of biological interests, and so on. They launched three lines of activity: (1) to form alliances with other forces pressing the environmental movement in China, (2) to establish an Environmental Ethics Studies Foundation, and (3) to develop the theory and practice of environmental ethics in ways appropriate to China. The group expressed special thanks to Holmes Rolston, III, for his support of environmental ethics in China. (Thanks to Ye Ping for this story.)

Environmental Ethics and Animal Welfare in Poland and Russia

In Poland, Professor B. Andrzejewski and Professor Jan Wawrzyniak are making efforts to organize an international conference on environmental philosophy in Poznan. The European Community, promoting an educational program TEMPUS for Eastern Europe, is expected to be the main sponsor. The conference will involve exploring the various levels of schooling where environmental education can be carried on. Professor Zdzislawa Piatek of the Polish Academy of Sciences conducts regular one-semester seminars on environmental ethics in Cracow, chiefly promoting Paul Taylor's biocentrism. Professor Lubomira Domka of the Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, in the Faculty of Educational Studies, concentrates on methodological, psychological, and pedagogical problems in environmental education, researching how to present to students and children both the social and biological aspects of environmental problems. She works principally with primary and secondary school teachers. She is concerned with the ways that teachers convey their own negative aesthetic prejudices (as dislike of spiders, for instance) to their pupils. Dr. Leszek Pyra has introduced environmental ethics classes at the Cracow University of Agricultural Sciences. Another person is Eugeniusz Kosmicki, Poznan University of Agricultural Sciences, who largely uses German sources in environmental ethics. Dr. Marek M. Bonenberg of Jagiellonian University, Cracow, and Jan Wawrzyniak, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, both also teaching environmental ethics in Poland. The Animals and Us Foundation, together with Foundation Animals from Warsaw, has been conducting a campaign concerned with the uses of laboratory animals. They seek the elimination of animal experiments for educational purposes in Poland, distributing video alternatives. They have set up a database of alternative materials and methods. Samuel Dombrowski of the Munich Academy of Animal Protection has provided for Polish use a complete updated list (the so-called Yellow Book) of alternative methods to animal experimentation. The database and books are available in the Central Agricultural Library in Warsaw. Professor Kazimierz Ziemnicki, the Dean of Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences at Adam Mickiewicz University made, under anaesthesia, two videotapes of frog and rabbit vivisection two years ago and very few animals have been killed since that time. A new Polish Animal Welfare Act has been drafted by Polish NGOs and submitted to relevant commissions in the Polish Parliament. Thousands of protest signatures against intensive goose/duck farming for foie gras produced in Poland and sold in Western Europe have been received by the Animals and Us Foundation from Western Europe, and forwarded to the Polish Parliament. Poland is a major exporter of goose/duck fattened livers. Other concerns involve protection of the capercaillie (a large forest grouse), the wolf, the wildcat, and the lynx. The Kampinos National Park, near Warsaw, is a leader in lynx reintroduction. There has been some wolf recovery. In the Poznan region the wolf is protected throughout the year. Poaching is a serious problem in the destruction of wildlife. The Polish National Insurance Company sponsors a TV program, "Animals," which is edited by the "Animals" Foundation, and airs for half a hour each Sunday. This Company also refunds the costs of treatment of pets to people who adopt them from shelters, especially those of retirees. Sterilization and spaying of pets have become much more common, as a result of an educational program conducted by Polish environmental NGO's. In September, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals sponsored a one- week course for animal welfare organizations in Poland, teaching public and media relations, humane education, lobbying, and animal shelter management. A quite serious problem in Poland is pollution in some 70,000 hectares of military areas left by the Soviet Army. The economic costs of related environmental losses is estimated at $ 2.4 billion. The most dangerous problem is water and soil contamination by oil, heavy metals, and phenol. See also Jan Wawrzyniak, Leszek Pyra, Boleslaw Andrzejewski, and Green Brigades / Zielone Brygady entries in the bibliography below. Dr. Karlen Dallakian is a vice-director at the University of Ufa in the Ural Mountains region of Russia and conducts classes on environmental philosophy. She is particularly interested in the category of will in environmental ethics. She writes that there is a serious concern for environmental ethics in Russia. She lived in Armenia for some years and knows much about pollution and the state of environmental education in the countries of the former Soviet Union. (Thanks to Jan Wawrzyniak.)

Videotapes and Media

Can Tropical Rainforests Be Saved? In 3 parts, each about 40 minutes, and features the global issues at stake in rainforest conservation. Numerous examples from all around the globe. $ 95 each part, or $ 240 for all three. Richter Productions, 330 West 42nd St., New York, NY. 800-947-6541

A Plague on Our Children. In 2 parts, each about an hour. $ 95 each part, $ 175 for both. Dioxins and PCBs are the two most powerful human made poisons in existence, and damage the health of people wherever they are manufactured, as in North Carolina, wherever they are used, as in Viet Nam and Oregon, and wherever they are discarded, as in Love Canal and rural Illinois. Richter Productions, address above.

The Money Lenders: The World Bank and IMF. 85 minutes. $ 285. Five country case studies, Bolivia, Ghana, Brazil, Thailand, and the Philippines. IMF and the World Bank hold the key to nearly all the sources of money loaned to countries in which over 90% of the planet's population live. Critics of the Bank and IMF, and replies to these charges by Bank and IMF officials. Richter productions, address above.

Pesticides: For Export Only. 57 minutes. $ 185. In English or in Spanish. A study of pesticides made in the United States and Europe which are prohibited or severely restricted in their countries of manufacture but which are exported to countries where their use is tolerated, sometimes returning to the US on bananas, in coffee, and on cotton. Kenya, Ghana, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico. Richter Productions, address above.

An Introduction to Ecological Economics. 45 minutes. $ 25.00. 1991. Griesinger Films, 7300 Old Mill Road, Gates Mills, OH 44040. Phone/Fax 216- 423-1601. With Gaylord Nelson, Herman Daly, and John Cobb, Jr. The destructive consequences of current national accounting methods and a revolutionary perspective that harmonizes economics and ecology.

Investing in Natural Capital. 42 minutes. $ 29.95. 1993. Griesinger films, address above. With Herman Daly. We must shift investment from human-made capital to accounting in terms of natural capital. Carrying capacity and agriculture, international trade, property rights, overpopulation.

Conversation for a Sustainable Society. 43 minutes. $ 25.00. 1993. Griesinger Films, address above. With Amory and Hunter Lovins, Dennis Meadows, Dana Jackson, David Orr, and others. Utility reform, resource efficient technologies, lighting/cooling/heating retrofits, student analyses of their college resource flows, and more.

Recent Articles and Books

--Pierce, Christine, and Donald VanDeVeer, eds., People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees, 2nd ed. $ 35.00. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1995. 485 pages, paper. Here is the second edition of the best-selling text first published in 1986, widely regarded as the easiest text to use with freshmen and sophomores. Additions include: ecofeminism, deep ecology, Native American land ethics, critiques of industrialized nations by those in less-industrialized nations, environmental racism, sustainability, as well as the continuing issues: moral relations with nonhumans, biocentric views, intrinsic value, biodiversity, animal liberation, land ethics. New authors include: James Rachels, Mark Sagoff, Gary Varner, Val Plumwood, Donald Worster, Harley Cahen, Karen Warren, Holmes Rolston, Bryan Norton, Vandana Shiva, Sara Stein, Anthony Weston. Another, higher level and more theoretical (and more expensive) anthology by the same editors is The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book. (Wadsworth alone has four texts in environmental ethics.) Both editors are in philosophy at North Carolina State University.

--Attfield, Robin and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement: 36 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). 250 pages. Paper. ú 13.95. Contributors: Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University), "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value"; Robert Elliot (University of New England, Armidale, Australia), "Ecology and the Ethics of Environmental Restoration"; Robin Attfield (University of Wales, Cardiff), "Rehabilitating Nature and Making Nature Habitable"; Frederick FerrÇ (University of Georgia), "Personalistic Organicism: Paradox or Paradigm?"; Roger Crisp (St. Anne's College, Oxford), "Values, Reasons and the Environment"; Keekok Lee (University of Manchester), "Awe and Humility: Intrinsic Value in Nature. Beyond an Earthbound Environmental Ethics"; Mary Midgley (formerly University of Newcastle upon Tyne), "The End of Anthropocentrism?"; Stephen R. L. Clark (University of Liverpool), "Global Religion"; Tim Hayward (University of Glamorgan), "Kant and the Moral Considerability of Non- Rational Beings"; Nigel Dower (University of Aberdeen), "The Idea of Environment"; Andrew Belsey (University of Wales, Cardiff), "Chaos and Order, Environment and Anarchy"; Alan Holland (University of Lancaster), "Natural Capital"; Peter List (Oregon State University), "Some Philosophical Assessments of Environmental Disobedience"; Dale Jamieson (University of Colorado), "Global Environmental Justice"; and Ruth McNally (University of West England, Bristol) and Peter Wheale (European Business School), "Environmental and Medical Bioethics in Late Modernity: Anthony Giddens, Genetic Engineering and the Post-Modern State." These are papers from the Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, "Philosophy and the Natural Environment," held at the University of Wales in Cardiff in July 1993.

