Volume 2, No. 3, Fall 1991
The Eastern Division APA, in December in New York City, will feature three
ISEE sessions. New York Marriott Marquis Hotel. Session I, contributed papers,
will feature Gary E. Varner, Texas A&M University, "A Critique
of Environmental Holism," with Peter S. Wenz, Sangamon State University,
as commentator and David Abram, SUNY at Stony Brook, "On the Ecological
Consequences of Alphabetical Literacy," with Bruce Morito, University
of Guelph, as commentator. The session will be chaired by Eric Katz, New
Jersey Institute of Technology. December 28, 2.00 p.m. - 5.00 p.m., Albee
Session II will be held jointly with the Society for the Philo- sophic Study of Genocide and Holocaust and the Radical Philosophy Association on the theme, "Holocaust, Genocide, Ecocide." The speakers are Roger Gottlieb, Worcester Polytechnic Institute; Eric Katz; and Alan Rosenberg, CUNY Queens College. Sunday, December 29, 6.30 p.m. - 9.30 p.m., in Odets/Wilder room.
Session III will be held jointly with the American Society for Value Inquiry on the theme, "Value and Advocacy." This session will be chaired jointly by John M. Abbarno, D'Youville College, Buffalo, NY and Laura Westra. The speakers are Tom Regan, North Carolina State University and Kristin Shrader-Frechette, University of South Florida, Tampa. Commentators are Robert K. Fullinwider, University of Maryland and William Aiken, Chatham College. Saturday, December 28, 7.30 p.m. - 10.30 p.m. in Juliard/Imperial room.
Central American Philosophical Association meets in Louisville, KY April 24-25, 1991. There will be two ISEE sessions, the first of contributed papers. The previously announced deadline for papers, September 15, has passed, but since papers were to be sent to Laura Westra in Canada, and the Canadian postal service has been on strike, this deadline has been extended to October 15. If the strike continues, please fax at least an abstract to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, 519/973-7050.
The second session will feature a critical analysis of Max Oelschlaeger's new book, THE IDEAOF WILDERNESS FROM PREHISTORY TO THE PRESENT (Yale University
Press, see ISEE Newsletter, Winter, 1990, p. 10). Commentators will include Holmes Rolston and Eugene Hargrove, with a response by Oelschlaeger. Chair of the session will be Laura Westra.
The Annual Business Meeting and Election of Officers will be held this year at the Central Division APA in Louisville, KY (see above). The chairperson of the Nominations Committee is Jack Weir, Department of Philosophy, UPO Box 0662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351. Phone 606/784-0046. Fax 606/783- 2678. You are invited to contact him with names and suggestions. Also on the nominations committee is Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Department of Philosophy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5550. Phone 813/974-2447.
There will be an ISEE session at the Pacific APA, Portland, Oregon, March 25-28, 1992. Contact: Ernest Partridge, Department of Philosophy, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634.
The 1991 Environmental Ethics Nature Interpretation Workshop will be held November 22-24 at the Piney Woods Conservation Center, Broaddas, TX. The workshop will be conducted by Eugene Hargrove, editor of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, and speakers include Max Oelschlaeger and Pete Gunter of the University of North Texas, Tom Birch of the University of Montana, and Susan Bratton of Messiah College. Sessions are on environmental ethics and animal liberation, ecofeminism, deep ecology, art and nature, environmental ethics and park management problems, environmental ethics and Christian values, and wilderness values in the postmodern world. Contact: Eugene Hargrove, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76303-3496. Phone 817/565-2727.
There was a four-hour ISEE session at the World Congress of Philosophy in Nairobi in July, with good attendance and interest.
The papers given were:
(1) Robin Attfield, University of Wales, Cardiff. "Has the History of Philosophy Ruined the Environment?" This was a critique of Eugene Hargrove's first, historical chapter in FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. The paper has been recently published in ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, SUMMER, 1991.
(2) Frederick FerrÇ, University of Georgia. "Technology, Ethics, and the `End' of Nature." This was a sympathetic refutation of the thesis of Bill McKibben's book, THE END OF NATURE.
(3) Anna Lazou, University of Athens, Greece. "Environment and Future Generations: The Greek Paradigm of Environmental Policy." This was a description of the activities of the Greek governmental department that supports various environmental educational activities for youth.
