Volume 4, No. 2, Summer 1993
Nobel Conference XXVIX, at Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota will be held October 5-6, on the theme "Nature Out of Balance: The New Ecology." Arne Naess was the previously announced philosophy speaker, but has had to cancel due to reasons of health and Bryan G. Norton, Georgia Institute of Technology, replaces him. The other speakers, all scientists, are: Daniel Botkin, University of California, Santa Barbara; Jared M. Diamond, UCLA School of Medicine; Thomas Lovejoy, Smithsonian Institution; Robert May, University of Oxford; Donella Meadows, Dartmouth University; and George M. Woodwell, Wood's Hole Oceanographic Institute. This is the only conference outside Europe authorized by the Nobel Foundation of Stockholm. For more details contact Nobel Conference XXVIX, Gustavus Adolphus College, 800 West College Avenue, Saint Peter, MN 56082. Phone 507/933-7550.
The Royal Institute of Philosophy 1993 Conference, "Philosophy and the Natural Environment," is at the University of Wales College of Cardiff, July 20-23. Speakers are listed in the ISEE Newsletter, Spring 93. Contact Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, Philosophy Section, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, UK.
The 19th World Congress of Philosophy, meets in Moscow, August 22- 28, 1993. ISEE has organized a session on environmental ethics, one a roundtable discussion. Anticipated participants in the two sessions: include Karen Warren (Macalester College), James Sterba (University of Notre Dame), Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University), Laura Westra (University of Windsor), Willem Landman (University of the Western Cape, South Africa), Avner de-Shalit (Political Science, Hebrew University, Jerusalem), Yrjo SepÑnmaa (University of Helsinki), Donald VandeVeer (North Carolina State University), Brad Marden and Eric Hol (Environmental Protection Agency). Obtaining visas has proved to be troublesome for participants, who have to prepay all hotel bills before they depart, and have to verify where they will be during each night of stay in Russia. For congress information and registration contact World Congress of Philosophy, EGA Studio, Viale Tiziano 19, Rome, Italy. Fax (06) 32-22-006.
The Fifth World Wilderness Congress will be held in Tromso, Norway, September 24-October 1, 1993. There is an ISEE sponsored session, "The Idea of the Wild." Speakers: Lois Lorentzen, "Reminiscing about a Sleepy Lake: Women and Wilderness in El Salvador"; Max Oelschlaeger, "The Idea of Wilderness as a Deep Ecological Ethic"; Nils Faarlund, "Silence and the Wild"; Dusty Gruver, "The Philosopher/Gardener"; Douglas Buege, "Taking Inuit Knowledge Seriously: Responsible Knowing in the Canadian Arctic"; Melissa Nelson, "Ten Tribes in Northern California: A Case Study of Wilderness Management"; Richard Gale, "The New Forestry: How Wild the Welcome Mat?"; Marvin Henberg, "Wilderness: The Possibility of a Pancultural View"; "Elisabeth Carlessare, "Love Your Mother: The Wild in Planet Earth"; Laura Westra, "Ecosystem Integrity and Sustainability: The Foundational Value of Wilderness"; David Abram, "Wild Culture and the Word"; David Rothenberg, "The Idea of the North"; Robert Greenway, "Wilderness Therapy"; Leena Vilkka, "Intrinsic Value and the Wild"; Peder Anker, "Deep Ecology Put To the Test"; Ville Hallikainen, "The Finnish Concept of Wilderness"; Myrdene Anderson, "The Polysemy of Wild"; Mikel Vause, "Knights of Nothingness"; Andrew Light, "The Urban Wilderness." Thanks to David Rothenberg for convening the session. Contact him for information on the ISEE Session. Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102. Phone 201/596-3289. Fax 201/565-0586. For information on Congress attendance, contact The Wild Foundation, 211 W. Magnolia, Fort Collins, CO 80521. Phone 303/498-0303.
"Ecosystem Integrity and Policy: International Issues," to be held in Washington, November 10-13, coordinated with Mark Sagoff's Center for Philosophy and Public Policy and the Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas Conference. See events, below.
The International Society for Value Inquiry meets August 14-16 in Helsinki, followed by the Tenth International Social Philosophy Conference, August 17-20. Some papers at the latter: Robin Attfield (Philosophy, University of Wales, Cardiff), "Population Growth and Hope for Humanity"; Karen Warren, "Ecofeminist Spiritualities: What Should an Ecofeminist Think?"; W. Donner (Carleton University, Ottawa), "Inherent Value, Self, and Community in Environmental Ethics"; Laura Westra, "Human Rights in the Third World, Global Sustainability and Environmental Racism"; James Sterba (Philosophy, University of Notre Dame), "Environmental Justice."
Ethical issues in hunting. Steven J. Bissell, who is chief of environmental interpretation for the Colorado Division of Wildlife, completed spring 1993 a Ph.D. dissertation, ETHICAL ISSUES IN STATE WILDLIFE POLICY: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS, through the Graduate School of Public Affairs of the University of Denver. Lloyd Burton was the principal advisor. Bissell documented in a series of focus group interviews in five states that the state wildlife commissions and agencies are often considerably out of touch with the values that are held both by contemporary hunter and nonhunter citizens, catering to a rather narrow interest group of traditional hunters. His analysis concludes that if both citizens and agency personnel were to take Aldo Leopold's land ethic more seriously, much of this value gap would be alleviated. Case studies involve are: Colorado and California black bear hunting; Arizona elk hunting (using hunters to cull a herd, biological necessity of the hunt; equity in a hunting lottery); Pennsylvania wild turkey hunting (hunters refusing to wear safety colors); deer hunting in New Hampshire (hunters preferring too many deer for the habitat). Bissell can be contacted at the Colorado Division of Wildlife, 6060 Broadway, Denver, CO 80216. Phone 303/291-7267.
Shigeyuki Okajima is an editorial writer for environmental affairs with THE YOIMURI SHIMBUM, a Tokyo based Japanese newspaper, and was in the spring a 1993 Eisenhower Fellow from Japan, researching environmental ethics in the United States. THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN has a total daily circulation of 15 million (morning and evening editions) and also publishes a daily English edition of 50,000 copies. Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, funded both by private endowments and by the U. S. Congress, bring about two dozen internationals into the United States each year to study current trends in the United States that can prove beneficial to foreign countries. In addition to being a distinguished journalist in Japan, Shigeyuki Okajima has written a book introducing the Japanese to American environmentalism (listed in recent books, below), and an introduction to American environmentalism for Japanese high school students, in English, used to teach both English and environmentalism. He is also an ornithologist and alpinist, active in bird conservation in Japan. He has climbed to the 24,000 foot level of Mount Everest. He hopes to bring American insights to bear on Japanese problems, and to work toward joining American and Japanese national policies toward solving global environmental problems. Two of interests are John Muir and spiritual and philosophical attitudes toward nature. In 1988 he was given the Global 500 Award from the United Nations Environment Programme. Address: Shigeyuki Okajima, THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN, 1-7- 1, Ohtemachi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan 100-55.
The University of Minnesota Press announces a new series, MONOGRAPHS IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION, seeking innovative, book- length manuscripts that blend the scientific and social disciplines necessary to shape a science of conservation that will mitigate the erosion of biological diversity from the Earth. They are interested in works that make environmental ethics applicable to the conservation of biodiversity. Larry D. Harris, in forest resources and conservation at the University of Florida, is the series editor. For more information contact Barbara Coffin, Natural and Environmental Sciences Editor, The University of Minnesota Press, 2037 University Avenue, S. E., Minneapolis, MN 55414-3092. Phone 612/624-7368.
PEACE REVIEW invites papers, especially for a special issue, "Development, Environment, and Human Rights," deadline May 1, 1994. Send essays on disk to Professor Robert Elias, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St., San Francisco, CA 94117-1080. Phone: 415/ 666-6349.
At the Society for Conservation Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, on Friday, June 11 there was an ISEE session, organized by Jack Weir. Moderator: Joan L. McGregor (Philosophy, Arizona State University). Papers: Holmes Rolston, III (Philosophy, Colorado State University), "Who Owns Wild Species?"; Edwin P. Pister (Desert Fishes Council), "Ethical Concerns in the Conservation of Biodiversity"; Richard Shearman (Environmental Studies, Rochester Institute of Technology), "The Virtue of Preserving Species Diversity" (based on an Aristotelian approach); Laura Westra (Philosophy, University of Windsor) and James Kay (Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo), "Ecosystem Integrity Reconsidered"; and Jack Weir, "Case Reasoning, Intuitions, and Pluralism in Environmental Ethics." Also in the general program: Holmes Rolston, "Biological Conservation After the Earth Summit." In a presidential address, outgoing president Stanley A. Temple (Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison) noted that the most significant issues that the Society faces are philosophical and ethical.
The Wildlands Project drew considerable advocacy and argument at the Society for Conservation Biology, covered in a subsequent writeup in SCIENCE. This plan, launched by Dave Foreman, formerly with Earth First! seeks large core areas of wildlands conserved, buffer zones, and corridors between these. Reed Noss, the incoming editor of CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, is one of the architects of the project, as is Michael SoulÇ, who argued, at the meeting that wildness need to be big, fierce, and dangerous. Edward O. Wilson and Paul Ehrlich also endorse the project. On the Oregon coast, the plan wants about 25% of the land in wilderness and about 25% in buffer zones. Another high wildness area is the Southern Appalachians. See a special issue of WILD EARTH, "The Wildlands Project." Deborah Jensen, director of conservation science for the Nature Conservancy, wants more wilderness, but complained, "Frankly, this whole business about wildness being fierce is a male thing." She also thinks that the project expects to move many people from their homes, when a better plan helps people live compatibly with the biodiversity around them. The SCIENCE story is predictably establishmentarian, "The High Cost of Biodiversity," 25 June, 1993. "A controversial plan to protect North American biodiversity calls for nothing less than resettling the continent. That may be too much to ask of the people who already live there."
The Society for Conservation Biology meets next year, June 1994, in Guadalajara, Mexico, at the Universidad de Guadalajara. ISEE will sponsor a session; papers dealing with environment and development in Latin America or the Third World are especially encouraged. Contact Jack Weir, Morehead State University.
The International Chamber of Commerce has produced two short documents, "Environmental Guidelines for World Industry" (1990) and "The Business Charter for Sustainable Development" (1990).
They are available in several languages. The ICC also maintains a Commission on Environment and an International Environmental Bureau. Contact the International Chamber of Commerce, 38, Cours Albert 1er, 75008 Paris, France. Tel 188.8.131.52. Fax 42-25-86- 63.
