Volume 4, No. 3, Fall 1993

General Announcements

Eastern Division, American Philosophical Association, meets Dec. 27-30, 1993 in Atlanta, GA, at the Atlanta Marriott. ISEE Session on the theme: New Directions in Environmental Ethics. Robert Gottlieb (Worcester Polytechnic Institute), "Whose Life Is it Anyway?: Ecology/Identity/Politics"; Kelly Parker (Grand Valley State University), "Pragmatism and Environmental Thought"; chaired by Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology).

Central Division, American Philosophical Association, meets May 4- 7, 1994 in Kansas City, Hyatt Center. Session I will be on "Ethics and Radioactive Waste," with participants, Patricia Flemming (Philosophy, Creighton University, Omaha), "Circularity and Regulatory Policy: The Case of Yucca Mountain"; Kristin Shrader-Frechette (Philosophy, University of South Florida), "Nuclear Waste and Free Informed Consent: The Case of Yucca Mountain," with commentator, Craig Walton (Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas).

Session II at Central APA will be Ernest Partridge (Northland College, Wisconsin), title pending; Sandra Rosenthal and Rogene Bucholz (Loyola University of New Orleans), "Philosophical Foundations for an Environmental Ethics: A Pragmatic Perspective"; William Aiken (Chatham College, Pittsburgh), "Is Deep Ecology Too Radical?"; William McKinney (Southeast Missouri State University), "The Value of Thought Experiments in Environmental Ethics." Organized by Laura Westra.

Pacific Division meets March 31-April 2, 1994, in Los Angeles, Bonaventure Hotel. Robin Attfield (Philosophy, University of Wales, Cardiff), "Rehabilitating Nature and Making Nature Habitable"; Paul Schollmeier (Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas), "Why We Love the Land"; Roberta M. Richards (School of Religion, University of Southern California), "Beyond Biocentric Egalitarianism: Calculating the Comparative Value of Nature." The program is organized by Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, College of the Pacific, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211. Phone: 209/946-2281.

United Nations Conference on Ethical Issues in Agenda 21, January 13-14 1994. The Conference will be held at the United Nations Building, United Nations Plaza, New York, NY. (Note date change from previous announcements.) Deadline for papers, December 1, 1993. Contact Donald Brown, Earth Ethics Research Group, 2915 Beverly Road, Camp Hill, PA 17011 (near Harrisburg). Phone 717/787-9368. Fax 717/787-9379.

In general the annual deadlines for paper submissions for the three ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:

Eastern Division, March 1. Papers Professor Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102. Phone 201/596-3292, office; 201/596-3266, humanities office; Fax: 201/565-0586

Central Division, January 1, proposals by October 15. Papers to Professor Laura Westra, address at end of newsletter.

Pacific Division, January 1, proposals by October 15. Papers to Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, College of the Pacific, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211. Phone: 209/946-2281.

Persons interested in the possibility of the International Society for Environmental Ethics holding an international conference at some location outside the United States are invited to contact Laura Westra, Secretary (address at end of newsletter). One suggested location is at a conference center in Italy. Joint meetings with other societies are possible. There need to be at least fifty persons attending to make such a conference feasible.

The Fourth International Conference on Ethics in the Public Service, Stockholm, June 15-18, 1994, has invited ISEE to organize a session there. If interested, contact Laura Westra, address at end of newsletter.

"Religious Experience and Ecological Responsibility," was the theme of the Second International Conference on Philosophical Theology at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. August 5-9. The Conference was organized by the Highlands Institute for American Religious Thought. There were many dozens of papers given. Some samples: Nancy Frankenberry (Dartmouth College), "Ecological Responsibility and Feminist Theory"; W. Creighton Peden (Augustana College, Georgia), "Nature, Sentiment, and Social Progress"; J. Edward Barrett (Muskingham College, Ohio), "Ecological Reverence: Religion Rediscovering Reality"; Douglas Fox (Colorado College), "Joseph Sittler's Quest for a Theology of Nature"; Fred W. Hallberg (University of Northern Iowa), "Demythologizing Eschatological Environmentalism"; Thomas D. Parker (McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago), "Toward a Religiously Informed Environmental Ethic: A Pragmatist's Account"; Ben Du Toit (Cape Province, South Africa), "Postmodern Religious Experience as a Textless Naturalism: Can Christian Theology Survive in the Eyes of Postmodern Thought?"; Frederick FerrÇ (University of Georgia), Intellectual Autobiography, "Keeping it Together: Holistic Reflections from a `Natural Analyst'"; Sheila Greeve Davaney (Iliff School of Theology, Denver), "The Role of Nature in Contemporary Theological Pragmatism"; Donald A. Crosby (Colorado State University), "Experience as Reality: The Ecological Metaphysics of William James"; John Howie (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, "The Personalistic God and a Holistic Environmental Ethics"; Susan Armstrong (Humboldt State College), "What Concept of God Makes Ecological Sense?"; and many more. Contact W. Creighton Peden, P. O. Box 2009, Highlands, NC 28741. Phone 704/526-4038. A volume under the conference title with selected papers is planned for publication in early 1995. (Thanks to Donald Crosby.)

Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge. Over 90 participants met at Stony Point, New York, May 13-16, to explore how theological education can help address environmental issues. Conference keynoter was John B. Cobb, Jr. (formerly Claremont Graduate School), other plenary speakers were Rosemary Radford Reuther (Garrett Evangelical Seminary), Larry Rasmussen (Union Seminary, New York) and James Nash (Churches' Center on Theology and Public Policy). A follow-up book is planned: ECO- JUSTICE EDUCATION IN THEOLOGY AND RELIGION. The conference was funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and by the Center for Respect of Life and Environment, a division of the Humane Society of the United States. Contact: Theological Education to Meet the Environmental Challenge, 2100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037.

Angelika Krebs has completed a Ph.D. dissertation, ETHICS OF NATURE: BASIC CONCEPTS, BASIC ARGUMENTS OF THE PRESENT DEBATE ON ANIMAL ETHICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS at the University of Frankfurt, Germany. The supervisors were Bernard Williams, Friedrich Kambartel, and JÅrgen Habermas. This thesis is also the concluding report of a project on "Value Systems and Attitudes towards Nature" at the Stockholm Environment Institute, and the thesis will be published by that institute.

Krebs develops a taxonomy of arguments for the value in nature. Part A lists anthropocentric arguments: A1, the instrumental value of nature for satisfying basic human needs; A2, the instrumental value of nature for sensual human delight; A3, the aesthetic intrinsic value of beautiful and sublime nature; A4, the instrumental value nature has for relieving us of "aesthetic responsibility" by its having a form of its own; A5, the role the native landscape plays for the identity or individuality of human beings; A6, the pedagogic value of treating nature with care; and A7, the meaning of life and the intrinsic value or sacredness of the wise person who knows the meaning of life. Part B features a holistic argument, neither purely anthropocentric nor purely physicocentric, that to accord intrinsic value to nature is to further the good life of persons, since humans are part of nature. Part C lists five physicocentric arguments that give reasons why we should respect the good of nature for its own sake: C1, the value of sentient nature; C2, the intrinsic value of teleological nature; C3, respect for life; C4, a higher order of values of or in nature; C5, a theological order of value.

In a critical section, Krebs finds that all anthropocentric arguments are good arguments. The holistic argument (Part B) and all the physicocentric arguments (Part C) are bad arguments, except for C1, C2, and C3 when restricted to certain animals. Except for animal nature, the rest of nature lacks moral or absolute intrinsic value. There is nothing we owe to nonanimal nature itself. Krebs is now Associate Professor at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Frankfurt, Germany. Her address: Kanalstrasse 10, 78247 Hilzingen-Duchtlingen, Germany.

Cheryl Foster completed this year a doctoral dissertation, "Aesthetics and the Natural Environment," under Ronald Hepburn at the University of Edinburgh, Department of Philosophy. Foster claims that most contemporary aesthetics of nature relies on either of two models, one based on art history and criticism, the other based on scientific categories and interpretation. Most accounts cling magnetically to one pole or the other. Either the aesthetic power of nature emerges by analogy or in association with art and its concomitant history and criticism; or, nature's beauty is seen to be properly understood only in deference to scientific knowledge or hypothesis. Neither approach can fully articulate the relationship between natural beauty and ourselves, the beings who encounter it.

Foster holds that Kant and Schopenhauer have been particularly misrepresented with regard to natural beauty and finds them productive for a theory of environmental aesthetics. She continues to develop a theory that is bound by neither art nor science. She examines the role of non-perceptual factors and of ethical and other constraints on aesthetic appreciation (with attention to Allen Carlson). The difference between aesthetic qualities (Sibley) and aesthetic properties (Mothersill) is analyzed in order to defend the idea that aesthetic judgements are singular and not governed by rules or principles. Nature's multi- sensuousness is involved in discerning relevant aesthetic properties. Andrew Brennan's ecological humanism is a useful model. Both the art-based and the science-based models of natural beauty are interesting and relevant, but neither is comprehensive enough to represent the range of concerns in environmental aesthetics. Foster is now assistant professor of philosophy at the University of Rhode Island, Department of Philosophy, 204 Adams Hall, Kingston, RI 02881-0813. Phone 401/792-2418. Fax 401-792-2945.

Society for Conservation Biology, ISEE Session, Guadalahara, Mexico. Call for papers. One or more ISEE sessions will be held at the Society for Conservation Biology, Guadalahara, Mexico, June 15-19, 1994. Especially desired are proposals (papers, panels, round tables, etc.) related to the interrelationship of environmental ethics to poverty and economic development in Third World nations. Other topics are also welcome. Send proposals to Jack Weir, Morehead State University, UPO 662, Morehead, KY 40351. Phone 606/784-0046. Or Phil Pister, Desert Fishes Council, P. O. Box 337, Bishop, CA 93514. Phone: 619/872-8751.

At the International Society for Value Inquiry, Helsinki, August 13-17, there were a number of papers related to environmental ethics: Leena Vilkka (Academy of Finland, Helsinki), "On the Intrinsic Value of Nature" (she is the author of the first book in Finnish on environmental ethics, see book listings below); Stephen Toulmin (Northwestern University), "Country/People/- Nation/State"; Frederick FerrÇ, "Making Waves: On the Social Power of Ideas"; Robin Attfield (University of Wales College of Cardiff), "Population Growth and Hope for Humanity."

At the World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow, August 21-17. Papers by Karen Warren (Macalester College), Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University), Laura Westra (University of Windsor), Willem Landman (University of the Western Cape, South Africa), Yrjo SepÑnmaa (University of Helsinki). A section on Ecology and the Future of Life on Earth was organized by Beat Sitter-Liver (Fribourg University, Switzerland).

In a Russian language section on Ecology and the Future of Life on Earth, there were many papers. Their titles give some insight into the sorts of questions Russian philosophers are asking (these are all translated from Russian): V. V. Mantatov, "Philosophical Perspectives of the Ecological Informational Civilization: An Example from the Baikal Region" (Mantatov is the president of an organization to conserve Lake Baikal); V. A. Kotiev, "Humanity's Crucial Moment: The Problem of Life in the Post-Human World"; Boris Chernov, "The Methodological Base of General Ecology"; N. V. Soloveiva, "Ecological Cultural and Environmentalism in the Context of Future Life on Earth"; G. I. Shebs, "Life Vision as a Basis for Overcoming the Ecological Crisis"; K. A. Dallakian, "Political Ecology and the Problem of Co-adaptive Evolution of Humankind"; Michail Bobrov and Kovaliva Irina, "Humankind in the Natural and Social Pictures of the World"; V. A. Duskov, V. V. Sobolev, and G. M. Shvarc, "Philosophical Problems and Ethno- Ecological Dissonance"; N. G. Belopolisky, "Artificial Systems: Their Place and Role in the General Totality of Non-Living Systems and Society"; V. N. Golubev, "The Ecology of HOMO SAPIENS: Contemporary Approaches"; S. Lomakin, "Nature: The Basis of Human Feelings"; Victor Borodihin, "The Biological and Social Basis of the Formation of Individuals and Personalities"; O. P. Pavlenko, "Mortality and the Problem of Ecology"; U. B. Krianev, "Ecumenism and General Responsibility"; A. C. Monin, L. A. Tchimbal, and I. P. Schmelev, "The Science of Oceanology in the Development of Philosophical Ideas"; V. V. Kazyutinsky, "The Problem of Man and Nature: Cosmic Context"; Rimantas Shaknaitis, "Sociological Aspects of the Demographic Problem"; I. K. Liseyev, "Ecology and the Future of Life on the Earth: New Ecological Mentality: Directions and Principles. There are abstracts in Russian of all these papers in the Congress ABSTRACTS and address of the authors are in the Congress LIST OF PARTICIPANTS. See also L. I. Vasilenko and V. E. Ermolaeva, eds., GLOBALNIYE PROBLEMY I OBSHCHECHELOVECHESKIYE TSENNOSTI (GLOBAL PROBLEMS AND HUMAN VALUES) in the book section below.