(4) Jan Wawrzyniak, University of Poznan, Poland, "Environmental Ethics in Poland." This was a first-hand account of the triumphs and troubles of this young, activist-philosopher who feels himself pitted, practically alone, against the government and the Catholic Church in the "garbage dump of Europe."
(5) Laura Westra, University of Windsor, Canada, "Agricultural Practices, Ecology and Ethics in the Third World." This paper is coauthored with Kira L. Bowen and Bridget K. Behe and has subsequently been published in the JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, details below.
Thanks to Frederick FerrÇ for organizing and chairing this session, sometimes under uncertain and difficult circumstances.
At an ISEE session of the Joint Session of the Mind and Aristotelian Societies (the British equivalent of the American Philosophical Association), July 1991, Avner de-Shalit of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, presented a paper, "Conservation in Jerusalem and the Judgement of Solomon." Avner de-Shalit is a member of the Department of Political Science at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and has been active there introducing a course in environmental ethics. Address: Department of Political Science, Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, ISRAEL.
Andrew Brennan was invited to address the annual conference of river and coastal engineers held under the auspices of the United Kingdom's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, at Loughborough University in July. Brennan is the first philosopher ever invited to address the full conference. Speaking to an audience of over 200 engineers, Brennan argued that the UK government's recent White Paper on the Environment is flawed by its lack of detailed analysis of environmental problems. He also used examples from the White paper to show how easy it is to use statistics for ideological rather than scientific purposes.
The Polytechnic of Central London has announced the establishment of a new interdisciplinary Centre for Environmental Policy Study. To inaugurate it, the Polytechnic hosted a conference on the theme, THEORY AND THE ENVIRONMENTS: NATURAL, BUILT AND CULTURAL, September 18-20 in London. The conference program included: John Haldane, "Philosophy and the Environment"; Graham King, "The Wilder Shores of Theory--Journeys in a Vanishing World"; Brenda Almond, "Ethical and Political Values in the Environment Debate:' David Dunster, "Has the Jargon of Architects Made the Task of Aesthetic Philosophers Easier?"; Anthony O'Hear, "The Irrelevance of History to Architects"; Donald Hill, "Roads and Reasons-- Ethical Aspects of Transport Policy" and others. Contact: The Short Course Unit, Polytechnic of Central London, 25 Marylebone Road, London NW1 5LS.
ISEE will hold a joint meeting with the Society for Conservation Biology, June 28-July 2, 1992, at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. The Wildlife Society will likely meet concurrently. The Society for Conservation Biologists is the largest world-wide organization of conservation biologists, with over 4000 members. Attendance is expected to exceed 500. The ISEE joint program will include one session on "Facts and Values in Conservation Biology," with three or four papers and commentators, and a roundtable on "Environmental Ethics and Conservation Biology," with a panel of three environmental ethicists and three conservation biologists. Paper submissions and proposals are invited. Especially desired are papers examining the implications of recent developments in epistemology and philosophy of science as they relate to conservation biology (for example, the demise of logical positivism and its implications for conservation biology). Contributions by philosophers, conservation biologists, and related disciplines are welcome. Authors should keep in mind that most of the audience will not be trained in philosophy. Preferred length is 10-14 pages; send three copies in a format suitable for blind review. Include a brief CV. Materials will not be returned. Persons interested in being commentators should send a brief CV. Nominations for the roundtable are welcome. Deadline for papers: March 1, 1992. Send papers, inquiries, and other correspondence to Jack Weir, ISEE-SCB Program Chair, Department of Philosophy, UPO Box 0662, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351. Phone 606/784-0046. Fax 606/783-2678. Another contact is Bryan G. Norton, Georgia Institute of Technology, Fax 404/853- 0535.
ISEE will hold a meeting in conjunction with the American Catholic Philosophy Association, San Diego, CA, on March 28, 1992. There will be a joint panel on the "Fate of the Earth and Human Responsibility. Kenneth Schmitz, Thomas Berry, and others will be on the panel. Contact: Laura Westra, address below.
