Volume 3, No. 3, Fall 1992

General Announcements

Eastern Division, American Philosophical Association, meets December 27-30 in Washington, DC, Washington Hilton Hotel. There are two ISEE sessions: Session I: The Ethical Implications of the United Nations "Earth Summit" (UNCED). Panelists: Joan Martin- Brown, United Nations Environment Programme, Holmes Rolston (who was at the Rio Conference), Laura Westra (who was in a preconference at Porto Alegre in Brazil), and others. Session II: Deep Ecology. Papers: David Rothenberg, "Deep Ecology in History and History in Deep Ecology. Commentator: Eric Katz. Andrew McLauglin, "How to Understand Deep Ecology." Commentator: Eric Katz.

Central Division, American Philosophical Association, meets April 21-24 at Palmer House Hotel in Chicago. The ISEE sessions are as follows: Session I: James Sterba, Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, "Violence against Nature"; Lisa Newton, Applied Ethics Program, Fairfield University, CT, "The Day I Discovered I Had Cancer"; chaired by Laura Westra. Session II: Panel Discussion: Cases in Environmental Ethics. Chaired by Lisa Newton, who has a book forthcoming on cases in environmental ethics. Panel members: Bryan Norton, Karen Warren, Laura Westra, and (probably) Brad Warden, toxicologist with the EPA, pending some business obligations in Tibet. Persons are invited to submit cases for this discussion.

A general session at Central APA (see above) is titled "Moral Pluralism and Environmental Ethics," and features J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Anthony Weston, Philosophy, SUNY, Stonybrook; and Peter Wenz, Philosophy, Sangamon State University. The chair and organizer is Louis Pojman, Philosophy, University of Mississippi, Oxford.

Pacific Division, American Philosophical Association, meets March 25-28 in San Francisco (Miyako Hotel and Inn). Send paper proposals to Dr. Ernest Partridge, P. O. Box 3278, Crestline, CA 92325, by November 1, and finished papers by January 1. We have two time slots available, and particularly encourage papers for the Western Division. Phone 714/338-2387.

In general the annual deadlines for paper submissions for the three ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional American Philosophical Association meetings are:
Eastern Division, March 1
Central Division, January 1
Pacific Division, January 1

Temple University Press has recently announced a series of books, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, VALUES AND POLICY. Holmes Rolston will be the general editor, and the Press solicits appropriate manuscripts. Send proposals to Jane Cullen, Senior Acquisitions Editor, Temple University Press, Broad and Oxford Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Or send them to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Four other publisher's series are:

POLICY SERIES, of which Kristin Shrader-Frechette is general
editor. This series has published three books recently: Carl F.

(2) Routledge in the United Kingdom has a series in environmental
philosophy and policy and is interested in titles of general and
international interest. The series is edited by Andrew Brennan,
University of Western Australia. This series has several titles
in press.

(3) A series, PHILOSOPHY AND ECOLOGY, by the University of North
Texas Press. This series has recently issued Max Oelschlaeger,
ed., AFTER EARTH DAY, see below.

(4) ECOLOGY AND JUSTICE, a series edited by William Eakin and Jay
McDaniel, by Orbis Press, Maryknoll, NY. This series seeks to
integrate concerns for the imperiled earth and its multiple forms
of life with concerns for religion, justice, and sustainable
economics. Two books in the series are: Carol J. Adams,

by David Seamon, for SUNY Press. This series explores the
phenomenology of place and placelessness, architecture and
environmental design in place making, the environmental design of
the world in which live is lived, both for human beings and other
creatures. The series in interested in sacred landscapes, and in
polices in architecture that foster an enduring sense of care and
duty toward the natural and built environments. David Seamon,
Department of Architecture, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, has been invited to give a plenary address to the American Society of Landscape Architects on November 8, meeting in Washington, DC, for their national conference. His address is titled, "The Land Aesthetic."

The Entomology Society of America meets in Baltimore, MD, December 9-10. ISEE is sponsoring two sessions. The general theme is sustainability in agriculture and forestry, with particular attention to integrity in ecosystems, as a philosophical background to the use of pesticides and biological insect controls, also the conservation of insects. Session I is convened by Brad Warden and Eric Hol, with papers by Mark Sagoff, Wes Jackson, and Laura Westra. Session II, a workshop, will include Henry Regier, Peter Miller, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, and Margaret Mellon, as well as those named above. Also speaking is David Pimentel, Entomology, Cornell University.

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, February 11-16, 1993. Kristin Shrader-Frechette moderates an ISEE Session on "The Scientific Foundations of Environmental Ethics." Speakers and panelists include Gregory Cooper, Philosophy, Duke University, "The Relevance of Ecology for Environmental Ethics"; Henry Regier, Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, "Innovative Science and Ecosystem Integrity"; James Kay, Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, "Thermodynamics, Ecological Integrity, and Ethics"; Michael Ruse, Philosophy, University of Guelph, "Biodiversity: A Moral Ideal?"; and Holmes Rolston, Philosophy, Colorado State University, "Environmental Science and Environmental Ethics."

The Society for Conservation Biology, Annual Meeting, will be held at Arizona State University, June 9-14, 1993. Jack Weir, who chaired the quite successful ISEE session at the meeting last year at VPISU in Blacksburg, VA, is organizing another session this year. Interested persons, with papers or other suggestions, are invited to contact him: Jack Weir, Graduate House, 6500 S. Main Street, # 146, Houston, TX 77030. Phone 713/630-9333. Curte Meine is also an organizer of this session. Papers from a feminist perspective, or other papers on the role of women in environmental ethics and conservation biology, are especially welcome.

The Ohio State University, School of Natural Resources, is sponsoring a spring series of nine lectures, "Ecology, Ethics, and the Human Condition." Lectures are at various dates throughout the spring. Speakers include David Orr, Bryan Norton, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, and Holmes Rolston. The series is made possible by a grant from the Battelle Endowment for Technology and Human Affairs. Contact: Mohan W. Wali, Director, School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210- 1085. Phone 614/292-2265. Willard Environmental Ethics Symposium, University of Nebraska, Omaha. The Department of Philosophy and Religion is honoring the retirement of longtime philosophy faculty member Duane Willard with a symposium, Thursday, April 15, 1993. There is a call for papers on any topic in environmental ethics. Graduate students are also encouraged to submit papers. The Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Regional American Academy of Religion/Society of Biblical Literature Conference meets there April 17-17, Friday and Saturday.
Contact Richard A. Freund (Religion) or Andrew Newman (Philosophy), Department of Philosophy and Religion, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 60th and Dodge Streets, Omaha, NB 68182-0265. Phone 402/554-2628. Fax 402/554-2949.

The 19th World Congress of Philosophy, meets in Moscow, August 22- 28, 1993. ISEE has been invited to organize two sessions on environmental ethics, one a roundtable discussion that can have no more than two persons from the same nation. Anticipated participants in the two sessions: include Karen Warren, James Sterba, Holmes Rolston, Eugene Hargrove, Laura Westra. Others interested (especially those outside the U. S.) are asked to contact Laura Westra, address below. For congress details, contact Congress Secretariat, Volkhonka 14, Moscow 119842. Fax (7095) 200-32-50. Another address is World Congress of Philosophy, EGA Studio, Viale Tiziano 19, Rome, Italy. Fax (06) 32-22-006.

Environmental Ethics in South Africa, University of Stellenbosch. The University of Stellenbosch, through its Department of Philosophy, Centre for Applied Ethics, has established a Unit for Environmental Ethics. This Unit is a multi-disciplinary research and advisory board that concerns itself with the problems that arise from the application of ethical norms to environmental issues. The Unit provides a nonpartisan forum for the exchange of ideas on environmental ethics in contemporary society, focussing on South Africa. Issues include environmental management and ethical and policy issues among academic, corporate, government, labor, and public interest groups, the ethical foundations of sustainable development, the ethical relationships of humans to the nonhuman world. Stellenbosch is a major South African University, located about an hour outside of Cape Town. This is (so far as we know) the only environmental ethics unit in Africa, although there are environmental studies programs in various places, including the Environmental Evaluation Unit at the University of Cape Town. For further information contact Dr. Johan P. Hattingh, Chair, Unit for Environmental Ethics, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, R. SOUTH AFRICA. (Thanks to Wayne Elliott, with the KwaZulu Department of Natural Resources).