--FerrÇ, Frederick and Peter Hartel, eds., Ethics and Environmental Policy: Theory Meets Practice. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1944. Paper, 283 pages. $ 20.00, paper. Contributors: Victoria Davion (Philosophy, University of Georgia), "Introduction: Where Are We Headed"; Frank B. Golley (Ecology, University of Georgia), "Grounding Environmental Ethics in Environmental Science"; Elizabeth Dodson Gray (Bolton Institute and Harvard Divinity School), "Come Inside the Circle of Creation: The Ethic of Attunement"; Yu-shi Mao (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing), "Evolution of Environmental Ethics: A Chinese Perspective"; J. Baird Callicott (Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point), "The Role of Technology in the Evolving Concept of Nature"; Ignazio Musu (Economics, University of Venice), "Efficiency and Equity in International Environmental Cooperation"; Udo E. Simonis (Environmental Policy, Wissenschaftszentrum, Berlin), "Toward a `Houston Protocol': How to Allocate C02 Emission Reductions Between North and South"; Corrado Poli (Fondazione Lanza, Padua, Italy), "The Political Consequences of an Environmental Question"; Gary E. Varner (Philosophy, Texas A&M), "Environmental Law and the Eclipse of Land as Private Property"; Erazim Koh_k (Philosophy, Charles University, Prague), "Red War, Green Peace"; Kristin Shrader-Frechette (Philosophy, University of South Florida, Tampa), "An Apologia for Activism: Global Responsibility, Ethical Advocacy, and Environmental Problems"; Alastair S. Gunn (Philosophy, University of Waikato, New Zealand), "Can Environmental Ethics Save the World?"; Holmes Rolston, III (Philosophy, Colorado State University), "Winning and Losing in Environmental Ethics"; Bryan Norton (Philosophy, Georgia Institute of Technology) and Eugene Hargrove (Philosophy, University of North Texas), "Where Do We Go from Here?"; Frederick FerrÇ, "Epilogue." FerrÇ is in philosophy, Hartel in crop and soil sciences at the University of Georgia. This anthology results from a conference there in April 1992.

--Callicott, J. Baird, Earth's Insights: A Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basis to the Australian Outback. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. 261 pages. $ 35.00, cloth only. Release date November 15. A comparative environmental ethics, the first book-length systematic study by Callicott, whose numerous articles (including those collected into In Defense of the Land Ethic) have made him internationally known as the principal philosophical interpreter of Aldo Leopold's land ethic. Here we have Callicott looking around the globe for insights, modern, classical, ancient, East and West, indigenous, and, finally, postmodern. Chapter 1. The Notion of and Need for Environmental Ethics (including comparative environmental ethics and the One-Many problem). Chapter 2. Western European Historical Roots (Judeo-Christian, Graeco- Roman, Islam, Gaia Redux). Chapter 3. South Asia (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism). Chapter 4. Traditional East Asia (Taoism, Confucianism). Chapter 5. East Asian Buddhism (Hua-yen, Tendai and Shingon, Zen, The Japanese and the Environment: A paradox). Chapter 6. Far Western (Polynesian Paganism, American Indian Land Wisdom). Chapter 7. South American Eco-Eroticism. Chapter 8. African Biocommunitarianism and Australian Dreamtime. Chapter 9. A Postmodern Evolutionary-Ecological Environmental Ethic (Science, Postmodernism, Natural History, Leopold's Land Ethic). Chapter 10. Traditional Environmental Ethics in Action (Stewardship, Hindus, Buddhists, with examples such as the Sri Lanka Sarvodaya Movement and Buddhist Forest Conservation in Thailand). Wide- ranging, comprehensive, and an important contribution toward the possibility of global environmental ethics. Callicott is professor of philosophy at the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

--Weston, Anthony, Back to Earth: Tomorrow's Environmentalism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. Available in December. Paper, $ 17.95. Cloth, $ 39.95. 200 pages. Weston teaches philosophy at Elon College, North Carolina. More detail when available.

--Marietta, Jr., Don E., For People and the Planet: Holism and Humanism in Environmental Ethics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. Available in December. Paper, $ 19.95. Cloth, $ 44.95. 256 pages. Marietta teaches philosophy at Florida Atlantic University. More detail when available.

--Sessions, George, ed., Deep Ecology in the 21st Century (Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1994). Available in December 1994; approximately 450 pp., about $20 pb. The anthology is divided into six parts: What Is Deep Ecology? Historical Roots of Deep Ecology; Arne Naess on Deep Ecology and Ecosophy; Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism, Social Ecology, the Greens, and the New Age; Wilderness, the Wild, and Conservation Biology; and Toward the 21st Century and Beyond: Social and Political Implications. Included are 39 articles by 21 authors and extensive bibliographies. This is a major new anthology interpreting deep ecology. Sessions teaches philosophy at Sierra College, Rocklin, CA.

--O'Riordan, Tim and James Camerson, eds., Interpreting the Precautionary Principle. London: Cameron May, Ltd., 1994. The precautionary principle, especially applicable in environmental issues, states that public and private interests should act so as to prevent harm, even where there is no scientific proof that an activity does cause damage to the environment. This has serious implications for risk evaluation and assessment. Sample article: Robin Attfield, "The Precautionary Principle and Moral Values."

--Rubin, Charles T., The Green Crusade: Rethinking the Roots of Environmentalism. New York: The Free Press, Macmillan, 1994. 312 pages. Environmentalism has changed public attitudes as rapidly and profoundly as any other movement in American history. But environmentalism would do well to drop their tiresome warnings of impending disaster and instead reexamine their own principles. The acceptance of utopian ideals commonly leads to the most extreme manifestations as the purest approach to those ideals. The unintended consequences of noble intentions can be a green totalitarianism. Analyzes Rachel Carson, Barry Commoner, Paul Ehrlich, E. F. Schumacher and finds a radical project, but doubtful scientific accuracy. Rubin teaches political science at Duquesne University.

--Gillroy, John Martin, ed., Environmental Risk, Environmental Values, and Political Choices: Beyond Efficiency Trade-offs in Public Policy Analysis. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. Paper, 189 pages. Contributors: John Martin Gillroy, "Integrity, Intrinsic Value, and the Analysis of Environmental Risk"; Steven Kelman (Kennedy School of Government, Harvard), "Moral Domains, Economic Instrumentalism, and the Roots of Environmental Values"; Robert C. Paehlke (Political Science, Trent University, Ontario), "Environmentalism: Values to Politics to Policy"; Vincente Medina (Philosophy, Seton Hall University, New Jersey), "The Nature of Environmental Values"; Christopher J. Bosso (Political Science, Northeastern University, Boston), "Environmental Values and Democratic Institutions"; David E. Henderson (Chemistry, Trinity College), "Science, Environmental Values, and Policy Prescriptions"; William C. Gunderson (Political Science, Carthage College, Kenosha, Wisconsin), "Partisan Politics, Economic Growth, and the Roots of NIMBY: The Case of Montepellier France"; Talbot Page (Economics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island), "Environmental Values, the Economic Ethos, and NIMBY: The Rhode Island Case"; Barry G. Rabe (Health Politics, University of Michigan) and John Martin Gillroy, "Intrinsic Value and Public Policy Choice: The Alberta Case"; Douglas MacLean (Philosophy, University of Maryland), "Epilogue: Environmental Values and Economic Trade-offs--Conflict and Compromise." This anthology results from a symposium at Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, in March 1990. Gillroy is in political science there.