The School of Philosophy of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and the Center for the Advancement of Applied Ethics, Carnegie Melon University, Pittsburgh, PA, are planning an international conference on ethics and the environment in conjunction with UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The conference will be in Porto Alegre, a coastal city about 800 miles south of Rio de Janeiro, and the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. An effort is being made to locate many of the preparatory conferences outside of Rio de Janeiro. Tentative dates are May 25-29, 1992, with the UNCED Conference in Rio following June 1-12. A contact is Peter Madsen at Carnegie Mellon, 412/268-5703.
The International Development Ethics Association (IDEA) announces a call for papers to be presented at its Third International Conference on Ethics and Development, to be held at the Universidas Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, June 21-27, 1992. The theme of the meeting is "The Ethics of Ecodevelopment: Culture, the Environment, and Dependency." This conference follows UNCED in Rio, about a week later. IDEA is a cross-cultural, multidisciplinary group of philosophers, development theorists, policymakers, and representatives of grass-roots groups who apply ethical reflection to development goals and strategies and to the relations between rich and poor countries. The International Conference Advisory Committee includes Luis Camacho (Costa Rico), Peter Penz (Canada), Ramon Romero (Honduras), Horacio Cerutti Guldberg and Laura Mues (Mexico), Nigel Dower (Scotland), Ken Aman, David A. Crocker, J. Ron Engel, Denis Goulet, Rachel McCleary, and Paul Streeten (USA). The deadline for submission of paper proposals is November 30, 1991. The deadline for finished papers/abstracts, and advanced registration is April 30, 1991. Contact David A. Crocker, IDEA, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523. Fax 303/491-0528. Telephone 303/484-5764.
"The Global Village: Ethics and Values in a Shrinking, Hurting World," will be held February 27-29, 1992 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Miami, FL, sponsored by Barry University, Miami Shores, FL. A main emphasis is higher education and the environment and the keynote address is "Crisis in Values and Ethics in Higher Education and the Environment." A call for papers has been issued. Contact Center for Applied and Professional Ethics, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161-6695.
The Hastings Center organized two East-West applied ethics conferences in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in August. The first was an European environmental ethics meeting, taking the form of an interdisciplinary research seminar on environmental ethics. Immediately following was a meeting on public health and medical ethics focusing on the needs of countries in eastern and central Europe. Both meetings included representatives from Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and parts of the former USSR, as well as delegates from Czechoslovakia. Dr. Martin Bojar, the Czech minister of health, attended several of the sessions.
The first day of the environment meeting focused on legal and political issues connected with pollution and public health policies in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and the (former) Soviet Union. The second, more philosophical day featured papers by Strachan Donnelly, Bruce Jennings, and James Nelson of the Hastings Center, as well as presentations by Henk Verhoog, Wouter Achterberg (both from the Netherlands), Jiri Vacha (Czechoslovakia) and others, including Andrew Brennan (from the UK) and Arne Naess (Norway). The Hastings Center, based in New York, has long supported research in medical ethics but has recently turned also to include environmental and animal welfare issues.
"Stability and Change in Nature: Ecological and Cultural Dimensions," a biophilosophical analysis of concern for the environment, will be held March 16-18, 1992 in Budapest, Hungary. The conference is sponsored by the International Forum for Biophilosophy in collaboration with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society (USA). Authors are requested to submit three copies of an abstract in English (not exceeding 500 words) by October 18, 1991. Each submission should include a list of keywords, name, affiliation, mailing address, telephone and fax number of the author. Final papers are due February 7, 1992. Some questions to be addressed: To what degree can we say that environmental awareness is not based on concern for nature as such but on concern for human values? Do we have good reason to establish biodiversity as an objective of environmental policy? How seriously do we have to take hypothetical dangers? How can we act in the absence of scientific evidence? To what degree can we consider an ecosystem as a functional whole that is a precarious state of equilibrium that can be distorted and overthrown by human intervention? To what degree can we consider an ecosystem as a historical aggregate of coevolving populations in flux, that may be changed by human intervention, but cannot collapse? Address inquiries and send paper proposals to Guido Van Steendam, Conference Coordinator, International Forum for Biophilosophy, Craenendonck 15, B-3000 Leuven, BELGIUM. Phone +32 (0)16 23.11.74. Fax +32 (0)16 29.07.48
The Second International Conference on Public Service Ethics takes place in Siena, Italy, June 9-11, 1992. Abstracts and papers are invited, deadline October 15, 1991. Send to Edwin M. Epstein, Walter A. Haas School of Business, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Phone 415/642-4849. Fax 415/642- 2826. The conference is part of the celebration of the 750th anniversary of the University of Siena. Conference fees are $ 300.00 U.S. and hotel prices from $ 70 for singles.
