Volume 4, No. 4, Winter 1992
The Departments of Philosophy and Politics at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia are organizing a conference on "Environmental Paradigms: Attitudes to Nature," April 16-18, 1993.
The scope is wide-ranging, covering empirical research on environmental paradigms through to more abstract, philosophical material, and will include a number of disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and ecological sciences. Papers are invited. Contact Robert Elliot, Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Fax 61 67 733317. Email email@example.com.
ISEE is sponsoring a session, "The Scientific Foundations of Environmental Ethics," at the American Academy for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, Boston, February 11-16. The session is organized by Kristin Shrader-Frechette and includes Gregory Cooper (Philosophy, Duke University), "The Relevance of Ecology for Environmental Ethics"; James J. Kay (Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo), and Eric Schneider, "Why Thermodynamics Suggests that Ecological Integrity Is an Ethical Issue"; Henry A. Regier (Environmental Studies, University of Toronto), "Innovative Science and Ecosystem Integrity" and Holmes Rolston (Philosophy, Colorado State University), "Environmental Science and Environmental Ethics." The Session is Monday, February 15 at 2.30 p.m.
There are numerous other sessions of interest at AAAS. An entire section on "Causing and Coping with Environmental Change," includes sessions on "The Economics of Biological Diversity," "Ecosystem Valuation: Assigning Economic Values to Ecosystem Damage," "The Social Value of Environmental Protection," "Human Dimensions of Environmental Change: Central and Eastern Europe," "The Science, Law, and Policy Conflicts over Wetland Protection, 1989-1993," "Human Dimensions of Energy and the Environment," and "Critical Renewable Natural Resources Issues for the Twenty-First Century." There are also sessions on "Teaching Ethics in Science and Engineering," "The Objectivity Crisis: Rethinking the Role of Science in Society," "Biological Science in the Public Domain," and a section on "Science and Religion," including a session on "Scientific Resources for a Global Religious Myth" (at which Tom Hayden speaks on "Religious Dimensions of the Environmental Movement." Yet another section is "Environment and Development After UNCED: The Road from Rio." The ISEE sessions at the American Philosophical Association, Central Division, Chicago, April 22-23 are: Session I: "Environmental Justice," with papers by James Sterba (Philosophy, University of Notre Dame), "Violence against Nature"; Lisa Newton (Director, Program in Environmental Studies, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT), "The Day I Discovered I Had Cancer"; Donald VanDeVeer (Philosophy, North Carolina State University, "Designing a Biodiverse Planet," and Shawn Brennan and Marcello Guarini (graduate students at the University of Windsor), "Environmental Holism and Communities." This session is 7.30-9.30 p.m. April 22.
Session II at the APA is: Panel Discussion: Cases in Environmental Ethics, led by Lisa Newton, who has a book on case studies in environmental ethics forthcoming. Panelists: Bryan G. Norton (Georgia Institute of Technology), Karen Warren (Philosophy, Macalester College), Don Brown (Director, United Nations Conference on Ethical Issues in Agenda 21, and Director, Hazardous Sites Enforcement, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and Laura Westra (Philosophy, University of Windsor). Participants are encouraged to bring cases for discussion, preferably described in written form a half page or so in length. This session is April 23, 7.00- 0.00. These sessions have been organized by Laura Westra.
A general session at Central APA is titled "Moral Pluralism and Environmental Ethics," and features J. Baird Callicott (Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point); Anthony Weston (Philosophy, SUNY, Stonybrook); and Eugene Hargrove (Philosophy, University of North Texas). The chair and organizer is Louis Pojman (Philosophy, University of Mississippi, Oxford).
The Annual Business Meeting of the International Society for Environmental Ethics will be held at the Central Division, APA, immediately following Session II. The meeting will be moderated by Laura Westra. Business includes a financial report and the election of officers.
The present officers are:
President: Holmes Rolston, III,
term to expire end of academic year (June 1) 1994
Vice-President: Eric Katz, 1994
Secretary, Laura Westra, 1995
Treasurer, Peter Miller, 1993
The Nominations Committee nominates Ned Hettinger (Philosophy, College of Charleston) as the nominee for treasurer to replace Peter Miller, whose term expires.
Members of the nominating committee are: Jack Weir (Central Division), Chair, Graduate House, 6500 S. Main Street, # 146, Houston, TX 77030. Phone 713/630-9333. Suggestions are also invited for future nominations. Other members of the nominating committee are: Kristin Shrader-Frechette (Eastern Division), Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave, CPR 107, Tampa, FL 33620-5550. Phone: 813/974-2447 or 813/974-2454, main philosophy office. George Sessions (Pacific Division), Department of Humanities, Sierra College, Rocklin, CA 95667. Phone: 916/624-3333, Department of Humanities, Extension 2264. Robin Attfield (International Member), Philosophy Section, University of Wales, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, UNITED KINGDOM Phone: (0222) 874025. Fax: (0222) 874242.
Pacific Division, American Philosophical Association, meets March 25-28 in San Francisco (Miyako Hotel and Inn). The ISEE session has the following papers: "Douglas J. Buege (University of Minnesota), "A Defense of Eco-Feminism," James D. Proctor (Geography, University of California Santa Barbara), "The Owl, the Forest, and the Trees: Eco-Ideological Conflict in the Pacific Northwest" (from a dissertation in geography done there); Laura Westra (Philosophy, University of Windsor), "The Goal of Environmental Integrity in International Agriculture." The session will (probably) be on March 25, but double check. Ernest Partridge has organized this session, P. O. Box 3278, Crestline, CA 92325. Phone/Fax 714/338-2387.
The Society for Conservation Biology, Annual Meeting, will be held at Arizona State University, Tempe, June 9-14, 1993. Jack Weir asks for paper proposals by March 1, and this is a first-class occasion to for philosophers (and others) to interact with conservation biologists. There is a conference registration fee of $ 90.00. Contact Jack Weir (on leave at Rice University), Graduate House, 6500 S. Main Street, # 146, Houston, TX 77030. Phone 713/630-9333.
Willard Environmental Ethics Symposium, University of Nebraska, Omaha. The Department of Philosophy and Religion is honoring the retirement of longtime philosophy faculty member Duane Willard with a symposium, Thursday, April 15, 1993. The Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Regional American Academy of Religion/Society of Biblical Literature Conference meets there April 17-18, Friday and Saturday. Contact Richard A. Freund (Religion) or Andrew Newman (Philosophy), Department of Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 60th and Dodge Streets, Omaha, NB 68182-0265. Phone 402/554-2628. Fax 402/554- 2949.
An international seminar, "Education for Environmental Competence," will be held in Singapore February 15-17. J. Baird Callicott will give an address, "International Environmental Ethics," arguing that environmental ethics underlie, complement, and supplement national and international law. Environmental ethics is found implicit in many indigenous cultures and both contemporary ecology and the new physics support an ecocentric environmental ethic. Also international science may validate and corroborate traditional environmental values. Padmasiri de Silva is director of the seminar, which is part of a larger program on "Environment, Ethics, and Education. Contact: Dr. Padmasiri de Silva, Information & Resource Centre, 6 Nassim Road, Singapore 1025.
The 19th World Congress of Philosophy, meets in Moscow, August 22- 28, 1993. ISEE has been invited to organize two sessions on environmental ethics, one a roundtable discussion that can have no more than two persons from the same nation. Anticipated participants in the two sessions: include Karen Warren, James Sterba, Holmes Rolston, Laura Westra. Others interested (especially those outside the U. S.) are asked to contact Laura Westra, address below. For congress paper submissions, contact Congress Secretariat, Volkhonka 14, Moscow 119842. Fax (7095) 200-32-50. For congress information and registration contact World Congress of Philosophy, EGA Studio, Viale Tiziano 19, Rome, Italy. Fax (06) 32-22-006.
The Fifth World Wilderness Congress will be held in Tromso, Norway, September 24-October 1, 1993. The theme is wild nature and sustainable living in circumpolar regions. David Rothenberg is organizing a session on philosophy and wilderness, emphasizing criticism and clarification of what the "wild" means in relation to conservation goals. The aim is analysis that will be useful for conservation, as well as advancing philosophical inquiry and understanding of nature. Papers should attempt to show why philosophy can illuminate our understanding of whatever human place there should be in the purest parts of nature. The papers may be published in the journal INQUIRY in Norway and/or in book form in the United States. Contact, by March 1, 1993, David Rothenberg, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102.
The ISEE sessions at the Washington American Philosophical
Session I: Ethical Implications of the United Nations Environmental Summit. Panelists: Holmes Rolston, Official Observer for ISEE at UNCED; Laura Westra, speaker at the UNCED Preconference on the University and the Environmental Crisis, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Don Brown, Director, United Nations Conference on Ethical Issues in Agenda 21, January 1994, and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Representative at UNCED and also Director, Hazardous Sites Enforcement, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; Donald B. Conroy, President, North American Conference on Religion and Ecology, and Participant, UNCED and Global Forum; Karen Warren, speaker at the Global Forum conference on Ecofeminism, sponsored by the University of Rio de Janeiro. Moderator, Eric Katz, Professor of Philosophy, New Jersey Institute of Technology.
Session II: Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology. David Rothenberg (New Jersey Institute of Technology), "Deep Ecology in History and History in Deep Ecology"; Andrew McLaughlin (State University of New York/Lehman College), "How to Understand Deep Ecology."