--Linzey, Andrew, Animal Theology (London: SCM Press, 1994). "The idea that the specifically animal creation should be the subject of honour and respect because it is created by God, however elementary that idea may now appear to us, is not one that has been given endorsement throughout centuries of Christian thought. Whilst it can be claimed to have some grounding in scripture, in, for example, the psalmist's sense of wonder and beauty of God's creation and in the regard that Jesus claimed even for the sparrows, these intimations have never been developed into systematic theological thought, still less full-blown doctrine." "Are we not to celebrate the life of creation with all its beauty, magnificence and complexity and therein ... to perceive signs of the grandeur of God? Is not the biblical material right to point us to the ways in which some animals at least appear to provide moral examples for our own behaviour? Is not the story of Balaam's ass a sign of how morally advanced are the beasts compared to the mindless Balaams of our world?" "Christians have so little to contribute to the contemporary debate about animals because they have failed to think theologically afresh." Linzey is at Mansfield College, Oxford. (See story above, on the new fellowship in ethics and animals there.)

--Rolston, Holmes, III, ed., Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life, Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1995 (released October 1994). 248 pages. Paper.

Eight papers. Of particular interest in environmental ethics are Niles Eldredge, "Mass Extinction and Human Responsibility," and Thomas R. Cech, "The Origin of Life and the Value of Life." Eldredge is curator of invertebrates at the American Museum of Natural History and a well-known paleontologist. Cech won the Nobel Prize for discovering that RNA can be both an informational molecule and a biocatalyst, thus self-organizing and self-replicating. Other contributors: Dorion Sagan and Lynn Margulis, Francisco Ayala, Michael Ruse, Elliott Sober, Langdon Gilkey, Charles Birch.

--March, W. Eugene, Israel and the Politics of Land: A Theological Case Study. Philadelphia: Westminster/John Knox, 1994. 104 pages. $ 12.99. The Hebrew Bible does not so much give Israel its land as property willed to them by God as does it articulate a global theology of all peoples, exemplified in the Hebrews, being earth-keepers, rather than land-owners. March is professor of Old Testament at Louisville Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY.

--Hunter, David, Julia Sommer, and Scott Vaughan, Concepts and Principles of International Environmental Law: An Introduction. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, 1994. Paper no. 2 in the Environment and Trade series. 51 pages. Paper. The international law of sustainable development; the duty to cooperate; the duty to avoid environmental harm; the duty to compensate for harm; legal status of natural resources and common areas. Contact: UNEP, Trade and Environment Unit, Palais de Nations, CH-1211, Geneva, Switzerland.

--Mayo, Deborah G. and Rachelle D. Hollander, eds., Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. $ 19.95. 292 pages. In Oxford's Environmental Ethics and Science Policy Series. Twelve contributors. Three sections: Perceiving and Communicating Risk Evidence; Uncertain Evidence in Risk Management; Philosophy and Scientific Evidence. Sample chapters: Kristin Shrader Frechette, "Reductionist Approaches to Risk"; Ellen K. Silbergeld, "Risk Assessment and Risk Management: An Uneasy Divorce"; Sheila Jasanoff, "Acceptable Evidence in a Pluralistic Society." Mayo teaches philosophy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Hollander is coordinator for ethics and value studies at the National Science Foundation.

--Stefanovic, Ingrid Leman, "Evolving Sustainability: A Re-Thinking of Ontological Foundations," Trumpeter, 8:4, Fall 1991, pp. 194-200. The meaning of sustainability, from the perspective of phenomenology. Critical of the positivist roots of sustainable development concepts, the author suggests a more originative understanding of sustainability by re-thinking the notions of "dwelling" and "wholeness."

--Vitek, William, "Working Landscapes: People, Places, Partners," Chrysalis 8(no. 2, 1993):102-107. An analysis of landscapes that people make a living on, and on which they also dwell. "Working landscapes ... feed the soul, the heart, and the body." "It is not enough for us to attend to our work. We must attend to our communities. It is not enough to improve our individual lives. We must work to improve our working landscapes. ... We must make peace with the land and its rhythms." With special reference to the Racquette River watershed in northern New York state. Vitek teaches philosophy at Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, and he and Wes Jackson are editing an anthology, Home Territory: Essays on Community and the Land, forthcoming from Yale University Press.

--Hepburn, Ronald, "The Concept of the Sublime: Has It Any Relevance for Philosophy Today?" Dialectics and Humanism: The Polish Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 15, no. 1-2 (1988):137-55.

--Hepburn, Ronald, "Landscape and Metaphysical Imagination," a paper presented at the First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics, in Koli, Finland, June 1994. Aesthetic appreciation of nature is many- leveled. Landscape appreciation has both perceptual and conceptual components; it can suffer from too much or too little metaphysical imagination. Metaphysics that is internal to the aesthetic experience is more likely to be enriching than metaphysics external to the experience. An example is the experience of the sublime. Hepburn is in philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. Copies: Ronald Hepburn, Department of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, Davie Hume Tower, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JX.

--Kemal, Salim, and Ivan Gaskell, eds., Landscape, Natural Beauty and the Arts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 278 pages. Twelve essays. Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, "Nature, Fine Arts, and Aesthetics"; T. J. Diffey (University of Sussex), "Natural Beauty Without Metaphysics"; Ronald W. Hepburn (University of Edinburgh), "Trivial and Serious in Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature"; John Barrell (University of Sussex), "The Public Prospect and the Private View: the Politics of Taste in Eighteenth- century Britain"; P. Adams Sitney (Princeton University), "Landscape in the Cinema: The Rhythms of the World and the Camera"; Don Gifford (Williams College), "The Touch of Landscape"; Yi-Fu Tuan (University of Wisconsin), "Desert and Ice: Ambivalent Aesthetics"; Stephanie Ross (University of Missouri, St. Louis), "Gardens, Earthworks, and Environmental Art"; Donald W. Crawford (University of California, Santa Barbara), "Comparing Natural and Artistic Beauty"; Allen Carlson (University of Alberta), "Appreciating Art and Appreciating Nature"; Arnold Berleant (Long Island University, C. W. Post), "The Aesthetics of Art and Nature"; Noâl Carroll (University of Wisconsin), "On Being Moved by Nature: Between Religion and Natural History." Kemal is at Pennsylvania State University; Gaskell at Harvard University Art Museum.

--Brown, Donald A., compiler, Proceedings of Interdisciplinary Conference held at the United Nations on the Ethical Dimensions of the United Nations Program on Environment and Development, Agenda 21. Camp Hill, PA: Earth Ethics Research Group, 1994. The conference was held January 13-14, 1994. 392 pages. Some thirty papers, typically short, always focused on the issues raised in Agenda 21, and often on the text of that document. Samples: Rodrigo G. Barahona, "Ethical Questions Embedded in Biodiversity Provisions of Agenda 21"; Thomas Heyd, "Agenda 21 and the Limits of Technological Rationality"; Naresh C. Singh, "Ethical Questions Embedded in the Nuclear Waste Disposal Provisions of Agenda 21"; and many more. Contact Donald A. Brown, 2915 Beverly Road, Camp Hill, PA 17011. Fax: 717-787-9379. Phone 717-787-9368.

--Van Kooten, G. Cornelis, Land Economics and Sustainable Development: Economic Policies and the Common Good. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 450 pages. $ 49.95 Canadian, cloth. Much policy is not chosen to maximize the common welfare but for a mixture of policy goals. Van Kooten strongly favors market solutions to public policy problems, where these can be arranged. Government can only serve to facilitate such solutions; venturing further into the fray, government is likely to make things worse rather than better. The last section discusses ethics, religion, and philosophy in relation to natural resource management.

--Jobes, Patrick C., William F. Stinner, John M. Wardwell, eds., Community, Society and Migration: Noneconomic Migration in America. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992. Hardback. 389 pages. $ 48.50. The reasons people leave cities and move elsewhere, despite economics. One chapter of special interest is: Jobes, Patrick C., "Economic and Quality of Life Decisions in Migration to a High Natural Amenity Area." People who moved to the Gallatin Valley of Montana were studied 1981-1985, before and after moving. Economic factors are only one in a set of factors, and not the largest one; most such persons live neither in poverty nor with the likelihood of high incomes. The choice of destination is largely a decision how one wants to live; moving to Montana is often a quality of life decision. Jobes is a sociologist at Montana State University.

--Business and the Environment is the theme issue of Illahee: Journal for the Northest Environment, vol. 10, no. 1, spring 1994. Sample article: Stuart L. Hart, University of Michigan, "How Green Production Might Sustain the World." Also a section featuring businesses that are making more effort in environmental responsibility. Species, Habitats, and Ecological Health is the theme of vol. 10, no. 2, summer 1994. Sample article: Gordon H. Orians, "Endangered Species and Endangered Habitats," arguing that, although the potential benefits of the Endangered Species Act are considerable, there are many flexible options available, under existing law, giving ample authority for an ecosystem approach to conserving the nation's living species and habitats. Contact: Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.