J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, has been appointed to the Advisory Panel for an Office of Technology Assessment study of the problem of non-indigenous species introductions into the United States, both intentional and non-intentional, anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic. The issue came to the attention of Congress because of recent problems with the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes. At the request of Representative John Dingell, Democrat from Michigan, OTA has initiated the study of both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. See note in Summer 1991 ISEE Newsletter, p. 18.
The ISEE Program for AAAS, Chicago, February 6-11, 1992 is "International Law and Environmental Ethics." The principal organizer for the day-long panel is John E. Carroll, Department of Natural Resources, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH and the co-organizer is Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario. Additional speakers are: Lynton K. Caldwell, Indiana University; Edith Brown-Weiss, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency; Mark Sagoff, University of Maryland; Henry Regier, University of Toronto; and Margaret Mellon, National Wildlife Federation.
ISEE will hold a roundtable on environmental violence and ecofeminism at the Conference on Human Violence and Coexistence, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 11-13. Contact Peter Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Phones 204/786-9832, 204/786-9878. Or contact Laura Westra, address below.
Patricia Werhane, Loyola University in Chicago, and the Society for Business Ethics invite the ISEE to cosponsor with them a special issue of the BUSINESS ETHICS QUARTERLY, March 1993, devoted to "Business and the Environment." ISEE members and others are encouraged to submit papers, from which about five will be selected for publication in this theme issue. Send papers and address inquiries to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor (see address below).
THE MONIST, April 1992, is a special issue on values in the natural world, edited by J. Baird Callicott. This issue is now in press.
The Second International Conference on Ethics and Environmental Policies will be held at the University of Georgia on April 5-7, 1992. The Conference is sponsored by the Environmental Ethics Certificate Program of the University of Georgia and the Fondazione Lanza (Padua, Italy). The theme of the conference is "Theory Meets Practice" and its objective is to bring new environmental thinking (e.g. ecofeminism, deep ecology) to a practical basis. For more information, please write Peter G. Hartel, Department of Agronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Phone 404/542-0898. Fax 404/542-0914.
The Elie Wiesel Prize in Ethics is an annual essay contest for undergraduate seniors. One of the questions on which the sponsoring Foundation invites essays is "What are our ethical obligations to preserve and protect our physical environment and natural resources?" Essays should be 3,000 - 4,000 words and must be submitted on behalf of the student by a college or university faculty member or administrator. Deadline December 30, 1991. First prize is $ 5,000; Second prize $ 3,000, third prize $ 2,000. Contact The Elie Wiesel Prize in Ethics, The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity, 666 Fifth Avenue, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10103.
Garland Publishing Company plans an ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ENVIRONMENTALISM. The encyclopedia will include more than 850 articles on conservation and environmentalism. The editor is Robert Paehlke, Environmental and Resources Studies, Trent University, Peterbough, Ontario, Canada K9J 7B8. There will be an interdisciplinary advisory board.
Richard J. Lambert publishes a newsletter, PRODUCTIVITY BREAKTHROUGH, with the theme of rethinking productivity from the perspective of the Earth as the primary corporation. "If we so view the Earth, if the Earth falls to bankruptcy, everything else falls apart." Contact Richard J. Lambert, President, PRODUCTIVITY BREAKTHROUGH, 72 Carman Road, Scarsdale, NY 10583. Phone 914/723- 0972.
A new academic journal in Britain, ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, is planned. The journal will be interdisciplinary and international, with particular reference to philosophy, economics, and law. The first issue is expected in early 1992. An editorial board has been named with persons from the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Poland, Germany, and from the fields of geography, philosophy, economics, politics, and natural resource policy. Papers are invited, to be sent to the editor: Alan Holland, Department of Philosophy, Bowland College, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YT, United Kingdom. Another contact is Andrew Johnson, The White Horse Press, 10 High Street, Knapwell, Cambridge CB3 8NR, United Kingdom. Phone 095 47 527.