The Fifth World Wilderness Congress will be held in Tromso, Norway, September 24-October 1, 1993. The theme is wild nature and sustainable living in circumpolar regions. David Rothenberg is organizing a delegation of philosophers. He solicits papers from all philosophical perspectives on wilderness, emphasizing criticism and clarification of what the "wild" means in relation to conservation goals. The aim is analysis that will be useful for conservation, as well as advancing philosophical inquiry and understanding of nature. Papers should attempt to show why philosophy can illuminate our understanding of whatever human place there should be in the purest parts of nature. The papers may be published in the journal INQUIRY in Norway and/or in book form in the United States. Send preliminary ideas as soon as possible, or completed papers by March 1, 1993, to David Rothenberg, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark, NJ 07102.

David Rothenberg has recently been appointed to a position at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, which is actively building a faculty for an M. S. in environmental studies. They have also hired two persons in environmental policy, two persons in environmental history, and an environmental geographer. Eric Katz continues there. The Director and Dean of the program is John Opie.

A National Seminar on "Ethics and the Environment" ("Etika Dan Alam Sekitar" was held August 4-5 at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Robin Attfield gave two addresses, "Development and Environmentalism" and "Reasoning about the Environment: Ethical Decision-Making." Other speakers included Royal Professor Ungku A. Aziz; Dr. Thilla Chelliah, and Dr. Azizan Baharuddin (co-chairs of the seminar); and Professor Sham Sani, Tun Abdul Razak Professor, Center for International Studies, Ohio University. There were panels of speakers on "Ethics in Industry and Development" and on "Moral and Spiritual Perspectives on the Environment."

Study group on Environmental Philosophy and Chinese Environmental Protection. Ding Yong Zhi, who is philosophy vice professor of the Qingdao Institute of Architecture and Engineering, is leading a study group on environmental philosophy and environmental conservation in China, and invites those interested to contact him. The project is subsidized by the Chinese Social Science Foundation. Address: Ding Yong Zhi, Social Science Department, No. 11 Fu Shan Road, Qingdao Institute of Architecture and Engineering, Qingdao, P. R. CHINA.

Contemporary Environmental Ethics Research in China is a project of the Shanghai Philosophy and Social Science Plan, Ethics Division, Shanghai Normal University. Wang Zhengping is a principal investigator. The project undertakes a study of conditions that determine the behavior of persons in rural and urban areas, with regard to the natural environment. Contact: Professor Wang Zhengping, Ethics Division, Shanghai Normal University, 10 Gui Lin Road, Shanghai 200234, P. R. CHINA.

Avner de-Shallit, Department of Political Science, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, gave an address, "Liberalism, Europe and the Environment" at an international workshop on "Liberalism and the New Europe," in Czechoslovakia, July 1992. The question asked was why liberal societies are a fertile ground for producing green ideas but have failed to produce or to justify environmentally sound policies. For a copy, write Avner de-Shallit, Department of Political Science, Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, ISRAEL.

York University, Faculty of Environmental Studies, North York, Ontario, offers two graduate programs: A Master in Environmental Studies, a long-continuing program since 1968, one of the first such programs in North America, and a Ph.D. in Environmental Studies, established in 1991. A point of emphasis is the breadth of the program opportunities available. There is also an undergraduate degree program. Graduate students publish an annual, UNDERCURRENTS, of critical environmental studies. Contact: Admissions Liason Office, West Office Building, York University, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3. Phone: 416/736-5100.

The Boston Theological Institute presented a seminar: "The Renewal of Reverence: Theological Education in the Environmental Era," on April 27, 1992. The event was sponsored by nine theological schools in the Boston area and held at the Boston Museum of Science. U. S. Senator Al Gore was a featured speaker. Robert Kinloch Massie, Jr., Harvard Divinity School, spoke on "In the Name of the Wounded Sky" (an address printed in the HARVARD DIVINITY BULLETIN, vol. 21, no. 4, 1992). There was also a showing of the Imax film, BLUE PLANET.

Michael V. McGinnis has completed a Ph.D. dissertation, BIOREGIONALISM: TOWARDS AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The thesis was done in the Department of Political Science. The theory developed is applied to two cases: radioactive waste compacts and the Northwest Power Planning Council. Environmental administration should encompass natural values and ecological jurisdictions. It should move beyond technocentrism and maintain the integrity of the ecological community.

BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT is a new journal, sponsored by the Leicester Business School, Leicester, UK. Paper submissions are invited. Address inquiries to the Managing Editor, BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, European Research Press, Ltd., Tyson House, 34-38 Chapel Street, Little Germany, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD1 5DN, UK. Phone 0274 729315 within the UK. Outside UK: Phone 44 (country code) 274 (city code) 729315.

Eric Katz will give an address, "Ethics, Earth, and Technology: Nature as a Moral Category," April 10, 1993, in the series BOSTON COLLOQUIUM FOR THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. The address is at 8.00 p.m. at the Boston University School of Theology, Room 525. There will be commentary by Peter Buck, Harvard University. Katz is at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. In an earlier event in this series, Kristin Shrader-Frechette spoke on "Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Ethical Dilemmas at Yucca Mountain," on September 22.

ON THE OTHER HAND: NEWS FROM THE RUSSIAN ENVIRONMENT, vol. 1, no. 2, September 1992, has been issued. Articles include a Russian perspective on the UNCED conference at Rio, a study of the environment as a public issue in the former Soviet Union, including Russian conservationist organizations, and Western influences on environmentalism in Russia. There is also a report of the Buryat Environmental Education Conference, held August 14- 16, 1993 in the Buryat Autonomous Republic in southern Siberia, immediately north of Mongolia and to the east and south of Lake Baikal. That region is of great natural beauty but also contains resources that offer a quick palliative to stressed economic systems. For copies contact: Ernest Partridge, Editor, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0424. Anton Struchkov, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, is the Russian editor.

Environment, Ethics, and Education in Singapore. Dr. Padmasiri de Silva at the Information & Research Centre in Singapore is launching a program in "Environment, Ethics, and Education." The Institute hopes to integrate environmental ethics into environmental education in Southeast Asia. The Center is a private, independent, non-governmental research center devoted to strategic studies in the Asia-Pacific region. It receives support from a number of European, American, Canadian, and Japanese foundations and institutions. The hope is to link ecology, economics, culture, and ethics in a way that is useful to the academic community, business persons, politicians, and the media. Andrew Brennan, Australia, and Holmes Rolston serve on the Advisory Board. Contact: Dr. Padmasiri de Silva, Information & Resource Centre, 6 Nassim Road, Singapore 1025.

term to expire end of academic year (June 1) 1994
Vice-President: Eric Katz, 1994
Secretary, Laura Westra, 1995
Treasurer, Peter Miller, 1993
The Nominations Committee will be presenting a nomination for treasurer at the Annual Meeting. Suggestions are invited; send to Jack Weir (Central Division), Chair, Graduate House, 6500 S. Main Street, # 146, Houston, TX 77030. Phone 713/630-9333. Suggestions are also invited for future nominations. Other members of the nominating committee are: Kristin Shrader- Frechette (Eastern Division), Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave, CPR 107, Tampa, FL 33620-5550. Phone: 813/974-2447 or 813/974-2454, main philosophy office. George Sessions (Pacific Division), Department of Humanities, Sierra College Rocklin, CA 95667. Phone: 916/624-3333, Department of Humanities, Extension 2264. Robin Attfield (International Member), Philosophy Section, University of Wales, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, UNITED KINGDOM Phone: (0222) 874025. Fax: (0222) 874242.

Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122.

Wouter Achterberg is serving as the contact person for the United Kingdom and Europe (For Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, see below). He replaces Andrew Brennan, who has taken a position in Australia. Those in Western Europe and the Mediterranean should send their dues to him (the equivalent of $ 10 US) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Doelenstraat 15, 1012 CP Amsterdam, Netherlands. Contact him if in doubt what currencies he can accept. Fax 31 (country code) 20 (city code) 5254503.