Other papers on environmental ethics: John Howie (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), "Personalism: Its Contributions and Limitations for Environmental Ethics" (in the Personalist Discussion Group); Ecofeminism, with Victoria Davion (University of Georgia), "How Feminist is Ecofeminism?"; Lori Gruen (University of Colorado, Boulder), "Towards an Ecofeminist Moral Epistemology" and Karen Warren (Macalester College), "Taking Empirical Data Seriously: An Ecofeminist Philosophical Perspective" (in the Society for Philosophy and Public Affairs section); Global Environmental Threats to Peace and Security in the New World Order, John Christman (Virginia Polytechnic University and State University), "In Usufruct to the Living: The Problem of Ownership in a Global Setting"; Rachel M. McCleary (United States Institute of Peace), "Ecodevelopment in Amazonia: National Policies and Citizen Participation"; and Gareth Porter (Environmental and Energy Studies Institute), "The Imperative of North-South Development for Sustainable Development" (in the joint session of the International Philosophers for the Prevention of Nuclear Omnicide, Concerned Philosophers for Peace, Gandhi-King Society session. In the Ethics and Animals sessions: Robert P. Rosenfeld (University of Massachusetts, Boston), "Parsimony, Evolution and Pain (the question of what explanations of animal pain are the most parsimonious or simplest); Daniel A. Dombrowski (Seattle University), "Heidegger's Anti-Anthropocentrism," with commentary by Michael Zimmerman (Tulane University); Bruce V. Foltz (Eckerd College, Florida), "Heidegger, Ethics and Animals," with commentary by Jean N. Kuebler (Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania).
In general the annual deadlines for paper submissions for the three ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:
Eastern Division, March 1
Central Division, January 1
Pacific Division, January 1
A number of papers in environmental philosophy were read at the Australian Association of Philosophy Conference, Brisbane, July 1992:
--Karen Green (Monash), "Freud, Fallacies, and Ecofeminism"
--Alastair S. Gunn (Waikato), "Can Environmental Ethics Save the
--Robert E. Goodin (RSS, Australian National University), "The Ethics of Selling Environmental Indulgences"
--Denise Russell (Sydney), "Environmental Philosophy: The Great Barrier Reef as a Case Study"
--William Grey (New England), "Distant Concerns." Robert Elliot anticipates organizing an ISEE session at this conference in 1993. Contact him at Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
United Nations Conference on Ethical Issues in Agenda 21, January 1994. The Conference will be held at the United Nations Building, United Nations Plaza, New York, NY. Don Brown, Director, invites papers. Abstracts of 250 words should be sent by May 1 to Donald Brown, Ethics Research Group, 2915 Beverly Road, Camp Hill, PA 17011 (near Harrisburg). Fax 717/787-9379. Notice of acceptance will be given by July 1, and final papers are due in December. Brown, who is trained in philosophy and ethics, was Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Representative at UNCED and is Director, Hazardous Sites Enforcement, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.
Robin Attfield took part on November 9-10 in meetings in Helsinki, Finland of the Environment Interdisciplinary Research Group of the University of Tampere and of Tampere University of Technology, giving addresses on "The Comprehensive Ecology Movement" and on "Preservation, Art, and Natural Beauty." On November 11, he addressed the Research Seminar of the University of Helsinki on "Can Unnatural Kinds Be Harmed?" His visit was supported by the British Council and the Academy of Finland.
BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT is a new journal, sponsored by the Leicester Business School, Leicester, UK. Paper submissions are invited. Address inquiries to the Managing Editor, European Research Press, Ltd., Tyson House, 34-38 Chapel Street, Little Germany, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD1 5DN, UK. Phone 0274 729315 within the UK. Outside UK: Phone 44 (country code) 274 (city code) 729315.
The Four Corners School of Outdoor Education offers several dozen field trips that can carry academic credit though Prescott College, Prescott, Arizona. Some samples: "Teaching Environmental Ethics," focusing on land use in Southeast Utah, June 19-26, 1993; "Ecology of a Desert River," the San Juan through the Navajo Reservation, May 8-15; "Winter Wildlife and Geology of Yellowstone National Park," several February dates. Contact: Four Corners School of Outdoor Education, HC63 Box 78, East Route, Monticello, UT 84535.
At the annual meeting of the Society for Christian Ethics, Savannah, Georgia, January 8-10, there were several papers and discussions relevant to environmental ethics: William C. French (Loyola University Chicago), "Power Discourse and Ecological Concern: God and Biosphere as Superpowers"; a symposium on "Environmental Ethics and Theology," featuring reviews and discussion of James Nash's LOVING NATURE: ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY AND CHRISTIAN RESPONSIBILITY; a breakfast interview with Nash; a Nash paper, "Human Ecological Responsibilities and the Rights of Nature: A Case for Biotic Rights"; Moni McIntyre (Duquesne University), "Charting our Relationship with the Planet: UNCED 1992 and the Voice of Women"; and a closing plenary address, "Duties to the Natural World: Some Challenges for Christian Ethics."
The Harvard Divinity School Seminar on Environmental Values serves as a forum for the exploration of human values in relation to the environmental concerns confronting the world. The seminar meets once a month during the academic year and will publish a newsletter ECOLOGIC, and a periodically updated BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Contact Timothy C. Weiskel, Director, Harvard Seminar on Environmental Values, 56 Francis Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Fax: 617/495-9489.
"Ecology, Ethics and the Human Condition," a spring forum at Ohio State University, runs Thursday evenings, January, February, and March. Speakers include Albert Gore, Vice-President of the United States; T. N. Khoshoo, former Secretary of Environment, India; William J. Madia, Senior Vice-president Battelle Memorial Institute; M. G. K. Menon, President, International Council of Scientific Unions; Bryan G. Norton, Professor of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology; David Orr, Professor of Environmental Studies, Oberlin College; William K. Reilly, former Administrator, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency; and Holmes Rolston, Professor of Philosophy, Colorado State University. The series is funded by the Battelle Endowment for Technology and Human Affairs and organized by the Ohio State University School of Natural Resources, Mohan K. Walli, Director.
The Land Institute (Friends of the Lane), Salina, KS, welcomes members. Membership dues and other donations will be matched by a challenge grant from the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation to support a new "Sunshine Farm project," a research farm project that is to use entirely renewable energies and products. The farm will grow wheat, oats, pasture, and use both draft horses and tractors fueled with oils produced on the farm. Electricity will be produced by photovoltaic panels and wind turbines. Memberships are from $ 15. The Land Institute, 2440 E. Water Well Road, Salina, KS 67401. Phone 913/823-5376.
Eric Katz will give an address, "Ethics, Earth, and Technology: Nature as a Moral Category," April 10, 1993, in the series BOSTON COLLOQUIUM FOR THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. The address is at 8.00 p.m. at the Boston University School of Theology, Room 525. There will be commentary by Peter Buck, Harvard University. Katz is at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.
New Jersey Institute of Technology announces Graduate Environmental Policies Studies, leading to a M.S. degree. The program is interdisciplinary in the fields of economics, politics, history, geography, anthropology, ethics, and philosophy. There are fourteen faculty members. The degree requires 30 credits, field experience, and a thesis or project. Contact: John Opie, Department of Social Science and Policy Studies, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102. Phone 201/596-3676 or 596-3291. Fax: 201/565-0586.
Global Ecology: Nature, Society, and Sustainability. Study and Travel Around the World. The International Honors Program, in cooperation with Bard College, plans an eight-month travel program for academic credit, September 1993-May 1994. The itinerary includes England, Austria, Hungary, India, Thailand, Malaysia, New Zealand, Belize, Mexico, and the United States. The fee is $ 17,150.00, and the group is limited to thirty students. There will be six faculty from several nations, including Edward Goldsmith, founder and publisher of THE ECOLOGIST and Vandana Shiva, research scientist and feminist activist from India. Credit is 32 hours from Bard College, in anthropology, biology, ecology, and economics. Contact IHP, 19 Braddock Park, Boston, MA 02116. Phone 617/267-8612.
Rainforest Field Studies in Guatemala and Belize, spring 1993. Field studies in ecosystem conservation, with attention to policy and ethical issues in development and conservation. College credit. Contact: Sierra Institute, University of California Extension, 740 Front Street, Suite 170, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. Phone 408/427-6618.
Temple University Press has announced a series of books, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, VALUES AND POLICY. Holmes Rolston will be the general editor, and the Press solicits appropriate manuscripts. Send proposals to Jane Cullen, Senior Acquisitions Editor, Temple University Press, Broad and Oxford Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Or send them to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
Holmes Rolston (Philosophy, Colorado State University) will be Spencer-Leavitt Visiting Distinguished Professor at Union College, Schenectady, NY, May 16-30, as part of the launching of an environmental studies program there.
Peter Wenz (Philosophy, Sangamon State University, Springfield, IL) was on the Board of Listeners for the World Uranium Hearing, September 13-19, in Salzburg, Austria. This was a hearing for peoples adversely affected by nuclear materials to voice their concerns before a Board of Listeners composed of two councils, one of scientists, one of jurists. The first council was composed of persons from medicine, biology, physics, ethnology, chemistry, geology, geography, archeology, meteorology and anthropology; the second of scholars with expertise in human rights and environmental law at the national and international levels. The forum was sponsored by over two dozen international environmental groups.
Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122. E-mail: email@example.com
Wouter Achterberg is the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below). Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (the equivalent of $ 10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax: 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503. Phone: 31-20-5254530.
Jan Wawrzyniak is the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information relevant to a regional newsletter attachment to this newsletter, as well as to share such information with the international membership of the society. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48 (country code 61 (city code) 535535 (note new fax). Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48/61/417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.
Azizan Baharuddin, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, is the contact person for ISEE for South-East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). Dr. Azizan teaches history and philosophy in the Science Faculty. Contact her with regard to membership and dues payable (the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power). Her address is The Dean's Office, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax 60 (Country code) 3 (City code) 756-6343.
Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing this newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-4900, 24 hours. News may also be submitted to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4, and Canadian news is best directed to her. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed. The Newsletter is assembled shortly after January 1, April 1, July 1, October 1.