Holmes Rolston was the keynote speaker at a Society of American Foresters symposium on old-growth forests held in Rawlins, WY, September 5-6, 1991. His topic was "Values Deep in the Woods."
The theme of the Association of Lutheran College Faculties Conference, October 4-6, at Concordia College, Moorhead, MN, is "Environmental Values and the Liberal Arts College." Speakers are: Holmes Rolston, Philosophy, Colorado State University, "Environmental Ethics: A Challenge to Liberal Education"; Peter Goin, Art, University of Nevada, "Environmental Images"; Ann Foltz, Institute for 21st Century Studies, "The Environment in the 21st Century"; Job Ebenezer, ELCA World Hunger Program and ELCA Environment Task Force, "Ecological Tips for the Campus"; and Judith Weis, Biological Science, Rutgers University, "Undergraduate Environmental Education." A main inquiry is whether and how the small liberal arts college can educate the environmental values that students hold, with particular reference to the more than forty Lutheran colleges. Contact: Sheri Tonn, President, ALCF, Department of Chemistry, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447. Phone 206/535-7552. Fax 206/535- 8320.
Professor Andrew Brennan is the contact person in the United Kingdom. Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland. Telephone (0786) 73171. Dues can be sent to Brennan, with checks made to the Society in amount ú6.50.
Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, N.S. W. 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122.
Persons elsewhere in Europe, Asia, and South America may remit to any of the above persons, as seems convenient in any of the four currencies.
Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing the newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philoso- phy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-0528, 24 hours. E- mail: email@example.com. News may also be submitted to Laura Westra, Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4, and Canadian news especially is best directed to her. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed.
ISEE members are paying their dues too slowly and the present length and format of the newsletter may have to be curtailed. Or the dues raised. About 175 members have renewed for 1991; about 125 have not. Most of the dues money goes to send out the Newsletter. Very roughly, it takes about $ 500 to send out an issue of the newsletter, including costs of reproduction and postage, with international postage a considerable factor. Four newsletters a year cost about $ 2,000. Renewals at $ 10 each, x 200, would bring an income of $ 2,000. But 175 renewals, with some of them students, bring in only about $ 1500. Nevertheless a random sampling of those who have not renewed indicates that they want to and intend to, and that they want the newsletter in the current format; nevertheless they have not renewed. Apparently, even environmental ethicists need a sterner approach-- repeated reminders and threats? We are working on a more formal billing system.
Jobs in Environmental Conservation
Environmental Policy Analysis. The Board of Environmental Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz, is recruiting for a full-time tenure track position in the field of applied environmental policy analysis. Rank: Assistant Professor. Position available September 1992. Contact Michael SoulÇ, Environmental Studies Board, University of California, Santa Cruz, 95604.
Third World Ecological Sustainablility. A second position is available at UC Santa Cruz in this area.
Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials
--Eric Katz, guest editor, special issue: THE MORAL SENSE OF NATURE, ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW, vol. 15, no. 2, Summer 1991. Articles include:
--Colin A. M. Duncan, "On Identifying a Sound Environmental Ethic in History: Prolegomena to Any Future Environmental History."
--Jim Cheney, "In the Shadow of Ancient Ruins: Hellenism and Gnosticism in Contemporary Environmental Ethics."
--Mary Evelyn Tucker, "The Relevance of Chinese Neo-Confucianism for the Reverence of Nature."
--Robin Attfield, "Attitudes to Wildlife in the History of Ideas."
--Eric Katz, "Ethics and Philosophy of the Environment: A Brief Review of the Major Literature."
AMBIO: A JOURNAL OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT is published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, with an international focus. Articles in English. Contact: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, S-104 05 Stockholm, SWEEDEN.
CAPITALISM, NATURE, SOCIALISM: A JOURNAL OF SOCIALIST ECOLOGY is the only international theoretical and political journal of socialist ecology, including ecological Marxism and feminism. The July 1991 issue is on red green politics and on science and ecology. U. S. address: Guilford Publications, Journals Department, 72 Spring St., New York, NY 10012. Outside the U.S.: Guilford Press, The Distribution Centre, Blackhorse Rd., Letchworth, Herts, SG6 1HN, UK.