At the World Wilderness Congress, Tromso, Norway, September 26- October 3, at the ISEE session, organized by David Rothenberg, there were many papers. See NEWSLETTER, Summer 1993, for previous list. Others not previously announced: Sarah Standing (CUNY Graduate Center), "Running with Wolves: Wilderness as Theater"; Raymond Chipeniuk (Canadian Government), "Native Canadians and Wilderness Imagination"; Jamil Brownson (Northern Rim Institute), "Bioregionalism and Wilderness Identity"; Dag Elgvin (Tromso Teachers' College), "The Saami Conception of Nature." A plenary session was on "Polar Ecosystems: Characteristics, Values, and Relationship to the Concept of Wilderness," with discussion of the needed size of conservation areas, indigenous peoples, and ecosystem integrity. Other sessions on "The Use of Wilderness for Personal Growth, Therapy, and Education," "Wilderness Education, Values, and Ethics."

Summarizing the ISEE session, on the complaints side, David Rothenberg reports that northern representatives found that wilderness was a foreign concept to them, set up by urban people who want to spend only their free time in nature. Native people complained of being pigeonholed and stereotyped so that they could not enjoy the pleasures of development. Some insisted wilderness had to be known firsthand; others that it did not have to be experienced; it was enough to know that it was there.

On the positive side, Rothenberg summarized, "We are for a `wild culture,' where nature is not opposed to humanity, where use of the surrounding world does not require calling it resources and us consumers. We spoke of classical and romantic notions of wilderness--the first naming the wilderness as the home of the fearful and evil, and the second being the place where we come to our senses out of the madness of civilization. Neither is appropriate any longer. The wild will transcend the tame and the untamed, the jungle and the city. It must refer to our progress toward a culture that can understand nature without hemming it in by management and control. The wild should not be bad and unruly, but we should not rely on too many rules to get there. The word `wild' is a challenge for us to conceive a new kind of civilization, that does not require the destruction of our world to improve itself. We will not find the model for this culture in the past, or in the present. Only in the future will we get there." "The wild is not just for us. It is for the non-human, or, the more than human. ... Our ideas need to encompass this kind of care so that it is generous enough to care for more than humanity alone." (Thanks to David Rothenberg for his work organizing this very successful ISEE Session.) Plans are underway for publication of a book of essays based on the conference, probably by the University of Minnesota Press.

The Portuguese Government is sponsoring a series of conferences, Estudos Gerais da Arr_bida, commemorating the 500th anniversary of discoveries in the New World. One such conference, "The Natural Environment: Fundamentalism and Pragmatism," was held at Arr_bida, a conference center near Lisbon, August 2-6, designed for environmental decision-makers and planners in Portugal. Philosophers who spoke on environmental values and ethics were Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University) and Viriato Soromenho- Marques (Cidade Universitaria, Lisbon). Other speakers were sociologists, economists, engineers. The conference coordinator was Francisco Nunes Correia, an engineer and professor at the Instituto Superior TÇcnico, Avenido Rovisco Pais, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal.

The Cooperative Center for Information on Alternative Technologies (CENCITA) offers a service of collecting, organizing and channeling technical information to development workers in the field. CENCITA maintains up-to-date information on Salvadoran natural resource status, community profiles, development projects and a direct link to the planning departments within the Popular Movement in El Salvador. If you are interested in becoming a member of this network of appropriate technologists, alternative economists, liberation theologians, consultants, investigators and practitioners in the broad field of sustainable development contact Monika Firl, Apartado Postal 2543, Correo Central, Centro de Gobierno, San Salvador, El Salvador, Central America. Or: Marin Interfaith Task Force, 20 Sunnyside Ave., Suite A-303, Mill Valley, CA 94941. Phone 415/388-4820.

The computer newsletter in environmental ethics continues, operating out of Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia. There is a mixture of debate and conversation, recently on intrinsic value, reconstructed intrinsic value, Callicott, Rolston, Bookchin, Naess, Nietzsche, Dewey, the value of grass to cows, bioethics, and other topics. There are also various requests for, and exchanges of, information for special study projects, environmental ethics databases, and so forth. To subscribe, send electronic mail to: listserv@catfish.valdosta.peachnet.edu. In the body of the message, type: sub cpae yourname. This means subscribe to the newsletter of the Center for Professional and Applied Ethics, a center at Valdosta State University. Your own electronic mail address will automatically be included in the mail sent. Two philosophers involved there are Ari Santas (asantas@grits.valdosta.peachnet.edu) (Internet) and Ron Barnette (rbarnett@grits.valdosta.peachnet.edu) (Internet).

A U.S. Forest Service unit, operating out of the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, held a workshop on spiritual values in forests, September 28-30, at Ghost Ranch, Abiqui, NM. Ghost Ranch is operated by the Presbyterian Church. The group is producing a resource text book for professional land managers. This was the second such conference, the first held in June 1992 at Santa Fe. The first conference produced some protest, generated by a Washington newspaper, about the forest service crossing the boundary between religion and state; and, in result, the emphasis was on spiritual values rather than religious values. Moreover, at the insistence of Dale Robertson, U. S. Forest Service chief, the conference was renamed, more generically this time: "Understanding Emerging Hard-to-Define Elements of a Multicultural Land Ethic." Two philosophers present were Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University, and Peter List, Oregon State University.

The Eco-Philosophy Center, Henryk or Joan Skolimowski, solicits inquiries submissions for a publication, THE NEW GAIA. Address: 18500 Bowdish, Gregory, MI 48137. Phone 313/498-3016.

At the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in late August and early September, Gerald O. Barney painted a frightening picture of increasing misery and conflict if many current trends continue, notably the abuses of Earth's resources, environmental degradation, the growth of populations, and constraints on agricultural production. We face misery on an unprecedented scale. The core of the crisis is a failure of vision. The usual economic definition of success has failed, and we no longer know what success or failure means. Barney challenged religious leaders to reflect on how to meet the legitimate needs of the growing human community without destroying the resources of Earth, on how to reinterpret each faith tradition in relation to new scientific truths about the Earth which bear spiritual significance. Many thought Barney's address was the most powerful presentation at the Parliament. Barney was coordinator of the GLOBAL 2000 REPORT and is a Lutheran. In a closing address the Dalai Lama reiterated many of Barney's themes.

J. Baird Callicott is Rose Morgan Distinguished Visiting Professor fall semester 1993 (until January 1994) at the University of Kansas. He is offering a course in environmental philosophy and giving a series of six public lectures. Address: Joyce and Elizabeth Hall Center for the Humanities, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2967.

The Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics, and Society includes in its fall seminar in environmental ethics: Peter Wenz (Philosophy, Sangaman State University), on Tuesday, October 19: "Hear the Grass Scream: The Inseparability of Dominating Nature and People," and Holmes Rolston (Philosophy, Colorado State University), on Thursday, November 18, "Environmental Ethics: Some American Challenges."

The University of Oslo, Department of Philosophy, is sponsoring an ethics seminar this during the fall term, "Environmental Ethics in Action: Controversies on the Moral Status of Nature." Speakers in different weeks include J. Baird Callicott, Arne Naess, Karen Warren, Holmes Rolston (on November 25-26), and others from the local faculty. Rolston also speaks at the University of Bergen on November 23. Contact: Jon Wetlesen, Department of Philosophy, University of Oslo, P. A. Munch's House, Pb 1024 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

The Program in Nature, Culture, and Technology, a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship Program in the Humanities, at the University of Kansas invites applications for post-doctorate fellowships. They particularly invite applicants who are doing research on themes such as the cultural history of nature in western and nonwestern societies, the ideal of sustainable development, ethics and environmentalism in a multicultural world, the political economy of land and resource use, race and gender in the representation of nature, and theoretical issues in environmental history. Fellowships are up to $ 35,000 annually, and the applicant may receive sabbatical salary or other external funds to supplement the fellowship. Applications due January 15, 1994. Contact Professor Donald Worster, Director, Program in Nature, Culture, and Technology, Hall Center for the Humanities, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2967. Phone 913/864- 4798.

QUERCUS, ASSOCIAÄAO NACIONAL DE CONSERVAÄAO DE NATUREZA is Portugal's National Association for Conservation of Nature, launched six years ago and now grown to 6,000 members. The organization was awarded the Global 500 UNEP honorary award for environmental achievement. The chair and a principal organizer is Viriato Soromenho-Marques, who is professor of philosophy at Cidade Universitaria, Lisboa, Portugal. See an article of his below. Address: Rua Caetano Palha, 18, 2 Esq., 1200 Lisboa. Portugal. Phone and Fax: (1) 395 16 30.

Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122. E-mail: relliot@metz.une.oz.au

Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below.) Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (the equivalent of $ 10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. He reports that it is difficult to cash checks in this amount without losing a substantial part of the value of the check and encourages sending bank notes and cash directly to him, as it is reasonably safe. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.

Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter, as well as to share such information with the international membership of the society. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535 (NOTE NEW FAX). He reports that mail service is very unreliable in certain parts of Eastern Europe. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48/61/417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.

Azizan Baharuddin, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, is the contact person for ISEE for South-East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). Dr. Azizan teaches history and philosophy in the Science Faculty. Contact her with regard to membership and dues payable (the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power). Her address is The Dean's Office, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax 60 (Country code) 3 (City code) 756-6343.

Professor Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa, is the Africa contact for the ISEE. Contact him with regard to membership and dues payable, again the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power. NOTE THAT THIS IS A NEW CONTACT ARRANGEMENT. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: (02231) 77-2058. Fax: (02231) 4343. E-mail jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

The Nominating Committee for ISEE plans to have an election by mail-in ballot in the spring, when both President and Vice- President will be elected. (Secretary and Treasurer will continue their ongoing terms.) The present officers are:
President: Holmes Rolston, III,
term to expire end of academic year (June 1) 1994
Vice-President: Eric Katz, 1994
Secretary, Laura Westra, 1995
Treasurer, Ned Hettinger, 1996

The chair of the Nominating Committee is Jack Weir, Department of Philosophy, UPO 662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351. Phone: 606/783-2785, office; 606/783-2185, philosophy office; 606/784-0046, home. Fax: 606/783-2678. Other members of the committee are: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (University of South Florida), George Sessions (Sierra College, Rocklin, CA), Robin Attfield (University of Wales, College of Cardiff).

Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing this newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-4900, 24 hours. News may also be submitted to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4, and Canadian news is best directed to her. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed. The Newsletter is assembled shortly after January 1, April 1, July 1, October 1.

ISEE dues for 1993 are payable now. Memberships run on a calendar year basis, with NEW members who join in October, November, and December having memberships extended through the following full calendar year. The Secretary is not ordinarily able to send receipts, as this takes additional time and expense. The Society runs on a rather minimal budget, with dues mostly (and barely) covering the costs of Newsletter printing and mailing. To pay dues, see the last page of the Newsletter.

Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter? Back issues are available at US $ 10.00 per year, or $ 4.00 per single issue, and these requests should be directed to the Secretary (address on last page).

The ISEE Newsletter is printed on recycled paper.