ISEE dues for 1993 are payable now. Memberships run on a calendar year basis, with NEW members who join in October, November, and December having memberships extended through the following full calendar year. The Secretary is not ordinarily able to send receipts, as this takes additional time and expense. The Society runs on a rather minimal budget, with dues mostly (and barely) covering the costs of Newsletter printing and mailing. To pay dues, see the last page of the Newsletter.
Back issues of the ISEE Newsletter? The Newsletter, with this issue, concludes volume no. 3 (vol. 1, 1990; vol. 2, 1991; vol. 3; 1992). Back issues are available at US $ 10.00 per year, or $ 4.00 per single issue, and these requests should be directed to the Secretary (address on last page). In addition to reprinting back issues, this cost covers student secretarial help in locating and shipping these issues, plus mailing costs.
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, has advertised a position in applied ethics, assistant professor, tenure track. Applicant must be able to teach business ethics and one or more of the following: gender and ethics, environmental ethics, computer ethics, philosophy of law, ethics and religion. Contact: Chair, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0083. JOBS FOR PHILOSOPHERS, October 1992.
Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA, has advertised a position, assistant professor, tenure track, in history and central traditions of Western philosophy, with competence in one of the following, aesthetics, environmental philosophy, feminism, phenomenology, philosophy of science. Contact G. Clarke Chapman, Chair, Department of Religion and Philosophy, Moravian College, 1200 Main Street, Bethlehem, PA 18018-6650. JOBS FOR PHILOSOPHERS, October 1992.
The University of Amsterdam, Department of Practical Philosophy, has announced a position as postdoctoral lecturer in social philosophy and the philosophy of culture, with 60% of time within the context of their MA in environmental philosophy. Applications were to be received last fall. For information contact Wouter Achterberg, Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Richard Sylvan, Professor of Philosophy at the Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, is interested in a summer or other interim position in North America. He has a strong research and teaching interest in environmental philosophy, as well as logic, and general competence in teaching philosophy.
Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials
Reminder: ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, and (for the most part) THE TRUMPETER and BETWEEN THE SPECIES and ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW are not catalogued here. ISEE members interested in keeping abreast of the literature in the field need to consult those journals directly. Members are also encouraged to send notice of articles (preferably copies) to the editor, especially of those articles and books published in places members at large are less likely to see.
--ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY: A BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, has published a series of booklets on environmental philosophy commissioned by the U.K. Nature Conservancy Council. One of general interest is this bibliography, 75 pages in length. It contains a small section of key books and articles, a comprehensive and thematic listing of recent work in environmental ethics, philosophy, and policy, and a description of research centers, societies, and education programs concerned with environmental philosophy. Copies are available at ú3.00 within the U.K and the equivalent of ú4.00 elsewhere. Orders to Dr. John Haldane, Centre for Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, Scotland, UK.
ENVIRONMENTAL GRANTMAKING FOUNDATIONS, 1992 Directory. Rochester, NY: Environmental Data Research Institute, 1992. (797 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14620) 490 pages, $ 40. 250 foundations that give environmental grants.
This quarter has seen an embarrassment of riches in books designed for the textbook market, teaching introductory environmental ethics. And there are several more underway.
--Joseph R. Des Jardins, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: AN INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. 272 pages, paper. Wadsworth, 1993. Sections on basic ethical concepts, forests, pollution, climate change, economics, energy, future generations, duties to animals, biocentrism, the land ethic, deep ecology, ecofeminism. Discussions include the spotted owl controversy, monkey-wrenching and the Rio Summit. End of chapter summaries and discussion questions. Makes a particular effort to survey all the areas of the field, yet a reasonably compact text. Des Jardins is professor of philosophy at the College of St. Benedict/St. Johns University, St. Joseph, MN.
--Peter C. List, ed., RADICAL ENVIRONMENTALISM: PHILOSOPHY AND TACTICS. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1993. 276 pages, paper. Sections on Deep Ecology (Arne Naess, Bill Devall, George Sessions), on Ecofeminism (Carolyn Merchant, Elizabeth Dodson Gray, Ynestra King, Karen J. Warren), on Social Ecology and Bioregionalism (Murray Bookchin, Jim Dodge, Kirkpatrick Sale, Judith Plant), on Radical Ecoactivism and Ecotactics (Greenpeace, Bob Hunter, Paul Watson) on the Monkey Wrench Gang (Edward Abbey), on the Sea Shepherd Society (Paul Watson), on Earth First! (Dave Foreman, Mike Roselle and the Middle Santiam Protest, George Draffan and the Cathedral Forest and Oregon Old Growth, on Redwood Summer), on Ecofeminist Activism (Pamela Philipose, Cynthia Hamilton, Chaia Heller), on Bioregionalist Activism (Peter Berg) and Responses (Eugene Hargrove, Edward Abbey, Dave Foreman, Michael Martin. List, as editor, says, "... understanding this movement can help `moderates' sharpen their resolve to do more about environmental problems and find solutions which will check the relentless consumption of wild nature." Peter List is professor of philosophy at Oregon State University.
--Michael Zimmerman, General Editor, J. Baird Callicott, George Sessions, Karen J. Warren, and John P. Clark, Associate Editors, ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY: FROM ANIMAL RIGHTS TO RADICAL ECOLOGY. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Baird Callicott edits part one, Environmental Ethics, with selections from Richard Routley (Sylvan), Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Kenneth Goodpaster, Paul Taylor, Mark Sagoff, Aldo Leopold, Callicott, and Holmes Rolston. George Sessions edits part two, Deep Ecology, with selections from Thomas Berry, Arne Naess, Warwick Fox, and Sessions. Karen Warren edits part three, Ecofeminism, with selections from Carolyn Merchant, Val Plumwood, Ariel Salleh, and Warren. John Clark edits part four, with selections from Murray Bookchin, Janel Biehl, Clark, Joel Kovel and George Bradford. A well-rounded collection with full length articles, not excerpts.
--Susan J. Armstrong and Richard G. Botzler, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Soft cover, under $ 25. Principally for the college text market. The biggest anthology in the field, 70 articles, quite comprehensive, and shows McGraw-Hill's intention to enter this market. Likely to be one of the dominant introductory anthologies. Section 1 is "The Role of Science" in environmental ethics and policy. Section 2 is "The Role of Moral Philosophy." Section 3: "The Aesthetic Value of Nature." Section 4: "Historical Context" (environmental history). Section 5: "Economic/Political/Legal Issues." Section 6: "Anthropocentrism" (mostly those defending it). Section 7: "Individualism" (animal rights, biocentrism for individual organisms). Section 8: "Ecocentrism" (the land ethic). Section 9: "The Challenge of Ecofeminism." Section 10: "Judeo-Christian Perspectives." Section 11: "Multicultural Perspectives" (Native Americans, Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, Buddhism). Armstrong is professor of philosophy at Humboldt State University, Botzler is professor of wildlife there.
--Richard E. Hart, ed., ETHICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992. Paper, $ 16.50. Cloth, $ 42.50. 158 pages. A dozen papers from a conference at Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus, in 1985. Suitable for classroom use. Hart is professor of philosophy at Bloomfield College.
--Purusottama Bilimoria, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS (Geelong, Victoria, Australia: Deakin University, 1992). 219 pages. The introductory essay is "The Moral Enfranchisement of Nature: A Short Introduction to Environmental Ethics," the first thirty pages of the book. There is also included a study by Jock McCulloch on "Hiroshima and the Problem of Nuclear War: A Case Study." The latter part of the book is reprinted readings from Arne Naess, Paul Taylor, Hans Jonas, and Robert Elliot, also documentary readings relevant to Hiroshima and nuclear winter. This book was produced as class materials for use at Deakin University in a class entitled "Ethics and Society," but is appropriate for wider use. Contact Purusottama Bilimoria, Faculty of Humanities, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia.
--Greta Gaard, ed., ECOFEMINISM: WOMEN, ANIMALS, NATURE. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. 331 pages. 12 articles. Samples: Josephine Donovan, "Animal Rights and Feminist Theory"; Huey-li Li, "A Cross-Cultural Critique of Ecofeminism." Gaard is professor of composition and women's studies at the University of Minnesota, Duluth.
--Eugene C. Hargrove, ed., THE ANIMAL RIGHTS/ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS DEBATE: THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. Eleven essays documenting the history of the animal rights/environmental ethics debate. This appeared somewhat earlier.
Also see recent ISEE Newsletter issues for environmental ethics and animal rights coverage in general introductory philosophy and ethics textbooks.
--John Arthur, ed., MORALITY AND MORAL CONTROVERSIES, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. 480 pages. Another introductory text with a section on environment: "The Value of Life: People, Animals, and the Environment." There are three readings: William F. Baxter, "People or Penguins: The Case for Optimal Pollution"; Peter Singer, "All Animals Are Equal"; and J. Baird Callicott: "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair." Arthur is at the State University of New York, Binghamton.
--Tom L. Beauchamp, CASE STUDIES IN BUSINESS, SOCIETY, AND ETHICS, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Includes a section on cases involving business and the environment.
--Thomas Donaldson and Patricia H. Werhane, ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS: A PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. 494 pages. A new text, with a section on the environment. Case study of the Exxon Valdez spill; William T. Blackstone, "Ethics and Ecology"; Mark Sagoff, "At the Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima, or Why Political Questions are Not All Economic"; Tom Regan, "The Nature and Possibility of An Environmental Ethic." Donaldson is at Georgetown University. Werhane is at Loyola University, Chicago.
Continuing, recent books and materials:
--Samuel P. Hays, "Environmental Philosophies," review of Bryan G. Norton, TOWARD UNITY AMONG ENVIRONMENTALISTS and Max Oelschlager, ed., AFTER EARTH DAY: CONTINUING THE CONSERVATION EFFORT, SCIENCE, December 11, 1992. SCIENCE chooses these two books as representative of recent environmental philosophy, recognizing also that ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS is the main journal in the field. Hays notes appreciatively the operational pragmatism in Norton and finds the most useful essays in Oelschlager's anthology to make similar claims. Hays is professor of history at the University of Pittsburgh.