Jan Wawrzyniak is serving as the contact person for Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He is on the faculty in the Department of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. Because of the fluid economic situation in Eastern Europe, members and others should contact him regarding the amount of dues and the method of payment. He also requests that persons in Eastern Europe send him information on classes in environmental ethics and environmental conservation and policy taught in universities there, as well as information about recent publications, conferences, and environmental issues and cases with ethical implications. He hopes to attach a regional newsletter to this general international one, as well as to share such information with the international membership of the society. Business address: Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c, Poland. Phone: 48 (country code) 61 (city code) 46461, ext. 288, 280. Fax: 48/61/527214. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, Poland. Phone 48/61/417275. Checks can be sent to his home with more security.

Azizan Baharuddin, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, is the contact person for ISEE for South-East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). Dr. Azizian teaches history and philosophy in the Science Faculty. Contact her with regard to membership and dues payable (the approximate equivalent of $US 10, but with appropriate adjustment for currency differentials and purchasing power). Her address is The Dean's Office, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fax 60 (Country code) 3 (City code) 756-6343. (Thanks to Robin Attfield, for making these arrangements.)

Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing this newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-4900, 24 hours. News may also be submitted to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4, and Canadian news is best directed to her. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed. The Newsletter is assembled shortly after January 1, April 1, July 1, October 1.

Positions Available

Northland College, Ashland, WI. Northland college seeks a faculty position in philosophy and religion with an emphasis in environmental ethics. Responsibilities include four to five courses per nine month academic year, in environmental ethics and possibilities in most of the traditional areas of philosophy and religion, as well as scholarly expectations. This position is the Hulings Distinguished Chair in the Humanities. Northland College is affiliated with the United Church of Christ and celebrating its Centennial in 1992. The college mission is to be a liberal arts and environmental college. The college is on the shores of Lake Superior. There are 750 students and 50 faculty. The College is home to the Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute. The position is available September 1, 1993. Applicants should submit materials by December 10, 1992, to Dr. Marianne Inman, Vice President and Dean of the College, Northland College, 1411 Ellis Avenue, Ashland, WI 54806. Phone 715/682-1226.

The Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, invites application for a tenure track position, teaching and doing research in environmental ethics. Assistant Professor level. Ph.D required and evidence of excellent teaching. Closing date for applications, November 15, 1992. Position to begin July 1, 1993. Females are especially encouraged to apply. In accordance with Canadian immigration requirements, priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents (landed immigrants) of Canada. Contact: Chair, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1.

The University of California, Santa Cruz, offers a tenure-track position in Environmental Economics and Policy. Rank: Assistant Professor. The successful candidate will have primary responsibility for developing the environmental economics curriculum in the Board of Environmental Studies new graduate program. They also seek an ecologist and landscape planner, to help develop a biodiversity policy unit. Contact Michael SoulÇ, Environmental Studies Board, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064.

Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials

The 1993 ISLAND PRESS ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCEBOOK is available, a 50 page catalog of books by Island Press and other presses on biological conservation and environmental management, including many titles of interest to those in environmental ethics. This is probably, among publishers, the one catalog with the most such books listed. It is published in cooperation with the Center for Resource Economics, Washington. Call 800/828-1302. Island Press has become a major publisher of environmental books in recent years.

--Joseph K. Sheldon, REDISCOVERY OF CREATION: A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL STUDY OF THE CHURCH'S RESPONSE TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS. Metuchen, N. J., American Theological Library Association and Scarecrow Press, 1992. 300 pages. $ 35.00. There are 1,700 references, dealing with religion and the environment, also ecofeminism, ecojustice, economics, wilderness, biotechnology. There is a long introductory essay, beginning with the 1967 attack by Lynn White and following the churches in their response. There are a number of typographical errors.

---THE MONIST, April 1992, vol. 72, no. 2, is on "The Intrinsic Value of Nature." The issue was released September 1992. J. Baird Callicott is the issue editor. Articles: John O'Neill, "The Varieties of Intrinsic Value" Robert Elliot, "Intrinsic Value, Environmental Obligation and Naturalness Tom Regan, "Does Environmental Ethics Rest on a Mistake?" Eugene C. Hargrove, "Weak Anthropocentric Intrinsic Value" Bryan G. Norton, "Epistemology and Environmental Values" Jim Cheney, "Intrinsic Value in Environmental Ethics: Beyond Subjectivism and Objectivism Anthony Weston, "Between Means and Ends" Holmes Rolston, III, "Disvalues in Nature" A copy of this single issue may be obtained for $ 7.00 from THE MONIST, P. O. Box 600, La Salle, IL 61301.
--THE TRUMPETER, Spring 92, vol. 9, no. 2, is a special issue on "The Long Range, Deep Ecology Movement and Arne Naess." Sixteen articles. Also a comprehensive bibliography of works by Arne Naess. Alan Drengson, Editor of THE TRUMPETER, seeks a new editor for the journal. For suggestions, contact him at Lightstar Press, P. O. Box 5853 Stn B, Victoria BC V8R 6S8, CANADA.

--GLOBAL ASSEMBLY OF WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT is a newsletter of the WorldWIDE Network. The July 1992 issue is "Gender and Environment: From Stockholm to Rio and Beyond." Contact: WorldWIDE Network, 1331 H. Street, NW, Suite 903, Washington, DC 20005.

--Karl Hess, Jr., VISIONS UPON THE LAND; MAN AND NATURE ON THE WESTERN RANGE. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1992. 279 pages. $ 22.00. Written from the "wise use" perspective, Hess argues that the decline of public lands is due to fundamental failures in government policy, to ecological destabilization caused by government intrusion, and to the destructiveness of sweeping ideologies. More laws and regulations to control the conservation of natural resources are popular but ultimately futile. An application of the concept of laissez-faire politics to the management of western rangelands. Hess is an environmental writer with the Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment, Seattle.

--J. Baird Callicott, "La Nature est Morte; Vive la Nature," HASTINGS CENTER REPORT 22 (September-October 1992):16-23. "The old, mechanistic idea of nature is dying. We are witnessing the shift to a new idea, in which nature is seen as an organic system that includes human beings as one of its components rather than as brutal and ultimately self-defeating conquistadores." "We are animals ourselves, large omnivorous primates, very precocious to be sure, but just big monkeys, nevertheless. We are therefore a part of nature, not set apart from it. Chicago is no less a phenomenon of nature than is the Great Barrier Reef." Callicott is in the Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

--Dwivedi, O. P., ed., WORLD RELIGIONS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. New Delhi, India: Gilanjal Publishing House, 1989. 461 pages. There are nine essays by Canadian and Indian authors, covering seven religions: Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism

--Michael SoulÇ, "A Conservation Biologist's Dilemma: "Does Boycotting South Africa Constitute Human Chauvinism?" EARTHWATCH, April 1988, pp. 12-13. SoulÇ first accepted, then declined a consulting trip to South Africa, protesting apartheid. "Clearly, in this case `humanism' (or is it `specism'?) triumphed over biological egalitarianism and whatever obligations I have to other species. This realization that I am, after all, a human chauvinist, came as a shock."

--Peter Sauer, ed., FINDING HOME: WRITINGS ON NATURE AND CULTURE FROM ORION MAGAZINE. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. $ 15.00. 293 pages. Essays by Barry Lopez, David Ehrenfeld, David Abram, Gary Nabhan, Terry Tempest Williams, Charles Bergman, and others--all on humans placed in the larger field of natural history.

--Robert Repetto, "Accounting for Environmental Assets," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 266 (no. 6, June):94-100. A country can cut down its forests, erode its soils, pollute its aquifers, and hunt its wildlife to extinction, but its measured income is not affected as these asserts disappear. Impoverishment is taken for progress. Repetto is with the World Resources Institute in Washington, formerly a professor of economics at Harvard University.

--Elaine Draper, RISKY BUSINESS (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991). This is a study in occupational diseases, caused by industrial environments that put employees at risk. Draper, a sociologist, claims there is what amounts to "genetic testing" in the workplace. She analyzes the fundamental underlying reasons, social and economic, for this phenomenon. Chemical corporations are aware of the high cost of litigation and compensation when employees are harmed on the job, those who manufacture and transport chemicals. So they attempt to screen those who are more susceptible and deny them employment. This can include women who are, or may become, pregnant.