Evangelical Christians and the Environment. About forty scientists and theologians met Friday, July 2, in Oxford, England, to plan action based on a document, "Evangelical Christianity and the Environment," produced by the World Evangelical Fellowship's Theological Commission on Ethics and Society. Participants included Ghillean Prance, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, R. J. Berry, Professor of Genetics at University College, London, Calvin DeWitt, Director of the Au Sable Institute, and others. One activity is the International Evangelical Environmental Network, with contacts around the globe. Contact: R. C. J. Carling, Chapman and Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London, SE1 8HN. Tel 865-0066, ext. 6772; Fax 522-9621.
"Nature and Environment" was a section of the Philosophy, Interpretation, Culture Conference, SUNY, Binghamton, Binghamton, New York, April 16-17. Papers: Doug Daigle (Colorado State University), "The Role of a Planetary Narrative in Environmental Ethics"; Phil Lewin (Clarkson University), "Science, Difference, Nature"; R. Read (Rutgers University), "Culture, Nature, ENVIRONMENT: The Priority of Environmental Ethics to Epistemology and Metaphysics."
United Nations Conference on Ethical Issues in Agenda 21, January 20-21, 1994. The Conference will be held at the United Nations Building, United Nations Plaza, New York, NY. Contact Donald Brown, Ethics Research Group, 2915 Beverly Road, Camp Hill, PA 17011 (near Harrisburg). Fax 717/787-9379.
University presses are turning more and more to general-interest books, provided they can both appeal to general readers and maintain scholarly standards--partly to fill a vacuum left by trade publishers who are less and less interested in books on which they cannot make considerable profit, regardless of their content and competence. Many presses are particularly interested in environmental concerns because of their relevance and their broad audiences. Some samples: Christopher D. Stone, THE GNAT IS OLDER THAN MAN: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN AGENDA (Princeton); Donald Worster, THE WEALTH OF NATURE: ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY AND THE ECOLOGICAL IMAGINATION (Oxford); George B. Schaller, THE LAST PANDA (Chicago) on all three see below) and Holmes Rolston, CONSERVING NATURAL VALUE (Columbia, forthcoming), and others in the recent books section below. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, June 4, 1993.
The George H. Gallup International Institute has released a report of results from its 1992 "Health of the Planet" Survey. Based on personal interviews with over 30,000 citizens in 24 nations, the survey examines a wide range of environmental perceptions, especially international environmental issues, including sustainable development. The results reveal a remarkably high level of awareness and concern about environmental problems among citizens of all nations, both rich and poor, as well as less disagreement on the causes and solutions than is commonly assumed to exist between residents of the rich and poor nations. Authored by Riley E. Dunlap, George H. Gallup, Jr., and Alec M. Gallup, the 160 page report is available from the George H. Gallup International Institute, 47 Hulfish Street, Princeton, NJ 08542. Phone 609/921-6200. Academics and representatives of public interest groups can obtain copies at a discounted price of $ 25.00.
The George Wright Society FORUM calls for papers for the winter 1993-94 issue, on sustainability and environmental ethics. The FORUM is an international journal, published quarterly to promote stewardship of resources in protected areas and on public lands. Deadline for manuscripts is October 1. Contact Geoffrey M. Swan, Joseph C. Dunstan, or Katherine L. Jope, all at National Park Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 83 South King Street, Suite 212, Seattle, WA 98104. Phone 206/553-1006 or 553-5670.
For computerized environmentalists, there is a newsletter going out of Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Georgia. There is a mixture of debate and conversation, recently on the ethics of wilderness rescues and on intrinsic value in nature (some twenty exchanges, including transatlantic contributions). To subscribe, send electronic mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org. In the body of the message, type: sub cpae yourname. This means subscribe to the newsletter of the Center for Professional and Applied Ethics, a center at Valdosta State University. Your own electronic mail address will automatically be included in the mail sent. Two philosophers involved there are Ari Santas (email@example.com) (Internet) and Ron Barnette (firstname.lastname@example.org) (Internet).
Douglas J. Buege has volunteered to compile a list of E-mail address for members of ISEE. Send him your E-mail address. Douglas J. Buege, 355 Ford Hall, Department of Philosophy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. <email@example.com>. He is also interested in references on degree of organic unity as a basis for value.
THE NORTHWEST ENVIRONMENTAL JOURNAL invites manuscripts on environmental issues important to Western North America, exploring the environmental dimensions of the natural and social sciences, policy, business, law, ethics, and education. The journal focuses on the Pacific Northwest, but especially seeks analyses that offer insights beyond regional boundaries. Contact the editors, James R. Karr and Ellen W. Chu, NORTHWEST ENVIRONMENTAL JOURNAL, Engineering Annex, FM-12, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Phone 206/543-1812. Fax: 206/543-2025. Karr is known for his work defining biological integrity in ecosystems; Chu was formerly editor of BIOSCIENCE.
Eastern Division, American Philosophical Association, meets Dec. 27-30, 1993 in Atlanta, GA, at the Atlanta Marriott. ISEE Session on the theme: New Directions in Environmental Ethics. Robert Gottlieb (Worcester Polytechnic Institute), "Whose Life Is it Anyway?: Ecology/Identity/Politics"; Kelly Parker (Grand Valley State University), "Pragmatism and Environmental Thought"; chaired by Eric Katz (New Jersey Institute of Technology).
Central Division, American Philosophical Association, meets May 5- 7, 1994 in Kansas City. Papers are still invited for one ISEE session. Submit proposals to Professor Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada. Phone: 519/253-4232 (2342). Fax: 519/973-7050. Another session will be on "Ethics and Radioactive Waste," with participants, Patricia Flemming (Philosophy, Creighton University, Omaha), "Circularity and Regulatory Policy: The Case of Yucca Mountain"; Kristin Shrader-Frechette (Philosophy, University of South Florida), "Nuclear Waste and Free Informed Consent: The Case of Yucca Mountain," with commentator, Craig Walton (Philosophy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas).
Pacific Division meets March 31-April 2, 1994, in Los Angeles. Submit proposals to Professor James Heffernan, Department of Philosophy, College of the Pacific, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211. Phone: 209/946-2281. PLEASE NOTE THIS CHANGE FROM ERNEST PARTRIDGE, WHO WAS PREVIOUSLY RECEIVING THESE PROPOSALS.
In general the annual deadlines for paper submissions for the three ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:
Eastern Division, March 1
Central Division, January 1, proposals by October 15
Pacific Division, January 1, proposals by October 15
Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below.) Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (the equivalent of $ 10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.
Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter, as well as to share such information with the international membership of the society. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 535535 (NOTE NEW FAX). He reports that mail service is very unreliable in certain parts of Eastern Europe. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48/61/417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.
Azizan Baharuddin, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, is the contact person for ISEE for South-East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). Dr. Azizan teaches history and philosophy in the Science Faculty. Contact her with regard to membership and dues payable (the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power). Her address is The Dean's Office, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax 60 (Country code) 3 (City code) 756-6343.
Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing this newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-4900, 24 hours. News may also be submitted to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4, and Canadian news is best directed to her. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed. The Newsletter is assembled shortly after January 1, April 1, July 1, October 1.
ISEE dues for 1993 are payable now. Memberships run on a calendar year basis, with NEW members who join in October, November, and December having memberships extended through the following full calendar year. The Secretary is not ordinarily able to send receipts, as this takes additional time and expense. The Society runs on a rather minimal budget, with dues mostly (and barely) covering the costs of Newsletter printing and mailing. To pay dues, see the last page of the Newsletter.
Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter? Back issues are available at US $ 10.00 per year, or $ 4.00 per single issue, and these requests should be directed to the Secretary (address on last page).
The ISEE Newsletter is printed on recycled paper.
Videotapes and media
--WHEN THE BOUGH BREAKS: OUR CHILDREN, OUR ENVIRONMENT. 52 minutes. This video illustrates how children's lives are the first to suffer in environmental degradation. There are segments in Poland, in Delhi, in Sudan and Eritrea, in Bolivia, in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. Each time there are families affected by decisions that spend money on other things (war, repaying national debts, or overconsumption elsewhere) and leave children suffering in a degraded environment. Available through Bullfrog Films, Oley, PA 19547. Phone 215/779-8226.
KEEPERS OF THE EARTH: NATIVE AMERICAN STORIES. Audiotape, 25 native American legends, exploring the human relation with the natural environment. 133 minutes. $ 16.95. Signals, P. O. Box 64428, St. Paul, MN 55164-0428. 800/669-9696.
Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials
--UNESCO, WORLD DIRECTORY OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH GROUPS IN SCIENCE ETHICS. Science Policy Studies and Documents, No. 73. Paris: UNESCO, 1993. 168 pages. Listings and details of 250 such groups throughout the world, including (no. 233) the International Society for Environmental Ethics. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France. With an index of researchers as well as of research groups. Also lists publications of these groups.
--Joseph A. Miller, Sarah M. Friedman, David C. Grigsby, and Annette Huddle, compilers, THE ISLAND PRESS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ENVIRONMENTAL LITERATURE. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 396 pages. Hardbound, $ 48. 3,084 entries, includes a section on "Ethics, Philosophy, and Religion." The authors are with the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.
--Hisatake Katoh, KANKYO-RINRIGAKU NO SUSUME (RECOMMENDATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS). Tokyo: Maruzen Library, 1991. 227 pages. paper. ISBN 4-621-05032-X C0212. The first book in Japanese in environmental ethics. The book is divided into three parts: The chapter topics are: 1. The Basic Three Points of Environmental Ethics. 2. Nature and Human Beings. 3. Future Generations. 4. Globalism. 5. The Role of Japan. 6. Population and Environment. 7. Bioethics and Environmental Ethics. 8. Garbage and Nature. 9. Generations and Historical Relativism. 10. Rights of Future Generations. 11. How Far Can We Extend Rights? 12. Conservation and Land Ethics in the United States. 13. Ecology and Economics. 14. Reconsidering Naturalism. Hisatake Katoh is professor of ethics at Chiba University, and is in the Department of Literature there. The city of Chiba is in Chiba prefecture, near Tokyo.
--Ethical Institute of Chiva University, STUDY OF BIOETHICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS (in Japanese). Chiva, Japan: Ethical Institute of Chiva University, 1990. The chapters are: Masua, Introduction to Callicott's Ideas; Nagakura, Introduction to Callicott's Ideas; Osawa, Introduction to Chiras' Ideas; Nitta, Introduction to Rolston's Ideas; Unoki, Introduction to Shrader- Frechette's and Feinberg's Ideas; Tanimoto, Introduction to Shrader-Frechette's Ideas; Ishikawa, Introduction to Glover's Ideas; Matsukawa, Introduction to McIntyre's Ideas; and Maruyama, Introduction to Shrader-Frechette and Others.