Position Available

The Department of Philosophy, College of Liberal Arts, Rochester Institute of Technology invites nominations and applications for the Ezra A. Hale Endowed Chair in Applied Ethics. Candidates should have a Ph.D. in philosophy or another appropriate discipline, and a proven record of teaching and publication in applied ethics. Duties will include teaching one course per quarter, giving occasional public lectures, organizing conferences, and publishing. The Hale Chair will be responsible for advancing student awareness and understanding of applied ethics across all programs at the Institute and will be part of a seven member philosophy department. This is a tenure-track appointment with rank and salary commensurate with training and experience. Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. Those received prior to December 1, 1993, will facilitate interviewing at the December meeting of the APA. Professor Fred Wilson, Chair, Search Committee, College of Liberal Arts, Rochester Institute of Technology, 92 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York
14623-5604.


Videotapes and media

BLUE PLANET, released first as an IMAX film, is now available on videotape. The IMAX presentation is simultaneously an environmental education at global level and a religious experience, though all this is reduced in the VCR format. Still, there are breathtaking shots of Earth taken by astronauts on five space shuttle missions and other space missions. Action moves from Earth seen from space to the ground--the Serengeti plains, rainforests on fire, a hurricane, lightning and a thunderstorm, the San Francisco earthquake, frozen arctic lands, crowded cities, and a computer simulated ride along the San Andreas fault. A vision of trying to live in harmony with our sometimes turbulent planet, and an alarm about tampering with the very fabric of life, altering the strands than bind us all together. Watch this, then ask whether there are duties to the planet. 42 minutes. Available at $ 29.95 from The Video Catalog, P. O. Box 64267, St. Paul, MN 55164-0428. Toll free number 800/733-2232.

Ecology and the Environment, a brochure on outstanding video programs, is available from Films for the Humanities and Sciences, P. O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. 800/257-5126. Dozens of videos for purchase or rental. Samples: "Preserving the Rainforest," "Plants in Peril," "Restoring the Environment," "Urban Ecology," "Sowing the Seeds of Disaster," "Chernobyl," "Seas Under Siege," "Down in the Dumps," "Baikal: Blue Eye of Siberia," and many more.

Clarissa Pinkola EstÇs, "The Wild Woman Archetype." A tape cassette presentation of her best-selling book, WOMEN WHO RUN WITH THE WOLVES. How any woman can rediscover and free her own wild nature. Her book has been on the New York Times non-fiction bestseller list for sixty weeks. From Wireless Audio Collection, Minnesota Public Radio, P. O. Box 64422, St. Paul, MN 55164-0422. $ 18.95.

Environmental Philosophy in the United Kingdom

Cardiff, University of Wales. Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey work in environmental philosophy. There is a postgraduate program in Applied Ethics with a Center for Applied Ethics. There are Ph.D and M.Phil degrees by research. The Ph.D. is normally a three-year program, with a research thesis. The M. Phil. is normally a one-year research degree with a longer dissertation. There is also a one year full-time M.A., with a shorter dissertation. Also there is a two year M.A. in social ethics (part-time). All these degrees can be done with an emphasis on environmental ethics. The Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, "Philosophy and the Natural Environment," was held here in July 1993, with a volume forthcoming from Cambridge University Press, both as an annual of the Royal Institute of Philosophy and as a separate volume. The conference drew about 200 persons from both the United Kingdom and Europe. See earlier. Attfield is the author of THE ETHICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN (Blackwell, Columbia University Press, 1983), recently released in second edition (University of Georgia Press), also the author of ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY: PRINCIPLES AND PROSPECTS (Aldershot: Avebury, 1993), see below. Contact: Board of Studies for Philosophy, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, UK.

Lancaster. The University of Lancaster has the most developed program in environmental philosophy in the United Kingdom, with study leading to the M.Phil and Ph.D, as well as a taught course, the MA in Values and the Environment. The program is located in Furness College. The Program Director is Allan Holland, and another faculty member there is Kate Rawles, with an interest in both animal and environmental issues. Holland is also the editor of ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, the British counterpart of the journal ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Robin Grove-White is Director of the Centre for the Study of Environmental Change here, author of a number of papers on ethics and the environment. Eleven modules of instruction are offered; six are required to complete the degree, together with a dissertation. Sample modules: "Ethical Theory and Environmental Values," "Land as a Community," "Science and the Domination of Nature," "Biotechnology and the Environment," "The Representation of the Environment in Visual Art," "Conceptions of Animals, Plants and Nature in the West: A Historical Approach." Contact: The Programme Director, Alan Holland, Department of Philosophy, Furness College, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YT. UK.

Oxford. The Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society is located at Mansfield College, Oxford, now about two years old, and in the process of vigorous development. There is a focus on ethics and values as foundational for the analysis of the social dimension of environmental issues. The Centre is multi- disciplinary and undertakes projects for the resolution of practical problems. The Centre is endorsed by the World Wide Fund for Nature and WWF, UK. John B. Muddiman is interim coordinator of the Directorate, with the search for a director underway. One faculty appointment, Andrew Linzey, is a senior research fellow in this field. Linzey has written or edited CHRISTIANITY AND THE RIGHTS OF ANIMALS (SPCK, 1987), COMPASSION FOR ANIMALS (SPCK, 1988), (with Tom Regan), ANIMALS AND CHRISTIANITY (Crossroad, 1988). The Centre anticipates having visiting fellows and is considering an earned M.A. (All Oxford graduates are granted a pro forma M.A. more or less automatically several years after graduation.) Another Oxford philosopher interested in environmental issues is Roger Crisp, St. Anne's College. A recent Oxford Ph.D is Clare Palmer, who wrote a dissertation on process philosophy and theology and environmental philosophy; she now has a teaching position at the University of Greenwich, see below. Address: Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society, Mansfield College, Oxford OX1 3TF, UK.

Aberdeen. Nigel Dower, presently chair of the Department of Philosophy, directs the Centre for Philosophy Technology and Society (CPTS), with principal interest in development issues, especially international development, and with a considerable interest in environmental ethics as this intersects with international development. A conference in September 1993 was on the theme, "Technology, the Environment and Ethics." Dower also holds a joint appointment in politics. He is an officer in the International Development Ethics Association (IDEA) and edited ETHICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY (Aldershot: Avebury, 1989). The Centre at Aberdeen has worked in association with the Centre of Ethics, University of Iceland, holding a conference there in March 1993. Contact: Nigel Dower, Director, CPTS, Department of Philosophy, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB9 2UB, UK.

Manchester. Keekok Lee is launching a Centre for Philosophy and the Environment at the University of Manchester. Lee is the author of SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY AND ECOLOGICAL SCARCITY (Routledge, 1989). Address: Department of Philosophy, The University, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Edinburgh. Ronald Hepburn at the University of Edinburgh continues an interest in the aesthetics of nature, recently publishing "Trivial and Serious in Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature," in Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, eds., LANDSCAPE, NATURAL BEAUTY AND THE ARTS, see below. Cheryl Foster completed this year a doctoral dissertation, "Aesthetics and the Natural Environment," under Hepburn. See above. At New College, the divinity school, Ruth Page teaches a class in theology and ecology. She has a series of publications in this field, including two chapters in Elizabeth Breuilly and Martin Palmer, eds. CHRISTIANITY AND ECOLOGY (London and New York: Cassel, 1992).

Nottingham. Although located at Mansfield College Oxford, Andrew Linzey (see under Oxford) has a special chair at the University of Nottingham under the terms of which he teaches regularly a class there in theology and ecology. Liverpool. Stephen R. L. Clark is professor of philosophy at the University of Liverpool. He is the author of THE MORAL STATUS OF ANIMALS (Clarendon Press, 1977) and THE NATURE OF THE BEAST: ARE ANIMALS MORAL? (Oxford University Press, 1982).

Durham. At the University of Durham, David E. Cooper is interested in environmental philosophy. He and Joy A. Palmer, in Education, recently edited THE ENVIRONMENT IN QUESTION: ETHICS AND GLOBAL ISSUES (Routledge, 1992), perhaps the most accessible such anthology in the United Kingdom. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of Durham, 50 Old Elvet, Durham, DH1 3HN, UK.

London, Greenwich. Clare Palmer teaches environmental ethics, environmental politics, and political theory at the University of Greenwich in London, which was formerly named Thames Polytechnic. She is a recent Oxford Ph.D (see above) and is an editor of Ball, Goodall, Palmer, and Readers, THE EARTH BENEATH: A CRITICAL GUIDE TO GREEN THEOLOGY, see below. She also is interested in animal welfare issues. Address: University of Greenwich, Deptford Campus, Rachel McMillan Building, Creek Road, London SE8 3BU, UK.

The Polytechnic of Central London has established an interdisciplinary Centre for Environmental Policy Study. Contact: Polytechnic of Central London, 25 Marylebone Road, London NW1 5LS.

Keele. University of Keele. Andrew Dobson, Department of Politics, is one of the principal students in the United Kingdom of green politics, especially interested in the crossovers between environmental philosophy and environmental politics. See Andrew Dobson, ed., THE GREEN READER (London, AndrÇ Deutsch, 1991; San Francisco: Mercury House, 1991), more below. See also Andrew Dobson and Paul Lucardie, eds., THE POLITICS OF NATURE (London and New York: Routledge, 1993), more below. Also, GREEN POLITICAL THOUGHT (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990).

A group on religion and ecology is active, sponsoring for example a symposium on "Ecology and Ethics" at the Sixth International Congress on Ecology, INTECOL VI, to be held at Manchester, August 20-26, 1994. This group includes R. J. (Sam) Berry, Past- President of the British Ecological Society, and Ghilhean T. Prance, Director of Kew Gardens. Contact: Rev. Nigel S. Cooper, The Rectory, 40 Church Road, Rivenhall, Witham, Essex, CM8 3PQ. Phone 0376 511161. There was at Oxford on July 2 a meeting of some forty experts from various disciplines asking about evangelical Christians and the environment, convened and chaired by R. J. Berry, setting up an International Evangelical Environmental Network. Contact: R. C. J. Carling, 90 Charlton Road, Shirley, Southampton SO1 5EW. Phone 0703-778830.


Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials Reminder: ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, and (for the most part) THE TRUMPETER and BETWEEN THE SPECIES and ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW are not catalogued here. ISEE members interested in keeping abreast of the literature in the field need to consult those journals directly. Members are also encouraged to send notice of articles (preferably copies) to the editor, especially of those articles and books published in places members at large are less likely to see.

The explosion of textbooks and anthologies in environmental ethics continues. Here are the three most recent additions to a surprising number that have appeared this year:

--Donald VanDeVeer and Christian Pierce, eds., THE ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND POLICY BOOK: PHILOSOPHY, ECOLOGY, ECONOMICS. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1994. 649 pages. Hardcover. $ 40.50. Features interdisciplinary crossovers between philosophy and politics and economics more than some of the others. Sections: I. An Introduction to Ethical Theory. II. Western Religions and Environmental Attitudes. III. The Other Animals. IV. Constructing an Environmental Ethic, divided into A: The Broader, Biotic Community, B: Approaches to Conflict Resolution, C: Deep Ecology and Social Ecology, and D. Ecofeminism. V. Economics, Ethics, and Ecology, divided into A. Letting the Market Decide, B. Cost-Benefit Analysis, and C. Ecological Sustain- ability. VI. Problems and Environmental Policies, divided into A. Human Population and Pressure on Resources, B. From the Commons to Property, C. Preserving Biodiversity, D. Forests and Wilderness, and E. Degrading the Planet. VII. Varieties of Activism. A wide ranging and well conceived text. Also a useful bibliography of medium length, with directions to more extensive bibliographies. One drawback is the price. It is only in hardcover at a list price of $ 40.50. Both authors are philosophers at North Carolina State University, and also the editors of PEOPLE, PENGUINS, AND PLASTIC TREES.

--Lisa H. Newton and Catherine K. Dillingham, WATERSHEDS: CLASSIC CASES IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993. 249 pages. Paper. Nine pivotal events that have much to tell us about our relationship with Earth: Love Canal, the ozone layer and its depletion, UNCED at Rio, the Exxon Valdez, the Northwest forests and the spotted owl, Chernobyl, Chico Mendez and the tropical rainforests, the global greenhouse and our changing climate, Bhopal. Environmental complexity, the biological, economic, and legal issues, damage done irrevocably to real people and the land they depend on. How such disasters could be prevented and what they teach us philosophically about how we do and ought to live on Earth. Impressive detail and documentation of the cases combined with insightful ethical analysis. Both authors are at Fairfield University.