--Richard H. Grove, "Origins of Western Environmentalism." SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, July 1992. Strategies to preserve nature arise early in the colonial period, in reaction to concerns about exploitation and abuse. Scientists played an important part in this burgeoning concern. Grove, a geographer at Cambridge in charge of the environmental history unit, thinks that the role of scientists in conservation history needs more recognition.
--R. Edward Grumbine, GHOST BEARS: EXPLORING THE BIODIVERSITY CRISIS. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1992. 336 pages. $ 25.00 hardcover. A species centered approach will ultimately fail to protect ecosystems and diversity. Using the fate of the endangered grizzly bear (the "ghost bear") to explore the causes and effects of species loss and habitat destruction, Grumbine surveys the big picture, weaving together conservation biology, natural history, environmental policy, law, ethics, and grassroots activism into a comprehensive conservation strategy. Grumbine urges that humanity enter into a greater partnership with nature, working with it, rather than attempting to control it. Reed Noss says, "I have seen no better rendering of modern conservation science into readable prose." Grumbine is Director of the Sierra Institute, University of California Extension, Santa Cruz.
--Andrew C. McLaughlin, REGARDING NATURE. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Paper $ 16.95; Cloth, $ 49.50. To be released in March. Details later.
--Christopher Ives, "Nature Wild and Stylized: Gary Snyder and the Japanese Love and Destruction of SHIZEN (Nature)." Paper given at American Academy of Religion, San Francisco, November 21-24. The Japanese are often said to love nature, but Japan has a dismal environmental record. One reason why the Japanese love of nature has produced such poor stewardship is that the nature loved by most Japanese has been nature simplified or reduced to what they regard as expressing its essence. This is stylized, not wild nature. Many of the remaining natural areas in Japan have been shaped and manipulated away from their wild state. Gary Snyder, though influenced by the Japanese, does not really appropriate the Japanese stylized nature but his orientation is primarily toward wild nature. Nevertheless Japanese ideas were useful to him and can be useful to others. Ives is in the Department of Religion, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA 98416. Copies available from him.
ZWIERZETA I MY (ANIMALS AND US) continues to be published as the Polish journal for animal welfare issues. Recent issues are No. 3, with articles on animal abuse issues within Poland, an article on vegetarianism, on Albert Schweitzer's reverence for life philosophy, on zoos and hunting in Poland, and No. 4, with articles on the abuse of geese and ducks to produce fat livers for export to Western Europe, with some translations from Konrad Lorenz's works on geese into Polish, and an article about wolf- reintroduction in Poland and its protection as an endangered species. (Thanks to Jan Wawrzyniak.)
ISLE: INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES IN LITERATURE AND ENVIRONMENT is a new journal providing a forum for critical studies of literature that addresses ecological theory, environmentalism, concepts of nature and their artistic depictions, and the human/nature dichotomy. Sponsored by Indiana University of Pennsylvania and the University of Nevada, Reno. The editorial board (as yet incomplete) includes Gary Snyder, Karen Warren, Ariel Salleh, Judith Plant, and others. Papers and subscriptions are invited. Contact Patrick D. Murphy, editor, ISLE, English Department, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15705-1094.
--Robyn Eckersley, ENVIRONMENTALISM AND POLITICAL THEORY: TOWARD AN ECOCENTRIC APPROACH. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. Paper. 274 pages. (See Newsletter, 3, 3, Fall 1992.) More information: The book is available in the UK from University College London Press at ú10.95 paper and ú30 cloth. It is available in Australasia from Allen & Unwin at $AU 29.95. Eckersley is now a lecturer in the Politics Department at Monash University, Melbourne.
--Peter Hay and Robyn Eckersley, eds., ECOPOLITICAL THEORY. Hobart: Board of Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, 1992. ISSN 1034-1412. Contains essays by, among others, Robyn Eckersley, Patsy Hallen, Warwick Fox, and Richard Sylvan on a wide range of issues in environmental philosophy and politics.
--John A. Jakle and David Wilson, DERELICT LANDSCAPES: THE WASTING OF AMERICA'S BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992. 320 pages. $ 23.50 paper, $ 65.00 cloth. The landscapes that America has built and abandoned reveal the deeper character of American character. Both authors are in the Department of Geography at the University of Illinois in Urbana- Champaign.
--Larry M. Dilsaver and Craig E. Colton, eds., THE AMERICAN ENVIRONMENT: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION OF IMPACT AND POLICY. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992. 288 pages. $ 22.95 paper, $ 60.00 cloth. The authors regret that historical geographers have over recent decades left the study of nature- culture interactions to others, such as environmental historians and philosophers, and hope to reaffirm the importance of geography in this discussion. There is a long but thinly attended past scholarship here, and a rapidly accelerating research agenda. Nine authors. Dilsaver is in geography at the University of South Alabama, Colton is in history and geography at Sangamon State University, Springfield, IL.
--Liu Gocheng, Chao Liancheng, Zhang Zhonglun and Ye Ping, BIOSPHERE AND HUMAN SOCIETY (in Chinese). Beijing: People's Press, 1992. 4.65 yuan. 302 pages. ISBN 7-01-000807-8/B.70. Eleven chapters. Section 1 is on "Biosphere Laws." Section 2 is on "Interaction Connection between Human Society and the Biosphere." Section 3 is on "Modern Human Society Control and Adjustment, and its Developmental Trend in Harmony with the Biosphere." The authors discuss the coordinated interrelationship between humans and the biosphere, argue for ways of establishing the scientific foundations of ecophilosophy in China. This is said to be the first systematic work on the holistic interactions between human society and nature to be published in China.
--Yu Mouchang, "Ecoethics: The Moral Philosophy of Foresters" (in Chinese) in JOURNAL OF BEIJING FORESTRY UNIVERSITY, No. 4, 1992. Beijing Forestry University Press, Beijing, 1992. The traditional pattern in forestry is characterized by a high output of commodity production from forests. But according to ecoethics, forests are valuable in diverse ways. They should be valued not only in terms of economics but also in terms of ecology, aesthetics, and ethics. Ecoethics offers new viewpoints from which to understand forests and forestry and new ways to orient research. Ecoethics can be used as a working philosophy for forest researchers. Hence it provides valuable ideas for the transition from the traditional economic patterns of forestry to a new forest management that seeks to optimize multiple values. Yu Mouchang is with the Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing.
--Frithof Capra, David Seindl-Rast, with Thomas Matus, BELONGING TO THE UNIVERSE: EXPLORATIONS ON THE FRONTIER OF SCIENCE AND SPIRITUALITY. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1992. $ 10.00, paper. Conversations between Capra, physicist and cosmologist with an Eastern turn of mind, and Seindl-Rast, a Benedictine monk.
--Matthew Fox, SHEER JOY: CONVERSATIONS WITH THOMAS AQUINAS ON CREATION SPIRITUALITY. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1992. 532 pages. $ 18.00. Fox is a Dominican priest and Director of the Institute in Culture and Creation Spirituality, Oakland, CA.
--Brian Swimme and Thomas Berry, THE UNIVERSE STORY: FROM THE PRIMORDIAL FLARING FORTH TO THE ECOZOIC ERA--A CELEBRATION OF THE UNFOLDING OF THE COSMOS. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1992. 305 pp. Hardcover, $ 22.00. Swimme is a mathematical cosmologist, California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco; Berry is a Catholic priest and historian of cultures.
--Rosemary Radford Reuther, GAIA AND GOD: AN ECOFEMINIST THEOLOGY OF EARTH HEALING. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1992. $ 22.00, hardcover. "Ecological healing is a theological and psychic- spiritual process." "Classical traditions did not only sacralize patriarchal hierarchy over women, workers, and the earth. They also struggled with what they perceived to be injustice and sin and sought to create just and loving relations between people in their relation to the earth and to the divine. Some of this effort to name evil and struggle against it reinforced relations of domination and created victim-blaming spiritualities and ethics. But there are also glimpses in this heritage of transformative, biophilic relationships. These glimpses are a precious legacy that needs to be separated from the toxic waste of sacralized domination." "A healed relation to each other and to the earth calls for a new consciousness, a new symbolic culture and spirituality" (Introduction). Reuther does not want either a male God or a female Gaia. Reuther is professor of theology at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary.
--Wayne Simsic, NATURAL PRAYER: ENCOUNTERING GOD IN NATURE. Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1991. 101 pages. Wonder, reverence, and praise in encounter with the beauty of nature.
--Susan E. Schreiner, THE THEATER OF HIS GLORY: NATURE AND THE NATURAL ORDER IN THE THOUGHT OF JOHN CALVIN. Durham, NC: Labyrinth Press, 1991. 164 pages. $ 30.00. The concept of God's providence is a kind of arch that frames both the concept of nature and of grace in Calvin's thought. With sympathetic attention to Calvin's concept of natural law.
--Janel M. Curry-Roper, "Contemporary Christian Eschatologies and their Relation to Environmental Stewardship," THE PROFESSIONAL GEOGRAPHER 42(1990): 157-169. Contemporary Protestant Christians hold differing views that affect their attitudes toward the environment. Dispensationalism tends to use ecological deterioration as a gauge to predict Christ's return and the end of the present age. Postmillennialism teaches that the natural and human world will improve up to Christ's return and puts responsibility on Christians for that improvement. Amillennialism and Historic Premillennialism teach that the possibility of ecological and social improvement is limited in the present age though Christians are to attempt to heal the Earth's wounds to show evidence of a future renewed Earth." Roper is professor of geography at the Central University of Iowa, Pella.