--Shigeyuki Okajima, AMERICANO KANNKYO HOGO UNNDOU (THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT. Tokyo: Iwanami Shinsho, 1990. 212 + 21 pages. paper. ISBN 4-00-430142-4 C0229 P580E. Chapters open with Earth Day and the spotted owl controversy, then survey the origins of environmentalism in the U.S. Emerson, Thoreau, Muir. Muir and the Sierra Club. Hetch Hetchy. The growth of environmentalism as a citizen's movement. An increasing maturing and professionalism of environmental organizations. David Brower. Leopold and the growth of the wilderness movement. Robert Marshall, William Douglas. The Wilderness Act. The development of ecology. Rachel Carson. From nature conservation to environmental protection. Frazer Darling, Stephen Mather. Increasing global problems. Alaska issues. Is environmentalism an elite movement? International issues. Debt for nature swaps. Lovejoy. Jessica Mathews. The growth of the environmental education movement. Shigeyuki Okajima is a journalist with THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN, a Tokyo newspaper, who has recently been an Eisenhower Fellow in the United States. See notes above in the General Announcements Section.
--Peter Matthiessen, "The Last Cranes of Siberia," NEW YORKER, May 3, 1993. The cranes of Russia are facing extinction amid Russia's economic anarchy, as multinational corporations and local entrepreneurs plunder the natural resources of Siberia's Amur Basin. Now environmental delegates from Russia, China, Japan, and the U.S. are putting aside national disputes in the fight to save the region's endangered species.
--Gary G. Gray, WILDLIFE AND PEOPLE: THE HUMAN DIMENSION OF WILDLIFE ECOLOGY. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993. 260 pages. $ 39.95.
--Ronald Bailey, ECO-SCAM: THE FALSE PROPHETS OF ECOLOGICAL APOCALYPSE. St. Martin's. 228 pages. $ 19.95. Bailey skewers false prophets and their failed forecasts. Paul Ehrlich won a MacArthur Foundation "genius" grant and the Swedish Academy's Crafoord price. He also predicted in 1969 that hundreds of millions would soon perish in smog disasters in New York and Los Angeles, that the oceans would die of DDT poisoning by 1979, and that the U. S. life expectancy would drop to 42 years by 1980 due to cancer epidemics. Lester Brown, another MacArthur genius and Worldwatch Institute president, predicted that global oil production would peak in 1990. Carl Sagan predicted that the Kuwaiti oil fires would lead to a global freeze. The global warming issue, "the mother of all environmental scares" is a another eco-scam. All the risks associated with the ozone layer do not amount to moving more than 100 miles south, from Washington, DC to Richmond, Virginia. Only fifteen years ago, Stephen Schneider, now fearing global warming, was then fearing global cooling. Nor does it make any difference what the eco- catastrophe faced is, the problem is always industrial capitalism. Bailey was formerly a writer with FORBES and is now a producer for the PBS series, "Technopolitics."
--Michael Fumento, SCIENCE UNDER SIEGE: BALANCING TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Morrow. 448 pages. $ 27. Fumento debunks such popular cancer threats as Alar, dioxin, pesticides, electromagnetic fields, and food irradiation. Extracting human risks from lab tests on chemical-stuffed rats is absurd, especially absurd when used to project "zero-risk" environments.
The American public is constantly warned of the dangers from tobacco, alcohol, and poor diet, and these dwarf any risks from chemical residues. Fumento is a lawyer-journalist who writes on environmental topics for INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY.
--Micah Morrison, FIRE IN PARADISE: THE YELLOWSTONE FIRES AND THE POLITICS OF ENVIRONMENTALISM. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. The ecosystem paradigm has become a quasi-mystical idea, shifting out of the realm of rigorous scientific inquiry and into our culture without serious challenge, promoted by environmentalists as a religion. In 1988, Yellowstone paid the price for ecosystem management as fires played out their "naturally regulating" role in the ecosystem. The blazes eventually covered 1.2 million acres, cost the taxpayer $ 120 million, and led to three deaths. We must begin redefining the ecosystem paradigm, arguing for mankind's [sic] proper role as a wise steward of the land, not as an enemy of its "natural functions." And part of wise stewardship means sometimes protecting the forest from its natural enemy, fire. Wise use also means ruling in favor of jobs over spotted owls in the Pacific Northwest, and in favor of middle-class development over gnatcatching birds in Southern California. Morrison finds Alston Chase a role model. Morrison is senior editor of INSIGHT magazine.
--Alexander Wilson, THE CULTURE OF NATURE: NORTH AMERICAN LANDSCAPE FROM DISNEY TO THE EXXON VALDEZ. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992. 335 pages. Human influences on the North American landscape.
--Andrew Brennan, ed., THE ETHICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT, in THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH LIBRARY OF PHILOSOPHY. 500 pages. Hardcover. $ 134.95. Aldershot, Hampshire, U.K.: Dartmouth Publishing Co., forthcoming, spring 1994. U.S. Distributor: Ashgate Publishing Co., Old Post Road, Brookfield, VT 05036. Brennan is professor of philosophy, University of Western Australia. More on this in due course.
--Harold H. Oliver, "The Neglect and Recovery of Nature in Twentieth-Century Protestant Thought," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF RELIGION 60 (no. 3, 1992):379-404. Protestants neglected a long heritage of theology of nature and, in the first part of the twentieth century "`nature' became the ward of science and technology, with little interference--and less wisdom--from the Church." The Protestant theological giants, Barth, Brunner, and Bultmann, willfully rejected a theology of nature, though Tillich sought to be more inclusive. The theologians overvalued world history and devalued nature. The ecological crisis has had an awakening effect, especially when blame for the ecological crisis was laid at the door of Christianity itself. More recent proposals for an integral theology have the criteria of wholeness, mutuality, responsivity, and mystery. Oliver is professor of philosophical theology at Boston University School of Theology.
--Mark Sagoff, "Settling America or the Concept of Place in Environmental Ethics," JOURNAL OF ENERGY, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW (University of Utah College of Law): 12 (no. 2, 1992):349-418. Some section titles: America on the Move; Place and Placelessness; Nature is Not a Place; The Environment is Not a Place; Protectionism; The Country vs. the City; Down on the Farm; Place as Res Publica; The Chesapeake; the North Sea; Have We a Place in Nature?; Nature as Human Habitat; The Great Environmental Awakening; Geography and History; Sustainability and Community; Environmentalism and the Dominant Social Paradigm. Sagoff is Director of the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland. Copies are available on request: School of Public Affairs, College Park, MD 20742. Phone 301/405- 4753. Fax: 301/314-9346.
--Raymond Bonner, AT THE HAND OF MAN: PERIL AND HOPE FOR AFRICA'S WILDLIFE. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. 322 pages. $ 24.00. Bonner thinks there has been much folly in Western led efforts at wildlife conservation in Africa. He is especially critical of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) or World Wide Fund for Nature and the Africa Wildlife Fund. He thinks that these funds have used the ban on the ivory trade, for instance, to increase membership and donations, while a controlled sale of ivory would have been more effective at saving elephants. These funds have been too interested in the animals, and not interested enough in the Africa peoples, whose fortunes are tied to those of the animals. Bonner is a former NEW YORK TIMES correspondent.
--Edwin Philip Pister, "Species in a Bucket, NATURAL HISTORY, January 1993. Phil Pister's celebrated story of an emergency transfer of the Owens pupfish (CYPRINODON RADIOSUS), an endangered species in California, from one spring to another, when he held the entire population of the species in two buckets. "For a few frightening moments, there was only myself standing between life and extinction." Pister is a retired fisheries biologist with the Desert Fishes Council, Bishop, California.
--Stephen Jay Gould, "A Special Fondness for Beetles," NATURAL HISTORY, January 1993. J. B. S. Haldane's quip that God has an inordinate fondness for beetles leads Gould to examine the estimates for the numbers of beetles in the world. A conclusion: "Our world is incredibly strange and therefore supremely fascinating." Gould is a paleontologist at Harvard University.
--SCIENCE, June 25, 1993, is a special issue devoted to "Environment and the Economy." A lead editorial complains of the "pathological growth of [environmental] regulations." Carl Sagan and Edward O. Wilson protest against having (allegedly) been "blacklisted" by SCIENCE because their advocacy prejudices their scientific credibility. Articles: "Protecting the Environment with the Power of the Market," "Is Environmental Technology a Key to a Healthy Economy?" "Can Sustainable Farming Win the Battle of the Bottom Line? Few Options for Third World Farmers," "How to Make the Forests of the World Pay Their Own Way," and "Wetlands Trading is a Loser's Game Say Ecologists: Bringing Vanished Wetlands to Life," (i.e. mitigation doesn't work).
--Herman E. Daly and Kenneth N. Townsend, eds., VALUING THE EARTH: ECONOMICS, ECOLOGY, ETHICS. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. 14 contributors. This is a successor to the 1973 TOWARD A STEADY STATE ECONOMY and the 1980 ECONOMICS, ECOLOGY, ETHICS: ESSAYS TOWARD A STEADY STATE ECONOMY. A sample of the new essays: Daly: "Sustainable Growth: An Impossibility Theorem." Daly is an economist with the World Bank; Townsend is professor of economics at Hampden Sydney College.
--Nazli Choucri, ed., GLOBAL ACCORD: ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES. Cambridge: MIT Press. 688 pages. $ 45.00. Fifteen essays on how individuals, groups, and nations create environmental dislocations and can work together to solve ecological problems that cross their borders. Choucri is professor of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
--Peter M. Haas, Robert O. Keohane, and Marc A. Levy, eds., INSTITUTIONS FOR THE EARTH: SOURCES OF EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. 340 pages. $ 17.95 paper. Seven international problems: oil pollution from tankers, acid rain in Europe, pollution of the North Sea and Baltic, stratospheric ozone depletion, mismanagement of fisheries, overpopulation, and misuses of farm chemicals. Analyses such institutions as the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Maritime Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations Fund for Population Assistance, and others. The authors are political scientists at the University of Massachusetts, Harvard University, and Princeton University.
--Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch, eds., CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL FORESTS: WORKING FROM TRADITIONAL RESOURCE USE. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. 475 pages. Redford is in he Department of Wildlife and Range Science at the University of Florida. Padoch is at the New York Botanical Garden.
--Robert Rosen, LIFE ITSELF: A COMPREHENSIVE INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE, ORIGIN, AND FABRICATION OF LIFE. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991. 285 pages. Rosen argues that life modeled as mechanism is neither necessary nor sufficient for understanding what life is, despite three centuries of such presumption in science. What is life? "The initial presupposition that we are dealing with mechanism already excludes most of what we need to arrive at an answer." Drawing from biology, physics, and mathematics, he proposes an alternative radically different from mechanism. With lots of mathematics. Rosen is professor of physiology and biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University.
--Timothy F. H. Allen and Thomas W. Hoekstra, TOWARD A UNIFIED ECOLOGY. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. An attempt to bring basic ecology to bear on ecological management, with particular attention to differences of scale. Allen is professor botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Hoekstra is at the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.