--Dale Westphal and Fred Westphal, eds., PLANET IN PERIL: ESSAYS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1994. Softcover. 265 pages. $ List 24.00, price to bookstores, $ 18.00. Part One: Changes in Attitude: Toward a Biocentric Ethic. Part Two: The Wilderness: The Inherent Value of Undeveloped Nature. Part Three: Pollutions: Cleansing the Air, the Waters, and the Land. Part Four: The Animals: The Rights of our Neighbors. Includes articles by Gore, Taylor, Goodpaster, Sagoff, Callicott, Godfrey--Smith, Stone, Baxter, Kelman, Rolston, Singer, Regan, Russow. This one is more selective than comprehensive, modest and manageable in size and price, and contrasts with the much bigger collections. Also the selections are less abbreviated than in the bigger collections with dozens of extracts. Dale Westphal is professor of philosophy emeritus at Western Michigan University and taught one of the first courses in the United States in environmental ethics. Fred Westphal is in philosophy at the University of Miami, Florida.

By way of reminder, the following have appeared earlier this year: (Further comment in previous NEWSLETTER issues).

--Peter C. List, ed., RADICAL ENVIRONMENTALISM: PHILOSOPHY AND TACTICS. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1993. 276 pages, paper. Sections on deep ecology, on ecofeminism, on social ecology and bioregionalism, on radical ecoactivism and ecotactics. Intends to help `moderates' sharpen their resolve to find and act on a theoretically coherent and practically feasible environmental ethics.

--Joseph R. Des Jardins, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. 272 pages, paper. Wadsworth, 1993. Sections on basic ethical concepts, forests, pollution, climate change, economics, energy, future generations, duties to animals, biocentrism, the land ethic, deep ecology, ecofeminism. End of chapter summaries and discussion questions.

--Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: DIVERGENCE AND CONVERGENCE. McGraw-Hill, 1993. Soft cover, under $ 25. The biggest anthology in the field, 70 articles, quite comprehensive.

--Michael Zimmerman, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John P. Clark, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY: FROM ANIMAL RIGHTS TO RADICAL ECOLOGY. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, 1993. Anthology for college use, generally with a good balance of positions.

--Richard E. Hart, ed., ETHICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992. Paper, $ 16.50. 158 pages. A dozen papers from a conference at Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus.

--Andrew McLaughlin, REGARDING NATURE: INDUSTRIALISM AND DEEP ECOLOGY. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. 280 pp.

At least two more should be out by the end of the year:

--Louis P. Pohman, ed., ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: READINGS IN THEORY AND APPLICATION. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Arranged in a pro and con dialogue. The historical roots of our ecological crisis, animal rights, biocentrism, a land ethic, deep ecology, intrinsic natural value, ecofeminism, the Gaia hypothesis, the preservation of biodiversity, obligations to future generations, Asian concepts of nature and the human relation to it, world population, pollution, wastes, energy policy, climate change, sustainable development, economics, ethics, and environmental policy.

--Dale Jamieson and Lori Gruen, eds., THINKING OF NATURE: READINGS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. Oxford University Press. 1994. Anthology of about forty articles.

Environmental philosophy is just about the hottest thing going in the field, from a publisher's point of view. But are we to fear that the market is being flooded? Not if there is a class on environmental ethics in every major college and university. Certainly there is an embarrassment of riches in text materials for such classes.

--------------------
Recent books and articles, continued:

--ENVIRONMENTAL GRANTMAKING FOUNDATIONS 1993. Rochester, NY: Environmental Data Research Institute (1655 Elmwood Ave., Suite 225, Rochester, NY 14620-3426), 1993. $ 55.00. 400 foundations, the most significant independent, community, and company-sponsored foundations. These foundations together gave over $ 350 million for environmental purposes last year. Why foundations make the awards they do. Sample grants. Key personnel.

--Robin Attfield, ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY: PRINCIPLES AND PROSPECTS. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Avebury Series in Philosophy, 1994. 225 pages. Hardback. About ú 35.00. Sixteen previously published essays in environmental philosophy. A first section reappraises attitudes to nature implicit in Western religions and philosophical traditions and finds the former at least as environmentally benign as the latter. The second part defends methods of environmental reasoning which, without discarding them, extend traditional ethical concerns so as to take future interests and nonhuman interests seriously. The third part examines basic principles of value and obligation, defends the decisionmaking approach of Comprehensive Weighing, and relates environmental concerns to the needs of the Third World.

--Laura Westra, AN ENVIRONMENTAL PROPOSAL FOR ETHICS: THE PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRITY. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993. 240 pages. $ 21.95 paper. $ 55.00 cloth. What does ecosystem integrity mean as a basis of moral obligation? Part I: The Theory of Integrity, with chapters analyzing integrity, respect, and dignity in philosophy, science, and law, and concluding with a defense of biocentric holism. Part II. The Practice of Integrity, with analysis how to make the concept of ecosystem integrity operational. "Westra's book is the best philosophical defense, to date, of the ecosystems approach to environmental ethics" -- Kristin Shrader-Frechette. "This original discussion breaks new ground by thoroughly analyzing ethical values, centering on the concept of ecological integrity, that apply intrinsically to nature and that govern our rightful use of the environment" -- Mark Sagoff. Westra is in philosophy at the University of Windsor.

--Christopher Key Chapple, ed., ECOLOGICAL PROSPECTS: SCIENTIFIC, RELIGIOUS, AND AESTHETIC PERSPECTIVES. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. 236 pages. $ 19.95 paper. $ 59.50 hardcover. How ecological insight can serve as a management model for appropriate economic development, the possible categories that can be used to determine land use priorities, working models for environmental activism, potential paradigms for spiritually attuned environmentalism, and the role of aesthetic appreciation in the development of sensitivity to the environment. Chapple is in theology at Loyola Marymount University.

--Emmett Barcalow, MORAL PHILOSOPHY: THEORY AND ISSUES. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994. 432 pages. Paper. Contains a chapter on "Morality and the Environment." Environmental threats. Sustainable development. Present and future people. Life- centered versus human-centered environmental ethics. Barcalow is in philosophy at Western New England College.

--James Sterba, MORALITY IN PRACTICE, 4th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994. Paper. $ 576 pages. Contains a section, "Animal Liberation and Environmental Justice": R. D. Guthrie, "Anthropocentrism"; Peter Singer, "All Animals Are Equal"; Paul W. Taylor, "The Ethics of Respect for Nature"; James P. Sterba, "Environmental Justice"; plus a section on applications. Sterba is in philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.

--Ronald W. Hepburn, "Trivial and Serious in Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature," in Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, eds., LANDSCAPE, NATURAL BEAUTY AND THE ARTS. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Hepburn continues his series of insightful articles on the aesthetic appreciation of nature. His earlier "Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature," (Harold Osborne, ed., AESTHETICS IN THE MODERN WORLD, NEW YORK: WEYBRIGHT AND TALLEY, 1968) IS A CLASSIC. The current volume, unfortunately, is available only in hardcover at $ 59.95.
--Rana P. B. Singh, the executive editor of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL OF INDIA, is producing a special volume of that journal, volume 39, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND THE POWER OF PLACE: FESTSCHRIFT TO ARNE NAESS, expected January 1994, and hoped to be presented to Arne Naess on his 82nd birthday, January 27, 1994. 440 pages. ISSN 0027-9374/1993/0905-0943. Rs. 600. U.S. $80.00. There are thirty nine articles. Samples: J. Baird Callicott, "International Environmental Ethics"; Max Oelschlaeger, "Ecofeminist Discourse on Place"; Andrew Brennan, "Challenges in the Foundations of Environmental Policy"; Holmes Rolston, "Down to Earth: Persons in Place in Natural History"; John E. Carroll, "Ecology and Moral Choice: Bias, Prejudice, and Ecology"; William Vitek, "Cultural Context and Historicity. From Genesis to Garbage: The Conceptual Roots of our Solid Waste Crisis"; Erwin H. Zube, "Cross-Cultural Landscape Studies: Review and Assessment"; J. Hansford Vest, "The Wild and the Tame: Understanding Wilderness and Agriculture in Native America"; J. Donald Hughes, "The Integrity of Nature and Respect for Place"; and many more, with a fine distribution of authors from many nations. For a full description contact: Dr. Rana P. B. Singh, Executive Editor, NGJI, No. B 29/12 A Lanka, Varanasi, UP 221005, India. Place direct orders with the Secretary, National Geographical Society of India, Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, UP 221005, India.

--Henry A. Regier, "The Notion of Natural and Cultural Integrity," in Stephen Woodley, James Kay, and George Francis, eds., ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS (Waterloo, Ontario: Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, and St. Lucie Press, 1993). "A living system exhibits integrity if, when subjected to disturbance, it sustains an organizing, self- correcting capability to recover toward an end-state that is normal and `good' for that system. End-states other than the pristine or naturally whole may be taken to be `normal and good.'" "There is room for choice in the kinds of ecosystems with integrity that humans might prefer. In human-dominated ecosystems, it is really a matter of: `What kind of garden do we want? What kind of garden can we get?'" Also: "Forecasts of future ecosystems are not possible, but some future imagining of preferred ones is." Regier is at the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto.

--Pete A. Y. Gunter, THE BIG THICKET: AN ECOLOGICAL REEVALUATION. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 1993. $ 14.95. 230 pages. A study of the Big Thicket National Preserve, historical and biological background, where to go, what to see, and why it matters. Gunter is professor of philosophy at the University of Texas and has spent much of his life in conservationist activities at the Big Thicket.

--David Rothenberg, HAND'S END: TECHNOLOGY AND THE LIMITS OF NATURE. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. 299 pages. Hardcover, $ 29.95. Rothenberg offers a radical new look at technology as the fundamental way in which we experience and define nature--the tool as humanity extended. Our view of the natural world has changed continually through history, according to the new ways society has invented to use nature. Tools extend our presence in the world, while reconfiguring nature according to human understanding. As we extend the hand in different ways, we perceive what we can touch anew. The natural world changes, and so do we. Nature emerges as something that cannot meaningfully be opposed to human civilization. Instead, we need to consider the diverse meanings of nature during the various epochs of human civilization and look at nature as a changing foil for our perceived role in the world. Once aware of the limits that technology reveals, we need then to temper technical progress with ideals that the development of machinery tends to elude. Innovations should not be opposed to the surrounding environment. Instead, we should use technique to make a home in the world. Rothenberg is assistant professor of humanities at the New Jersey Institute of Technology; he is known for his work interpreting Arne Naess.

--Stephen R. Kellert and Edward O. Wilson, eds., THE BIOPHILIA HYPOTHESIS. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 484 pages. Hardbound. Essays on our innate affinity for the natural world, "biophilia," how our tendency to focus on life and lifelike processes might be a biologically based need, integral to our development as individuals and as a species. Biophilia and its converse, biophobia (such as fear of snakes and spiders) may have a genetic component. Edward O. Wilson, "Biophilia and the Conservation Ethic"; Stephen R. Kellert, "The Biological Basis for Human Values of Nature"; Roger S. Ulrich, "Biophilia, Biophobia, and Natural Landscapes"; Judith H. Heerwagen and Gordon H. Orians, "Humans, Habitats, and Aesthetics"; Aaron Katcher and Gregory Wilkins, "Dialogue with Animals: Its Nature and Culture"; Richard Nelson, "Searching for the Lost Arrow: Physical and Spiritual Ecology in the Hunter's World"; Gary Paul Nabhan and Sara St. Antoine, "The Loss of Floral and Faunal Story: The Extinction of Experience"; Jared Diamond, "New Guineans and Their Natural World"; Paul Shepard, "On Animal Friends"; Elizabeth Atwood Lawrence, "The Sacred Bee, the Filthy Pig, and the Bat Out of Hell: Animal Symbolism as Cognitive Biophilia"; Dorion Sagan and Lynn Margulis, "God, Gaia, and Biophilia"; Madhav Gadgil, "Of Life and Artifacts"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Biophilia, Selfish Genes, Shared Values"; David W. Orr, "Love It or Lose It: The Coming Biophilia Revolution"; Michael E. SoulÇ, "Biophilia: Unanswered Questions." A wide-ranging group of essays by persons from many disciplines and likely to prove a definitive, if also exploratory, work in this field. Wilson is a zoologist at Harvard University; Kellert is a professor at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University.