--Anthony Weston, TOWARD BETTER PROBLEMS. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992. Cloth $ 49.95. Paper $ 18.95. Grappling with controversial issues such as abortion, animal rights, and environmental ethics, Weston explores the significance of approach and perspective in any decision-making context. The seemingly endless debates can be simplified or avoided by a "preventive ethics" that acknowledges that all values bearing on a social problem are acknowledged as equal and "correct." Chapter 4 is on animals, Chapter 5 on the environment. Weston is professor of philosophy at SUNY, Stonybrook. This year he is at Elon College, Elon, NC. ISEE members can obtain a 20% discount by identifying themselves. 800/447-1657.

--Max Oelschlaeger, ed., AFTER EARTHDAY: CONTINUING THE CONSERVATION EFFORT. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 1992. Cloth $ 24.50. Paper $ 15.95. Essays by Robert Paehlke, George Sessions, Pete A. Y. Gunter, Curt Meine, Cheryl Brooks, Kenneth Daugherty, Neil Evernden, Kenneth L. Dickson, Andrew Schoolmaster, Samuel Atkinson, Jenny Cheek, E. E. Spitler, Michael Nieswiadomy, Dolores LaChapelle, E. C. Hargrove, Michael Zimmerman, Elinor Gadon, Susan Bratton.

--FIRMAMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CHRISTIAN ECOLOGY, vol. 3, no. 3, Summer 1992 is an issue on ideas that created the global environmental crisis. Among other articles: HRM Prince Charles, "Architecture and Spiritual Principle: Building My Dream of Future Harmony." "The modern tendency to forget sacred principles in building design fosters a sterile, mechanistic worldview in which the spiritual dimension is extinguished. The solution lies in a form of architecture which honors the sacred and maintains a continuity with tradition." Architecture tends to dislocate us from a sense of belonging in our environment. Prince Charles is forming a new architecture school.

--Richard E. Hart, ed., ETHICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992. 158 pages. $ 42.50 cloth. $ 16.50 paper. Co-published with the Long Island Philosophical Society. Twelve contributions from philosophers, humanists, geologists, chemists, and physicists. Property rights, organisms and communities, environmental values, with concluding discussion of two environmental problems that affect Long Island: nuclear energy and a safe water supply.

--Carl F. Cranor, REGULATING TOXIC SUBSTANCES: A PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND THE LAW. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Cranor is at the University of California, Riverside. 272 pages. $ 39.95.

--Roger M. Cooke, EXPERTS IN UNCERTAINTY: OPINION AND SUBJECTIVITY PROBABILITY IN SCIENCE. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. 336 pages. $ 65.00.

--Deborah G. Mayo, ed., ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE: SCIENCE AND VALUES IN RISK MANAGEMENT. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. 304 pages. $ 35.00.

--Juan de Onis, THE GREEN CATHEDRAL: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AMAZONIA. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 304 pages. $ 24.95.

--Helge Ole Bergesen, and others, eds., GREEN GLOBE YEARBOOK 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 304 pages. $ 45.00. The politics of international management. Ten articles in analysis of ozone depletion, climate change, endangered species, hazardous wastes, biodiversity, population control, environmental law, sustainable energy development. The second half of the book is reference data of various kinds.

--Andrew Hurrell and Benedict Kingsbury, eds., THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 512 pages. $ 19.95 paper. $ 72.00 cloth. All the problems, with particular attention to the roles of the United Nations, the World Bank, and the European Community. Case studies in Brazil, Japan, and the United States. --Robert Boardman, ed., CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: ECOSYSTEMS, POLITICS, AND PROCESS. New York: Oxford University Press, 1002. 335 pages. $ 31.00 paper. Boardman is at Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia.

--Jim MacNeill, Pieter Winsemius, and Taizo Yakushiju, BEYOND INTERDEPENDENCE: THE MESHING OF THE WORLD'S ECONOMY AND THE EARTH'S ECOLOGY. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 192 pages. $ 8.95 paper. $ 24.95 cloth. An effort to make the recommendations of the Brundtland Report more operational. McNeill is at the Institute for Research on Public Policy in Ottawa, Winsemius and Yakushiju are at Saitama University, Japan.

--Christopher Weeramantry, NAURU: ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE UNDER INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 416 pages. $ 72.00. Weeramantry is on the Commission on Inquiry on the Rehabilitation of Phosphate Lands in Nauru, an island in the South Pacific entrusted to Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. The island has quite valuable phosphate deposits and was much contested, raped, bombed in the war. International law, mandate and trusteeship, abuse of power, unjust enrichment, acquired rights and permanent sovereignty over national, natural resources. Probably the most detailed practical study of an international mandate and trusteeship ever conducted.

--David Cameron Duffy and Albert J. Meier, "Do Appalachian Herbaceous Understories Ever Recover from Clearcutting?" CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 6(1992):196-201. The answer is no--at least for a very long time. In a study of sites from 45 to 87 years later, the understory was only one-third as abundant as in the original primary forest. This article was featured in a story in the NEW YORK TIMES, "Study Casts Doubt on Belief in Self-Revival of Cleared Forests," by Catherine Dold, September 1, 1992, p. B9. (Thanks to Doug Daigle.)

--Timothy C. Weiskel, "Religion, Belief, and Survival on a Small Planet," HARVARD DIVINITY BULLETIN, vol. 21, no. 4, 1992. "We must seek to derive our values from both the emerging revelations of ecosystem science and the prophetic insights of past theological traditions." Weiskel is director of the Harvard Seminar on Environmental Values and also at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard.

--George R. Robinson, et al, "Diverse and Contrasting Effects of Habitat Fragmentation," SCIENCE 257(July 24, 19920:524-526. Different parts of an ecosystem respond in very different ways to habitat fragmentation. Soil mineralization and plant succession may be relatively uninterrupted. Some measures of plant and animal diversity may not change with differing sizes of fragmentation. But vertebrate population dynamics are greatly affected, as well as are plant species that reproduce by cloning. --Martin Palmer, "Dancing to Armageddon: Doomsday and Utopia in Contemporary Science and Religion." CTNS BULLETIN (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley) vol. 12, no. 2, Winter 1992. A new model to guide humankind's relation to the natural world. Palmer is a religious advisor to the World Wildlife Fund, an advisor to Prince Philip on environmental issues, and Director of the International Consultancy on Religion, Education and Culture, Manchester, UK. The lecture summarizes his forthcoming book of a similar title, Harper Collins, 1992.

--Ned Hettinger, "Bambi Lovers versus Tree Huggers: A Critique of Rolston's Environmental Ethics." Without modification, Rolston's views are biased in favor of plants, since he gives them stronger protection than he does animals. Rolston could modify his views to give stronger protection to animals, but this would undermine his acceptance of meat-eating and certain types of hunting. As the quintessential natural process, carnivorous predation is rightfully valued and respected by environmentalists such as Rolston. Animal rightists, on the other hand, by condemning human participation in nature, risk hating nature. The challenge for Rolston's animal activist critics is to show that one can properly appreciate natural predation while consistently and plausibly objecting to human participation in it. This paper is forthcoming in ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, but, due to the backlog of papers there, may not appear soon. Copies available from Ned Hettinger, Department of Philosophy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424.

--James B. Martin-Schramm, "Population Growth, Poverty, and Environmental Degradation," THEOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY 4(1992):26- 38. Martin-Schramm is at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

--Carol J. Adams, ed., ECOFEMINISM AND THE SACRED. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1992. 250 pages. $ 16.95 paper. $ 39.95 cloth. Part I: Sallie McFague on an earthly theological agenda, Carol Lee Sanchez on the sacred connection between animal, vegetable, and mineral, Delores Williams on the womanist tradition on sin, defilement, and the environment, Judith Plaskow on feminist Judaism and repairing the world, Lena Gupta on Hinduism and ecofemimism. Part II: on animal consciousness, ecological politics, Goddess mythology, and others. Catherine Keller, Marjorie Procter-Smith, Jane Caputi, Rebecca Johnson, Andy Smith, Janet Biehl, Chellis Glendinning, Marti Keel, Teal Willoughby.