--Schultz, Robert C., "Thoughts on Ecological Ethics," Illahee: Journal for the Northwest Environment 10(1994):119-122. "Environmental ethics begins with us. We urgently need to learn new ways of thinking, but these cannot be brought in and imposed on people from the outside. Implementing laws has something to do with public will, and public will has something to do with ethical consciousness. All of ethics has a kind of unfinished quality about it; environmental ethics has a not-yet-begun quality. No well ordered textbooks exist in which to seek the distilled truth of centuries. `Nature as dead stuff' is our heritage from the modern era. Alternative visions presume the existence of intrinsic value independent of human desires." Schultz is professor of philosophy in the Liberal Studies Program, University of Washington, Bothell.

--Woodley, Stephen, George Francis, and James Kay, Ecological Integrity and the Management of Ecosystems. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 1993. 256 pages. $ 55, cloth. Does ecological science have the capacity to provide useful measures of ecological integrity? Is there a useful process for incorporating value judgments within measurable ecological variables? The authors maintain that the definition of ecological integrity cannot be dissociated from societal values. Useful examination of related concepts such as ecosystem health, environmental quality. Sponsored by the Heritage Resources Center, University of Waterloo and Canadian Park Service.

--Dalton, Russell J., The Green Rainbow: Environmental Groups in Western Europe. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. 300 pages. $ 35. What has produced the greening of European politics, and what is the future of the green movement. Environmental groups as important new participants in the contemporary political process. Dalton is at the University of California, Irvine.

--Bramwell, Anna, The Fading of the Greens: The Decline of Environmental Politics in the West. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. 216 pages. $ 25. Greens have had a major political impact, but they do not win any elections. How green consciousness became skewed in political practice, preventing the greens from attracting the support they needed, largely due to the dominance of the German greens and their atypical characteristics. The green frontier now lies with international organizations, not political parties. Bramwell administers environmental strategy in eastern Europe for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.

--Kates, Robert W., "Sustaining Life on Earth," Scientific American 271 (No. 4, October, 1193):114-122. In a special issue on "Life in the Universe," and after nine articles about how Earth originated, life on Earth originated, and human life on Earth originated, Scientific American wonders whether, now that technological humans are here, life can be sustained in the future. Through intelligence, human beings have become a natural force to be reckoned with. Each major technological revolution--toolmaking, agriculture, and manufacturing--has triggered geometric population growth. Can were learn enough about physical, biological, and social reality to fashion a future that our planet can sustain? Kates is a geographer formerly at Brown University.

--Bast, Joseph L., Peter J. Hill, and Richard C. Rue, Eco-Sanity: A Common- Sense Guide to Environmentalism. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1994. $ 22.95. 316 pages. Best is president of The Heartlands Institute, Palatine, Illinois and Detroit Michigan. Hill teaches economics at Wheaton College, Illinois. Rue is vice-president of the Heartlands Institute.

--Zweers Wim and Jan J. Boersema, eds., Ecology, Technology and Culture. Cambridge, UK: The White Horse Press, 1994. 300 pages. ú 35.00 hardbound, ú 14.94 paper. A collection of twenty articles from the Netherlands, with distinct differences from the Anglo-American tradition and with authors who propose some novel ways of tackling the root causes of environmental degradation. Wim Zweers, "In Search of an Ecological Culture: Environmental Philosophy in the 1990's"; Jan J. Boersema, "First the Jew but also the Greek: In Search of the Roots of the Environmental Problem in Western Civilization"; Paul van Dijk, "Theological-Anthropological Reflections on the Environmental Issue"; Wim Zweers, "Radicalism or Historical Consciousness: On Breaks and Continuity in the Discussion about Basic Attitudes"; Henk Tennekes, "The Limits of Science"; Chung Lin Kwa, "Models and Modernism: Between Anxiety and Hubris"; Pieter J. Schroevers, "Science: A Modest Hope"; Petran Kockelkoren, "The House in the Cat's Claws: A Framework for a Hermeneutics of Nature"; Maarten Coolen, "Toward a Hermeneutics of Nature: On the Necessity of Enduring Distance"; Susanne Lijmbach, "Potter's Bull and Castrated Pigs: Considering the Impossibility of a Hermeneutic Natural Science"; Wouter Achterberg, "Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Environmental Crisis? Sustainability, Liberal Neutrality and Overlapping Consensus"; Frans Jacobs, "Can Liberal Democracy Help us to Survive the Environmental Crisis?"; Bert Musschenga, "Liberal Neutrality and the Justification of Environmental Conservation"; Hans Opschoor, "Market Forces as Causes of Environmental Degradation"; Hans Achterhuis, "The Lie of Sustainability"; Jan van der Straaten, "An Economic Theory of Natural Resources"; Koo van der Wal, "Technology and the Ecological Crisis"; Pieter Tijmes, "The Technological Universe"; Medard Hilhorst, "The Ethical Assessment of New Technologies: Some Methodological Considerations"; Etienne Vermeersch, "The Future of Environmental Philosophy." Zweers is in philosophy at Amsterdam University, Boersema in environmental studies at the State University of Gronigen.

--Buarque, Cristovam, The End of Economics: Ethics and the Disorder of Progress. London: Zed Books, 1993. ú 29.95 cloth, ú 12.95 paper. Economics aspiration to neutrality has faded, it inadequately figures environmental costs, its utilitarian spectacles blind it to qualitative distinctions of value. A new economics needs to embody an analytic framework that has an explicit ethical posture. The telos' implied within the dominant view of development is essentially a Western construct and does not articulate the vision or meet the needs of the majority of people in the South; traditional views are cyclic, not developmental.

--Mellor, Mary, Breaking the Boundaries: Towards a Feminist Green Socialism. London: Virago, 1992. ú 8.99. Green politics, ecofeminism, deep ecology, clan societies, global development, industrialism, capitalism, North and South and related women and environment issues. Women and their work is a central theme. Although socialism has rather consistently failed to respond adequately to the challenges of either feminism or environmentalism, a feminist green socialism is possible. Reviewed, rather negatively, by Julie Cook, Women's Environmental Network, in Environmental Values 3(1994):278-279.

--Nabhan, Gary Paul and Stephen Trimble, The Geography of Childhood: Why Children Need Wild Places. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994. $ 22.00 hardcover. Eight essays about the importance for children of the connection to the natural world. The authors recall rural and urban children, their own childhood, their experiences as fathers with their children, fieldwork with Mexican and Indian children, and ask about the merits and demerits of nature for children on television.

--Chawla, Louise, In the First Country of Places: Nature, Poetry, and Childhood Memory. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1994. How people's personal philosophies of nature shape their childhood memories and self-identities. Uses five American poets: William Bronk, David Ignatow, Audre Lorde, Marie Ponsot, and Henry Weinfield. Each confronts the modern scientific image of an alien nature and each elaborates alternative versions of connections with nature and with their own past. Chawla teaches at Whitney Young College, an interdisciplinary honors college at Kentucky State University.

--Taiga-News: Newsletter on Boreal Forests is a newsletter that watches developments threatening, or protecting, boreal forests in both hemispheres. Contact Taiga Rescue Network, Ajtte, Box 116, S-962 23 Jokkmokk, Sweden. Phone: 46 (country code) 971 (city code) 17037. Fax: 12057.

--People and the Planet is a quarterly devoted to people-centered issues of population, development and the environment. Worldwide Fund for Nature, forced to discontinue publication of The New Road (on religion and environment), now co-sponsors People and the Planet, along with IUCN, the World Conservation Union, the United Nations Population Fund, and the International Planned Parenthood Foundation. Contact: John Rowley, editor, 1 Woburn Walk, London WC1H 0JJ, UK. Fax 44 (country code) (0)71 (city code) 388 2398

--Shiva, Vandana, ed., Close to Home: Women Reconnect Ecology, Health and Development Worldwide. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1994. $ 12.95. Twelve essays by women working largely in Asia on the impact of industrial and agricultural development on women's lives. Experiences of women in Thailand, in the Philippines, as well as in the United States, show that what we do to the Earth, we do to our bodies.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin and Earl McCoy, "Biodiversity, Biological Uncertainty, and Setting Conservation Priorities," Biology and Philosophy 9(1994);167-195. Shrader-Frechette is in philosophy, McCoy in biology at the University of South Florida, Tampa.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin and Earl McCoy, "What Ecology Can Do for Environmental Management," Journal of Environmental Management 41(1994).