--Greg Aplet, Nels Johnson, Jeffrey T. Olson, and V. Alaric Sample, eds., DEFINING SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 320 pages. $ 24.95 paper. $ 49.95 hardcover. The conclusions from a national conference convened by The Wilderness Society, American Forests, and the World Resources Institute.

--James K. Agee, FIRE ECOLOGY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST FORESTS. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 490 pages. $ 50.00 hardcover.

--Bob Doppelt, Mary Scurlock, Chris Frissel, and James Karr, ENTERING THE WATERSHED: A NEW APPROACH TO SAVE AMERICA'S RIVER ECOSYSTEMS. Washington: Island Press, 1993. $ 27.50 paper. $ 55.00 hardcover. 510 pages. A study of ecological integrity in rivers to develop new federal riverine protection and restoration policy alternatives.

--Kai N. Lee, COMPASS AND GYROSCOPE: INTEGRATING SCIENCE AND POLITICS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 290 pages. $ 25.00 hardcover. Rigorous science can be the compass and practical politics can be the gyroscope. Uses the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest as a case study. "Sustainable development is not a goal, not a condition likely to be attained on earth as we know it. Rather it is more like freedom or justice, a direction in which we strive."

--David A. Adams, RENEWABLE RESOURCE POLICY: THE LEGAL- INSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 580 pages. $ 75.00 hardcover. The history, laws, and important national policies affecting renewable resource management.

--Lawrence J. MacDonnell and Sara F. Bates, eds., NATURAL RESOURCES POLICY AND LAW: TRENDS AND DIRECTIONS. Washington: Island Press, 1993. $ 19.95 paper. $ 38.00 hardcover. Ten chapters, by, in addition to the editors, Clyde O. Martz, George Cameron Coggins, Richard C. Maxwell, A. Dan Tarlock, Joseph Sax, Charles F. Wilkinson, David Getches, and Richard J. Lazarus. With a special emphasis on new laws and important legal cases of the past decade. The editors are at the University of Colorado Law
School.

--Jon M. Van Dyke, Durwood Zaelke, and Grant Hewison, eds., FREEDOM FOR THE SEAS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: OCEAN GOVERNANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HARMONY. Washington: Island Press, 1993. $ 27.50 paper. $ 55.00 hardcover. 430 pages. Challenges the prevailing concept of "freedom of the seas" in favor of a new model, "freedom for the seas," where the primary goal is the protection of ecological vitality.

--National Commission on the Environment, CHOOSING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 200 pages. $ 15.00 paper. $ 25.00 hardcover.

--Durwood Zaelke, Robert F. Housman, and Paul Orbuch, eds., TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 270 pages. $ 24.95 paper. $ 49.95 hardcover. When it is appropriate for one country to use trade measures to influence industrial behavior in another country, with better or worse results for environmental conservation? When are low environmental standards in one country a subsidy to that country's industries? With chapters by industrial leaders, trade advocates, environmentalists, international organizations, and policymakers.

--Gerald Epstein, Julie Graham, and Jessica Nembhardt, eds., CREATING A NEW WORLD ECONOMY. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. 496 pages. $ 22.95 paper. $ 49.94 cloth. Twenty- five economists set out the challenges posed by a global economy. With much reference to environmental conservation. Epstein is an economist at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Graham is a geographer there, and Nembhardt specializes in international finances there.

--Rosemary O'Leary, ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: FEDERAL COURTS AND THE EPA. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. 224 pages. $ 34.95. The impact of hundreds of federal court decisions on the policies and administration of the Environmental Protection Agency, since its beginning in 1970. Five areas of focus: water quality, pesticides, toxic substances, air quality, hazardous wastes. O'Leary is in the Department of Public Administration in the Graduate School of Public Affairs, Syracuse University.

--Richard M. Clugston, "Deep Ecotourism," EARTH ETHICS, Summer 1993. Tourism has recently become the world's largest industry, surpassing petroleum-related businesses in economic activity. For many nations, tourism is the largest source of foreign income. For some, such as Kenya and Costa Rica, it is practically the foundation of the economy. Over the past few years one sector of the tourist industry has grown dramatically, that of "eco" or "responsible" tourism. Also: lists of resources, and other articles. Clugston is Director, Center for Respect of Life and Environment, Washington, DC.

--Oliver R. Barclay, "Animal Rights: A Critique," SCIENCE AND CHRISTIAN BELIEF, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 49-61. A broader and more soundly established Christian approach than that of "animal rights" (in Andrew Linzey, Tom Regan, and others) will find responsibilities for and duties to animals in the context of those to the whole creation. The term "animal rights" is inappropriate for animals. It is best abandoned for these more satisfactory and Biblically-based concepts. There is a positive mandate given to humans to care for the whole natural world. Barclay is a zoologist.

--Andrew Dobson and Paul Lucardie, eds., THE POLITICS OF NATURE: EXPLORATIONS IN GREEN POLITICAL THEORY. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. 240 pages. Twelve essays, including Wouter Achterberg (Philosophy University of Amsterdam), "Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Environmental Crisis? Sustainability, Liberal Neutrality and Overlapping Consensus"; and Paul Lucardie, "Why Would Egocentrists Become Ecocentrists?" Dobson is in politics at the University of Keele. Lucardie is Research Associate at the Documentation Center of Dutch Political Parties, University of Groningen.

--Andrew Dobson, ed., THE GREEN READER: ESSAYS TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY. London, AndrÇ Deutsch, 1991; San Francisco: Mercury House, 1991. 280 pages. Dozens of extracts and short essays from environmentalists. Sections: The Green Critique; The Green Society; Green Economics; Green Political Strategies; Green Philosophy. The Green Philosophy section has selections from Tom Regan, Aldo Leopold, Arne Naess, Richard and Val Routley, Carolyn Merchant, and others.

--Douglas Booth, VALUING NATURE: THE DECLINE AND PRESERVATION OF OLD GROWTH FORESTS. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993. 245 pages. $ 22.95 paper. $ 57.50 cloth. The shifting values in natural resources policy decision-making set the stage for a more focused debate on the ethical criteria that should be employed. The natural history of old-growth forests, aboriginal views of forests, valuing forests in the era of exploitation, the Endangered Species Act and old-growth forests. How should old- growth forests be valued? Booth is professor of economics at Marquette University.

--Richard B. Primack, ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1993. 564 pages. $ 28.95 cloth. The first unified, systematic introduction to conservation biology. (Earlier works are largely anthologies.) Six parts, 22 chapters, 1,000 references. Lots of diagrams and illustrations. Part III is on "The Value of Biological Diversity, and Chapter 10 is on "The Ethical Value of Biological Diversity." Primack is professor of biology at Boston University, an authority on rare plants in Massachusetts and on the ecology of tree communities in Malaysia. He is the book review editor for CONSERVATION BIOLOGY.

--C. C. W. (Christopher Charles Whiston) Taylor, ETHICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Oxford, UK: Corpus Christi College, 1992. 97 pp., paper. Proceedings of a conference held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, September 20-21, 1991. F. A. Osborn, "Environmental Policy Making--The Ethical Dimension"; Sir Christopher Harding, "The Social Responsibility of the Nuclear Industry"; R. M. Hare, "What Are Cities For? The Ethics of Urban Planning"; Bernard Williams, "Must a Concern for the Environment Be Centered on Human Beings?"; Bryan Gould, M. P., "Questions the Politicians Should Answer"; John Haldane, "Philosophy and the Ethics of the Environment"; P. E. Hodgson, "Nuclear Power and the Environment"; Robin Attfield, "Claims, Interests and Environmental Concerns--A Response to Professor Williams." --Matthew H. Nitecki and Doris V. Nitecki, eds., EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. 368 pages. $ 16.95 paper. $ 49.50 hardcover. Four sections: Historical. Sociobiological. Rejection of the Sociobiological. Further perspectives.

--J. Baird Callicott, "La nature est morte, vive la nature!" êCOLOGIE POLITIQUE (Paris), No. 7, êtÇ 1993, pp. 73-90. A French translation of an article that appeared first in English in the HASTINGS CENTER REPORT, September-October 1992.

--Kent E. Portney, CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: SCIENCE VS. ECONOMICS VS. POLITICS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1992. 181 pages. $ 15.50 paper. $ 31.95 cloth. How value disputes have found their way into the policymaking process, pitting the values of science, technology, economics, and environmental conservation against the practice of politics. Portney is at Tufts University.

--Robert D. Bullard, ed., CONFRONTING ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM: VOICES FROM THE GRASSROOTS. Boston, MA: South End Press (116 Saint Botolph St., Boston, MA 02115), 1993. A book by and about people of color fighting America's environmental racism, from the Indian reservations to the inner cities. "Whether by conscious design or institutional neglect, communities of color face some of the worst environmental destruction in the nation. Now activists of color have begun to challenge both the industrial polluters and the often indifferent mainstream environmental movement. Groups have sprung up from Maine to Louisiana to Alaska." This book tells their story.

--H. Coward and Th. Hurka, THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University and Calgary Institute for the Humanities, 1993.

--U. S. Forest Service, MANAGING AIR RESOURCES IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION. July 1993. Contains a section on "Wilderness Air Resource Management Philosophy" with fourteen premises of the study. "1. Wilderness is not merely a commodity for human use and consumption. Wilderness ecosystems have intrinsic values other than user/public concerns. 2. The objective of Wilderness management is to offer a natural user experience, rather than an enjoyable one. 3. All Wilderness components are equally important; none are of lesser value than others. 4. A Wilderness component is important even if users of the Wilderness are unaware of its existence. 5. All life forms are equally important. For example, microorganisms are as essential as elk or grizzly bears. 6. The goal of Wilderness management is to protect not only resources with immediate aesthetic appeal (i.e. sparkling clear streams) but also unseen ecological processes (such as natural biodiversity and gene pools." And more. Contact Dennis Haddow, Air Program Manager, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Box 25127, Lakewood, CO 80225-0127.

--Susan D. Lanier-Graham, THE ECOLOGY OF WAR: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WEAPONRY AND WARFARE. New York: Walker and Company, 1993. Effects of battles on the landscape, and also the peacetime aspects of war, such as weapons testing, waste disposal. Lanier- Graham teaches at Colorado Northwestern Community College in Craig, Colorado.

--Joni Seager, EARTH FOLLIES: COMING TO FEMINIST TERMS WITH THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. 336 pages. $ 27.50 cloth. The environmental crisis is not just a crisis of biophysical ecosystems. It is the product of the dominant culture and of the institutions that set cultural norms. These include, predominantly, the militaries, multinationals, and governments, all of which are the products of masculinist culture. Environmental relations are inextricable from the larger gender relations that shape modern life. A feminist analysis is absolutely crucial.

--Carolyn Merchant, RADICAL ECOLOGY: THE SEARCH FOR A LIVEABLE WORLD. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. 288 pages. $ 49.95 cloth. In order to maintain a liveable world, we must formulate new social, economic, scientific, and spiritual approaches that will fundamentally transform human relationships with nature. Merchant analyzes the revolutionary ideas of visionary ecologists to bring environmental problems to the attention of the public and examines the problems, the ideas, the actions that will make society rethink, reconstruct, and reinvent its relationship with the non-human world in the search for a liveable world.