--John B. Cobb, Jr., SUSTAINABILITY: ECONOMICS, ECOLOGY, AND JUSTICE. Maryknoll, NY. Orbis Books, 1992. Paper $ 16.95. Cloth $ 39.95. Can a liveable society be sustainable? How to move beyond anthropocentrism without surrendering humanity's unique contribution to the globe. Does Christianity have anything to say about living in today's world of limits. Cobb is emeritus professor of theology at Claremont School of Theology.
--Jeremy Cohen, BE FERTILE AND INCREASE, FILL THE EARTH AND MASTER IT": THE ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL CAREER OF A BIBLICAL TEXT. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989 cloth, paper 1991. 375 pages. The history of the famous "subdue and conquer" text in Genesis, from a Jewish perspective and from antiquity through the Reformation, in law, exegesis, homily, theology, mysticism, philosophy, and poetry. Cohen seeks to dispel the notion that the Genesis story must bear responsibility for Western insensitivity to the natural environment. Cohen is professor of Jewish history at The Ohio State University.

--Swetlitz, Marc, ed., JUDAISM AND ECOLOGY, 1970-1986: A Sourcebook of Readings, 1990, published by Shomrei Adamah, Church Road and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095, available at that address. An anthology of fourteen articles intended to provide Jewish leaders and educators with liturgical, educational, and resource materials that inspire an awareness of nature and promote an active practice of stewardship. With a selected bibliography. (Thanks to Steven Shaw for these two entries.)

--Roger D. Stone, THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT: A REPORT FROM THE RURAL TROPICS ON THE QUEST FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. 286 pp. $ 23. Planning has been from the top-down by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund and largely unsuccessful. Planning ought rather to be from the bottom-up, especially as third world peoples become increasingly skilled at ecological research and strategy and ever more adept at communicating their needs and opinions. Still, a major obstacle is the "excruciating difficult of accomplishing ANYTHING in rural work." Stone is a senior fellow at the World Wildlife Fund.

--Alan Durning, HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH? THE CONSUMER SOCIETY AND THE FUTURE OF THE EARTH. New York: W. W. Norton. $ 8.95. 200 pages. 1992. The richest one-fifth of humanity causes vastly disproportionate environmental damage because of its growing demand for material goods. The consumption gap between industrialized and developing countries is 18 to 1 for chemicals, 10 to 1 for timber and energy, 3 to 1 for grain and fresh water. Groundwater in the U.S. is being pumped 25 times faster than the normal rate of replenishment. Meanwhile, surveys show there has not been any noticeable increase in personal satisfaction or happiness.

--Jeremy Rifkin, BIOSPHERE POLITICS: A NEW CONSCIOUSNESS FOR A NEW CENTURY. New York: Crown Publishers, 1991. Cloth. 388 pages. Rifkin argues that the human species is entering the third stage of human consciousness, signaling the most significant change in human culture since the Neolithic revolution. He wants security based on increased autonomy, efficiency, and mobility replaced by a new form of security grounded in deep re-participation. He argues that politics along the conservative/liberal spectrum should give way to a new Earth-directed politics dedicated to preserving, enhancing, and resacralizing life within the biosphere. Rifkin is the author of ENTROPY and is president of both the Foundation on Economic Trends and the Greenhouse Crisis Foundation in Washington, DC.

--Rosemary Radford Reuther, GAIA AND GOD: AN ECOFEMINIST THEOLOGY OF EARTH HEALING. San Francisco: Harpers, 1992. 288 pages. $ 22.00 cloth. Reuther sifts through the legacy of the Christian and Western cultural heritage to critique beliefs and stories that have negatively influenced our relationships with each other and with the Earth. "A healed relation to each other and to the earth calls for a new consciousness, a new symbolic culture and spirituality." "We must see the work of ecojustice and the work of spirituality as interrelated, the inner and outer aspects of one process of conversion and transformation." John Cobb says, "Reuther brings her encyclopedic knowledge of the history of human life on this planet to bear on questions more often treated in sweeping generalizations. ... This is Christian theology at its best: tough-minded, convincing, and dealing with matters of utmost importance."

--Arturo G¢mez-Pompa and Andrea Kaus, "Taming the Wilderness Myth," BIOSCIENCE 42 (no. 4, April 1992):271-279. "Environmental policy and education are currently based on Western beliefs about nature rather than on reality." "The perspectives of the rural populations are missing in our concept of conservation. Many environmental education programs are strongly biased by elitist urban perceptions of the urban world. This approach is incomplete and insufficient to deal with the complex context of conservation efforts and home and abroad. It neglects the perceptions and experience of the rural populations, the people most closely linked to the land, who have a firsthand understanding of their surrounding natural environment as teacher and provider." "Until we understand that the tropical forests are `both artifact and habitat,' we will be advocating policies for a mythical pristine environment that exists only in our imagination." The authors argue that, especially in Mexico and the Amazon, the pre-European landscape was already managed intensively by the indigenous peoples and that there was no undisturbed wilderness. G¢mez-Pompa is professor of botany at the University of California Consortium on Mexico and Kaus is a graduate student in anthropology at the University of California, Riverside.

--Mohan K. Wali, ed., ECOSYSTEM REHABILITATION: PREAMBLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. The Hague, Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 1992. Vol. 1: POLICY ISSUES. 230 pages. $ 42.50. Vol. 2: ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS. 388 pages. $ 72.50. Restoration of degraded ecosystems--agricultural and grassland ecosystems, forests, wetlands--especially in Third World countries. With particular emphasis on how to mix policy and scientific issues. Wali is professor in the School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University.

--Mohan K. Wali, "Does It Have to be a Faustian Bargain?" Pages 31-41 in K. P. Singh and J. S. Singh, eds., TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS: ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT. New Delhi, India: Wiley Eastern Limited, 1992. "Modern man, with technological extravaganza, is mortgaging the future of natural resources for short-term gains." Adequate solutions to prevent a Faustian bargain require interdisciplinary effort from ecologists and other natural scientists, educators, economists, social scientists, media, politicians and statesmen.

--Narendra P. Sharma, MANAGING THE WORLD'S FORESTS: LOOKING FOR BALANCE BETWEEN CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1992. By distorting the true cost of forest resources, perverse public policies have encouraged short-term exploitation of forests. Sharma is an economist at the World Bank and an adjunct professor in the School of the Environment, Duke University.

--Henry A. Regier, "Ecosystem Integrity in the Great Lakes Basin: An Historical Sketch of Ideas and Actions," JOURNAL OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM HEALTH 1(1992):25-37. A study of the concepts of "ecosystem" and "integrity" in the binational political arena in the Great Lakes Basin, since 1970. Regier traces a series of documents that have helped to clarify and make operational these terms, a process in which he himself has been participant. Regier is at the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto.

--Henry A. Regier, "The Notion of Natural and Cultural Integrity," forthcoming, available in preprint. Request from Henry A. Regier, Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4, Canada.