--Art Meyer and Jocele Meyer, EARTHKEEPERS: ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUNGER, POVERTY, AND INJUSTICE. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1991. 264 pages. $ 12.95. A biblical theology of creation brought to bear on the duties of Christians in major areas of ecological concern: global warming, ozone depletion, wasted natural resources, pollution, toxic wastes.
--Wolfgang Huber, "Rights of Nature or Dignity of Nature?" THE ANNUAL OF THE SOCIETY OF CHRISTIAN ETHICS, 1991, pp. 43-60. The dignity of nature is a better category for the valuation and protection of nature than is the rights of nature; it is also a better category than that of intrinsic value. Huber is professor of theology at the University of Heidelberg
--Shannon Jung, WE ARE HOME: SPIRITUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist Press, 1993. Paper, $ 7.95. Jung is professor at Wartburg Theological Seminary, Dubuque, IA.
--Elizabeth Achtenmeier, NATURE, GOD, AND PULPIT. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1992. 206 pages. $ 17. A biblically based study of preaching about nature and God. With sample sermons. "Few doctrines are so neglected as the doctrine of creation and yet none is more important to the gospel in the twentieth century." Achtenmeier is adjunct professor of homiletics at Union Theological Seminary in Richmond, VA.
--John F. Haught, THE PROMISE OF NATURE: ECOLOGY AND COSMIC PURPOSE. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist Press, 1993. Details unavailable.
--Calvin B. Dewitt and Ghillean T. Prance, eds., MISSIONARY EARTHKEEPING. Macon: GA: Mercer University Press, 1992. Hardbound, $ 30.00. Paper, $ 16.95. Christian missions for better and worse as encouraging earthkeeping in third world countries. Dewitt is in environmental studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Prance is Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Essays by Dennis E. Testermann, a forester with mission experience in Nigeria and Pakistan; Robert Clobus, a Catholic priest in Ghana; Mutombo Mpanya, from the mission field in Zaire; James W. Gustafson, in Thailand. Originally a forum at the Au Sable Institute of Environmental Studies.
--Robert B. Keiter and Mark S. Boyce, eds., THE GREATER YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM: REDEFINING AMERICA'S WILDERNESS HERITAGE. New Haven: Yale University Press. Hardbound, 428 pages. Twenty- four articles, many with a philosophical bent. Samples: Mark S. Boyce, "Natural Regulation or the Control of Nature?"; Robert B. Keiter and Mark S. Boyce, "Greater Yellowstone's Future: Ecosystem Management in a Wilderness Environment"; Joseph L. Sax, "Ecosystems and Property Rights in Greater Yellowstone: The Legal System in Transition." "Yellowstone is the symbol of modern society's commitment to preserving the vestiges of its wilderness heritage." "There simply is no alternative but to collaborate in defining an ecosystem-management ethic" (Preface). Keiter is in the College of Law and Boyce in the Department of Zoology, University of Wyoming, Laramie.
--TRANSACTIONS OF THE 57TH NORTH AMERICAN WILDLIFE AND NATURAL RESOURCES CONFERENCE, 1992, contains the papers from two sessions of interest. Special Session 5: Biological Diversity in Wildlife Management, nine papers, for example: genetic diversity in captive breeding and reintroduction programs, international issues, faunal mixing and faunal integrity. This session is available in reprint from U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Ecology Research Center, 4512 McMurray Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80525. Special Session 6: Biological Diversity in Aquatic Management, ten papers, including Edwin P (Phil) Pister, "Ethical Considerations in the Conservation of Biodiversity," papers on degradation caused by introduced fishes, on the reintroduction of native species, and on public policy as this affects fish conservation. This has also been reprinted by the American Fisheries Society. (Thanks to Phil Pister).
--Norman Maclean, YOUNG MEN AND FIRE. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 288 pages. $ 19.95. On August 5, 1949 a crew of fifteen of US Forest Service elite airborne firefighters jumped into a remote fire in Montana. All but three were killed. This is their story, and its aftermath. For another Maclean story about Montana, see A RIVER RUNS THROUGH IT, in the media section.
--Arnold Berleant, THE AESTHETICS OF ENVIRONMENT. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992. The meaning and influence of environmental perception on human life. The foremost characteristic of environmental perception is the quality of engagement. Berleant is professor of philosophy at Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus.
--Peter Dickens, SOCIETY AND NATURE: TOWARDS A GREEN SOCIAL THEORY. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992. 203 pp. Paper and cloth. Dickens starts with Marx and the claim that work is the main source of human separation from nature, then builds on Anthony Giddens' social theory, and critiques deep green and deep ecology movements. Dickens is in urban studies and social policy at the University of Sussex, UK.
--Carol Bigwood, EARTH MUSE: FEMINISM, NATURE, ART. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. 357 pages. Sample chapters: "Deconstructing the Culture/Nature Dichotomy," and "Ecological Be(coming) in the World-Earth Home."
--Thomas I. White, BUSINESS ETHICS: A PHILOSOPHICAL READER. New York: Macmillan, 1993. Chapter 18 is on "Business and the Environment." Articles by W. Michael Hoffman, "Business and Environmental Ethics"; David P. Henson, "The Ethics of Development and Global Environmentalism"; Peter Singer, "The Place of Nonhumans in Environmental Issues," and Eric Katz, "Defending the Use of Animals by Business: Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics"; also two case studies: nuclear power and dolphins. A long book, 867 pages.
--Douglas Lee Eckberg, T. Jean Blocker, "Varieties of Religious Involvement and Environmental Concerns: Testing the Lynn White Thesis," JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION 28(1989):509-517. Based on a telephone survey, the authors ask, "Is there a measurable `disdain' for nature which grows from acceptance of Biblical authority?" They conclude, "Within the limits of our data, White's thesis received firm support from our results." Eckberg is a professor of sociology at Winthrop College, Rock Hill, South Carolina. Blocker is a professor of sociology at the University of Tulsa, Oklahoma.
--William C. French, "Ecological Degradation and the Judgment of God," CHRISTIAN CENTURY, January 6-13, 1993. Critical reviews of Al Gore, EARTH IN THE BALANCE, and Bill McKibben, THE AGE OF MISSING INFORMATION, see below. French teaches ethics at Loyola University, Chicago.
--Bill McKibben, THE AGE OF MISSING INFORMATION. New York: Random House, 1992. 261 pages. $ 20.50. McKibben conducted an experiment. On May 3, 1990 he had the entire output of the United States' largest cable TV system taped, almost 100 channels. McKibben analyzed the films, programs, news, commercials to discover the nature of electronic media and how it reduces the sort of information we receive. This analysis is compared with the information presented to him on an overnight stay in the Adirondack Mountains. The ecological crisis is grounded in an inability to relate to the natural world, and this is compounded by the media. What habits of mind and body do TV ads and jingles help produce? Sloppy habits, where we cease to be mindful of how we are connected to a finite Earth. McKibben (like Gore) analyzes this as, at depth, a spiritual problem.
--Carolyn Merchant, ed., MAJOR PROBLEMS IN AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY: DOCUMENTS AND ESSAYS. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1993. 544 pages. American environmental history from pre-contact Indian times to the present, each illustrated by several primary source documents and essays. Specific regional concerns as well as larger cultural issues including the confrontation between nature and civilization in the nineteenth century. Conservation, pollution, and wilderness preservation. Many dozens of documents over four centuries from the past to the present. With an instructor's manual. Merchant is professor of environmental history at the University of California, Berkeley.
--Samuel I. Zeveloff and Cyrus M. McKell, eds., WILDERNESS ISSUES IN THE ARID LANDS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992. $ 29.95. Details unavailable.
--Barbara K. Rhodes and Rice Odell, A DICTIONARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUOTATIONS. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. $ 35.00. 343 pages. 3700 quotations from proverbs, slogans, bumper stickers, speeches, periodicals, scientific papers, and philosophical works. Arranged alphabetically in 143 categories, and within categories chronologically. Ranges from early Greek history through George Bush. Author and subject index.
--Jeffrey A. Sayer, Caroline S. Harcourt, and N. Mark Collins, eds., THE CONSERVATION ATLAS OF TROPIC FORESTS: AFRICA. By the World Conservation Union (IUCN). New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. 256 pages, 62 maps. $ 95.00.
--N. Mark Collins, Jeffrey A. Sayer, Timothy C. Whitmore, eds., THE CONSERVATION ATLAS OF TROPICAL FORESTS: ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. By the World Conservation Union (IUCN). New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. 256 pages, 55 maps. $ 95.00.
--GEC-O: THE NEWSLETTER OF THE ESRC GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE PROGRAMME has produced its first two issues, with a circulation of over three thousand. This newsletter reports on the Global Environmental Change program launched in the United Kingdom by the Economic and Social Research Council and is said to be the largest ever UK social science research program ever undertaken on any topic in the UK. The goal is "to take global environmental issues to the heart of the social sciences in the international debate on global environmental change." The Newsletter will appear three times a year. Wye College also offers correspondence courses in environmental policy and management available to students anywhere in the world. For information contact Michael Redclift, Research Coordinator, ESRC Global Environmental Change Programme, Wye College (University of London), Near Ashford, Kent TN25 5AH, UK.
--NATURE-SCIENCES-SOCIêTêS is a new journal produced by the French Centre National de Recherche Scientifique. The Centre with the journal hopes to being about greater interdisciplinary research and action between the natural and social sciences, with application to environmental issues. Papers will be in French and occasionally in English. Contact: Agnes Pivot, NSS Association, GRS/CNRS, Universite Paris X - Bat G, 92001 Nanterre Cadex, France.