--Thomas K. Rudel with Bruce Horowitz, TROPICAL DEFORESTATION: SMALL FARMERS AND LAND CLEARING IN THE ECUADORIAN AMAZON. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. 234 pages. Rudel teaches sociology and human ecology at Rutgers University. Horowitz is a lawyer and professor at Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.
--Daniel S. Smith and Paul Cawood Hellmund, eds., ECOLOGY OF GREENWAYS: DESIGN AND FUNCTION OF LINEAR CONSERVATION AREAS. 308 pages. hardbound, $ 39.95. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Greenways are naturally vegetated corridors to maintain biological diversity on otherwise fragmented landscape ecosystems, as well as to provide recreational and other benefits.
--Will Wright, WILD KNOWLEDGE: SCIENCE, LANGUAGE, AND SOCIAL LIFE IN A FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. 240 pages. Paper, $ 14.95. "Scientific knowledge ... is primarily an effort at social legitimization and ... its conceptual incoherence as knowledge is now becoming ecological incoherence as social practice." Wright wants to invent a new idea of science by replacing its traditional concept of laws, especially mathematical laws, with a social concept of language. Wright is professor of sociology at the University of Southern Colorado.
--Dwight Baldwin, Jr., Judith de Luce, and Carl Pletsch, eds., BEYOND PRESERVATION: RESTORING AND INVENTING LANDSCAPES. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. The theory of preservation is predicated on the assumption that as humans we are different from and opposed to the rest of nature, but the contributors here explore the belief that humans are inextricably entangled with nature and therefore have an unavoidable impact upon the entire ecosystem. The contributors explore the possibilities of restoring damaged landscapes and even of inventing new ones. The editors are landscape architects at the University of Miami, Ohio.
--Jane Bennett and William Chaloupka, eds., IN THE NATURE OF THINGS: LANGUAGE, POLITICS, AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. 224 pages. $ 17.95, paper. Informed by recent developments in literary criticism and social theory, the contributors address the presumption that nature exists independently of culture and, in particular, of language. The theoretical approaches of the contributors range across both modernist and postmodernist positions, including feminist theory, critical theory, Marxism, science-fiction, theology, and botany. The concept of nature is invoked and constituted in a wide range of cultural projects--from the Bible to science fiction movies, from hunting to green consumerism. How far is nature a social construct?
--Michael Carley and Ian Christie, MANAGING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Co-published with Earthscan in the United Kingdom. 288 pages. Paper, $ 19.95. Sustainable development is an intensely political process, however defined and on whatever scale, and involves continual trade-offs between economic, social, and biophysical needs and objectives. The authors propose an action-centered network as a key innovation in environmental management.
--ON THE OTHER HAND: NEWS FROM THE RUSSIAN ENVIRONMENT has published volume 1, no. 3, May 1993. The current issue includes: Irene Khalyi, "The Environmental Movement in Russia: Contemporary Trends"; Yu S. Kamalov, "The Rights of the Aral Sea"; A. Tulokhonov, "Sustainable Development for Baikal." The U. S. editor is Ernest Partridge, Northland College, Wisconsin; the Russian editor is Anton Struchkov, Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
--Kathleen Norris, DAKOTA: A SPIRITUAL GEOGRAPHY. Ticknor and Fields, 224 pages. $ 19.95. Norris is from Lemmon, South Dakota, 1,600 people, the largest town in an area twice the size of Massachusetts. Though reared first in New York, she has lived there twenty years, and knows both worlds. She finds the great plains a world where things are timeless and deep, offering gifts of grace and revelation, despite the usual perception that the Dakotas are stuck in an earlier, less relevant age. The plains are a sanctuary. Norris is a lay preacher in the Presbyterian Church, also an associate in a community of Benedictine monks, as well as an environmentalist and citizen. A very sensitive book, with a marvelous sense of place.
--W. M. Adams, WASTING THE RAIN: RIVERS, PEOPLE, AND PLANNING IN AFRICA. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Co- published with Earthscan in the United Kingdom. 240 pages. $ 17.95, paper. For much of Africa, drought seems to be a permanent feature. Many attempts have been made to develop water resources through dams and irrigation schemes, but these have almost invariably failed. The best hope of appropriate development lies in working with local people using local knowledge. Adams wants to use the strength and diversity of indigenous water development in the difficult and often variable climate of Africa. The record of the modern, large-scale developments, particularly dams and irrigation schemes, has been poor and ineffective in conservation.
--William Cronon, NATURE'S METROPOLIS: CHICAGO AND THE GREAT WEST. Norton, 1991. "But the labor theory of value cannot by itself explain the astonishing accumulation of capital that accompanied Chicago's growth. Human labor may have been critical ... but much of the value in such commodities came directly from the first, not second, nature. The fertility of the prairie soils and the abundance of the northern forests had far less to do with human labor than with autonomous ecological processes. ... The abundance that fueled Chicago's hinterland economy thus consisted largely of stored sunshine: this was the wealth of nature, and no human labor could create the value it contained ... "The social relations of production ... themselves depended on still more encompassing ecological relations on CONSUMPTION. In any ecosystem, only the sun produces. ... Since no organism can make energy, each must do its best to STORE it, accumulating a stockpile for use when the sun will not be so generous with its gifts. The same is true of human society: most of the labor that goes into `PRODUCING' grain, lumber, and meat involves CONSUMING part of the natural world and setting aside some portion of the resulting wealth as `capital.' To apply for a moment the language of economy to the ecology of the Great West, Chicago's explosive growth was purchased at the expense of prairies and forests that had spent centuries accumulating the wealth that now made `free land' so attractive. Much of the capital that made the city was nature's own" (pp. 149-151). (Thanks to Bruce Omundson.)
--Robert Goodland and Herman Daly, "Poverty Alleviation Is Essential for Environmental Sustainability," The World Bank Environmental Department, Divisional Working Paper 1993-42. More than one-fifth of humanity lives in poverty; nearly two-thirds of humanity subsist on less than $ 2 per day. The numbers of poor are increasing. The world is hurtling away from environmental sustainability. Five views are contrasted on how to alleviate poverty: the trickle-down theory, that the North must consume more to expand markets for Southern raw materials. The elitist choice, that the rich foster poverty because it creates low wage labor. Capital seeks cheap labor. Anthropocentric, people-centered environmentalism, places humans at the center of the cosmos, the rest is derivative. The biocentric view claims that the living ecosystem is central; humans are part of it. We have a duty to conserve the whole. Redistributive justice asserts that poverty can be alleviated directly by improving access of the poor to shelter, clothing, food, education, and security. The authors are with the World Bank. Copies from World Bank, Environment Department, Washington, DC 20433. Fax 202/477-0565.
--Robert Goodland, "Ethical Priorities in Environmentally Sustainable Energy Systems: The Case of Tropical Hydropower," a paper given at a conference in Montreal, Quebec, in May, "Energy Needs in the Year 2000 and Beyond: Ethical and Environmental Perspectives." Includes six ethical-environmental criteria. Two of them: "Environmental impact is roughly proportional to area inundated. Therefore, the proposed dam must have the highest feasible ratio of power production per area inundated. If not, then the project has a higher than necessary environmental impact, which could be unethical." "The proposed site and surroundings have no centers of species endemism, rich biodiversity or other special features. If not, the ethics of extinction of species have been disregarded." Copies from address in previous entry.
--Alan E. Wittbecker, "An Ecological Development Plan for the Palouse Region," PAN ECOLOGY 8, no. 1, Winter 1993. An approach to mixing nature and culture in this dry, intermountain grassland in the Columbia Basin of the U. S. Pacific Northwest.
--David Ehrenfeld, BEGINNING AGAIN: PEOPLE AND NATURE IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 216 pages. Hardcover. $ 22.00. A collection of essays. "Human population, powered by an unforgiving, ill-adapted, and poorly functioning technology, is rapidly growing past the inevitable crash point." Gary Nabhan says, "Not since SAND COUNTY ALMANAC has an ecologist given us so many enduring insights and principles to inspire and guide our lives on this planet." Ehrenfeld is in natural resources at Rutgers University.
--John P. O'Grady, PILGRIMS TO THE WILD: EVERETT RUESS, HENRY DAVID THOREAU, JOHN MUIR, CLARENCE KING, MARY AUSTIN. Logan: University of Utah Press, 1993. Paper. $ 16.95. "A series of meditations focused upon literary excursions into `the wild' ... The fundamental assumption I employ--call it a perception--is that the wild is erotic space, and the pilgrimages I am concerned with are journeys through that space." O'Grady is professor in a wilderness literature program at the University of California, Davis.
--Vernon W. Ruttan, ed., AGRICULTURE, ENVIRONMENT, AND HEALTH: TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. 384 pages. Paper, $ 19.95. The changes in institutional design and policy reforms now underway will ultimately provide sustainable growth in agricultural production. Especially important are the institutions that conduct research and implement advances in technology and practice in the fields of agriculture and health, as well as those that monitor the changes in resource endowments, the quality of the environment and of health, and the productivity of humans employed in agricultural production. Rattan is in agricultural economics at the University of Minnesota.
--Rogene A. Bucholtz, "Corporate Responsibility and the Good Society: From Economics to Ecology," BUSINESS HORIZONS (Indiana University Graduate School of Business) 34, no. 4 (1991):19-31. The economic paradigm will continue its dominance as long as human beings consider themselves to be the center of life on earth.
--James A. Post, "Managing As If the Earth Mattered," BUSINESS HORIZONS 34, no. 4 (1991): 32-38. Managers can no longer ignore environmental problems; they must manage as if the earth mattered, because in fact it does.
--BUSINESS HORIZONS, "Business and the Environment," a special issue, vol. 35, no. 2, March-April 1992. About a dozen articles on a deepening commitment in business to environmental integrity. Samples: Richard E. Byrd, "Corporate Integrity: Paradise Lost and Regained." The corporate hell of lack of integrity is not permanent, but getting out takes real commitment. Frank B. Friedman, "The Changing Role of the Environmental Manager." Managers must think "environment" today more than ever; knowledge and awareness are the keys. William K. Reilly, "Environment, Inc." Cooperation between U.S. corporations and the government on the environmental front forms a model for the world. (Thanks to Wayne Ouderkirk for the above three references.)
--J. M. Cherett, "Key Concepts: The Results to a Survey of Our Members Opinions," in J. M. Cherett, ed, ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS (London: Blackwells, 1989), pages 1-16. The fifty most important concepts in ecology, as revealed in a survey of the British Ecological Society.
--EARTHWORK is a magazine for people pursuing careers in conservation and environmental affairs. Job listings and advice on launching a conservation career. Published by the Student Conservation Association, Inc., dedicated to fostering conservation careers since 1957. Contact EARTHWORK, P. O. Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603. Phone 603/543-1700.