--Daniel Bonevac, ed., TODAY'S MORAL ISSUES: CLASSIC AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1992. With a section on the environment: Carl Sagan, "Pulling the Plug on Mother Earth"; Barry Commoner, "Economic Growth and Environmental Quality: How to Have Both"; William K. Reilly, "The Green Thumb of Capitalism: The Environmental Benefits of Sustainable Growth"; and Gretchen Moregenson with Gale Eisenstodt, "Profits Are for Rape and Pillage." Sagan: "Society is, to put it simply, fouling its nest." That sees Earth as "our nest," and that seems right, but is it "simply our nest," or is that put over-simply, since there are other residents of the nest?
--Martin W. Lewis, GREEN DELUSIONS: AN ENVIRONMENTALIST CRITIQUE OF RADICAL ENVIRONMENTALISM. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992. 288 pages, cloth. "Eco-radicalism tells us that we must dismantle our technological and economic system, and ultimately our entire civilization. Once we do so, the rifts between humanity and nature will purportedly heal automatically. I disagree. What I believe we must do is disengage humanity from nature by cleaving to, but carefully guiding, the path of technological progress. It is for the environmental community to decide which alternative offers the best hope for ecological salvation" (p. 251, concluding paragraph). Many of the most devoted and strident "greens," those who propose a radical environmentalism, unwittingly espouse an ill-conceived doctrine that has devastating implications for the global ecosystem. Lewis distinguishes the main variants of eco-extremism, exposes the fallacies upon which such views ultimately flounder, and demonstrates that the policies advocated by their proponents would, if enacted, result in unequivocal ecological catastrophe. The agenda proposed by eco-extremists, based on local economic self-sufficiency, a shunning of market exchange, and a general retreat from advanced technology would require a thoroughgoing reinvention of all social and economic forms. That has the potential for monumental disruption and complete political alienation, an undermining of the very foundations on which a new and ecologically sane economic order must be built. Lewis advocates moving forward into the solar age, an age that will require more investment in our technological infrastructure and well as the retention of a globally integrated economy. Lewis, once himself a radical environmentalist (p. 80), now advocates what he calls a "Promethean environmentalism" (p. 16, p. 250, etc.). In order to advance the reforms needed to change our present course, environmentalism must avoid divisive radical philosophies and try to create a broad-ranging consensus. Lewis is Assistant Professor of Geography at George Washington University.

--Vandana Shiva, THE VIOLENCE OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION: THIRD WORLD AGRICULTURE, ECOLOGY, AND POLITICS. Cloth and paper. 264 pages. London: Zed Books; Penang, Malaysia, Third World Network, 1991. An examination of the Green Revolution on the breadbasket of India. The quick fix promise of large gains in output pushed aside serious pursuit of an alternative agricultural strategy grounded in respect for the environmental wisdom of peasant systems and building an egalitarian, needs-oriented agriculture, consistent with the village-based, endogenous political traditions of Ghandism. There was destruction of genetic diversity and soil fertility, and the Green Revolution contributed to the acute social and political conflicts now tearing the Punjab apart. Shiva argues in critique of the privileged epistemological position alleged by modern science which allows it both to claim to provide technological solutions for social and political problems while at the same time disclaiming responsibility for the new problems that it creates in its wake. Further, there has been a continuing ripoff as the industrialists and geneticists of the First World have stolen Third World genetic resources. "The US ... has freely taken the biological diversity of the Third World to spin millions of dollars of profits, none of which have been shared with Third World Countries, the original owners of the germplasm" (p. 260). Shiva is a philosopher and feminist, and director of the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy, Dehradun, India.

--Frederick F. Gilbert and Donald G. Dodds, THE PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT, 2nd ed. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Co., 1992. Cloth. 313 pages. The first edition was in 1987. Includes analyses of conflicts and values in wildlife management, biological bases for management, habitat management, endangered species, exotics, urban wildlife, environmental impact assessment, international wildlife issues. Gilbert is professor of natural resources sciences at Washington State University, Dodds is a wildlife consultant in Nova Scotia.

--Peter Bishop, THE GREENING OF PSYCHOLOGY: THE VEGETABLE WORLD IN MYTH, DREAM, AND HEALING. Dallas, TX: Spring Publications, 1990. Paper. 237 pages. "When we neglect the classical notion of a vegetable soul, with its deep downwardness, the very roots of our lives wither. By exploring the green level of the psyche, this book radically changes our usual notions of what is consciousness and who we are."

--John E. Mack, "Inventing a Psychology of Our Relationship to the Earth."
--E. Scott Geller, "Solving Environmental Problems: A Behavior Change."
Both in Sylvia Staub and Paula Green, eds., PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: FACING GLOBAL CHALLENGES. New York: New York University Press, 1992. Mack is professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Geller is professor of psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

--Robyn Eckersley, ENVIRONMENTALISM AND POLITICAL THEORY: TOWARD AN ECOCENTRIC APPROACH. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. Paper. 274 pages. Claims to be the most detailed and comprehensive examination to date of the impact of environmentalism upon contemporary political thought. An interdisciplinary study that builds bridges between environmental philosophy, ecological thought, and political inquiry. Eckersley is Australian Research Council Fellow, Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania.

--Jonathan Lemco, ed., TENSIONS AT THE BORDER: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES. New York: Praeger, 1992. Climate change, acid rain, global warming, The Great Lakes, water and hydroelectric exports, hazardous wastes as international problems between the U.S. and Canada. Lemco is Senior Fellow at the National Planning Association and associated with Johns Hopkins University.

--Donna J. Haraway, SIMIANS, CYBORGS, AND WOMEN: THE REINVENTION OF NATURE. New York: Routledge, 1991. A feminist argues that nature is constructed, not discovered, and traces the gendered roots of science in culture, looking at research on simians, cyborgs (cybernetic organisms), and women. Haraway is a historian of science at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

--Patrick D. Murphy, UNDERSTANDING GARY SNYDER. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Cloth. 186 pages. Murphy examines Snyder's poetry and prose, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning TURTLE ISLAND. An introduction summarizes Snyder's career and provides an overview of the three factors Murphy finds crucial to understanding Snyder's works: Buddhism, ecology, and "field-composition" poetics of contemporary free verse. Previous critics have not recognized the extent to which these interpenetrate. With an extensive bibliography on Snyder. Murphy is in the English Department at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and specializes in environmental writing and writers.

--Rogene A. Buchholz, PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: THE GREENING OF BUSINESS. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Paper. 433 pages. Part I provides background material on the historical development of environmental concerns, principles of ecology, environmental ethics, and public policy. Part II studies major environmental problems: global warming, air pollution, water pollution, pesticides and toxics, waste disposal, deforestation and species decimation, and coastal erosion and wetlands destruction. Part III analyzes strategies for business and strategies for society. Buchholz is in the College of Business Administration, Loyola University of New Orleans.

--J. Baird Callicott, "Can a Theory of Moral Sentiments Support a Genuinely Normative Environmental Ethic?" INQUIRY 35(1992):183- 198. The conceptual foundations of Aldo Leopold's land ethic are traceable through Darwin to the sentiment-based ethics of Hume. According to Hume, the moral sentiments are universal; and, according to Darwin, they were naturally selected in the intensely social matrix of human evolution. Hence they may provide a "consensus of feeling," functionally equivalent to the normative force of reason overriding inclination. But then ethics, allege Kristin Shrader-Frechette and Warwick Fox, is reduced to a description of human nature, and the question remains open whether one really ought or ought not value, approve, or do this or that. The moral sentiments, however, are informed by culture. Specific ethical injunctions, even so, are not culturally relative, because cultural beliefs are amenable to cognitive criticism. New experience and new discoveries of science may bring to light hitherto unrecognized "proper objects" of our moral sentiments.
This paper was originally delivered at the Pacific Division, APA, March 1991. Callicott is professor of philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

--Peter Westbroek, LIFE AS A GEOLOGICAL FORCE: DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH. New York: Norton, 1991. $ 21.95. How biological and geological factors are interwoven in the processes of life on Earth. With particular attention to the landscape of the author's native Holland.

--Stephen Budiansky, THE COVENANT OF THE WILD: WHY ANIMALS CHOSE DOMESTICATION. New York: Wm. Morrow, 1992. $ 18. A commentary on the relationship of humans to animals and on humankind's place in the natural world.

--Max Oelschlaeger, ed., THE WILDERNESS CONDITION: ESSAYS ON ENVIRONMENT AND CIVILIZATION. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1992. 345 pages. Paper. $16.00. Essays by Gary Snyder, Paul Shepard, George Sessions, Curt Meine, Erazim Koh_k, Michael P. Cohen, Delores LaChapelle, Michael Zimmerman, and Max Oelschlaeger.

--Wesley Granberg-Michaelson, REDEEMING THE CREATION: THE RIO EARTH SUMMIT: CHALLENGE FOR THE CHURCHES. Geneva: World Council of Churches (WCC) Publications, Risk Book Series, 1992. $ 6.95. World Council of Churches, 150 route de Ferney, P. O. Box 2100, 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland. Available in the U.S. from World Council of Churches Distribution Center (in Pennsylvania), 800/523-8211. A brief, rather insightful account of the presence and policy of the World Council of Churches in the debates surrounding the Earth Summit. Could be useful in religion classes or church study groups.