--Alison M. Jaggar, ed., LIVING WITH CONTRADICTIONS: CONTROVERSIES IN FEMINIST SOCIAL ETHICS. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. 600 pages. $ 55.00. A host of readings, with one section on "Environmentalism," contributors include Barbara Omolade, "We Speak for the Planet"; Karen J. Warren, "Taking Empirical Data Seriously: An Ecofeminist Philosophical Perspective"; Marti Kheel, "From Healing Herbs to Deadly Drugs: Western Medicine's War Against the Natural World"; Vandana Shiva, "Development, Ecology, and Women"; Val Plumwood, "Conversation with Gaia", Judith Plant, "Searching for Common Ground: Ecofeminism and Bioregionalism"; Cynthia Hamilton, "Women, Home, and Community: The Struggle in an Urban Environment"; Ellen O'Loughlin, "Questioning Sour Grapes: Ecofeminism and the United Farm Workers Grape Boycott"; Jo Whitehorse Cochran, "Stealing the Planet"; Ronnie Zoe Hawkins, "Reproductive Choices: The Ecological Dimension"; The Committee on Women, Population, and the Environment, "Women, Population, and the Environment: Call for a New Approach." Jaggar is professor of philosophy and women studies at the University of Colorado.

--Catharna J. M. Halkes, NEW CREATION: CHRISTIAN FEMINISM AND THE RENEWAL OF THE EARTH. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1991. 177 pages. Examining the images that Western culture has formed of women and nature opens the door to reinterpreting the meaning of creation and our relation to it in terms of mutuality and connectedness.

--Mark Stanton and Dennis Guernsey, "The Christian's Ecological Responsibility: A Theological Introduction and Challenge," PERSPECTIVES ON SCIENCE AND CHRISTIAN FAITH, March 1993.

--Viriato Soromenho-Marques, "O Problema da Decisa~o em Pol·tica de Ambiente (The Problem of Decision in Environmental Policy)," In Portuguese. REVISTA CRTICA DE CINCIAS SOCIALS, no. 36, February 1993, pp. 27-40. The problem of decision-making in the field of environmental policy, with all the complexity of its causes, is perhaps the principal task of environmental policy, which is here understood as Realpolitik for the present crisis of modern society. The argument tries to clarify some aspects of that decisive and vital question. Soromenho-Marques is professor of philosophy at Cidade Universitaria, Lisboa, Portugal, and the chair of QUERCUS, Portugal's National Association for Conservation of Nature (see above). Address: Departmento de Filosofia, Cidade Universitaria, 1699, Lisboa Codex, Portugal.

--Sallie McFague, THE BODY OF GOD: AN ECOLOGICAL THEOLOGY Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. 274 pages. Softcover. McFague constructs a model of God specifically for the sake of the Earth. She hopes to join what have been separated, body and soul, humans and the rest of nature, God and the Earth. She invites readers to think and act as if bodies matter, because they do. She proposes an organic model for conceiving God, which, she maintains, is in keeping with contemporary scientific understandings of the widely accepted common creation story and provides a basis for reconceiving the Christian understanding of human existence in an ecologically ordered natural world. "The universe as God's body is a rich, suggestive way to radicalize the glory, the awesomeness, the beyond-all-imagining power and mystery of God in a way that at the same time radicalizes the nearness, the availability, the physicality of divine immanence" "We would then have an entire planet that reflects the glory, the very being--although not the face--of God" "We do not see God's face, but only the back. But we DO see the back." (pp. 132-133) A preceding book, MODELS OF GOD, anticipated this one and received the American Academy of Religion's Award for Excellence. McFague is professor of theology at Vanderbilt Divinity School.

--Dale Jamieson, "Ecology, Social Theory, and the Green Movement," BROCK REVIEW (Brock University, Canada), vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22-33. The core values and commitments that drive the green movement. Why the green vision is a valuable contribution to social theory. Greens are fundamentally anti-hierarchial and for participatory democracy, although their basing these on deep ecology is more problematic. In its attaching value to systems, deep ecology is a fundamentally confused theory of value. Jamieson is in philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

--James Swan, NATURE AS TEACHER AND HEALER. New York: Random House, Villard Books, 1992. 322 pages. $ 13.00. "A spiritual first-aid kit for anyone who feels alienated from nature." Swan is an environmental psychologist who heads the Institute for the Study of Natural Systems, Mill Valley, CA.

--J. Krishnamurti, ON NATURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. 1991. 112 pages. $ 8.95 paper. Thirty four rather brief selections from the work of Krishnamurti, who died in 1986 at the age of ninety. Sensitive descriptions of nature but rather little reflection on nature from the perspective of the ecological crisis. Nature supports and sustains us and we ought to protect it, but we are so increasingly concerned with our own little selves that we are out of touch with nature. All of our personal, social, political, economic, and environmental pains and problems are caused by our spiritually confused selves and can only be ameliorated by spiritually changing ourselves.

--E. O. Wilson, "Is Humanity Suicidal?" NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE, May 30, 1993. Humans are not exempt from the ecological laws that bind other species. "Human physical and spiritual health depends on sustaining the planet in a relatively unaltered state."

--Leena Vilkka, YMPéRISTôETIIKKA (ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS): VASTUU LUONNOSTA, ELéIMISTé JA TULEVISTA SUKUPOLVISTA (RESPONSIBILITIES TO NATURE, ANIMALS, AND FUTURE GENERATIONS). Helsinki: Yliopistopaino (University Press of Helsinki), 1993. (Address: Vuorikatu 3 A, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland) ISBN 951-570-154-6. 238 pages, paper. The first book in Finnish in environmental ethics. Chapter titles: What is Environmental Ethics?; The Scope of Ethics; Main Trends in Environmental Philosophy; Attitudes to Nature; Values in Nature; The Rights of Nature, Animals, and Future Generations. Vilkka is a researcher at the Academy of Finland, Helsinki. Her address is Department of Philosophy, P. O. Box 44 (JyrÑngîntie 2), SF-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

--L. I. Vasilenko and V. E. Ermolaeva, eds., GLOBALNIYE PROBLEMY I OBSHCHECHELOVECHESKIYE TSENNOSTI (GLOBAL PROBLEMS AND HUMAN VALUES). Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1990. ISBN 5-01-001586-2. 496 pages. Hardbound. Articles translated from English and French into Russian. This volume contains Russian translations of Holmes Rolston, "Is There an Ecological Ethic?"; J. Baird Callicott, "Conceptual Resources for Environmental Ethics in Asian Traditions of Thought," Robin Attfield, selections from his ETHICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN; Kenneth Inada, "Environmental Problematics in the Buddhist Context," a selection from Albert Schweitzer. Vasilenko was in the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, and is recently deceased; Ermolaeva is a researcher with that Institute.

--Boleslaw Andrzejewski, ed. HUMANISTYKA I EKOLOGIA (HUMANISTICS AND ECOLOGY). In Polish. Poznan: Fundacja WARTA, 1992. Paper. 190 pages. Seventeen authors who are mostly at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland. With English summaries at the end of each articles. Sample articles (titles translated from Polish): Wlodzimierz Wilowski, "The Ecological Man Ideal of Lao Tsu"; Ryszard Stachowski, "Man and the World in Greek Natural Philosophy"; Boleslaw Andrzejewski, "Philosophy and Ecology"; Andrzej Przylebski, "Heidegger's Critique of Metaphysics as a Possible Foundation of the Ecology Philosophy"; Zbigniew Kuderowicz, "System of Values and Protection of Environment"; Eugeniusz Kosmicki, "Basic Problems of Ethics in Ecology"; Jan Wawrzyniak, "The Elements of Neonaturalistic Environmental and Evolutionary Ethics"; Zbigniew Blok, "Ecology as the Main Premise for the Construction of a New Paradigm of Social Development." Andrzejewski is professor of philosophy, Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland.

--Northest Forestry University, Social Ecology and Ecological Philosophy Research Editorial Committee, SOCIAL ECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHY RESEARCH. In Chinese. Harbin, China: Northeast Forestry University Press, 1992. 264 pages. ISBN 7- 81008-318-X/B.9 An anthology of about three dozen papers, grouped in six parts: Part I: Theoretical Research Regarding Humans and Nature. Part II. The Methological Problem of Ecological Research. Part III. Rational Use of Natural Resources and the Problem of Environmental Protection. Part IV. The Problem of Development and the Use of Recycled Resources. Part V. Cooperative and Developmental Principles and Strategies of Ecology, Economics, and Society. Part VI. On Recognized Opinions of Ecology, Ecological Culture, and Problems in Ecological Ethics. A contact here, and contributor to the volume, is Professor Ye Ping, Social Science Department, Northeast Forestry University, 150040 Harbin, P. R. CHINA.

--Ian Ball, Margaret Goodall, Clare Palmer, and John Readers, eds., THE EARTH BENEATH: A CRITICAL GUIDE TO GREEN THEOLOGY. London: SPCK, 1992. 216 pages. Robin Grove-White, "Human Identity and Environmental Crisis"; Margaret Goodall and John Reader, "Environmentalism as the Question of Human Identity; Clare Palmer, "Stewardship: A Case Study in Environmental Ethics"; Ian Carter, "Teilhard de Chardin: An Ecological Spirituality"; Margaret Goodall and John Reader, "Why Matthew Fox Fails To Change the World"; and others.

--Bron R. Taylor, "Evoking the Ecological Self," PEACE REVIEW 5(1993):225-230. Three function of the arts in the deep ecology movement: (1) evoking ecological consciousness, (2) calling forth and empowering ecological activists, and (3) a tool for ecological resistance. Taylor teaches religion and social ethics at the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh and is currently writing ONCE AND FUTURE PRIMITIVE: THE SPIRITUAL POLITICS OF THE DEEP ECOLOGY MOVEMENT (Beacon Press).

--Elizabeth Breuilly and Martin Palmer, eds. CHRISTIANITY AND ECOLOGY. London and New York: Cassel, 1992. 128 pages.

--Matthew J. McKinney, "Designing a Dispute Resolution System for Water Policy and Management," NEGOTIATION JOURNAL, April 1992. McKinney has recently been named the director of the Montana Office of Public Policy Dispute Resolution. He completed his M.A. in environmental ethics at Colorado State University and a Ph.D. in natural resources at the University of Michigan.

--David Pepper, ECO-SOCIALISM: FROM DEEP ECOLOGY TO SOCIAL JUSTICE. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. Paper. 266 pages. Has concern for nature taken priority over our concern for people? Must capitalism inevitably degrade environments and produce social injustice? How can Marxist analysis improve the coherence of green politics? Pepper is in geography at Oxford Brookes University.

--Michael P. T. Leahy, AGAINST LIBERATION: PUTTING ANIMALS IN PERSPECTIVE. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. 273 pages. Concern for the rights of animals is based on a series of fundamental misconceptions about the basic nature of animals, which tend to identify them rationally, emotionally, and morally far too closely with ourselves. Leahy is in philosophy at the University of Kent.

--Stephen St. C. Bostock, ZOOS AND ANIMAL RIGHTS: THE ETHICS OF KEEPING ANIMALS. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. Paper. 227 pages. Bostock is the education officer for Glasgow Zoo.

--Brenda Almond and Donald Hill, eds., APPLIED PHILOSOPHY: MORALS AND METAPHYSICS IN CONTEMPORARY DEBATE. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. Part I is on "The Environment." Contains R. M. Hare (Philosophy, University of Florida), "Moral Reasoning about the Environment," and response by Donald Hill, Polytechnic University of North London; Timo Airaksinen (Philosophy, University of Helsinki), "Original Populations and Environmental Rights"; T. L. S. Sprigge (Philosophy, University of Edinburgh), "Are There Intrinsic Values in Nature?"; William Grey (Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, Australia), "A Critique of Deep Ecology," and response by Alan R. Drengson (Philosophy, University of Victoria).

--BEACHAM'S GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND SOURCES. 5 volumes; 3,350 pages; 40,000 citations. 39 chapters in entries varying from 35 to 150 pages. $ 240. Claims to be the only comprehensive bibliography related to environmental issues worldwide, organized by topic and by type of source for useful access. Beacham Publishing, Inc., 2100 S Street, N. W., Washington, DC 2008. 800/466-9644. Fax 202/234-1402.