--Holmes Rolston, III, "Whose Woods These Are. Are Genetic Resources Private Property or Global Commons? EARTHWATCH, vol. 12, no. 3 (March/April 1993):17-18. Ownership of wild species, sometimes being claimed by Third World Nations, makes national resources out of a natural resource that has classically been part of the common heritage of humankind. There are conceptual and practical problems with claiming such wild species ownership. These species belong to us all, with a shared right to use and responsibility to protect.
--CHOOSING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: THE REPORT OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE ENVIRONMENT. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. The report of a private sector initiative convened by the World Wildlife Fund. Nineteen prominent members. "We the members of the National Commission on the Environment, are convinced that the natural processes that support life on Earth are increasingly at risk and that by choosing to act or not to act to confront this risk now, our country is choosing between two very different futures" (p. xi). Russell E. Train, Chair, World Wildlife Fund and former Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator and Council on Environmental Quality Chair (CEQ) was the chair of the commission.
--Anne Buttimer, GEOGRAPHY AND THE HUMAN SPIRIT. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. Geography with a philosophical turn, and with a postmodernist awareness. Some chapter titles: "The Drama of Western Humanism," and four world- views in Western geography: "World as a Mosaic of Forms," "World as Mechanical System," "World as Organic Whole," "World as Arena of Events." The author ranges widely, from Plato to Kant to the UPANISHADS, from Goethe to Barry Lopez. Her book is a "step toward discovering mutually acceptable bases for rational discourse on wiser ways of dwelling." Buttimer is professor of geography, University College, Dublin.
--Duane Quiatt and Junichiro Itani, eds., HOMINID CULTURE IN PRIMATE PERSPECTIVE. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1993. 320 pages. $ 32.50. Human culture and animal behavior are commonly thought to differ importantly through the use of tools, inventing symbols, making words, and so on. But these primatologists think that their research indicates that the differences between human culture and primate behavior are increasingly difficult to identify. Quiatt is professor of anthropology at the University of Colorado at Denver; Itani is with the Laboratory of Human Evolution at Kyoto University.
--Karl Hess, Jr., ROCKY TIMES IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK: AN UNNATURAL HISTORY. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1993. 240 pages. $ 22.50. Hess argues for drastic changes in how the sixth most visited park in the United States should be managed. Hess thinks the Park Service has faltered in its mission of preservation, due in part to "predatory politics" in the Park Service. Hess is described (by his friend Tom Wolf) as "a kinder, gentler Alston Chase." He is an ecologist and environmental consultant based in Las Cruces, New Mexico.
--Harold Herzog, "Human Morality and Animal Research," AMERICAN SCHOLAR, Summer 1993. "When asked where I stand on the animal- research issue, I have taken to responding with .... `the troubled-middle.' Granted, the troubled middle is not a comfortable place to be. But, for most of us, neither are the alternatives." Herzog is professor of psychology at Western Carolina University.
--Frederick FerrÇ, HELLFIRE AND LIGHTNING RODS: LIBERATING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND RELIGION. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1993. Cloth, $ 24.95. Prevailing models of nature are inadequate because they are too narrow in their portrayal of a single but polyvalent organic world. The world must be envisioned organically or be destroyed by stunted and sterile approaches. FerrÇ is Research Professor of Philosophy at the University of Georgia, and instrumental in the environmental studies faculty there.
--The Center for Ideas and Society, University of California, Riverside, offers the following papers:
---"The Role of Technology in Environmental Questions: Martin Buber and Deep Ecology as Answers to Technological Consciousness"
---"Rereading Bookchin and Marcuse as Environmental Materialists," with reply by Bookchin and various commentaries
---"Materialists, Ontologists, and Environmental Pragmatists"
---"Environmental Pragmatism and Valuation in Nature"
---"Rationality, Nature, and Folk Technology" Contact Andrew Light, Center for Ideas and Society, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521. Phone 909/686-5045. Fax 714/787-6377.
--Christopher D. Stone, THE GNAT IS OLDER THAN MAN: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN AGENDA. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. 341 pp. $ 21.95. Proposes a Global Commons Trust Fund, monies raised on the premise that nations using the common heritage of the planet--the oceans, the atmosphere--be charged for their use. The natural environment and species within it can, from this fund, be represented by "ecoguardians." Stone is a law professor at the University of Southern California Law School.
--Donald Worster, THE WEALTH OF NATURE: ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY AND THE ECOLOGICAL IMAGINATION. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 255 pp. $ 25.00. A collection of essays. Past ideas about the relations of humans to nature persist unavailingly into the present. No amount of tinkering will correct what, at root, is a fundamentally obsolete and dangerous world view dependent on the appropriation of nature. Worster wants "to discover a less- reductive, less-ecologically and spiritually nihilistic, less- grasping kind of materialism." With a tinge of fatalism. Worster is a historian at the University of Kansas, Lawrence.
--C. A. Bowers, EDUCATION, CULTURAL MYTHS, AND THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS: TOWARD DEEP CHANGES. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. 232 pates. $ 12.95 paper. "The cultural dimensions of the ecological crisis raise profound questions for educators who play such a key role in passing on the cultural templates to the next generation." Most teaching in U.S. schools and universities, whether liberal or conservative, promotes attitudes that lead to overconsumption and pollution. Most reform advocates do not see how there must be a "radical reform of the educational process." Bowers teaches at Portland State University and at the University of Oregon.
--John A. Jakle and David Wilson, DERELICT LANDSCAPES: THE WASTING OF AMERICA'S BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992. 342 pp. Paper, $ 22.95. Recent landscape change in America through the lens of dereliction. Americans "accept whole categories of decline as somehow natural, when decline is in fact a societal construction" (p. xvii). Chronic dereliction reveals a basic flaw in American values. With a sense of alarm for the state of the built environment.
--C. C. W. (Christopher Charles Whiston) Taylor, ETHICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Oxford, UK: Corpus Christi College, 1992. 97 pp., paper. Proceedings of a conference held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, September 20-21, 1991.
--Craig Moritz, Jiro Kikkawa, and David Dooley, eds., CONSERVATION BIOLOGY IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA. 500 pages, hardbound, $ 74.95. 1993. In Australia: Surrey Beatty and Sons. In the U.S. distributed by: University of Minnesota Press.
--John Harte, THE GREEN FUSE: AN ECOLOGIST'S ODYSSEY. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993. 156 pages. Hardbound, $ 15.00. An ecologist and activist draws on his research as well as on literature to demonstrate the intricate connections among disparate ecosystems. A bridge between the cultures of science and art. "The green fuse" symbolizes the basic unity behind natural diversity. Hart is professor of energy and resources at the University of California, Berkeley.
--Stephen H. Kellert, IN THE WAKE OF CHAOS. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993. 176 pages. Hardbound, $ 19.95. We are in the wake of chaos, trying to make sense of the news that the universe is a far more unpredictable place than anyone ever imagined. The randomness that was first discovered in simple systems--a curl of smoke, a tumble of water--has exploded into a fascination with chaotic modes of everything from evolutionary history, ecosystem functioning, brain waves, business cycles. How order and turbulence, long-term predictability and short-term instability balance each other in the picture of nature. Kellert teaches philosophy of science at Indiana University.
--Gunnar Hansen, ISLANDS AT THE EDGE OF TIME. Washington, DC: Island Press, Shearwater Books, 1993. 240 pages. Hardbound, $ 22.50. Barrier islands run for 2700 miles from Texas to Maine, the longest stretch in the world. They are small islands, they are ephemeral, moving constantly with the sea's motion. But despite their fragility, barrier islands are monuments to the strength and beauty of nature, and to our precarious, yet lasting, ties to the land. Hansen is an environmental writer who lives in Maine.
--Stephen R. Kellert and Edward O. Wilson, eds., THE BIOPHILIA HYPOTHESIS. Washington, DC: Island Press, Shearwater Books, 1993. Biophilia is E. O. Wilson's term for an innate human affinity for the natural world. People are disposed to like certain kind of environments. Experience with natural life and the life processes is a biologically based need, integral to our development as individuals. There is also, perhaps, some biophobia, innate fear of nature, for example of snakes and spiders. Biological conservation can, in part at least, be built on these innate, genetic dispositions. We need to save nature for our own well- being. Sixteen contributors. The philosophical contribution is by Holmes Rolston, who asks whether Wilson's ideas about biophilia are compatible with his ideas about selfish genes. Kellert is in forestry at Yale University, Wilson is a zoologist at Harvard University.
--Robert Gottlieb, FORCING THE SPRING: THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 413 pages. Hardbound, $ 27.50. Gottlieb thinks that environmentalism began as the conservation of wild nature but has been increasingly broadened and transformed to include industries, cities, agriculture, pollution issues, public health issues. He wants to shift the debate from one focused exclusively on the protection and management of the natural world to a wider discussion of American social development in harmony with nature. Is the environmental movement capable of transcending its origins and changing the very fabric of American social life? Gottlieb teaches environmental policy in the Urban Planning Program at UCLA.
--Rocky Barker, SAVING ALL THE PARTS: RECONCILING ECONOMICS AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT. Washington: Island Press, 1993. 260 pages. Hardbound, $ 30.00 The "jobs versus the environment" issues, explored in detail. Ways in which economic activity can be sustained without the loss of essential natural values. Barker is a journalist with the Idaho Falls POST REGISTER.
--Sara F. Bates, David H. Getches, Lawrence J. MacDonnell, and Charles F. Wilkinson, SEARCHING OUT THE HEADWATERS: CHANGE AND REDISCOVERY IN WESTERN WATER POLICY. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 250 pages. Paper, $ 17.95. Western water use and the outmoded rules that govern it. Only by understanding the waters of the West and the people whose lives depend upon then can concerned citizens comprehend the seriousness of the current situation and help take steps toward reform. The authors are at the University of Colorado School of Law.
--Charles A. Flink and Robert M. Searns, with editing by Loring LaB. Schwarz. GREENWAYS: A GUIDE TO PLANNING, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPMENT. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 320 pages. $ 45.00, hardbound. Greenways are proving to be the most innovative way of preserving a wide variety of economic, ecological, wildlife, and social values.
--Karen-Lee Ryan, TRAILS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: PLANNING, DESIGN, AND MANAGEMENT MANUAL FOR MULTI-USE TRAILS. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. $ paper, $ 24.95. 290 pages. Thousands of miles of abandoned railroad corridors, former canals, and other now unused transportation routes are being converted to trails that provide a wide range of recreational and functional uses, including walking, cycling, horseback riding, cross country skiing, and more, all helping persons to re-establish contacts with the natural world and with their landscapes. Karen-Lee Ryan is program manager for the Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.