--Peter Carruthers, "Brute Experience," JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY 86 (1989):258-269. "The question whether brutes have experience has been granted as obvious in recent times, and in one sense of the term `experience' no doubt it is so. But not, I shall argue, in the sense that makes their experience an appropriate object of moral concern." "Many experiences ... do not feel like anything." These are "nonconscious experiences." Only conscious experiences have a distinctive phenomenology, a distinctive feel." Based on "the nonconscious status of most animal experiences," Carruthers concludes that "in the case of brutes: since their experiences, including their pains, are nonconscious ones, they are of no immediate moral concern." "Much time and money is presently spent on alleviating the pains of brutes which ought properly to be directed toward human beings. ... Such activities are not only morally unsupportable but morally objectionable." "And it also follows that there is no moral criticism to be leveled at the majority of people who are indifferent to the pains of factory- farmed animals." Carruthers is at the University of Essex.
--David Rothenberg, IS IT PAINFUL TO THINK? CONVERSATIONS WITH ARNE NAESS Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. $ 16.95 paper. $ 39.95 cloth.
--Errol E. Harris, ONE WORLD OR NONE: PRESCRIPTION FOR SURVIVAL. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1993 (June). 176 pages. Paper $ 15.00. Cloth, $ 35.00. The one practicable solution is to establish a world authority democratically elected and empowered to enforce a world law. It is imperative that peoples and NGO's unite for the ratification of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, already drafted by the World Constitution and Parliament Association. Harris is professor of philosophy emeritus at Northwestern University.
--Stephen Jay Gould, "What Is a Species?" DISCOVER, December 1992.
"Species are almost always objective entities in nature. ... Species are not arbitrary units, constructed for human convenience, in dividing continua. Species are the real and objective items of nature's morphology. They are `out there' in the world as historically distinct and functionally separate populations `with their own historical role and tendency.' ... Species are unique in the Linnean hierarchy as the only category with such objectivity. ... By grasping the objective status of species as real units in nature ... we may better comprehend the moral rationale for their preservation. You can expunge an arbitrary idea by rearranging your conceptual world. But when a species dies, an item of natural uniqueness is gone forever. Each species is a remarkably complex product of evolution--a branch on a tree that is billions of years old. ... Species are living, breathing items of nature. We lose a bit of our collective soul when we drive species (and their entire lineages with them), prematurely and in large numbers, to oblivion." Gould earlier wrote, "I also appreciate that we cannot win this battle to save species and environments without forging an emotional bond between ourselves and nature as well--for we will not fight to save what we do not love." ("Unenchanted Evening," NATURAL HISTORY, September 1991.
--Martha Rojas, "The Species Problem and Conservation: What Are We Protecting? CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 6(1992):170-178. "There is no agreement on what species are, how they should be delimited, or what they represent. But in conservation science ... species are either treated as types or as evolutionary units." Rojas finds difficulties, both theoretical and practical, with either approach, which result in insufficient protection of biodiversity. Much of the variation that it is desirable to protect may not be registered at the level of species. Rojas is with the Funcaci¢n Natura, Bogata, Columbia. This article should be read as a complement to the Gould article above.
--R. I. Vane-Wright, C. J. Humphries and P. H. Williams, "What to Protect?--Systematics and the Agony of Choice," BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 55(1991):235-254. Note that this is a different journal from CONSERVATION BIOLOGY; it is published in the UK. The authors propose an index of taxic diversity. This index is superior to the usual counts of species richness and abundance, because it incorporates factors of taxonomic distinctness and information encoded by cladistic relationships. Two species of rats contain less taxic diversity than a one species of rat and a panda. The index also gives attention to faunal and flora regions from which diversity originates. The index can be quantitatively expressed. Such an approach can be of vital importance in deciding what to protect and how to protect it, especially where we cannot protect everything and often have to act swiftly. The authors are with the Biodiversity Programme, Departments of Botany and Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London.
--Evernden, Neil, THE SOCIAL CREATION OF NATURE. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. More information later.
--Elinor Ostrom, GOVERNING THE COMMONS: THE EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS FOR COLLECTIVE ACTION. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
--David Crocker, "The Hope for Just, Participatory Ecodevelopment in Costa Rica," in SOCIALE ARBEIT UND INTERNATIONALE ENTWICKLUNG, eds. Gregor Sauerwald, Wigbert Flock, and Reinhold Hemker (Munster, Hamburg: Lit Verlag, 1992), pp. 121-134. The social democratic developmental model in Costa Rica has been replaced by a neoliberal development emphasizing free trade. Both models have their drawbacks and down sides. A better model emphasizes (1) the satisfaction of basic human needs, (2) democratic self- determination, (3) environmental respect, and (4) the equal opportunity for personal self-realization. Costa Rica has the best chance of any Latin American country to become a model for blending harmony with the environment and development. Crocker is professor of philosophy at Colorado State University.
--David Crocker, "Functioning and Capability: The Foundations of Sen's and Nussbaum's Development Ethic," POLITICAL THEORY 20 (1992):584-612. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum base a sustainable development ethic on a "capability ethic," which has advantages over an emphasis on economic growth, commodity production, or meeting basic human needs.
--N. Taylor Gregg, "Sustainability and Politics: The Cultural Connection," JOURNAL OF FORESTRY 90(1992)(no. 7, July):17-21. "To major questions have emerged from the current crisis over forest management practices. While much of the argument justifiably seems to have concerned whether we have the scientific knowledge and techniques to manage wisely, a more fundamental question remains: `Manage for what?' ... Foresters can probably manage for whatever values the public wants--but the current problem lies in achieving a consensus for what those values are. ... There is also a lack of value consensus within the profession itself, as evidenced by the ongoing debate within the Society of American Foresters over the appropriate substance of a land ethic canon." The SAF has subsequently adopted a land ethic canon, see below. Includes discussion of a survey of the value systems of professional foresters. Gregg is former editor of the JOURNAL OF FORESTRY.
--Lynton Keith Caldwell and Kristin Shrader-Frechette, POLICY FOR LAND: LAW AND ETHICS. Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield, and Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992. $ 24.95 paper. $ 67.50 cloth. A survey of the problem that have arisen from environmentally counterproductive land policies and use. The authors challenge traditional justifications for property rights and land use. California agricultural land and Appalachian coal land are used as case studies. Caldwell is professor emeritus of political science at Indiana University. Shrader-Frechette is professor of philosophy at the University of South Florida.
--Kenneth D. Frederick and Roger A. Sedjo, eds., AMERICA'S RENEWABLE RESOURCES: HISTORICAL TRENDS AND CURRENT CHALLENGES. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1991. 296 pages. Chapters on water, forests, rangeland, cropland, wildlife, outdoor recreation. With particular attention to sustainable development. A frequent theme is that private ownership of resources provides the best resource protection and management. Most of the authors are researchers on the staff of Resources for the Future (RFF), a non-profit organization working since 1952 to promote development, conservation, and use of natural resources.
--David Rothenberg, "The Greenhouse from Down Deep: What Can Philosophy Do for Ecology?" PAN ECOLOGY 7(no. 2, Spring, 1992):1- 3. "The philosopher of ecology can only implore you to try to conceive of your self and your purpose not in opposition to an environment which is beginning to fight back, but through the surrounding world which may support us forever if we learn to base our cultures upon ideals that allow the earth to flourish." "It is the idea of nature independent of humanity which is fading, which needs to be replaced by a nature that includes us, which we can only understand to the extent that we can find a home in the enveloping flow of forces which is only ever partially in our control. ... There is no such thing as a pure, wild nature, empty of human conception. The moment we identify it as such, it becomes ours! The minute we call some area of the earth separate from our influence, we are putting human constraints on the environment. We are blocking it out. It is a human thing. Wilderness is a consequence only of a civilization that sees itself as detached from nature. ... This a romantic, exclusive and only-human concept of a nature pure and untrammeled by human presence. It is THIS idea of nature which is reaching the end of its useful life." Rothenberg is professor in the Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology.
--Betsy Carpenter and Bob Holmes, "Living with Nature," U. S. NEWS AND WORLD REPORT, November 30, 1992. Story on Edward O. Wilson's urgent defense of biodiversity. Wilson says, "Wilderness settles peace on the soul because it needs no help; it is beyond human contrivance. Wilderness is a metaphor of unlimited opportunity, rising from the tribal memory of a time when humanity spread across the world ... godstruck, firm in the belief that virgin land went on forever." With the loss of wild nature, "we face an enormous psychological and spiritual loss." We "court spiritual disaster."
--Richard J. Lambert, "Rethinking Productivity: The Perspective of the Earth as the Primary Corporation," POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT: A JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES 13(1992): 193-208. Ten guiding principles to guide an ecological consciousness, with each of these used to reinterpret the primary locus of productivity as Earth. Lambert is with Productivity Breakthrough, Inc., in Scarsdale, NY.
--Ladelle McWhorter, ed., HEIDEGGER AND THE EARTH: ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. Six essays. Samples: "Heidegger and Ecology," "The Strange Uncanniness of Human Being on Earth; "Meeting and Place." McWhorter is professor of philosophy at the University of Richmond, Virginia.
--Patti K. Sinclair, E FOR ENVIRONMENT: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHILDREN'S BOOKS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL THEMES. R. R. Bowker. 292 pages, $ 39.95. Of special interest to elementary school teachers, environmental educators, librarians, parents, and those interested in teaching environmental ethics to children. Covers a wide range of material, from picture books that help instill in young readers a sense of wonder at the natural world, on through meatier nonfiction and fiction for older children. Author, title and subject indices, as well as a list of environmental classics for older students and adults. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich has launched a series of children's books dedicated to promoting ecological awareness: Gulliver Green Books.
Robert L. Chapman has completed at Ph.D. dissertation, "Values Beyond Culture: A Study in Environmental Axiology," at Fordham University, Bronx, NY, under Elizabeth Kraus. The central argument is that nature posses non-instrumental value. The arguments are mainly aesthetic and favorably supplement a purely ethical approach to environmental value. Chapman is now adjunct assistant professor at Pace University, New York, New York, where he is teaching environmental ethics and establishing a degree program in environmental studies.