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, "Ecological Explanation and the Population- Growth Thesis," PSA 94, ed. Peter Asquith. East Lansing, MI: Philosophy of Science Association, 1994. Many ecologists have dismissed alleged ecological laws as tautological, trivial, circular, or nontestable. This essay investigates the status of one of the most prominent such "laws," the population-growth thesis. The essay argues that some interpretations of the thesis are not obviously a priori, trivial, definitional, or tautological, although the thesis itself may be used in some context that are a priori. The essay closes with several observations about what the epistemological status of the population-growth thesis, as a schematic law, might tell us about explanation in ecology. Shrader-Frechette is in philosophy at the University of South Florida, Tampa.

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, Ethics of Scientific Research. Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994. 208 pages. $ 54.50 cloth; $ 21.95 paper. Chapters: Importance of Research Ethics; The Duty to Do Research; Basic Principles of Research Ethics; Objectivity; Promoting the Public Good; Handling Conflicts; Research and Uncertainty; Uncertain Science in Controversial and Litigious Times. With three concluding chapters by other authors: Helen Longino, "Gender and Racial Biases in Scientific Research': Carl Mitchem, "Engineering Design Research and the Public Good"; Carl Cranor, "Public Health Research and Uncertainty." Shrader-Frechette is in philosophy at the University of South Florida, Tampa.

--DeBardeleben, Joan and John Hannigan, eds., Environmental Quality and Security after Communism: Eastern Europe and the Soviet Successor States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 256 pages. $ 55.00 cloth, $ 19.95 paper. There is increased awareness and activism, but the environmental crisis has not abated since the collapse of communism. The proliferation of new countries and intensified economic problems complicates the search for solutions. Environmental deterioration poses serious threats to the quality of life, stability, and security in the region. Both authors are in East European and Russian studies at Carleton University.

--Pryde, Philip R., ed., Environmental Resources and Constraints in the Former Soviet Republics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. 364 pages. $ 59.85. Environmental legacies of the Soviet period and current trends, a geographical approach. Pryde is in geography at San Diego State University.

--Hîll, Otmar, eds., Environmental Cooperation in Europe: The Political Dimension. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 160 pages. $ 34.95. An effective European environmental policy must provide room for variation in the burden borne by various countries, commensurate with their economic, technical, and institutional resources. Hîll is at the Austrian Institute for International Affairs, Vienna.

--Prendville, Brendan, Environmental Politics in France. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 190 pages. $ 49.95. Prendville is in sociology at the University of Rennes 2, Brittany.

--Bennett, Larry E., Colorado Gray Wolf Recovery: A Biological Feasibility Study. Final Report -- 31 March 1994. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Mountain-Prairie Region, Denver Federal Center, Denver CO. The study finds seven areas in western Colorado that meet the minimum recommended requirements for a sustainable population of about 1,000 wolves in total.

This is about the same as the estimated population of wolves in the state in 1915. Bennett is with the University of Wyoming Fish and Wildlife Cooperative Research Unit, Laramie. A second part of this study, a sociological feasibility study, is to be released in December 1994, and done by the Human Dimensions in Wildlife Unit at Colorado State University. Wolves are being released in Wyoming in Yellowstone National Park this fall, see more below.

--Peters, Robert H., A Critique for Ecology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. 366 pages. $ 30.00 paper. Argues that much of ecology cannot be science because ecology often provides no information or information of such poor quality that it can only be soft science. If ecology and environmental science are to meet the needs of the present decade and next millennium, researchers will need far more acute critical abilities than they have yet demonstrated. Ecologists have minimized the importance of predictive power in assessing scientific quality. Instead, they offer logical rationalization, historical explanation and mechanistic understanding, and fall prey to numerous failings that confound any assessment of the science. Predictions are often vague, inaccurate, qualitative, subjective, and inconsequential. But ecology can be effective and informative, and predictive ecology is already a reality in autecology, community ecology, limnology and ecotoxicology. A controversial book, about which the Cambridge editors themselves were much divided. Peters is in biology at McGill University, Montreal.

--Whigham, D., D. Dyknov_, and S. Hejny, eds., Wetlands of the World: Inventory, Ecology and Management. Vol. 1. Africa, Australia, Canada and Greenland, Mediterranean, Mexico, Paupa New Guinea, South Asia, Tropical South America, United States. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993. 788 pages. $ 286.00. Two more volumes are coming, but slowly. An important reference, at an exorbitant price.

--Gadgil, Madhav, and Ramachandra Guha, This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Cloth, $ 35.00. Paper, $ 12. 274 pages.

--Chapple, Christopher Key, Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. The origins of the practice of nonviolence in early India and its paths within the Jain, Hindu, and Buddhist traditions. The relevance of this for contemporary issues: vegetarianism, animal and environmental protection, and religious tolerance Chapple is in theology at Loyola Marymont University.

--Molvar, Erik, The Trail Guide to Bob Marshall Country. Helena, MT: Falcon Press, 1994. Paper, 294 pages. $ 19.95. The first complete trail guide to the crown jewel of the American wilderness system, the vast two-million-acre Bob Marshall, Great Bear, and Scapegoat Wilderness Complex. Over 100 trails described in detail. Molvar, who studied wildlife biology at the University of Montana, has hiked more than a thousand miles in the Bob Marshalls, including all the trails in the book.

--Gaston, Kevin J., Rarity. London and New York: Chapman and Hall, 1994. 205 pages, paper. $ 34.00. 1. What is rarity? 2. Abundances and range sizes: measuring rarity. 3. The non-independence of abundance and range size. 4. Spatial dynamics. 5. Temporal dynamics. 6. Causes of rarity. 7. Conservation and rarity. 8. Where next? This promises to be the definitive treatment on rarity. Gaston is an ecologist and entomologist at the Natural History Museum, London.

--de-Shalit, Avner, Why Posterity Matters. London: Routledge, forthcoming, 1994. A comprehensive examination of our duties to future generations, arguing that our obligations toward future generations are a matter of justice, not of charity or supererogation. We have a duty to consider them when we distribute access to natural resources, decide on environmental policies, and plan budgets. This raises problems for conventional theories of justice and requires a new communitarian theory of intergenerational justice, which can serve as the moral basis for environmental policy. This book is in the Routledge series, Environmental Philosophies, edited by Andrew Brennan. de-Shalit teaches environmental ethics and political policy at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

--Burks, D. C., ed., Place of the Wild: A Wildlands Anthology. Washington, DC: Island Press, forthcoming, 1994. Contains Max Oelschlaeger, "The Idea of Wilderness as a Deep Ecological Ethic," which develops six aspects of E. O. Wilson's claim that the idea of wilderness grounds a conservation ethic.

--Oelschlaeger, Max, ed., Postmodern Environmental Ethics. Albany: State University of New York Press, forthcoming, 1995. Reprinted from the journal Environmental Ethics, these fifteen essays show that a postmodern movement is well underway within the ecophilosophical community.

--High Country News: Grappling with Growth, special issue, September 5, 1994. vol. 26, no. 16. Useful survey of growth issues in the American West and what can--and is--being done in various communities to grapple with growth.

--Wawrzyniak, Jan, "A Proposal of Neonaturalistic Axiology and Metaethics," (in Polish) in J¢zef Lipiec, ed., The Crossroads of Values. Cracow, Poland: Jagiellonian University Press, 1993.

--Wawrzyniak, Jan, "Suffering as a Transcendental Value," paper in English at the Jagiellonian University Symposium on Ethics, Suffering as Human Experience, Cracow, Poland, June 6-8, 1994. The conference, though largely devoted to human suffering, contained two papers on suffering in the animal world. Suffering must be valued from the point of view of sentient animals, and this makes any associated values to transcend the merely human account of any worth found in suffering. For the other paper, see Leszek Pyra, "Suffering and the Rights of Animals." Copies from Professor Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland.

--Pyra, Leszek, "Suffering and the Rights of Animals," paper (available in English) at the Jagiellonian University Symposium on Ethics, Suffering as Human Experience, Cracow, Poland, June 6-8, 1994. See Wawrzyniak, Jan, "Suffering as a Transcendental Value."