--Stephan Schmidheiny, CHANGING COURSE: A GLOBAL BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE ON DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 374 pages. Paper $ 16.95, Business edition: hardcover plus executive summary, $ 35.00. (This book was listed earlier, Newsletter, vol, 3, no. 2, Summer 1992, but more detail is now available). Business and sustainable development, pricing the environment, energy and the marketplace, capital markets and sustainable development, innovative technology, technology cooperation, agriculture and forestry, with dozens of case studies from a diverse array of areas. William Reilly, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency, has told his staff that if they read but one book a year in the field, it ought to be this one. If you haven't got time to read it, there is an executive summary, CHANGING COURSE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, also MIT Press, 46 pages, but sold only with the hardcover. Schmidheiny was chief advisor for business and industry to Maurice Strong, planning for the UNCED conference.

--William Vitek, "Teaching Environmental Ethics," TEACHING PHILOSOPHY 15 (no. 2):151-173. June 1992. An advocacy approach to teaching environmental ethics, interpreting the pedagogy of Vitek's course in environmental ethics. This paper was earlier given at the Boston APA, December 1990. Vitek is professor of Philosophy at Clarkson University.

--Michel Pollan, "Only Man's Presence Can Save Nature," JOURNAL OF FORESTRY 88(no.7, July, 1990):24-33. A panel with Daniel B. Botkin, Dave Foreman, James Lovelock, Frederick Turner, and Robert D. Yaro. The theme is the shifting definitions of nature and of humans. Some opinions: "We are foolish to believe that all our problems are solvable, especially by technology or sociology." "The quintessential element of nature [is] us. Humankind is more WHAT NATURE IS than anything else." "The Indians changed the ecology of North America totally." "We shouldn't treat nature as if it's a machine--take it apart, rebuild it, and substitute new parts. The rule should be: change nature at nature's rates and in nature's ways." Michael Pollan is executive editor of HARPER'S MAGAZINE, in which this earlier appeared. And he ought to have better sense than to use a sexist title like this. Maybe his environmentalist opinions are suspect on this account alone.

--Paul Schneider, "When a Whistle Blows in the Forest ..." AUDUBON, January/February 1992. A study of the fates of U. S. Forest Service employees who question the policies of their agency. There are service mandates to cut more trees, but such mandates often conflict with other mandates, in environmental legislation, for sustainable forestry, protection of endangered species, biodiversity, and ecosystem health. Employees who maintain they are obeying the law, or who maintain that they are doing what good scientific management requires, may find they have lost their jobs, or been transferred to harmless positions. The most celebrated such case is that of John Mumma, regional forester in charge of 15 national forests in Montana, northern Idaho, and parts of Washington and the Dakotas, who was forced to resign for his refusal to cut as much timber as was ordered. His resignation provoked a Congressional investigation. "I am in shock at what's happening on the national forests," he told Congress.

--Robert E. Manning, "The Nature of America: Visions and Revisions of Wilderness," NATURAL RESOURCES JOURNAL 29(1989):25-40. Wilderness has proved to have not only the values Congress anticipated in the Wilderness Act, but other, unexpected values as well. Manning is professor in the School of Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington.

--Robin Attfield and Barry Wilkins, eds., INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE AND THE THIRD WORLD. London: Routledge, 1992. This anthology contests the view that there is no such thing as justice between societies of unequal power, and that there is no obligation to assist poor people in distant countries. Third World indebtedness is profoundly exploitative, and Third World debts should be unconditionally cancelled. Both authors are at the University College of Wales, Cardiff.

--Rupert Sheldrake, THE REBIRTH OF NATURE: THE GREENING OF SCIENCE AND GOD. London: Rider, 1990, 1991. An imprint of Random Century Group, Ltd, 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SW1V 25A, and available in several other nations. Our earlier ancestors took it for granted that the world was "alive," but the official view of nature as a mechanistic, inanimate storehouse of riches and resources to be exploited for human gain has dominated for the past several hundred years and brought with it unprecedented abuse of the living world. Now there are new developments in science that make such a viewpoint no longer valid. We are on the threshold of a new understanding of nature in which traditional religious wisdom, personal experience, and scientific insight can be mutually enriching, and produce a society in which humans are in harmony with living nature.

--WORLD DIRECTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, 4th ed., edited by Thaddeus C. Trzyna, President of the California Institute of Public Affairs and chairman of the IUCN Commission on Environmental Strategy and Planning, also by Roberta Childers. 232 pages. $ 45.00. Jointly produced by the California Institute of Public Affairs, the Sierra Club, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Covers 2,600 organizations in every nation in the world.


People in most countries rank environment as a major concern. A recent Gallup poll found surprisingly widespread concern about the environment in Third World as well as in industrialized nations. In a majority of the countries, environment ranked second only to economic woes as the most serious problem people felt their nations faced. Yet, when asked directly whether they want environmental protection or economic growth to take priority, majorities in all but two nations, India and Turkey, chose the environment. The poll also found that the poor people in Third World nations are a lot less likely to blame the rich in industrial nations for their environmental problems than many world leaders seem to assume, and despite this as a major claim at the Rio conference. People in developing countries, for example, clearly recognize the impact of population growth in their own countries on their environment. Gallup concludes, "Clearly the environment has joined such problems as the economy and crime and violence as major concerns around the world." Gallup International Institute, "The Health of the Planet Survey."
National Environmental Education Report to U.S. Congress. The 1990 Environmental Education Act required the Environmental Education Advisory Council to prepared a summary report to Congress every two years. The Report is to address problems affecting environmental education in the U.S., suggest improvements, and recommend specific changes or new initiatives. The first report is due in November 1992. A Public Review Draft has been circulating since August. The Environmental Protection Agency and the North American Association for Environmental Education are participating. The report can be obtained from Kathleen McKinnon in the EPA Office of Education. Phone 202/260- 4951. (Thanks to Kathy Hatcher, University of Georgia, Institute of Natural Resources.)

Property rights vs. the environment. Bills have been introduced in 27 states that interpret environmental regulations as the "taking" of private property (under the U. S. Fifth Amendment), requiring compensation.

Jaroslav Pelikan on environmental ethics and the university. "Hardly a day passes without some new disaster to the environment being brought to public attention. Apologists for capitalist private enterprise are embarrassed to admit how rapaciously human greed and the capacity for short-sighted exploitation have ravaged the planet, but socialist critics of free enterprise capitalism are no less acutely embarrassed to learn what ecological atrocities have taken place in the planned economies of Marxist regimes. Anyone who cares simultaneously about the environment and about the university must address the question whether the university has the capacity to meet a crisis that is not only ecological and technological, but ultimately educational and moral.

"The appearance at many universities everywhere of courses, programs, departments, and entire schools bearing the title `environmental studies' is evidence that the question has begun to force itself upon the attention of educators. Just how much of this is a genuine wave of the future and how much is mere tinkering will depend at least in part on the readiness of the university community to address the underlying intellectual issues and moral imperatives of having responsibilities for the earth, and to do so with an intensity and ingenuity matching that shown by previous generations in obeying the command to have dominion over the planet. Having once been the enemy, `the wild beasts of the earth' in the Apocalypse have become victims, or fellow victims, and what must now be `subdued' under the imperative of the Book of Genesis are the forces, most of them set into motion by human agents and some of them with the complicity of the university, that threaten the future of the earth--upon which, it must seem supererogatory to point out, the future of the university also hangs." Jaroslav Pelikan, "The Storm Breaking over the University: The University in Crisis," (Chapter 2) in THE IDEA OF THE UNIVERSITY: A REEXAMINATION (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992). pp. 20-21. Pelikan is Sterling Professor of History at Yale University.

The Greening of the U.S. Post Office. The U. S. Postal Service now sells stamped (29 cents) envelopes with different stamp designs (some with environmental themes), all made with recycled paper. The envelopes come in two sizes--a # 10 business size and a smaller 6 1/2" side--and sell for 34 cents each.