--Durwood Zaelke, Robert F. Housman, and Paul Orbuch, eds., TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LAW, ECONOMICS, POLICY. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. $ 24.95, paper. 270 pages. What the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) are doing and might do to the environment. What issues are involved when one country tries to influence another's environmental standards? How should international environmental standards be set? When and how are low environmental standards a subsidy to labor and to industry, and is this appropriate? The authors are with the Center for International Environmental Law, Washington, DC.
--Joyce K. Berry and John C. Gordon, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERSHIP: DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE SKILLS AND STYLES. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. Paper, $ 19.95. 320 pages. The authors argue for an approach that has been used at Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies with much success. What characteristics and contexts of leadership are unique to the conservation field?
--Elliott A. Norse, GLOBAL MARINE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: A STRATEGY FOR BUILDING CONSERVATION INTO DECISION MAKING. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 350 pages. $ 27.95. Builds on the work of more than 100 expert contributors. What is marine biological diversity and how is it important? How is it similar and different to terrestrial diversity? Life in the sea and ways to save, study, and use that life sustainably. Norse is chief scientist at the Center for Marine Conservation, also attached to the University of Washington.
--Jon M. Van Dyke, Durwood Zaelke, and Grant Hewison, eds., FREEDOM FOR THE SEAS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: OCEAN GOVERNANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HARMONY. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 430 pages. $ 27.50, paper. The contributors want to change the prevailing concept of freedom of the seas to that of freedom for the seas, where the primary goal is the protection of ecological vitality in ocean systems. Van Dyke is professor of law at the University of Hawaii, Daelke and Hewison are at the Center for International Environmental Law in Washington.
--Lawrence J. MacDonnell and Sarah F. Bates, eds., NATURAL RESOURCES POLICY AND LAW. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 280 pages. $ 19.95, paper. Ten chapters. The authors dislike the traditional narrow economic valuation of natural resources and argue that we have now begun to appreciate the inherent worth of our land, air, and water, a worth entirely unrelated to economic growth and development. The editors are at the University of Colorado School of Law.
--Robert Adler and Jessica Landman, THE CLEAN WATER ACT TWENTY YEARS LATER. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 350 pages. $ 29.95 paper. The Clean Water Act intended to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters." A detailed examination of the health of the nation's waters, which turns out to be a complex and subtle question to address. With recommendations for reauthorization of the Act. The authors are attorneys at the National Resources Defense Council, Washington. --Greg Aplet, Nels Johnson, Jeffrey T. Olsen, and V. Alaric Sample, DEFINING SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993. 320 pages. Paper, $ 24.95. The authors are with the Wilderness Society, the World Resources Institute, and the American Forest's Forest Policy Center.
--Robert E. Ricklefs and Dolph Schluter, eds., SPECIES DIVERSITY IN ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVES. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1993. 454 pages. $ 35.00 paper. New theoretical developments, analyses, and case studies to explore large scale mechanisms that generate and maintain diversity. Fifty contributors.
--Gregg Mitman, THE STATE OF NATURE: ECOLOGY, COMMUNITY, AND AMERICAN SOCIAL THOUGHT, 1900-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 290 pages. $ 23.50 paper. A study of the connection between liberal social thought and the concept of harmony in nature in the first half of the century. Social attitudes and commitments shaped ecological thinking, which in turn sought to influence social and political thinking. There were steady interactions between ecology and ecologists and ideas of social community and social forces. The cooperative view of nature eroded in the 1940's and 1950's due both to the modern Darwinian synthesis of evolution by natural selection, as well as through the association of organicism with totalitarian ideologies. Mitman is in the history of science at the University of Oklahoma.
--George B. Schaller, THE LAST PANDA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. 291 pages. $ 24.95 hardbound. About 1,000 pandas survive. A live panda is worth $ 112,000 on the black market, a pelt is worth $ 10,000. Zoos pay millions to rent pandas. Schaller tracks the panda in the wild and wonders if it can survive its popularity. Good intentions go desperately wrong, and greed and poverty prevent conservation. Panda conservation is often a sham. Schaller is with World Wildlife Conservational International, New York.
--Donald R. Griffin, ANIMAL MINDS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 310 pages. $ 24.95 hardbound. Continuing a series of earlier books, Griffin maintains that animals do think, now with further evidence from animal behavior, the philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. Griffin is at the Museum of Comparative Anatomy, Harvard.
--R. J. Berry, "Christianity and the Environment: Escapist Mysticism or Responsible Stewardship," SCIENCE AND CHRISTIAN BELIEF 3, no. 1 (1991):3-18. Christianity, properly understood, leads to a responsible stewardship of the environment, not to flagrant abuse or escapist mysticism. It converges with and provides an undergirding to secular thinking as expressed by the Brundtland Commission on sustainable development and the Economic Summit Nations on environmental ethics. But Christianity goes further in urging an awe for creation. Christians have a positive contribution to make and ought to be bolder in their witness. Berry is professor of genetics at University College, London, president of the European Ecological Federation, and past-president of the British Ecological Society and the Linnean Society.
--Mostafa K. Tolba, SAVING OUR PLANET: CHALLENGES AND HOPES. London and New York: Chapman and Hall, 1992. 287 pages. $ 20, paper. Also in Spanish as: SALVEMOS EL PLANETA: PROBLEMAS Y ESPERANZOS. The state of the environment, human well-being, perceptions and attitudes, challenges and priorities for actions. Tolba is Director of the United Nations Environment Programme.
--Peggy L. Fiedler and Subodh K. Jain, eds., CONSERVATION BIOLOGY: THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF NATURE CONSERVATION, PRESERVATION, AND MANAGEMENT. London and New York: Chapman and Hall, 1992. 18 essays. A sample: G. Ledyard Stebbins, "Why Should We Conserve Species and Wildlands?" Fiedler is in biology at San Francisco State University. Jain is at the University of California, Davis.
--Daniel R. Brooks and Deborah A. McLennan, PARASCRIPT: PARASITES AND THE LANGUAGE OF EVOLUTION. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. 450 pages. $ 25.00 paper. The relationship between parasite and host is homologous to that between animal and plant. The many traditional generalizations about parasite evolution are myths, unsupported by data. "Parasites are not the degenerate, overspecialized, host-dependent creatures ... envisioned by the proponents of orthogenesis. They are instead successful, innovative creatures" (p. 181). "Parasites are still an enigma. But ... they need no longer carry an evolutionary stigma" (p. 209). The authors are in the department of zoology at the University of Toronto.
--Brian Groombridge and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY: STATUS OF THE EARTH'S LIVING RESOURCES. London and New York: Chapman and Hall, 1992. 585 pages, an oversized volume. $ 59.95 hardbound. With sponsorship by the leading world conservation organizations. With a section on "Valuing Biodiversity."
--Whit Gibbons, KEEPING ALL THE PIECES: PERSPECTIVES ON NATURAL HISTORY AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. 208 pages. $ 16.96, paper. The greatest insult we humans are inflicting on the environment in the ongoing and massive loss of global biological diversity. Why and how we must all become involved in keeping all the pieces.
--ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES AT THE ROCKY FLATS NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITY. HEARINGS VOL. I. U. S. Subcommittee on Investigation and Oversight, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. 1,700 pages (!) of testimony before this House Committee concerning Rockwell Corporations management of Rocky Flats, a nuclear weapons facility in Colorado. Government documents, call no: Y4.SCI 2:no. 102/163DOC.
--John S. Kennedy, THE NEW ANTHROPOMORPHISM. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 208 pages. Paper, $ 17.95. Anthropomorphism still lurks under different disguises; scientists constantly slip into anthropomorphism in researching and interpreting animal behavior. Some examples, now rather well exposed, are "search image," "trail-following," and "grammatical language." Others, not yet realized to be erroneous, are "goal- directedness, self-awareness, cognition, and suffering." Kennedy was formerly at the University of London.
--Richard C. Primack, ESSENTIALS OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1993. 475 pages. $ 28.95 hardbound. The first unified introduction to the science of conservation biology. Part III is on "The Value of Biological Diversity" and includes a chapter, "The Ethical Value of Biological Diversity." The opening chapter, "What Is Conservation Biology?" contains a "Statement of Ethical Principles." Primack is in the biology department, Boston University.
--Gary K. Meffe and C. Ronald Carroll, PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, forthcoming 1994. With 55 contributors, many doing chapters, many doing short box essays. For upperclass use, in contrast to the preceding which is for introductory use. J. Baird Callicott writes chapter 2, "Philosophy and Ethics of Conservation." Some short essays: Susan Bratton, "Monks, Temples, and Trees: the Spirit of Biodiversity"; Roderick Nash, "Discovering Radical Environmentalism in Our Own Cultural Backyard: From Natural Rights to the Right of Nature"; Holmes Rolston, "Duties to Endangered Species," David Orr, "Liberalizing the Liberal Arts: From Domination to Design"; Phil Pister, "Agency Multiple-Use Conflicts"; Frederick FerrÇ, "The Post-modern World"; Eric Katz, "A New Vision: Humans and the Value of Nature." Meffe is at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory in South Carolina; Carroll is at the University of Georgia in ecology.
--Eugene P. Odum, ECOLOGY AND OUR ENDANGERED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS. Second edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1993. 329 pages. $ 18.95 pages. The revision includes more emphasis on a holistic, big-picture look at ecology, global scales. The epilogue includes sections on "Environmental Ethics and Aesthetics," "Dominion vs. Stewardship," and "An Ethics Survival Model." Odum is distinguished professor emeritus of ecology at the University of Georgia.
--David M. Gates, CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS BIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1993. 280 pages. $ 18.95. Gates believes that reliable theory data show that within a century the planet will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. He projects dramatic impacts. Gates is professor emeritus of biology at the University of Michigan.
--Frank B. Golley, A HISTORY OF THE ECOSYSTEM CONCEPT IN ECOLOGY: MORE THAN THE SUM OF THE PARTS. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993. 353 pages. $ 30.00. The development of the ecosystem concept in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. How ecosystem studies dominated ecology in the 1960's and became a key element of the International Biological Program biome studies in the United States. How current research uses the ecosystem concept. Golley is research professor of ecology, University of Georgia, and former president of the Ecological Society of America. He is also on the faculty of environmental ethics at the University of Georgia.
--Earl R. Winkler and Jerrold R. Coombs, APPLIED ETHICS: A READER. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, MA: 1993. Contains a section on environmental ethics: Holmes Rolston, III, "Values in and Duties to the Natural World"; Lori Gruen, "Re-valuing Nature"; Dale Jamieson, "Ethics, Public Policy, and Global Warming" and Peter Danielson, "Morality, Rationality, and Politics: The Greenhouse Dilemma." This adds to a list of a dozen or more anthologies in applied ethics with sections on environmental ethics. Winkler and Coombs are in philosophy and education at the University of British Columbia.