--Andrzejewski, Boleslaw, ed., Ochrona Srodowiska w Refleksji Humanistycznej (Environmental Protection in Humanistic Reflection). Poznan, Poland: Wydawnictwo Poznanskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciol Nauk (Poznan Society of Friends of the Sciences), 1992. Fifteen essays in Polish: Some samples: Boleslaw Andrzejewski, "The Ecological Motif in Romantic Philosophy of Language"; Andrzej Przylebski, "Martin Heidegger and the So-Called Deep Ecology"; Bernard Piotrowski, "The Swedish Ecological Culture in Recent Times"; Eugeniusz Kosmicki, "Basic Problems of Ecological Ethics"; Jan Wawrzyniak, "Man--It Does Not Sound Honorable: A Conception of Neonaturalistic Evolutionary and Environmental Ethics"; Luromira Domka, "Humanistic Faculties at Universities in the Defense of Nature."

--Green Brigades, or (in Polish) Zielone Brygady is a Polish environmental journal/newsletter, now in its fifth year, published under the auspices of the Chemists' Scientific Club at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland. ISSN 1231-2134. Sixty issues have been published in Polish and twelve in English, with a current circulation of 3,000 in Polish and 1,500 in English, a quite large circulation by Polish standards. The journal seeks to exchange information between various groups active in the fields of ecology, wildlife conservation, environmental protection, animal rights, vegetarianism, and healthy lifestyles. Some issues in the 1994, no. 2 issue: "Campaign to keep the Vistula River Wild," "International Biosphere Reserve in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains (Bieszczady Mountains)," "Hour of Destiny for Bialowieza Primeval Forest" (Europe's last remaining stand of lowland ancient forest, dating back to 8,000 B.C.)," an article on "The Polish Society for Nature Protection, Salamandra. Piotr Rymarowicz and Laurel Sherwood are editors. Address: Slawkowska 12/24 (IV p.), PL-31-014 Krakow, Poland. Phone 48: (country code) 12 (city code) 222147, ext. 15. Fax: 222264. E-mail: zielbryg@gn.apc.org

--Knight, R. L., K. Huylsman, and K. Gutzweiler, eds., Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research. Washington, DC: Island Press, forthcoming, 1994 or 1995. Contains Max Oelschlaeger, "The Land Ethic and Outdoor Recreation," which uses Leopold's land ethic as a frame for critiquing the recreation industry that has emerged as big business in the last half of this century.

--Hayward, Tim, "Ecology and Human Emancipation," Radical Philosophy (Canterbury, Kent, UK) 62(1992):3-13. Traditional socialist conceptions of emancipation as a move from a sphere of necessity to one of freedom are radically problematic from an ecological perspective. There is no problem with removing coercive and exploitative human relations, but the ecological perspective casts doubt on the possibility or desirability of emancipation from nature-imposed necessity. There are three different meanings of emancipation from nature, not all equally objectionable. One is the aim of subsistence, transforming nature to meet human needs for food, shelter, and good health. Another is the Promethean aim of transcending natural limits, to which Marx has some tendencies. A third is the emancipation of human creativity, the humanist aim of self-realization, which does see humans as autonomous of the order of natural causality, though not necessarily as pitted against nature, and Marx can be interpreted from this perspective. Hayward is lecturer in philosophy at the University of Glamorgan, Wales.

--Jacobs, Michael, The Green Economy: Environment, Sustainable Development and the Politics of the Future. London & Concord, MA: Pluto Press, 1991. 312 pages. Sample chapters: "Whose Environment?"; "The Invisible Elbow: Market Forces and Environmental Degradation"; "Valuing the Environment: The `Orthodox Economist's' Approach to Environmental Problems"; "Making Sustainability Operational: The Meaning of `Environmental Capacity'"; "Global Environmental Economic Policy"; "Making Environmental Decisions: The Limits of Cost-Benefit Analysis"; "The Standard of Living and the Quality of Life." Jacobs attempts to show how an ideal of sustainability can be converted into concrete policy objectives, and, though the meaning of "standard of living" must be reconsidered, the possibilities are more hopeful and politically feasible than might be anticipated. He is a British management consultant.

--Goudzwaard, Bob and Harry DeLange (De Lange), Beyond Poverty and Affluence. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1994. 176 pages. $ 15. Co- published with the World Council of Churches. Today's widespread problems of poverty, unemployment, and environmental degradation are rooted in--and thus can never be resolved by--the dominant contemporary economic models of growth. The authors argue for an economy of care, or an economics of enough, with twelve concrete, feasible proposals for moving present-day society in such a direction.

--Hallman, David G., ed., Ecotheology: Voices from South and North. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1994. 312 pages. $ 19.95. Co-published with the World Council of Churches. Two dozen essays by authors from around the world, in five sections: biblical witness, theological challenges, insights from eco-feminism, insights from indigenous peoples, ethical implications. Hallman is program officer for energy and environment for the United Church of Canada.

--Carroll, John E., and Albert LaChance, eds., Embracing Earth: Catholic Approaches to Ecology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1994. 300 pages. $ 18.95. Richard Rohr, "Christianity and Creation": David Toolan, "Open to Life--and Death," (on the prohibition of all but "natural" birth control); Tessa Bielarki on the mystical-spiritual schemes suggested by the Gaia model, the Samsara construct, and C. S. Lewis' allegorical kingdom of Narnia; William McNamara on verbal pollution and a provocative call to a radical renewal of language; Paul Gonzalez on expanding spiritual horizons beyond the modern norm of a limited concern for the self. Carroll is professor of natural resources at the University of New Hampshire and LaChance is a psychologist and author of Greenspirit.

--Jamieson, Dale, "Ethics, Public Policy and Global Warming," Science, Technology and Human Values 17(1992):139-153. Reprinted in Earl Winkler and Jerrold R. Coombes, eds., Applied Ethics: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993). Though there are scientific issues involved, the global warming problem is not primarily a scientific problem. It is an ethical and political problem concerning values. The "policy management" approach derives from neo-classical economic theory and so dominates current public discussion that its assumptions and biases are hardly visible. But this approach can hardly succeed on its own terms because its analytic techniques are inadequate to the complexities of anthropogenic climatic change. Jamieson asks about what changes will be needed if humans and other animals are to survive current threats to the global environment. Jamieson is in philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

--Jamieson, Dale, "Ethics and Animals: A Brief Review," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6, Special Supplement 1 (1993):15-20.

--Journal of Human Dimensions in Wildlife Management is a new journal, to advance the science of human dimensions of wildlife and its application to decision-making concerning wildlife conservation. Sample articles in volume 1, no. 1, Spring 1994. "Understanding Controversy in Wildlife Management"; "Basic Wildlife Beliefs, Orientations, and their Applicability to Wildlife Planning." The publisher is Sagamore Publishing Inc., Champaign, IL. Articles are invited: Co-editors, Michael J. Manfredo and Jerry J. Vaske, Human Dimensions Natural Resources Unit, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

--Forbes, Malcolm, S., Jr., "People Are an Asset, not a Liability," Forbes, September 12, 1994. An editorial. At the Cairo conference, "the real issue is that curbing population growth is critical for economic development. That premise is preposterous. A growing population is not a drag on economic development. When combined with freedom, it is a stimulant." The richest countries in the world are the most densely populated, and people are poor only where governments dominate and suffocate economic activity. "A growing population helps improve the quality of life." "Free people don't `exhaust' resources; they create them." (Thanks to Ned Hettinger.)

Stafford, Tim, "Are People the Problem?" Christianity Today, October 3, 1994. A special report funded by the Pew Charitable Trust. Christians have a vital stake in the population debate, since population concerns cover areas that Christians deeply care about, the meaning of persons and families, the role of women, the use of population controls, coercion, persuasion, abortion, and related issues. Paul Ehrlich's views are contrasted with Julian Simon's, and evangelical Christians come out in between, but nearer to Simon, provided that resources are used with justice and love, and the cornucopian argument must not become a substitute for these concerns. In a way, what Christians now urge ought to urge in developing countries is what the best in Protestant Christian missions has been urging for the last century: hard work, thrift, modern scientific methods, limited family size, justice, love, and charity, honest, democratic government, contentment with enough. With boxes by Andrew Steer, Director of the World Bank with responsibilities for environmental and social policies, and a Christian who is rather more concerned with the adverse results of escalating populations.

--Sheehan, Kathyrn and Mary Waidner, Earth Child: Games, Stories, Activities, Experiments and Ideas About Living Lightly on Planet Earth. 328 pages. $ 16.95. With an extensive bibliography of other sources. Council Oak Books, 1350 East 15th St., Tulsa, OK 74120. Phone: 800-247-8850.

--Rothenberg, David, ed. Wild Ideas. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Forthcoming, 1995.