--Edith Brown Weiss, Paul C. Szasz, and Daniel B. Magraw, INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: BASIC INSTRUMENTS AND REFERENCES. Transnational Publishers, Inc., One Bridge St., Irvington, NY 10533. 750 pages. 1992. $ 95.00. Eighty-five documents, with lists of 870 international environmental instruments. Brown Weiss is Associate General Counsel for International Environmental Law at the Environmental Protection Agency; Szasz is former Director of the General Legal Division of the United Nations; Magraw teaches environmental law at the University of Colorado.

--Alexandre Kiss and Dinah Shelton, INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE. Transnational Publishers, Inc. (see above). 575 pages. $ 95.00. 1991.

--Peter M. Haas, Robert I. Keohane, and Marc A. Levy, eds., INSTITUTIONS FOR THE EARTH: SOURCES OF EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. 340 pages. $ 17.95 paper. The factors influencing organized responses to seven international problems (ozone, acid rain, the Baltic and North Seas, oil pollution, fisheries management, pesticide use, population). A study of the institutions that make solutions to international environmental problems possible. Haas is in political science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Keohane is in international peace at Harvard University. Levy is in politics and international affairs at Princeton University.

--Eric T. Freyfogle, JUSTICE AND THE EARTH: IMAGES FOR OUR PLANETARY SURVIVAL. New York: Free Press, 1993. We all carry mental images of the natural world that help guide us in our daily interactions with the planet. Freyfogle shows how influential these guiding images are, and why we need to rethink them if we are to reverse the Earth's decline. We must reconsider familiar assumptions about owing property, about human superiority over other species, about the values of the free market, and the extent of our environmental knowledge. With examples from environmental controversies in Cape May, New Jersey, Ely, Minnesota, and on Utah's Burr Trail. How to replace outmoded, simplistic images with new images. Freyfogle is a professor of law at the University of Illinois and a naturalist.

--GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS is a new international journal that addresses the human ecological and public policy dimensions of the environmental processes that are threatening the sustainability of life on Earth. The editor is Professor Martin Perry, Environmental Change Unit, 1a Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, United Kingdom. The journal is published in cooperation with the United Nations University.

--Daniel L. Dustin, THE WILDERNESS WITHIN: JOURNEYS IN SELF- DISCOVERY. San Diego, CA: Institute for Leisure Behavior, San Diego State University. 1993. 153 pages. $ 6.95. ISBN 1- 882708-52-0. Dustin finds that journeys he takes to places "out there" to the exterior world of mountains, forests, deserts, and tundra become journeys he takes "in here" in his interior world. "To me wilderness is the logical place, indeed the ideal place, to marvel at life's unfolding, to live at life's edge. It is in wilderness that we can best discard the protective armor that shields us from life itself. It is in wilderness that we can best get down to earth, that we can best open up and receive the world around us. It is in wilderness that we can best rejoice in the here and now. But the way wilderness is managed these days tends to undermine this opportunity." (p. 5) Thoughtful reflections of interest to whose who ask what happens to people in wilderness. Dustin is Distinguished Professor in San Diego State University's Department of Recreation, Parks, and Tourism.

--William H. Skelton, ed., WILDERNESS TRAILS OF CHEROKEE NATIONAL FOREST. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992. 323 pages. Over a hundred tails in this 625,000 acre national forest, along the Tennessee-North Carolina State line, accessible within a day's drive by most of the Eastern United States and surrounding the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, one of the most visited parks in the world. This is a fine example of a University Press contributing to local environmental appreciation and conservation. Skelton is a Knoxville, Tennessee attorney.

--Gary Paul Nabhan, ed., COUNTING SHEEP: TWENTY WAYS OF SEEING DESERT BIGHORN. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993. 260 pages. $ 16.95 paper. $ 29.95 cloth. Twenty persons from different disciplines and cultures focus their attention on just one animal, the desert bighorn.

--John Alcock, THE MASKED BOBWHITE RIDES AGAIN. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993. An invitation to urbanites in the U. S. Southwest to venture forth and learn more about the Sonoran desert, a dynamic landscape on which the human population has exploded.

--Susan Zakin, COYOTES AND TOWN DOGS: EARTH FIRST! AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT. New York: Viking, 1993. 483 pages. $ 23.50. A fast-paced, fact-filled, and thorough history of Earth First! in the 1980's, often irreverent, tough, funny, opinionated, even outrageous, and yet also a thoughtful survey of Earth First! in the context of the broader conservation movement. Earth First!ers liked their "redneck hippie" image; they led the way emphasizing the importance of ecosystems and bioregions, concepts that have since entered the mainstream of environmentalism. Zakin is an environmental writer whose articles have appeared in publications ranging from the NEW YORK TIMES to MOTHER JONES.

--VIAGEM PHILOSOPHICA--UMA REDESCOBERTA DA AMAZNIA. PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNEY--A REDISCOVERY OF THE AMAZON, 1792-1992. Rio de Janeiro: Associaá~o Promotora de Instruá~o, Editoria Index, 1992. ISBN 85-7083-036-X. Six essays commemorating the extensive, nine-year naturalist expedition of Alexandre Rodriques Ferreira (1756-1815), 200 years ago, who was already concerned about conservation, and using this to document changes since in the Amazon, all in reflection over its future. With particular reference to biodiversity and the human responsibility to conserve it. Parallel text in Portuguese and English. Nicely illustrated.

--Lester R. Brown et al., STATE OF THE WORLD 1994. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W. W. Norton, 1994. 288 pages. $ 11.95. The annual guide in the latest edition, with annual editions regularly used in over 1,000 colleges and universities.

--Lester R. Brown et al., VITAL SIGNS, 1993: THE TRENDS THAT ARE SHAPING OUR FUTURE. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993. 144 pages. $ 10.95. Facts and figures on major environmental and other trends that affect public health and welfare.

--Delores LaChapelle, DEEP POWDER--40 YEARS OF ECSTATIC SKIING, AVALANCHES, AND EARTH WISDOM. Durango, CO: Kivaki Press, 1993. $ 6.95. Deep ecology mixed with deep powder skiing. When skiing, nature is in control, guiding the visitor along the most thrilling courses. Our sense of self, an individual, separate from all others and the earth, prevents us from experiencing and enjoying our senses of the moment. Freedom is finding one's place in nature. LaChapelle is the other of several previous books, including EARTH WISDOM.

Dave Foreman's BOOKS OF THE BIG OUTSIDE catalog lists over 400 books and other media. Ned Ludd Books, P. O. Box 85190, Tucson, AZ 85754-5190.


Issues

Indoor Wilderness? The latest in the wild indoors is Quebec's Biodìme de MontrÇal, with 9,000 living creatures in 216 different species, a nouveaux zoo, part aquarium, part garden, four vest- pocket ecosystems: tropical rainforest, deciduous-coniferous forest, marine St. Lawrence waterway, and arctic-anarctic coastline. In its opening year the biodome has been flooded by 1.5 million visitors. The ecosystems are computer managed, and intended to give one the experience of the natural world, especially to give one a sense of straddling the globe as one passes through the four "ecotransits." Story in OUTSIDE, October 1993.

Bears, Skiing, and Takings in Vermont. The largest ski operator in Vermont, Killington, has sued the state, charging that it effectively confiscated part of the company's land holdings when it designated 1,600 acres as critical bear habit. The company has also sued the town of Mendon, Vt, whose zoning law bans commercial development at altitudes above 2,500 feet. The acres in question are important for the beech trees producing mast and also as wetlands. State officials reply that the company knew the bear habitat was an issue when it acquired the land in 1982, and that the state's basic law regulating commercial developments, Act 250, was already then in place. They also say that the company has not exhausted its options, which include building condominiums on some parts of the holdings. Courts have regularly held that a landowner is not entitled to the most profitable use of property, but ought not to be denied all economic uses of it. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, September 27, 1993. Takings bills have been defeated in 29 states, but are increasingly appearing as riders to other bills in federal legislation.

Natural disasters. Acts of God or Acts of man? LIFE'S September 1993 cover story is "The Year of Killer Weather: Why Has Nature Gone Mad?" In a year of floods in America, earthquakes in India, droughts in Africa, ISEE members might want to recall a too little-noticed book now almost a decade old: Anders Wijkman and Lloyd Timberlake, NATURAL DISASTERS: ACTS OF GOD OR ACTS OF MAN? Philadelphia, PA and Santa Cruz, CA: New Society Publishers. An Earthscan Book, 1984, 1988. 144 pages. $ 9.95. New Society Publishers, P. O. Box 582, Santa Cruz, CA 95601. Also: 4527 Springfield Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19143. The general argument is that, although nature is sometimes turbulent and recalcitrant, these events reach disastrous proportions largely because of social forces that introduce crowding, stress natural systems, tempt and force persons into unwise developments on floodplains and in exposed locations, deprive them of flexibility, and leave millions vulnerable to events that, foreseen and better prepared for, seldom need to become natural disasters of such proportions at all. Reduced rain may trigger a drought, and stressed soils are soon eroded when the rains come, but the real cause of the disaster is human pressure on the land. "The common view of `natural disasters' is due for a radical change. Though triggered by natural events such as floods and earthquakes, disasters are increasingly man-made" (p. 6) Disaster relief often only compounds the problem by propping up ecologically unsound situations, band-aids that fail to address the real causes. Required reading for anyone who complains of killer weather, natural disasters, and nature gone mad. Nor is the U.S. immune. The three most damaging climatic disasters in U.S. history happened in the last 12 months: Hurricane Andrew, the March 12 blizzard, and the Midwest floods, the U.S. not particularly well prepared for any of them. The Mississippi River crosses dozens of political boundaries; there is a loose patchwork of federal agencies, but no federal agency has jurisdiction over the whole watershed, and there is no way to take an ecosystem or drainage basin approach to its management. Wijkman is Secretary General of the Swedish Red Cross and Timberlake is editorial director of Earthscan and a former science editor at Reuters News Service. The book results from a study by the Swedish International Development Authority.

Colorado has new wilderness, 612,000 acres of it, in nine new wilderness areas and nine expanded areas, signed into law by President Clinton on August 13 on the airport tarmac in Denver. The Colorado Wilderness Act of 1993, Public Law 103-77, was ten years before Congress, most contested over the water rights issue, and twenty years in the making. There is compromise language over water rights, that side-steps the issue. In previous years, the House had passed a bill that included a federal reserved water right and a Senate-passed bill that explicitly denied such rights. The bill states that no one "shall assert" such rights and instead creates special language that protects wilderness water by means other than such water rights. The flagship of the bill is the 226,000 Sangre de Cristo Wilderness that incorporates 80 miles of one of Colorado's most distinctive mountain ranges. Considerable lower elevation old-growth forests are protected, but downstream wilderness, with upstream water rights, is still an issue.

The U. S. Clean Water Act must be reauthorized this year.

National Institute for the Environment (HR 2918) establishes a National Institute for the Environment. The bill has been introduced by Congressman George Brown (D-California), the chair of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, and Jim Saxton (R-New Jersey), ranking republication on the Environment and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, with 38 other sponsors.

The Department of the Environment Act (HR 109) elevates the Environmental Protection Agency to cabinet status. Environmentalists debate whether this is desirable for more effective protection and conservation, or only gives more power and resources to environmental bureaucrats.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA is an extremely vital, as well as ethically and philosophically revealing, trade pact, and environmental ethicists and those in international development will want to follow it with considerable care. NAFTA claims some impressive backers (all living former presidents, all living Nobel Prize-winning economists, but also has many doubters, dividing environmentalists as well as those interested in international justice. For example: "Resistance to NAFTA Is on the Rise," CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 2, 1993.

Environmental sentences upset some lawyers. People convicted of environmental crimes are not just going to jail; some are also doing their time at their local Sierra Clubs. Judges have sentenced defendants to support environmental advocacy groups. In Ohio, five businessmen have been ordered to become members of the Sierra Club. In Maryland, two hunters were sentenced to make $ 50 contributions to the National Wildlife Foundation. Some argue that this abuses judicial power and infringes defendant's constitutional rights, since it requires them to support groups whose views they do not share. Others are it educates them about the other side. Community service has become a widespread alternative to jail sentencing, creative sentencing that saves jail space and uses defendants time productively in remedying social problems. Story in WALL STREET JOURNAL, September 7, 1993.