--Becky Malecki, SPIRITUAL BENEFITS OF WILDERNESS, a M. S. thesis completed in the Department of Human Development, Colorado State University, spring 1993, with a principal advisor Beverly Driver, United States Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins.
--Jane Kneller, "Beauty, Autonomy and Respect for Nature," a paper presented at "L'Esthetique de Kant," Centre Culturel International De Cerisy la Salle, in Normandy, France, June 15-21, 1993. Aesthetics was earlier much concerned with nature, subsequently mostly concerned with artifacts, and today there is a renewed interest in nature. Natural beauty is the centerpiece of Kant's account, and there is the possibility of an account of intrinsic value in nature. On the other hand Kant claims that nothing is valuable in itself except the morally good will, and Kant can seem a pillar of anthropocentrism. Kneller argues for a nuanced account by which Kant does value nature for nature's sake, though there is a tension in Kant's thought with respect to nature's value in itself and the absolute value of the good will. She finds what "looks for all the world like an avowal of his belief in the intrinsic value both of external nature and the inner moral realm. Kant's account of the experience of the beautiful is perhaps best seen as his attempt to work out precisely this tension." Kneller is in the Department of Philosophy, Grinnell College, Grinnell IA 50122.
--Michael Tobias, LIFE FORCE: THE WORLD OF JAINISM. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press, 1992. Paper, about $ 10. With much attention to Tobias' experience with Jainism and ecology.
--David Rothenberg, HAND'S END: TECHNOLOGY AND THE LIMITS OF NATURE. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. 299 pages. Hardcover, $ 29.95. More details later.
--Dave Foreman's BOOKS OF THE BIG OUTSIDE lists over 400 books, with annotated descriptions, also maps, cassette's and CD's, is issued quarterly, and is a valuable resource bibliography. Ned Ludd Books, P. O. Box 85190, Tucson, AZ 85754-5190.
--"Just for Kids: You and Your Environment." Special section in NEWSWEEK, March 29, 1993. "The biggest challenge for our world and what kids can do about it."
George Brown, Jr., Democrat from California, the influential chair of the U. S. Congress (House) Science, Space, and Technology Committee, addressed the annual American Academy of Science and Technology Policy Colloquium last spring: "Global leadership in science and technology has not translated into leadership in infant health, life expectancy, rates of literacy, equality of opportunity, productivity of workers, or efficiency of resource consumption. Neither has it overcome failing education systems, decaying cities, environmental degradation, unaffordable health care, and the largest national debt in history." "Basic human needs--elemental needs--are intrinsically different from other material needs because they can be satisfied. Other needs appear to be insatiable, as the consumption patterns of the United States clearly demonstrate. ... Once basic human needs are met, satisfaction with our lives cannot be said to depend on the amount of things we acquire, use, and consume. ... More technology-based economic growth is not necessary to satisfy humanity's elemental needs, nor does more growth quench our thirst for consumption. In terms of the social contract, we justify more growth because it is supposedly the most efficient way to spread economic opportunity and social well-being. I am suggesting that this reasoning is simplistic and often specious." Cited in SCIENCE, May 7, 1993, p. 735.
The world's largest group of professional foresters is urging a dramatic departure from the century-old practices of the U. S. timber industry. The Society of American Foresters has received the "Task Force Report on Sustaining Long-term Forest Health and Productivity." The report says that the current aim to cut trees at the same rate of regrowth is not enough to protect forests and forest values over time. "Traditional sustained-yield management as historically practiced ... is not by itself sufficient for sustaining ... long-term forest health and productivity" (p. xx). The report insists on ecosystem oriented management, including the management of both public and private forests integrated into regional forest systems. Logan Norris, the task force chair and head of the Forest Science Department at Oregon State University, says: "We are talking about a major change in forestry in the United States" Frances Hunt, a SAF member, says: "If you read [the report] between the lines, what it is saying is that what the profession was taught, and what it helped teach, has turned out to be wrong and we are going to have to make amends for past mistakes." Copies of the 83 page report are available for $ 12 from Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2198.
Universal human rights? The World Conference on Human Rights was held in June in Vienna, with delegates from 168 nations, the first such conference in 25 years. There were also nearly 1,000 advocacy groups present. A main issue was whether there are transcultural human rights, standards to which all peoples and nations should be held. China, Burma, Yemen, Cuba, Syria, Iran, Libya and others claimed that human rights do not reflect a discovery of universal moral principles, since there are no such things, but are the cultural creation of Western religious and political traditions and that no one has the right to impose on them. China's deputy foreign minister argued for the moral sovereignty of each culture and against the view that individual rights should and could ever prevail over those of state and society. The pluralist and culturally particular arguments were often remarkably like (and sometimes appealed to) those currently popular among multiculturalists and relativists in U. S. universities--that morals are internal to particular cultural, historical, and narrative traditions. This claim was for variety, pluralism, diversity, and multiplicity. Singapore, Malaysia, and Chile, for instance, argued that in tradeoffs between development and democracy, development was their chosen cultural focus over democracy. The contrasting claim, a hope for many at the conference and argued by the United States and many others, was that, despite diversity and multiculturalism, there are global moral principles, in which basic human rights are foremost, and that nations can be held to them, and hold other nations to them when negotiating foreign policy and trade agreements. For a useful assessment, see Max L. Stackhouse, "The Future of Human Rights," CHRISTIAN CENTURY, June 30-July 7, 1993.
"Takings bills" have appeared on the dockets of 31 state legislatures in 1993. These bills appeal to the Fifth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution which says that the government shall not seize property for public use without just compensation, claiming that various local, state, and federal regulations, including many that enforce environmental standards, are "takings" for which the owners should be compensated. Under the prevailing legal interpretation, such regulations constitute police power, which prevents landowners from doing public harm, and do not constitute takings. Delaware is the only state that has an active takings law; one was passed in Arizona, but citizens gathered 70,000 signatures to block implementation until voters decide the bill's fate in November 1994. Such a bill was defeated in Wyoming.
Extinction of smallpox virus? The International Congress of Virology in Scotland will debate the issue this summer, with 5,000 virologists, although the World Health Organization and U. S. and Russian authorities have already recommended destroying the virus. Most see it as a great human achievement; a few as an act of arrogance. The last stocks are held in two laboratories, one a Center for Disease Control laboratory in Atlanta, the other in a Russian laboratory in Moscow. The last known case naturally transmitted was in Somalia in 1977 when a cook took in an infected baby in kindness to treat it. The baby died, though the cook survived, today disfigured by the disease. In a medical accident, an English photographer contracted the disease in 1978 and died. Most favor its extinction, though some argue that the virus, which is remarkably complex and exists in some 600 strains, has not yet been sufficiently studied. One problem with further study is that only humans can contract the disease, and it is unknown why. But testing on humans is ethically impossible. Biomedical expert Arthur Caplan says, however, "Smallpox doesn't look like it's done anybody any good in the history of humankind. But it seems to me we would be too arrogant and too shortsighted if we just assumed that the creatures that tried to kill us would forever be our enemies." The disease has been a scourge for centuries. It ravaged Europe and Asia periodically and was especially virulent in the New World, where American Indians had little natural resistance to it. Some predict the polio virus will be next, being made extinct about the year 2010. Story in LOS ANGELES TIMES, May 18, 1993.
Three persons have been killed recently by wildlife in South Africa, two by elephants and one by a lion, in each case by recently translocated animals. Some biologists say that culling and translocating animals is more stressful than commonly thought, disrupting animal social patterns. Animals are managed to control numbers, but also because the 9,000 game ranches in South Africa often want elephants, leopards, lions, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus for the benefit of their tourists.
The South African government, through the Environment Minister, has announced plans to introduce or amend 15 laws for better environmental regulation, for example: provisions working toward a bill of rights for satisfying the reasonable environmental aspirations of all South Africans.
Animal sacrifice remains more common than once realized among South African blacks, primarily to propitiate ancestors, typically involving goats, sheep, bulls, and cows, with the method of slaughter requiring stabbing and letting the blood flow because this pleases the ancestors. (Thanks for the above three items to Willem A. Landman, Philosophy, University of the Western Cape.)
Fragmentation is worse than thought in Brazil's Amazon. A recent study shows that the deforestation rate is down, but that the fragmentation effects of what has been cut are more extensive than thought, with, presumably, a more adverse effect on species extinction. Story in SCIENCE (David Skole and Compton Tucker, "Tropical Deforestation and Habitat Fragmentation in the Amazon: Satellite Data from 1978 to 1988," June 25, 1993, and summary story in NEW YORK TIMES, June 29, 1993.
A Montana rancher, named Shuler, shot and killed a grizzly bear, that, he claims, was attacking first his sheep and later himself. But the Interior department assessed him a $ 7,000 fine for violating the Endangered Species Act, "taking" an endangered species. The court reduced the fine to $ 4,000, but found that Shuler partially at least provoked the attack. Killing endangered species is permitted in self-defense but not in defense of one's property. Opponents of the Act are claiming that this constitutes a government "taking" of private property under the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, since the rancher was prevented from protecting his property by federal law. The case is on appeal by the Mountain States Legal Foundation. Story in WALL STREET JOURNAL, June 23, 1993.
U. S. President Clinton has said that he will sign the UNCED Biodiversity Convention that former President Bush notoriously refused to sign in Rio de Janeiro summer 1992. The pact has been signed by 150 nations, though so far only ratified by 14 nations. It goes into effect with ratification by 30 nations.
Dispute about the Exxon Valdez. Two groups of scientists, one researchers at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the other researchers funded by Exxon have disagreed intensively about how to interpret data about the extent of damage that can be traced to the Valdez spill. At issue is how to interpret a "fingerprint" of oil in Alaskan fish and wildlife as to its source. Exxon scientists say that little of the oil is from the Valdez; NOAA scientists say much of it is; Exxon scientists say the NOAA scientists do not know how to interpret their own data. Up to $ 2.4 billion in damage claims is at stake, in trials starting this summer. Story in SCIENCE, May 7, 1993.
The G-77 nations met May 10-21 in Nairobi, Kenya, in follow-up to the Rio de Janeiro conference. There was debate over spending priorities and complaint that the G-7 nations were not contributing adequate funds. The G-77 want to reshape spending priorities toward freshwater resources, housing, and poverty reduction, but the G-7 nations are concerned with oceans, climate, biodiversity and environmental conservation. The G-77 nations said that zero UNEP dollars should be spent on climate, which most interpreted as a protest to make a point, others said UNEP was not the appropriate vehicle for such spending. Southern nations complain that Northern nations have the final say over how the money they make available is spent. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, May 19, 1993.
Earth Day and Debate. Public schools are increasingly using Earth Day to teach environmental awareness, with direct support by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies. But some protest: Jonathan Adler, an environmental policy analyst at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Washington, says that much of this environmental education amounts to "curricula of half-truths and political advocacy." It represents "political indoctrination." Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, April 19, 1993.