Coloradoans face a November referendum that calls for the elimination of bear hunting in the spring and the use of dogs and bait. The initiative is called CUB, Coloradoans United for Bears, and particularly objects to spring bear hunting, which often leads to the killing of nursing mothers and the orphaning and death of their dependent cubs. Frequent petitions, signed by many thousands of persons, to the Colorado Wildlife Commission, have been refused, although the Commission has modified the hunting season to decrease the number of females taken. Hence the recourse to public referendum. The Colorado Wildlife Commission, an appointed board that sets the hunting seasons, is not to be confused with the Colorado Division of Wildlife, the professional state agency, which has sometimes made alternative recommendations to those enacted by the appointed Commission.

Dr. Ian Player, prominent South African conservationist, was sacked (in mid-July) from the Natal Parks Board, along with Dr. Nolly Zaloumis. The move was ostensibly made to replace them with younger members, but is widely interpreted as a move to diminish the statue of Dr. Player in his organization of a campaign to prevent mining by Richards Bay Minerals on the eastern shores of St. Lucia. Dr. Player is a key figure in the Campaign for St. Lucia, which represents 120 conservation organizations and several thousand individual members internationally. (Thanks to Wayne Elliott, kwaZulu Department of Natural Resources).

Hurricane Andrew did much damage to ecosystems in South Florida, so altering major conservation reserves that they may never recover. Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park, Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary, John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park and Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge are affected. One problem is that seeds from exotic plants such as Australian pines, melaleucas, Brazilian pepper trees, and others were broadcast over the natural areas, and, in destroyed areas, these plants will outcompete the native species in the recovery. Story in NEW YORK TIMES, September 3, 1992.

Growth could kill China's environment. A two-volume report by the World Bank, the most comprehensive study ever done in English of China's environmental problems, finds that China's environment is being destroyed on a massive scale because of the nation's rapid economic development, heavy population load, intensive farming, and weak regulatory efforts. The report finds that drinking water and air are especially polluted. Also, almost all wildlands outside nature reserves will be lost within the next few decades. The BALTIMORE SUN obtained a copy of the report, which was printed in draft last April, but has been tightly restricted to official circles since then, pending final revision.

The U. S. National Academy of Science and the Royal Society of London have presented a joint statement which warns: "There is an urgent need to address economic activity, population growth, and environmental protection as interrelated issues." The statement begins by claiming that science can and should be mobilized to create new opportunities for human progress." But it goes on to caution against placing too much faith in science. "If current predictions of population growth prove accurate and patterns of human activity remain unchanged, science and technology may not be able to prevent either irreversible degradation of the environment or continued poverty for much of the world." (Thanks to Mary McAfee)

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has released a report, "State of the World Population 1992," that predicts dire consequences for the global environment if population growth is not curbed soon. The current rate of population growth presents "the most serious threat to local and global environments since the human species evolved." Copies of the report can be obtained free from External Relations, UNFPA, 220 E. 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Phone 212/297-5017.

Recent and Upcoming Events

--November 1-5. Managing Water Resources During Global Change: An International Conference, at Reno, Nevada. With a number of sponsors. Contact: American Water Resource Association, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 220, Bethesda, MD 20814. Phone 301/493- 8600.

--November 3-4. "The Natural Environment from a Theocentric Perspective," three lectures by James M. Gustafson at Baldwin- Wallace College, Berea, Ohio. The lectures are: "Attitudes Toward Nature," "Human Accountability and Nature," and "Policy Issues for Preserving the Environment." Gustafson is professor of humanities at Emory University and author of ETHICS FROM A THEOCENTRIC PERSPECTIVE. Call Fred Blumer at Baldwin-Wallace College, 216/826-2172.

--November 8-12. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 13th Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio. With a session on "Environmental Ethics, Science, and Society." Session organized by Brad Warden and Eric Hol, will include papers by Eugene Hargrove and Laura Westra.

--November 8-12. Environmental Ethics: Implications for Natural Resource Management, Lake Placid/Saranac High Peaks, New York. This conference has been canceled.

--November 12. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) meets in Cincinnati, OH, with a session on "The Role of Environmental Ethics." Speakers include Eugene Hargrove and Laura Westra.

--November 20-22. Environmental Ethics Nature Interpretation Workshop, at Lake Murray State Park, Ardmore, Oklahoma. Featuring Gene Hargrove, Susan Bratton, and Max Oelschlaeger, all of the University of North Texas, also Buzz Williams, Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics, and Mark Teders, Park Naturalist, Lake Murray State Park. Contact: Eugene Hargrove, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-3496. Phone 817/565-2727.

--November 21-24. American Academy of Religion/Society for Biblical Literature, Annual Meeting at San Francisco, Hilton Hotel. The Science and Religion section is on "Redemption of Humanity and Nature," featuring an address by Holmes Rolston, "Does Nature Need to Be Redeemed?" with commentary and discussion.
This presentation is Monday, November 23, 3.45-6.15 p.m.

--November 30-December 3. Circumpolar Universities Cooperation, 3rd Conference in Rovaneimi, Finland. With sections on "Environmental Problems and Strategies in the Circumpolar North," on "International Cooperation in Circumpolar Development," and others. Rovaniemi, the administrative capital of Lapland, lies right on the Arctic Circle. Tours are offered to the wilderness in the Finnish Lapland. Contact: Professor Esko Riepula, University of Lapland, P. O. Box 122, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland. Phone: 358-60-324 207. Fax 358-60-3241.

--December 9-10. Entomology Society of America, meeting in Baltimore, MD. With two ISEE Sessions, on the theme of sustainability in agriculture and forestry, with particular reference to the integrity of ecosystems. See details earlier.


--January 8-10, 1993. American Society for Christian Ethics, Savannah Georgia, with sessions on environmental ethics from a Christian perspective. Plenary address by Holmes Rolston: "Environmental Ethics: Some Challenges for Christians. Contact: Joseph L. Allen, Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275. Phone 214/692-2111. Fax 214/692- 4295.

--February 11-16, 1993. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boston, with ISEE panel on "The Scientific Foundations of Environmental Ethics." Details earlier.

--March 15, 1993. Lecture and sessions on environmental ethics at University of Guelph, sponsored by Department of Philosophy, led by Holmes Rolston. Contact Michael Ruse, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, CANADA.

--April 10, 1993. Eric Katz, "Ethics, Earth, and Technology: Nature as a Moral Category," April 10, 1993, in the series BOSTON COLLOQUIUM FOR THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. Details earlier.

--April 29-May 2, 1993. Eastern Communication Association Convention at New Haven, CT. The theme is "Earthtalk: Saving our Planet and Our Selves Through Communication Empowerment." Contact Thomas L. Veenendall, Department of BSCDT, Montclair State College, Upper Montclair, NY 07043. Phone 201/893-5193. (Thanks to Mary McAfee, Colorado Division of Wildlife)

--May 24-26, 1993. National Association of Environmental Professionals, Raleigh, NC, North Raleigh Hilton and Convention Center. Theme: "Current and Future Priorities for Environmental Management." Papers are invited. Contact: National Association of Environmental Professionals, 5165 MacArthur Boulevard, NW, Washington, DC 20016.

--June 9-14, 1993. Society for Conservation Biology, meeting at Arizona State University, Tempe. See call for ISEE papers by Jack Weir, earlier.

--July 20-22, 1993. Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Cardiff, Wales. Speakers include Robert Elliot, on "Ecology and Environmental Ethics"; Holmes Rolston, "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value," Nigel Dower, and others. Contact Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, Philosophy Section, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, U.K.

--June 27-July 3, 1993. VII Pacific Science Inter-Congress, in Okinawa, Japan. Main themes are speciation, dispersal, and conservation of species in the Pacific and appropriate technologies and policies for the development and conservation of natural environments in the Pacific. Papers invited. Contact Pacific Science Association, P. O. Box 17801, Honolulu, HI 96817.

--August 22-28, 1993, 19th World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow. With two ISEE Sessions. See details earlier.

--September 24-October 1, 1993. 5th World Wilderness Congress, in Norway, with ISEE session on philosophy, wild nature, and sustainable human life. See call for papers by David Rothenberg, above.