Recent theses at Colorado State University:
--J. Douglas Daigle, THE ROLE OF A PLANETARY NARRATIVE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, Spring 1993. Narrative as forming the larger unitary framework in which to understand nature and the human place in nature, with a sense of present crisis in the planetary store. The concluding chapter is on oceans interpreted as the common heritage of humankind and their role in contributing to a sense of global history.
--Marguerite S. E. Forest, OUGHT AND CAN IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: ETHICAL EXTENSIONISM AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT, Summer 1992. Extending the range of moral concern from humans to animals to plants to ecosystems, compared with stages in moral development. The position of J. Baird Callicott fails because the full sequence of stages has not been developed. Lawrence Kohlberg's concept of justice is inadequate because it is anthropocentric and not holistic and ecosystemic. Carol Gilligan's caring orientation integrates the needed holistic environmental ethics and the more advanced moral stages.
Jeanne-Marie Bartas, THE TALE OF THE STARRY HEAVENS ABOVE AND THE MORAL LAW WITHIN: KANT'S AESTHETIC THEORY. Kant's aesthetic theory as a basis for environmental ethics. Completed spring 1992.
Christopher J. Preston, REINTEGRATION WITH NATURE: AGAINST DUALIST METAPHYSICS. Cartesian metaphysics separates humans from nature; both environmental philosophy and environmental science (especially Barbara McClintock) offer possibilities for metaphysical reintegration with nature. Completed fall 1992.
Videotapes and media
MONKEY ISLAND. Rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago, an island off Puerto Rico. 50 minutes. Aired on PBS November 15, 1992. Produced by Paneikon for Nature and WNET, New York. In 1938 scientists from Columbia University brought 400 macaques here from India, originally as experimental animals, but they have been essentially feral for half a century, now 1200 animals, with a flourishing population, often studied as a laboratory in primate behavior. Based on the research of John Berard. Excellent photography, especially of the young, also of some standoff fights between groups. Berard claims that former ideas about male dominance structuring the society are in error and that the females structure the society. The narrator has much tendency to anthropomorphize, especially sexual behaviors. Makes an interesting case history in feral populations, also in "animal virtues" if such exist. The narration draws some hesitant parallels between macaque and human behavior, but thinks it is beyond science to know how deep these parallels go. For availability contact WNET and Nature, 356 West 58th St., NY, NY 10019. Phone 212/560-2000.
SLAVES TO THE QUEEN. Wasps and Bees. 50 minutes, produced for BBC, 1992, by Steve Nichols, Kevin Flay director, in cooperation with University Museum, Oxford. Aired on PBS on Nature, November 29, 1992. Good photography. Rampant anthropomorphism, really a classic example of extrapolating human moral behaviors into wasps and bees, and can be useful in this connection. Supposedly the narrators and producers know better, but do this anyway as an attention-getting device. The queen injects drugs into the workers to keep them forever her slaves; they are forced to obey, dominated by her, condemned to a life of hard labor, and on and on. There are also some horror stories, supposedly, the wasp larvae feeding inside on the helplessly paralyzed caterpillars, and so forth. For availability contact WNET and Nature, 356 West 58th St., NY, NY 10019. Phone 212/560-2000.
WAKE UP, DOROTHY! 19 minute VHS for elementary and junior high youth in contemporary rap music style. Dorothy learns to care for creation. Produced by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, available from Augsburg Fortress for $ 9.95. Phone 800/328-4648.
A RIVER RUNS THROUGH IT. Robert Redford's film based on Norman Maclean's novella about Montana, fly fishing, and families. The film captures the wonderful sense of place in Montana and conveys the art and ethic of fly fishing, handed down from generation to generation. The sense of belonging on the land is interwoven with the loves and tragedy of a Montana family. "In the end all things merge into one, and a river runs through it." The film is set in the 1920's on the Blackfoot River in Montana, but that river is now so heavily polluted by mining wastes and runoff from large clearcuts that the once pristine waters now fail to support a healthy trout fishery. The movie makers had to film to story instead on the Gallatin and Yellowstone Rivers. For another of Maclean's works, see YOUNG MEN AND FIRE in the recent books section.
CARETAKERS OF THE PLANET EARTH: THE NATIVE AMERICAN TRADITION AND THE VIEW FROM SPACE. A videoconference tentatively scheduled for broadcast April 2 on the satellite network, and free to community colleges (and others?) who are in certain videoconference networks. The space age experiences of astronauts, video footage from NASA archives are to be interpreted against the background of native American worldviews. Produced by the Louisiana Education Resource Network (though there seem to have been some problems in production). For information, call 318/674-3444. Another number is 800/525-4950.
The United States goes green. There are almost 10,000 environmental groups in the United States. The twenty largest can raise one billion dollars a year. The National Wildlife Federation, with 5.3 million members has a larger budget than the United Nations Environmental Programme. New laws require governments, businesses, and others to spend more than $ 100 billion a year on pollution control. Most school districts now include environmental studies in their curricula. Politicians at all levels are feeling the influence of an environmentally motivated public. Al Gore is seen as a top environmental spokesman and the Clinton-Gore administration is expected to be especially friendly to the cause. Main problem areas: endangered species, toxic waste disposal, cleaner air and water, and environmental relief for the politically and economically disenfranchised. Special report in THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, January 12, 1993, with stories overviewing the mainline environmental groups, grass-roots organizations, counter-movements reacting to save jobs, business cleaning up its act, and an interview with Al Gore. A Cabinet level Secretary of the Environment now seems likely.
The Society of American Foresters has adopted a new land ethic statement. Termed a "land ethic canon," the statement was approved by 77% of those voting by mail referendum ballot last fall, about 6,000 of the 12,000 members of the Society, or a 3 to 1 margin. The new ethic reads, with the new language underlined:
STEWARDSHIP OF THE LAND IS THE CORNERSTONE OF THE FORESTRY PROFESSION. The purpose of these Canons is to govern the professional conduct of members of the Society of American Foresters in their relations with THE LAND, the public, their employers, including clients, and each other as provided in Article VIII of the Society's Constitution. Compliance with these Canons DEMONSTRATES OUR RESPECT FOR THE LAND AND OUR COMMITMENT TO THE WISE MANAGEMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS, AND ensures just and honorable professional and human relationships, mutual confidence and respect, and competent service to society. (Preamble)
A MEMBER WILL ADVOCATE AND PRACTICE LAND MANAGEMENT CONSISTENT WITH ECOLOGICALLY SOUND PRINCIPLES. (Canon I)
Raymond S. Craig, a forester with the Oregon Department of Natural Resources, was the chair of the SAF Land Ethic Task Force. For discussion see two interpretive articles, "Further Development of a Land Ethic Canon," JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, January 1992, and "Land Ethic Canon Proposal: A Report from the Task Force," August 1992. Another relevant paper is "Biological Diversity in Forest Ecosystems: A Position of the Society of American Foresters," February 1992.
Craig explains, "Most foresters aren't comfortable with espousing philosophy! We don't usually use words like "respect" and "love" in our everyday work. Yet foresters invariably use these words when asked to explain how they feel about the forest, particularly when discussing the reasons that led them to choose this profession." "The challenge lies in expanding out role beyond commodity production to embrace management in consideration of other values." Foresters now follow the imperative of Leopold "to value all components of ecosystems, without regard to their usefulness to humans, because all components have intrinsic value. As we manage lands, those values must be considered in our decisions" (Report from the Task Force). Craig expressed his hope that "the land ethic would permeate the soul of the (SAF) organization. It becomes a part of all that professional foresters represent and what they say." Opponents objected that there was an inherent conflict between the new land ethic canon and existing canons that demand loyalty to employers and clients. A proposed canon that read "A member will manage land for long- term sustainability using ecologically sound principles," was withdrawn after repeated objections that what was to be sustained was unclear.
Carl Sagan was the keynote speaker at the Society of American Foresters annual conference, October 26-29 in Richmond, Virginia. He portrayed Earth from space, and what remote sensing would reveal about changes in the green cover, resulting from deforestation, pollution, atmospheric changes, encouraging foresters to think globally about how forests figure into biosphere health. He spoke for an hour and was questioned another hour.
Black bear hunting. Colorado voters approved a ban on spring bear hunting (when sows may have cubs), as well as a ban on bear hunting with dogs or with bait, in a public referendum in the November election. The vote was 85% to 15% for the ban, about 2.1 million to about 370,000. Only two of the fifty states remain that permit all three.
Scientific collecting and endangered species. Ornithologists in Somalia discovered a new species of shrike, captured the only specimen seen, caged it, studied it for some months, took blood samples and feathers for DNA analysis, but refused to kill it, and released it back into the wild. They named the species LANIARIUS LIBERATUS, to emphasize that the bird was described from a liberated individual. There is no type specimen, or, rather, the type specimen is still out there somewhere in the wild. Nigel Collar, of the International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, England, said, "I have no concern at all, absolutely no concern at all it was the right thing to do. It was totally and absolutely the right thing to do."
But systematists and museum curators have complained. Storrs L. Olson, curator of birds at the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian, says, "It's sentimentality getting in the way of good science. It's not rational. It's not logical." "We have standards. And there is reason for the standards." There is nothing left to study the species, no skin, no skeleton, no anatomy. We don't know the gut length. We don't even know now what questions we might want to ask of a preserved specimen a hundred years hence. Scott Lanyon, head of the division of birds at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, says that it is time for systematists to take a stand. "If we don't respond to this kind of action, then others will feel that it's all right. This is a step backwards." Richard Banks, a bird systematist with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife says the trend away from traditional preservation is growing. "There were two or three instances within the last several years of people publishing photographs of birds, describing new species with nothing more to serve as a specimen. I think that it's bad business, bad science. It's not science at all to describe a species on the basis that they did and without anything to serve as a type specimen."