NAFTA requires EIS. Federal District Judge Charles Richey has ruled that the North American Free Trade Agreement is illegal unless the U. S. government produces an environmental impact statement before submitting the pact to Congress. The National Environmental Policy Act (1969) requires an EIS for "every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment." U. S. owned companies operating in Mexico can increase their profits up to 200% by not complying with environmental law in Mexico, much less abiding by U.S. standards. Former President Bush claimed the pact did not need an EIS; President Clinton (while campaigning) that it did need one, but since becoming president has tried to address the environmental issue with "side agreements." Environmentalists hope to extend this ruling to GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 2, 1993.
Recent and Upcoming Events
--July 2-5. International Jain Convention, Pittsburgh. With a panel on "Jainism and Ecology," organized by Michael Tobias. Participants: Jerry Brown (former governor of California); David Rothenberg, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Michael W. Fox, Humane Society; Peter Gerard, Animal Rights Network; Nick Stonington, Merrill-Lynch Company; Atul Shah, Young Jain Society, and others.
--July 9-11. Ecotheology and Religious Education Workshop, Denton, TX. Sponsored by the journal ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. Speakers are Susan Power Bratton, James A. Nash, Max Oelschlaeger, Eugene C. Hargrove, and George A. James. Contact Eugene C. Hargrove, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76303-3496. Phone 817/565- 2727.
--July 19-26. "The Ecological Crisis: Rights, Obligations and Opportunities." At Ghost Ranch, a Presbyterian Conference Ground, Abiquiu, New Mexico. Symposium led by Joan Martin-Brown, United Nations Environment Programme, Washington; Wes Granberg Michaelson, coordinator of the World Council of Churches involvement in the 1992 UN Earth Summit; and William Somplatsky- Jarman, associate for environmental justice, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Contact Ghost Ranch, HC 77, Box 11, Abiquiu, NM 87510- 9601. Phone 505/685-4333.
--July 20-22. Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Cardiff, Wales. See details earlier.
--July 29-August 1. "A New Generation for Animal Rights." Conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick Campus, New Brunswick, NJ. Numerous speakers, including Tom Regan. Numerous workshops. With a particular interest in creating a national student organization for animal rights, and a special appeal to students and teachers. Contact Lisa Finlay, A New Generation for Animal Rights, 209 N. Graham Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Phone 919/942-6909. Fax 9191/942-3875.
--August 1-14. Applied Deep Ecology, Philo, California. 2 week summer school course, in association with the Sierra Institute and the California Institute of Integral Studies. Faculty include Bill Devall, Susan Griffin, Ed Grumbine, David Abram, Alan Drengson, Bill Moyers and others. The location is a retreat center two and a half hours north of San Francisco. Cabins and camping are available. Contact: Institute for Deep Ecology Education (IDEE), Box 2290, Boulder, CO 80306. Phone 303/939- 8398.
--August 6-9. Caring for Creation: A Christian Perspective on the Environment. American Scientific Affiliation Annual Meeting, Seattle Washington. Contact ASA, P. O. Box 668, Ipswich, MA. Phone: 508/356-5656.
--August 15-18. Workshop on Creation Spirituality and the Rebirth of Nature, Cortes Island, BC, Canada. Contact Holyhock, Box 127, Manson's Landing, Cortes Island, BC, Canada VOP 1KO. Phone 604/935-6533.
--August 12-18. The Community, The Family, and Culture, Conference of the Institute for Advanced Philosophic Research, Estes Park, Colorado. With papers on environmental issues. Contact Dr. Nancy E. Snow, Program Chair, Marquette University, Department of Philosophy, 132 Coughlin Hall, Milwaukee, WI 53233. Phone 414/288-3670.
--August 14-16. International Society for Value Inquiry, in Helsinki, --August 17-20. Tenth International Social Philosophy Conference, in Helsinki. Details earlier.
--August 20-26. Ecology and Ethics Symposium. Papers invited. Send inquiry and proposal to Rev. Nigel Cooper, 40 Church Road, Rivenhall, Witham, Essex CM8 3PQ, U.K.
--August 22-28. 19th World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow. With ISEE Sessions. See details earlier.
--August 24-26. Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: An Interdisciplinary Symposium, Portland Oregon. A conference on the wave of change sweeping over forestry. Numerous sponsoring institution, including Oregon State University, University of Washington, the U.S. Forest Service New Perspectives in Forestry Programme, and others. Contact: Washington State University Conferences and Seminars, 7612 Pioneer Way East, Puyallup, WA 98371. Phone 206/840-4575.
--August 21-September 2. 1993 Templeton Symposium: Science and Religion: Two Ways of Experiencing and Interpreting the World. University of Chicago and Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. Includes William Klink (University of Iowa), "Eschatology and Ecology"; Philip Hefner (Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago), "Can Nature Truly Be our Friend?"; Karl Peters (Rollins College), "Scientific Theology and Spirituality: How I Experience God in the World of Nature." Contact: Chicago Center for Religion and Science, 1100 East 55th Street, Chicago. IL 60615-5199. Phone 312/753-0671.
--September 20-22. Partnerships for Change, an international conference hosted the United Kingdom, at Manchester. There are many themes concerning environment and sustainable development. Contact Helen Jones, Room A 302, Romney House, 43 Marsham Street, London, SW1P 3PY, United Kingdom. Phone 071 276 8168. Fax: 276- 8861.
--September 24-October 1. 5th World Wilderness Congress, in Norway, with ISEE session on wilderness. See details earlier.
--September 22-25. Conference on Persons, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana. "The Nature of Persons and the Relevance of Personal Modes of Being to our Understanding of Reality, Ethics, and the Environmental Crisis." Contact: Patricia Sayre, Philosophy, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556.
--October 1-2. Society for International Development, North American Regional Conference, at Fort Collins, Colorado. Paper and proposals invited, through August 1, especially on ethics, environmental conservation, and sustainable development. Contact Maurice L. Albertson, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
--October 1-3. Eighth Annual International Compassionate Living Festival (continuing earlier "Triangle Animal Awareness" Festivals), in Raleigh, NC. Contact: Culture and Animals Foundation, 3509 Eden Croft Dr., Raleigh, NC 27612. Phone 919/782-3739.
--October 5-6, Nobel Conference XXVIX, "Nature Out of Balance: The New Ecology," Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, MN. See details earlier.
--November 4-6. "Biological and Cultural Diversity Challenges in Environmental Ethics," the Morris Colloquium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Contact: Dale Jamieson, Department of Philosophy, Campus Box 232, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0232. Phone 303/492-6132.
--November 5-7, Regional Development in the 21st Century: Think Globally, Act Locally," Naha, Okinawa. Sponsored by the East-West Center, Honolulu, at the University of Hawaii. Contact EWCA Alumni Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96948.
--November 11-13. National Watchable Wildlife Conference, Corpus Christi, TX, at Bayfront Plaza Convention Center. Contact: 400 Mann, Suite 909, Corpus Christi, TX 78401. With many sponsors.
--November 10-13. The Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas, Baltimore, MD, sponsored by the State of Maryland. Other sponsors include the EPA, NOAA, the National Academy of Sciences, as well as international groups. One associated group is the University of Maryland, through the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy. Such coastal seas include the Chesapeake Bay, the Inland Seto Sea of Japan, the Mediterranean, the Baltic, the Red Sea, the North Sea, and the Caribbean. Contact EMECS Secretariat, Coastal and Environmental Policy Program, The University of Maryland, Box 775, Cambridge, MD 21613. Phone 410/974-5047.
--November 11-13. The North American Interdisciplinary Wilderness Conference, Ogden, Utah. Papers and proposals are invited by August 16, and a book is planned; a book has resulted from previous conferences. For arts and humanities papers, contact L. M. Vause, Department of English, Weber State University. For conference information, Continuing Education, Weber State University, Ogden, UT 84408-4007.
--January 20-21, 1994. Conference on Ethical Dimensions in U.N. Agenda 21, at United Nations, New York. Details earlier.
--January 20-22, 1994. Conference on Agricultural Ethics, "Decision Making and Agriculture: The Role of Ethics." Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia. Speakers include Paul Thompson, Frederick Buttel, Bernard Rollin, and others. Contact Mora Campbell, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, Nova Scotia. Phone 902/893-6644.
--March 23-27, 1994. European Conference on Science and Theology: The Concept of Nature, in Freising and Munich, Germany. Contact: K. H. Reich, PÑdagogischhes Institut, Rte des Fougäres, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.
--March 31-April 2, 1994, Pacific Division, American Philosophical Association, in Los Angeles, with ISEE session. Details earlier.
--April 7-10, 1994. "Rebuilding Security: The Bomb, the Debt, and the Rainforest," the Peace Studies 6th Annual Meeting, at the University of San Francisco, CA. Papers and abstracts invited, by January 1, 1994. Contact: Professor Joseph Faney, Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY 10471. Selected papers will be published in the PEACE REVIEW.
--April 21-24, 1994. Society for Human Ecology, Seventh Conference, Michigan State University, East Lansing. There is a call for papers. Contact: Robert J. Griffore, Dept. of Family and Child Ecology, 107 Human Ecology Bldg., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1030. Phone: 571/336-3818. Fax 336-3845.
--May 5-7, 1994. Central Division, American Philosophical Association, in Kansas City, with ISEE session. Details earlier.
--June 7-10, 1994. Fifth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, at Colorado State University, Fort Collins. Call for papers extends through November 1993. Contact Michael J. Manfredo, Department of Recreation Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. 303/491-6591.
--June 19-22, 1994. lst International Symposium on Ecosystem Health and Medicine: New Goals for Environmental Management." Organized by the International Society of Ecosystem Health and Medicine and the University of Guelph. Proposals due (300 words or less), to Remo Petrongolo, Office of Continuing Education, 159 Johnston Hall, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1. Phone 519/824-4120, ext. 3064.
--September 5-13, 1994. International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. Contact ICPD Secretariat, c/o UNFPA. 220 E. 42nd St., New York, NY. Phone 212/297-5222. Fax 212/297-4915. A Preparatory Committee met May 10-21 in New York, and another Prepcom is in April 1994.
--September 30-October 2, 1994. Hegel Society of America, at the Catholic University of America, Washington, on the theme: "Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature." Papers due: January 31, 1994. Contact: Stephen G. Houlgate, Philosophy, DePaul University, 2323 N. Seminary Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614.
August 1-5, 1995. XIII International Congress of Aesthetics, Lahti, Finland. Theme: Aesthetics in Practice: Connections between Academic Research in Aesthetics and Everyday Life, especially Concerning the Environment." Contact: Sonja Servomaa, University of Helsinki, Lahti Research and Training Centre, Kirkkokatu 16, 15140 Lahti, Finland.