--Francione, Gary L. "Animals, Property and Legal Welfarism: Unnecessary' Suffering and the Humane' Treatment of Animals." Rutgers Law Review 46, no. 2 (Winter 1994): 721-70. Concludes that the legal protection of animals is unlikely to exceed their exploitation. The only prohibition upon animal use is conduct that results in gratuitous suffering. As property, animals can have certain rights, just as human slaves had some rights and were, in a limited sense, regarded as persons. Regarding legal welfarism, animals and their "interests" will virtually always lose in any purported "balancing" of human and animal interests.

--Gablik, Suzi. The Reenchantment of Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Modern art exposes the unecological and unsustainable isolationism of a hypermasculinized culture. The challenge of the future is to transcend the disconnectedness and separation of the aesthetic from the natural and social.

--Logsdon, Gene. At Nature's Pace. Foreword by Wendell Berry. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994. 208 pp. $23 hardbound. Formerly an editor for Farm Journal, Logsdon is an ardent defender of the small traditonal farm (the farm of fifty years ago), an honor he shares with Wendell Berry. Logsdon farms thirty acres in Ohio, and has written twelve books and hundreds of articles. The small farm is not dead, he argues; rather, the future will have more farmers, not fewer. Farms will be ecologically sane and community-interdependent. The error of the past was that farmers tried to live like city folks. The Amish have proved that farming is a decent living.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, "Cooperation, Trust Begin to Restore an Oregon Ecosystem: Ranchers, Ecologists Are Optimistic About Watershed's Recovery," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (4 October 1994):10-11.

--Walker, Sam, "Kinder, Gentler Hens for the '90s," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (4 October 1994): 11.

--Walters, Laurel Shaper, "Cleaning Out the World's Biggest Basement: After 180 Years of Tourism, the United States Park Service Takes Steps to Protect Mammoth Cave National Park," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (27 September 1994): 12-13.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, "World Bank Turns From Saving Trees to Saving Cities," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (27 September 1994): 13.

--Rosen, Yereth, "Exxon Will Appeal $5 Billion Penalty for 1989 Oil Spill," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (20 September 1994): 9.

--Spaid, Elizabeth Levitan, "Shoring Up the Future of Vermont's Old Barns," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (20 September 1994): 10-11.

--Abdo, Geneive, "Cairo Conference Shifts Focus of Population Effort," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (15 September 1994): 1, 4.

--Walters, Llaurel Shaper, "A Mississippi County Grows Casinos Instead of Cotton," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (13 September 1994): 10-11.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, " The Wilderness Act: Work Continues After 30 Years," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (13 September 1994): 11.

--Clayton, Mark, "Majesty Under Pressure: Canada's Banff Park," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (7 September 1994): 7, 10-11. Excellent report on the impact of human development on wildlife and wilderness in the Bow River Valley, Alberta, Canada. The Canadian government has put a two-year moratorium on all new building within the park.

--Moffett, George, "UN Population Conference Meets Religious Resistance," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (6 September 1994): 1, 4.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, "Making a Space for the Heart: Hoichi Kurisu Aspires to Have His Gardens Change the Way Vistors Think," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (6 September 1994): 10-11.

--Scherer, Ron, "Recovering After Ban on DDT Use, Osprey Find Urban Waters Good Fishing," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 September 1994): 1, 4.

--Bryce, Robert, "Nuclear Waste's Last Stand: Apache Land," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 September 1994): 6-7.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, "Harboring a Forest of Fragile Species," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (30 August 1994): 10-11. Unique in its biodiversity, the Klamath-Siskiyou region of the Pacific Northwest is unprotected from development.

--Grier, Peter, "US Makes Gains in Fuel Efficiency Despite Reputation as Gas-Guzzler," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (24 August 1994): 8.

--Battersby, John, "A Human Face for South Africa's Park System," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (23 August 1994): 12-13.

--Moffett, George, "Reining in the World's Galloping Population," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (17 August 1994): 7-14.

--Baldauf, Scott, "Farmers and Scientists Work to Save the Earth, One Acre at a Time," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (10 August 1994): 14. --Knickerbocker, Brad, "Excess Water Use in West Kicks Up Dust," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (5 August 1994): 2.

--Henderson, Keith, "Ecologists Debate Merits of Rain-Forest Products," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (3 August 1994):1, 6.

--Armstrong, Scott, "Deep Dilemma in Grand Canyon: Improve Access or Retain Natural Beauty," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 1, 4.

--Holmstrom, David, "Ecologists Question Cost-Benefit Scrutiny," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 3.

--Pendleton, Scott, "US Pressures Shrimpers to Save Endangered Turtles," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 3.

--Langan, Fred, "In Canada, Farmers Find It Pays to Grow Crops the Organic Way," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 9.

--Sneider, Daniel, "Saving Siberia's Unique Lake Baikal Region," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 12.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, "Watching the State of the World," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (2 August 1994): 13. About Lester Brown, the founder of the Worldwatch Institute.

--Ross, Elizabeth, "Cape Cod Resists Next Wave: Superstores," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (1 August 1994): 8.

--Dillin, John, "Whistle-Blowers on Safety Risks Betrayed by Nuclear Agency," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (29 July 1994):1, 4. NRC admits telling TVA utility the names of its employees who warned of problems.

--Knickerbocker, Brad, "When Ecology and Economy Meet in a Business," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (26 July 1994):10-11.

--Scanlan, David, "An Environmental Test Case: New Costa Rican Government to Rule on Building of Chip Mill in Rain Forest," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (26 July 1994): 11.

--Dillon, John, "Tiny Mussel Endangers a Giant Nuclear Complex," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (20 July 1994): 1, 6.

--Foster, Catherine, "War in the Pacific: Legacy of a Copper Mine," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (20 July 1994):10-11. Residents of the small island of Bougainville have fought for six years to save their environment and gain independence from Papua New Guinea.

--Clayton, Mark, "Today's Farm Families in Canada Find They Must Innovate, Diversify--or Quit," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (13 July 1994):1, 6.

--Henderson, Keith, "Breeders Aim to Hatch a Big Market for Emus," The Christian Science Monitor 86 (12 July 1994): 10-11. First cousin to the ostrich, the emus is being raised for meat, hide, feathers, and oil. --Farney, Dennis, "Chaos Theory Seeps Into Ecology Debate, Stirring Up a Tempest," Wall Street Journal, 11 July 1994, pp. A1, A8. Since the Renaissance, nature has been viewed as rational and orderly; but it is inherently disorderly, says environmental historian Donald Worster (University of Kansas). All is flux and flow, change without end. Ours is a post-modernist, post-structuralist age.

--Weir, Jack, "An Argument for the Constitutive Goodness of the Natural Environment." Southwest Philosophy Review 10 (January 1994): 167-75. The key concept of a "constitutive good" is analyzed, and the methodological moves in the argument are clarified. Human nature, including individual identities, is conditioned by the environment. Moreover, a life in a sufficiently different environment would not be a human life. Hence, the environment is a constitutive good, and ought to be preserved.

--Weir, Jack, "The Environmental Crisis as a Crisis of the Spirit," Science, Technology and Religious Ideas 5 (Fall 1994). In this paper, Weir argues that the environmental will not solved by political science (diplomacy), natural science (technology), or philosophy (a new ideology). Rather, the problem is at its deepest level a problem of the heart--one of greed and selfishness--and will not be resolved until people's characters are transformed.

--Weir, Jack. "Animals and Radical Translation." Southwest Philosophy Review 11 (January 1995): forthcoming. W. V. O. Quine's principle of charity and Richard Grandy's principle of humanity are applied to nonhuman animals. Weir argues that animals have at least some kinds of beliefs.

Events and Calendar

1994


--October 26-29. Third Annual National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Burlington, Vermont. Contact: Mary Jeanne Packer, Coordinator, Green Mountain National Forest, 231 North Main Street, Rutland, VT 05701. Phone 802-747-6700. Fax 802-747-6766.

--November 3-4. The Science of Overabundance: The Ecology of Unmanaged Deep Populations, Front Royal, Virginia. Sponsored by National Park Service and Smithsonian Institution. Contact: Bill McShea, Conservation & Research Center, Front Royal, VA 22630. Phone: 703-635-6500.