Meanwhile, some mammalogists, good scientists, discovered an unknown and rare shrew, named it CROCIDURA DESPERATA, "to point out the desperate situation of the new species," and then killed the only two individuals they had found for specimens. These events come on the heels of Robert Loftin's timely analysis of the morality of scientific collecting in ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, Fall 1992. Story in NEW YORK TIMES, April 28, 1992. (Thanks to Kevin Eddings, Harrison, NY.)
The Today Show featured Africa the week of November 16-20, with considerable attention to wildlife conservation, also to the tradeoffs between development and conservation. Bryant Gumbel, the leading host, had worked on the various episodes for six years, which were intermixed with live coverage from Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe and from Victoria Falls. The co-host was Katie Couric. Some memorable scenes and issues: culling 5,000 impalas in the face of drought and for food for local peoples; mercy-killing an elephant calf, dying from lack of water and food; burning ivory as part of the ban on the sale of ivory; a shoot-to- kill policy to prevent elephant poaching; de-horning a rhinoceros, lest it be killed by poachers, old films of Teddy Roosevelt as a safari hunter; Masai tribesmen draining blood from cattle and drinking it. There were balanced discussions of wildlife for tourism versus the interests of native peoples, overpopulation, overgrazing, deforestation, dam-building, desertification, misguided environmental policies, colonial exploitation, and other issues. Many marvelous wildlife photography scenes.
World's biggest, oldest organism? A fungus, ARMILLARIA BULBOSA, that occupies over thirty acres has been located in Michigan, confirmed by the fact that samples taken from all portions of it are genetically identical. From growth rates, it is estimated to be between 1,500 and 10,000 years old.
Christopher Columbus and the environmental crisis. Kirkpatrick Sale claims that Columbus' discovery "enabled Europe to accumulate wealth and power previously unimaginable" fueling modern civilization and "most significant, it enabled humanity to achieve, and sanctify, the transformation of nature with unprecedented proficiency and thoroughness, to multiply, thrive, and dominate the earth as no single species ever has, altering the products and processes of the environment, modifying systems of soils and water and air, altering stable atmospheric and climatic balances, and now threatening, it is not too much to say, the existence of the earth as we have known it and the greater proportion of its species, including the human." Kirkpatrick Sale, THE CONQUEST OF PARADISE (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1990), p.
A recent Gallup Poll, "The Health of the Planet Survey," in 22 nations finds that more than half of the persons surveyed in 19 of the 22 countries hold that protecting the environment should take precedence over economic growth. Nations range from a high of 77% in Denmark to a low of 36% in Bolivia. In the United States 59% so prefer and the United States is in the bottom half of the nations surveyed. Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Korea, and Chile have larger percentages that the United States. The United Kingdom preference is 56%. The survey in detail is available, among other places, from the North American Conference on Religion and Ecology, 5 Thomas Circle NW, Washington, DC 20005.
Facing a lawsuit from environmental groups, the Bush Administration agreed in mid-December to increase plant and animal protection by 53%, increasing the number of endangered plants and animals afforded federal protection to roughly 1,150 from 749 today by 1997. The government will designate about 100 species a year from protection, double the rate over recent years. The agreement also requires a preliminary study of 900 species by September 30 of this year. About 90% of the new species are expected to be in Hawaii, California, the Pacific Northwest and the desert Southwest. Story in DENVER POST, December 16, 1992.
Connecticut joins several other states in putting biological conservation on the automobile license tags. "Preserve the Sound" (the Long Island Sound) is available on special plates. Maryland continues with its "Treasure the Chesapeake," and similarly in other states.
Recent and Upcoming Events
--January 8-10. American Society for Christian Ethics, Savannah Georgia, with sessions on environmental ethics from a Christian perspective. Details earlier.
--February 11-16. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, with ISEE panel on "The Scientific Foundations of Environmental Ethics." Details earlier.
--February 15-17. "Education for Environmental Competence," in Singapore. Details earlier.
--March 15. Lecture and sessions on environmental ethics at University of Guelph, sponsored by Department of Philosophy, led by Holmes Rolston. Contact Michael Ruse, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, CANADA.
--April 10. Eric Katz, "Ethics, Earth, and Technology: Nature as a Moral Category," April 10, 1993, in the series BOSTON COLLOQUIUM FOR THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. Details earlier.
--April 14-17. Knowing God, Christ, and Nature in the Post- Postivistic Era, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, ID. Contact: Center for Continuing Education, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, ID 46556. Phone 219/239-6691.
--April 29-May 2. Eastern Communication Association Convention at New Haven, CT. The theme is "Earthtalk: Saving our Planet and Our Selves Through Communication Empowerment." Contact Thomas L. Veenendall, Department of BSCDT, Montclair State College, Upper Montclair, NY 07043. Phone 201/893-5193. (Thanks to Mary McAfee,
Colorado Division of Wildlife)
--May 21-23. "Technology and Ecology," VII Biennial Congress of the Society for Philosophy and Technology, Valencia, Spain. Eric Katz is a speaker. Contact: Larry Hickman, Department of Philosophy, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843- 4237.
--May 24-26. National Association of Environmental Professionals, Raleigh, NC, North Raleigh Hilton and Convention Center. Theme: "Current and Future Priorities for Environmental Management."
Papers are invited. Contact: National Association of Environmental Professionals, 5165 MacArthur Boulevard, NW, Washington, DC 20016.
--June 7-July 16. The American West: Environment and History, 1993 National Endowment for the Humanities, Summer Seminar for College Teachers. Donald Worster, Director, University of Kansas, Lawrence. Twelve participants will receive a stipend of $ 3,200. Apply by March 1 to Professor Donald Worster, The American West Seminar, Hall Center for Humanities, 211 Watkins Home, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66046-2967. The Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship, Program in Nature, Culture, and Technology, also offers two fellowships of up to $ 35,000 (which may be combined with sabbatical sources) for scholars resident at the University of Kansas August 1993 through May 1994. Contact Worster.
--June 9-14. Society for Conservation Biology, meeting at Arizona State University, Tempe. Details on ISEE session, see earlier.
--June 15-16. World Phenomenology Institute, meeting in Prague, Czechoslovakia. General Theme: "Intersubjectivity, the World, and
the Sense of Life in the Transformation of Personality." Papers are invited on environmental awareness and the sense of the natural world. North American inquiries by March 15 to A. T. Tymieniecka, 348 Payson Road, Belmont, MA (USA) 02178.
--June 20-26. Sixth Annual Wildbranch Workshop in Outdoor, Natural History, and Environmental Writing. Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, Vermont. For those who want to improve and market their environmental writing. Contact David Brown, Director, Sterling College, Craftsbury Common, VT 05827,
--June 27-July 3. VII Pacific Science Inter-Congress, in Okinawa, Japan. Main themes are speciation, dispersal, and conservation of species in the Pacific and appropriate technologies and policies for the development and conservation of natural environments in the Pacific. Papers invited. Contact Pacific Science Association, P. O. Box 17801, Honolulu, HI 96817.
--July 20-22. Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Cardiff, Wales. Speakers include Robert Elliot, on "Ecology and Environmental Ethics"; Holmes Rolston, "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value," Nigel Dower, and others. Contact Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, Philosophy Section, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, UK
--July 9-11. Ecotheology and Religious Education, Denton, TX, sponsored by the Center for Environmental Philosophy. Contact Eugene C. Hargrove, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-3496.
--July 29-August 1. A New Generation for Animal Rights. Conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick Campus, New Brunswick, NJ. Numerous speakers, including Tom Regan. Numerous workshops. With a particular interest in creating a national student organization for animal rights, and a special appeal to students and teachers. Contact Lisa Finlay, A New Generation for Animal Rights, 209 N. Graham Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Phone 919/942-6909. Fax 9191/942-3875.
--August 1-14. Applied Deep Ecology, Philo, California. 2 week summer school course, in association with the Sierra Institute and the California Institute of Integral Studies. Faculty include Bill Devall, Susan Griffin, Ed Grumbine, David Abram, Alan Drengson, Bill Moyer and others. The location is a retreat center two and a half hours north of San Francisco. Cabins and camping are available. Contact: Institute for Deep Ecology Education (IDEE), Box 2290, Boulder, CO 80306. Phone 303/939-8398.
--August 12-18. The Community, The Family, and Culture, Conference of the Institute for Advanced Philosophic Research, Estes Park, Colorado. Papers are invited on numerous issues, including, "The Environment: Urban, Rural, and Wilderness." Contact Dr. Nancy E. Snow, Program Chair, Marquette University, Department of Philosophy, 132 Coughlin Hall, Milwaukee, WI 53233. Phone 414/288-3670. Deadline April 1, 1993.
--August 17-20. Tenth International Social Philosophy Conference, University of Helsinki, preceding the World Congress of Philosophy in Moscow. Several papers deal with environmental issues.
--August 22-28. 19th World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow. With two ISEE Sessions. See details earlier.
--August 24-26. Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: An Interdisciplinary Symposium, Portland Oregon. A conference on the wave of change sweeping over forestry. Numerous sponsoring institution, including Oregon State University, University of Washington, the U.S. Forest Service New Perspectives in Forestry Programme, and others. Contact: Washington State University Conferences and Seminars, 7612 Pioneer Way East, Puyallup, WA 98371. Phone 206/840-4575.
--September 24-October 1. 5th World Wilderness Congress, in Norway, with ISEE session on philosophy, wild nature, and sustainable human life. See call for papers by David Rothenberg, above.
--November 5-7, Regional Development in the 21st Century: Think Globally, Act Locally," Naha, Okinawa. Sponsored by the East-West Center, Honolulu, at the University of Hawaii. Contact EWCA Alumni Office, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96948.
--January 20-21, 1994. Conference on Ethical Issues in Agenda 21. Details earlier.