Where have all the fireflies gone? Lightning bugs are on the wane, both in the U.S. and Japan, for unknown reasons. Still, a St. Louis chemical company pays a penny a bug and collects millions a year, selling the luminescent material to scientists who use it in research, though the luminescent substance can now be produced synthetically. Some are rare species. Fireflies are one of the "bugs" people most want to have around. Story in WALL STREET JOURNAL, September 2, 1993.

Many issues of interest in environmental ethics are omitted here, due to lack of space.


Recent and Upcoming Events


--October 1-3. Eighth Annual International Compassionate Living Festival (continuing earlier "Triangle Animal Awareness" Festivals), in Raleigh, NC. Contact: Culture and Animals Foundation, 3509 Eden Croft Dr., Raleigh, NC 27612. Phone 919/782-3739.

--October 5-6. Nobel Conference XXVIX, "Nature Out of Balance: The New Ecology," Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, MN. See details earlier.

--October 25-30. World Health Organization, Commission of European Communities and UNEP, "Environment and Public Health in Modern Society," Antwerp, Belgium. Various global and European presentations on the environmental causes of morbidity, from respiratory distress related to air quality to breast cancer related to pesticides.

--October 27-30. Conference on Ancient Philosophy, Medieval Philosophy, Islamic Philosophy, and Africana, Binghamton, NY. With a session on the Ancient Roots of Ecology. Paper by Laura Westra on Aristotle and ecology, others by Darryl Tress and Anthony Preus.

--November 4-6. "Biological and Cultural Diversity Challenges in Environmental Ethics," the Morris Colloquium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Speakers: Satish Kumar (Schumacher College), Lauri Whitt (Michigan Technological University), Andrew Brennan (University of Western Australia), Holmes Rolston, III (Colorado State University), Robert Elliot (University of New England, Australia), Christine Cuomo (University of Cincinnati), David Stannard (University of Hawaii), Alastair Gunn (University of Waikato, New Zealand), David Crocker (Colorado State University), Adrienne Anderson (Denver, Colorado). Contact: Dale Jamieson, Department of Philosophy, Campus Box 232, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0232. Phone 303/492-6132.

--November 5-7, Regional Development in the 21st Century: Think Globally, Act Locally," Naha, Okinawa. Sponsored by the East-West Center, Honolulu, at the University of Hawaii. Contact EWCA Alumni Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96948.

--November 11-13. National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Corpus Christi, TX, at Bayfront Plaza Convention Center. Contact: 400 Mann, Suite 909, Corpus Christi, TX 78401. With many sponsors.

--November 10-13. The Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas, Baltimore, MD, sponsored by the State of Maryland, and others including the EPA, NOAA, the National Academy of Sciences, as well as international groups. One associated group is the University of Maryland, through the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy; Mark Sagoff is a principal organizer. Such coastal seas include the Chesapeake Bay, the Inland Seto Sea of Japan, the Mediterranean, the Baltic, the Red Sea, the North Sea, and the Caribbean. There are organized panels of experts on several themes: I. Governance and Policy. II. Coastal Science and Policy. III. Stakeholders, Citizens, and Private Interests. IV. Philosophy and Policy. Sections on Sovereignty and International Regimes; International Issues, Interest Groups, and Policy Making; Place, Locality and Community; Ethics of Integrity and the Ecosystem Approach; Scientific Communities and their Contributions to Policy; Is Ecology a Basis for Action?; Feasibility of Ecosystem Restoration; How to Define Management Goals; Political Action and Governance; How Can Environmental Education Make a Difference; Ecological Economics and Management Decisions; Challenges to Science: Scale, Size, and Complexity; North American Great Lakes; Moving toward National Ecological Protection in the USA. There will also be a special session on "Ecosystem Integrity and Public Policy, with Tim Allen, Don DeAngelis, James Kay, Robert Ulanowicz, Henry Regier, and Mark Sagoff, organized by Laura Westra. Contact EMECS Secretariat, Coastal and Environmental Policy Program, The University of Maryland, Box 775, Cambridge, MD 21613. Phone 410/974-5047.

--November 11-13. The North American Interdisciplinary Wilderness Conference, Ogden, Utah. Papers and proposals are invited by August 16, and a book is planned; a book has resulted from previous conferences. For arts and humanities papers, contact L. M. Vause, Department of English, Weber State University. For conference information, Continuing Education, Weber State University, Ogden, UT 84408-4007.

--November 11-13. "God, the Environment, and the Good Life," conference at University of New Hampshire, Durham. Speakers include: Thomas Berry, Timothy C. Weiskel (Harvard Divinity School), Rick TwoBears (Abnaki, Ontario), Dennis Meadows (University of North New Hampshire, Rabbi Everett Gendler, Jay McDaniels (Hendrix College), and others. Contact: Kellogg Program Office, University of New Hampshire, 11 Brookway, Durham, NH 03824-3509. Phone: 603/862-1900. Fax: 603/862-0245.

--November 13-14. The Second Opening of the West. Ideas of Nature in Arizona, at Prescott, Arizona. Sponsored by the Arizona Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Speakers include J. Baird Callicott, Susan Flader, Dan Flores, Eugene Hargrove, Helen Ingram, Eric Katz, Gary Paul Nabhan, Roderick Nash, Holmes Rolston, and Donald Worster. Registration $ 40.00 Contact: Arizona Humanities Council, 1242 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85004. Phone 602/257-0335.

--November 19-21, "Environmental Ethics and Nature Interpretation" at Oak Openings Lodge, Oak Openings Preserve Metropark, Toledo/Northwest Ohio. A National Workshop cosponsored by Metroparks of the Toledo Area and Bowling Green State University. Leaders include: Eugene Hargrove, Max Oelschlaeger, Donald Scherer, and local naturalists; field trips included to black oak savanna and wet sand prairie, globally rare natural communities. $ 120 with housing and meals, or $ 95 registration only. Financial aid available, also credit from BGSU. Contact: Joyce Kepke, Continuing Education, International and Summer Programs, 40 College Park, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Phone 419/372-8181. Fax 419/372-8667.

--November 18-21. Consultation on Ethical Relations with Other Creatures. Heifer Project Conference Center, Arkansas. Participants include: Richard Cartwright Austin (environmental theologian, Presbyterian Church); J. Baird Callicott (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point), Calvin DeWitt (Au Sable Institute), Susan Flader (University of Missouri), Michael Fox (Humane Society), Wes Jackson (Land Institute, Salina, Kansas), Andrew Linzey (Mansfield College, Oxford), Jay McDaniel (Hendrix College, Arkansas), Bernard Rollin (Colorado State University), Marti Kheel (Berkeley, Ca), and others. Contact: Richard Cartwright Austin, Chestnut Ridge Farm, Route 1, Box 318, Dunganon, VA 24245. Phone 703/467-2437.

1994

--January 13-14, 1994. Conference on Ethical Dimensions in U.N. Agenda 21, at United Nations, New York. Details earlier.
--January 20-22, 1994. Conference on Agricultural Ethics, "Decision Making and Agriculture: The Role of Ethics." Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia. Speakers include Paul Thompson, Frederick Buttel, Bernard Rollin, Charles Blatz, and others. Contact Mora Campbell, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia. Phone 902/893-6644.

--February 17, 1994. "The Future of the Earth: The Very Idea of Sustainability," Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA. The Greater Philadelphia Philosophy Consortium Conference. Contact: Jacques Catudal, Philosophy, Drexel University. Phone 215/895-2441. Fax: 215/895-1414. Also contact: Maree Regan, Board of Governors, GPPC. Phone: 215/647-4545.

--March 20-24, 1994. International Conference on the Role of Non- Governmental Organizations in Protecting the Environment. Sponsored by the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (SPNI), to be held in Elat, Israel. Delegates are expected from Arab nations. This marks the 40th anniversary of the Society. Andrew Brennan (Philosophy, University of Western Australia) and Holmes Rolston (Philosophy, Colorado State University) are among the speakers. Contact: Dr. Avner de-Shalit, Department of Politics, The Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem, 91905 Israel. Phone: (02) 882111. Fax: (02) 322545.

--March 23-27, 1994. European Conference on Science and Theology: The Concept of Nature in Science and Theology. Freising and Munich, Germany. Contact: K. H. Reich, PÑdagogischhes Institut, Rte des Fougäres, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. Phone 37-219- 638. Fax: 37-219-650.

--March 31-April 2, 1994, Pacific Division, American Philosophical Association, in Los Angeles, with ISEE session. Details earlier.

--April 7-10, 1994. "Rebuilding Security: The Bomb, the Debt, and the Rainforest," the Peace Studies 6th Annual Meeting, at the University of San Francisco, CA. Papers and abstracts invited, by January 1, 1994. Contact: Professor Joseph Faney, Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY 10471. Selected papers will be published in the PEACE REVIEW.

--April 21-24, 1994. Society for Human Ecology, Seventh Conference, Michigan State University, East Lansing. There is a call for papers. Contact: Robert J. Griffore, Dept. of Family and Child Ecology, 107 Human Ecology Bldg., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1030.
Phone: 571/336-3818. Fax 336-3845.

--May 4-7, 1994. Central Division, American Philosophical Association, Hyatt Regency Crown Center, Kansas City, MO, with ISEE session. Details earlier.

--June 7-10, 1994. Fifth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, at Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Call for papers extends through November 1993. Contact Michael J. Manfredo, Department of Recreation Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. 303/491-6591.

--June 12-15, 1994. Global Strategies for Environmental Issues. National Association of Environmental Professionals, 19th annual conference. New Orleans, LA. Call for papers and posters, including a main track on "International Ethics Concerning Environmental Issues." Contact: National Association for Environmental Professionals, 5165 MacArthur Blvd., N. W., Washington, DC 20016-3315.

--June 15-18, 1994. The Fourth International Conference on Ethics in the Public Service, Stockholm. See earlier.

--June 19-22, 1994. lst International Symposium on Ecosystem Health and Medicine: New Goals for Environmental Management." Organized by the International Society of Ecosystem Health and Medicine and the University of Guelph. Proposals due (300 words or less), to Remo Petrongolo, Office of Continuing Education, 159 Johnston Hall, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1. Phone 519/824-4120, ext. 3064.

--August 14-21, 1994. Turtle Island Bioregional Gathering VI, Camp Piomingo, Otter Creek Park, Lousville, Kentucky (by the Ohio River). Contact Shepard and Tracy Hendrickson, 341 N. Hamilton, Indianapolis, IN 46201. Phone 317/636-3977.

--August 21-26, 1994. Sixth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL VI), Manchester, England. There is a symposium on Ethics and Ecology. Anticipated speakers include Andrew Brennan (Western Australia), Robin Grove-White (University of Lancaster), Calvin DeWitt (Au Sable Institute), Darrell Posey (Oxford), Phil Gates (Durham) and Susan Bratton (University of North Texas). Papers and posters are invited. Contact: Rev. Nigel S. Cooper, The Rectory, 40 Church Road, Rivenhall, Witham, Essex CM8 3PQ, U.K.

--September 9-14, 1994. International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. Contact ICPD Secretariat, c/o UNFPA. 220 E. 42nd St., New York, NY. Phone 212/297-5222. Fax 212/297-4915. A Preparatory Committee met May 10-21 in New York, and another Prepcom is in April 1994. One thing persons might want to do now is to write their legislators urging strong support for this conference.

--September 30-October 2, 1994. Hegel Society of America, at the Catholic University of America, Washington, on the theme: "Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature." Papers due: January 31, 1994. Contact: Stephen G. Houlgate, Philosophy, DePaul University, 2323 N. Seminary Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614.
1995

August 1-5, 1995. XIII International Congress of Aesthetics, Lahti, Finland. Theme: Aesthetics in Practice: Connections between Academic Research in Aesthetics and Everyday Life, especially Concerning the Environment." Papers on the aesthetics of nature are especially welcomed. Contact: Sonja Servomaa, University of Helsinki, Lahti Research and Training Centre, Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 Lahti, Finland. Phone 358-18-892 11. Fax: 358-18-892 219.