--November 9-13. Forest Canopies: Ecology, Biodiversity, and Conservation, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida. Contact: M. Lowman, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 S. Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 34236. Phone 813- 366-5731

--November 14-18. Wilderness: The Spirit Lives, 6th National Wilderness Conference, Santa Fe. Sponsors: US Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Biological Survey, National Park Service, Society of American Foresters. Celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Wilderness Act. Speakers include Jack Ward Thomas, USFS Chief; R. Max Peterson, Retired USFS Chief; H. Ronald Pulliam, Director, National Biological Survey; Edward Zahniser, son of Howard Zahniser who wrote and re-wrote the Wilderness Act some sixty-six times to get it through the US Congress; David Brower; Smoke Elser, outfitter who rides about 2,000 miles a year in the Bob Marshall Wilderness complex, and is well-known for his low impact camping, and many others. Contact: Society of American Foresters Interagency Wilderness Conference, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814.

--November 21-24. Xth International Symposium: Present State and New Trends in Landscape Ecology. Smolenice, Slovokia. With, among others, a paper (in English) by Osmo A. Konturri (Finnish Association of Landscape Ecology, Box 381, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland), "Environmental Research/Planning and Environmental Philosophy/Politics--A Landscape Ecological View."

--December 12-14. Jerusalem. Our Shared Environment: An International Conference to Raise Public Awareness of the Environmental Challenges Facing Israelis and Palestinians. Sponsored by the Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information, IPCRI, Jerusalem, and the Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem, ARIJ, with offices in Bethlehem. The conference intends to give Israelis and Palestinians and others interested in the region the chance to think about their common environmental future. Contact IPCRI, P. O. Box 51358, Jerusalem 91513, Israel. Phone 02-274382. Fax 02- 274383.

--December 12-14. Integrating Social Sciences in Ecosystem Management: A National Challenge. Unicoi Lodge and Conference Center, Helen, Georgia. Contact: Linda Caldwell, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Phone 706-542-5064. Fax 706-546- 2478.

1995

--January 9-11. Care for the Earth: Sustaining our Fragile Home. Sixtieth Annual Minister's Week, The Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Speakers include JÅrgen Moltmann, theologian at the University of TÅbingen. Contact: Candler School of Theology, 400 Bishops Hall, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Phone 404-727-6352.

--February 16-21. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Atlanta, Georgia. With an ISEE session organized by Bryan Norton, Georgia Institute of Technology. Sections on biological diversity, on sustainable development, on global change, on innovative environmental technologies, on the extent of environmental remediation, on the carrying capacity of Planet Earth, and many others. AAAS, 1333 H. St., N. W. Washington, DC.

--March 6-12. World Summit for Social Development, in Copenhagen, Denmark. With a focus on sustainable development, consistent with environmental conservation. Contact: Jacques Baudot, Coordinator, WSSD, Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, United Nations, United Nations, NY 10017. Phone 212-963-5558. Fax 212-963-3062.

--March 8-11. Gambling with the Environment, Las Vegas, Nevada! Biannual meeting, American Society for Environmental History. Call for papers. Contact: Theodore Steinberg, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982.

--March 30-April 2. Communication and our Environment: An Interdisciplinary Conference, Chattanooga, Tennessee. Papers are invited on how media influences our concept of the natural environment, for better or worse. Contact: M. Jimmie Killingsworth, Department of English, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843. Phone 409-845-9936.

--April 12-15. Hunting, Fishing, Conservation, and Ecology, at Philadelphia. Proposals by September 15, 1994 to Ralph H. Lutts, 1025 Jefferson Circle, Martinsville, VA 24112. Phone/fax 703-666-1295. E-mail: rhlutts@igc.apc.org

--April 17-21. Sustainable Society and Protected Areas, 8th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and Public Lands, Portland, Oregon. Sponsored by the George Wright Society. There is a call for papers. The George Wright Society, P. O. Box 65, Hancock, MI 49930-0065. 906-487-9722. Fax 906-487-9405.

--June 2-3, 1995. The Canadian Society for the Study of Practical Ethics (CSSPE), with section on Environmental Ethics, Montreal, Quebec. See announcement earlier.

--June 7-11. Society for Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. See announcement above.

--June 10-13. National Association of Environmental Professionals, 20th annual conference, "Environmental Challenges: The Next 20 Years. Washington, DC. There is a call for papers, with papers welcome in the fields of ethics, values, and policy. Contact: NAEP, 5156 MacArthur Boulevard, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3315. 202-966-1500. Fax: 1977.

--June 21-25. Interdisciplinary Conference on the Environment, Park Plaza Hotel and Towers, Boston, Massachusetts. Call for papers. Contact Dr. Demetri Kantarelis, IEA, Economics/Foreign Affairs Dept., Assumption College, 500 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01615-0005. Phone 508-752- 5615, ext. 557. Fax 508-799-4502.

--June 25-30. Third International Conference on Ethics in the Public Service, "Politics, Ethics, and the Professions," in Jerusalem, June 25-30, 1995, with an ISEE section. See more detailed announcement above.

--June 26-29. Vienna, Austria: Sixth Annual Conference of the International Society for Business and Society (IABS). Topics include corporate social responsibility and environmental management. Three-page (maximum) abstracts are due 28 November 1994. Send to the Program Chair: Douglas Nigh, College of Business Administration, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 USA; tel. 803-777-6942; FAX 803-777-3609.

--July (early). Australian Association of Philosophy (Australian Division), annual conference at University of New England, Armidale, NSW. ISEE section and papers are invited. For more information, see the announcement above or contact Robert Elliot (address above).

--July 16-21. Conference, International Association for Bear Research and Management, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. With a session on bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Papers invited. Contact: Harry Reynolds, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701- 1599. Fax 907-452-6410

--July 30-August 3. Ecological Society of America, in Snowbird, Utah. ISEE sponsored a session last year (in Knoxville, Tennessee) and interested persons should contact Laura Westra, address below. The Ecological Society of America has 6,300 members and this is an excellent opportunity for philosophers, ethicists, and others to interact with them. For conference details: Ecological Society of America, 2010 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Suite 420, Washington, DC 20036. Phone 202-833-8773.

--August 1-5. XIII International Congress of Aesthetics, Lahti, Finland. Theme: Aesthetics in Practice: Connections between Academic Research in Aesthetics and Everyday Life, especially Concerning the Environment." This follows and continues a very successful First International Conference on Environmental Aesthetics held at Koli National Park in Finland this past June. Papers on the aesthetics of nature are especially welcomed. Contact: Sonja Servomaa, University of Helsinki, Lahti Research and Training Centre, Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 Lahti, Finland. Phone 358-18-892 11. Fax: 358-18-892 219.

--August 6-10. American Institute of Biological Sciences meets in San Diego, Town and Country Hotel. Contact AIBS, 730 11th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20001-4521, Phone: 202-628-1500; Fax: 202-628-1509.

--August 6-12. International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), 20th World Congress, Tampere, Finland.

--August 9-16. YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado. Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World (SPCW). Proposals on topics in environmental ethics, animal ethics, and ecophilosophy are welcome. Opportunities for hiking in the Rockies. Accomodations for children and families. Contact: Prof. John Jones, Program Chair, Department of Philosophy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233 USA, tel. 414-288- 6857; Email <6563jonesj@vmsa.csd.mu.edu>.

--August 26-29. Firenze, Italy: Conference on Global Dimensions of Integrity: Sustainability, Biodiversity and Environmental Justice. Organized by Laura Westra in collaboration with the Institute for Man (sic) and the University of Firenze (Prof. B. Chairelli, Editor of Global Bioethics, and Prof. Angelo Riccaboni, Head of the School of Economics and Accountancy). The Rome office of WHO is also participating. Some sessions will be open to submitted papers; especially needed are papers on environmental health/bioethics. Immediately precedes a Philosophy of Science conference also to be held there. Send proposals to Laura Westra (address below).

--October 13-15. The Society for Global Africa (see General Announcements above). Papers and proposals are vigorously solicited. Contact Laura Westra (address below).

1996

--August 26-29. Firenze, Italy: Conference on Global Dimensions of Integrity: Sustainability, Biodiversity and Environmental Justice. Organized by Laura Westra in collaboration with the Institute for Man (sic) and the University of Firenze (Prof. B. Chairelli, Editor of Global Bioethics, and Prof. Angelo Riccaboni, Head of the School of Economics and Accountancy). The Rome office of WHO is also participating. Some sessions will be open to submitted papers; especially needed are papers on environmental health/bioethics. Immediately precedes a Philosophy of Science conference also to be held there. Send proposals to Laura Westra (address below).

--October 13-15. The Society for Global Africa (see General Announcements above). Papers and proposals are vigorously solicited. Contact Laura Westra (address below).

1996

--May 18-23. Sixth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.