--Richard Sylvan and David Bennett, "Of Utopias, Tao and Deep Ecology," DISCUSSION PAPERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY, No. 19. Available for $ 5 from Department of Philosophy and Law, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, P. O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT, Australia 2600.
--George H. Kehm, WHOSE WORLD IS IT? RESPONDING TO GOD'S COVENANT WITH THE EARTH. A study unit for churches published by The Theology and Worship Ministry Unit, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Louisville, KY. $ 2.00. 44 pages. 800/524-2612. Seven units. Kehm is professor of theology, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
--Freya Matthews, THE ECOLOGICAL SELF. London: Routledge, 1990. Details of published work unavailable at press time, but this work has been seen in manuscript and promises to be an important contribution to deep ecology.
--D. J. Mulvaney, ed., THE HUMANITIES AND THE AUSTRALIAN ENVIRONMENT. Available from The Secretary, Australian Academy of the Humanities, GPO Box 93, Canberra, ACT, AUSTRALIA. Australian dollars $ 14.95, posted $ 17.95. From a symposium at the University of Melbourne, November 1990. Includes W. S. Ramson, "Wasteland to Wilderness: Changing Perceptions of the Environment"; R. M. Jones, "Landscapes of the Mind: Aboriginal Perceptions of the Environment"; M. M. Manion, "The Humanities and the Australian Environment"; R. E. Goodin, "A Green Theory of Value"; T. R. Griffiths, "History and Natural History: Conservation Movements in Conflict?"; D. J. Mulvaney, "Visions of Environment."
--David M. Freeman, CHOICE AGAINST CHOICE: CROSS-CULTURAL POLICY ASSESSMENT IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. University Press of Colorado, 1991. $ 39.95 cloth. 344 pages. Largely devoted to natural resource issues where values are in conflict. The University Press of Colorado advertising blurb says, "Should a river be damned (sic!) for hydroelectic power production or be protected for its wild and scenic values? Which is better? Better for whom? Better for how long? Better in terms of what?" Freeman is a sociologist at Colorado State University and claims that sociology can assess and rank alternative public policy proposals. It seems also that sociologists are still liable to Freudian slips.
--John Gever, Robert Kaufmann, David Skole, and Charles Vorosmarty, BEYOND OIL: THE THREAT TO FOOD AND FUEL IN THE COMING DECADES. University Press of Colorado, 1991. $ 17.50 paper. 312 pages.
--Gary Holthaus, Patricia Nelson Limerick, and Charles F. Wilkinson, eds., A SOCIETY TO MATCH THE SCENERY: PERSONAL VISIONS OF THE FUTURE OF THE AMERICAN WEST. University Press of Colorado, 1991. $ 24.95. 256 pages. An anthology claiming that the American West is at a critical crossroads where westerners must come to terms with the limitations of the region soon, or ruin it forever. The authors hold that this is not closing the doors of western enterprise, but a reckoning that opens new doors for a new and better western experience.
--James M. Wall, "Expanding our Identification Horizons," CHRISTIAN CENTURY, August 7-14, 1991. We need to be able to empathize far beyond our immediate circle. One sign of this is the growing interest in environmentally friendly products. The WALL STREET JOURNAL, extrapolating from the sense of guilt over disposable diapers, predicts that by the year 2000 it will be very difficult to sell products that are not environmentally responsible.
--THE TRUMPETER, Summer 91, features a dozen and a half short articles on the environmental crisis, education, and deep ecology. Some examples: Anthony Weston, "Non-Anthropocentrism in a Thoroughly Anthropocentrized World"; J. Donald Hughes, "The Psychology of Environmentalism: Healing Self and Nature"; Bob Henderson, "Nature as Self: The Spiritual Dimensions of Outdoor Education."
--Michael W. Fox, ANIMALS HAVE RIGHTS, TOO. Crossroad/Continuum, 1991. 176 pages, $ 12.95 paper. An internationally recognized veterinarian and defender of animal rights urges children and parents to consider all the relevant issues and take positive steps at home, in school, and in the community.
--Hans KÅng, GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY: IN SEARCH OF A NEW WORLD ETHIC. Crossroad/Continuum, 1991. 180 pages, 1991. $18.95. A famous Roman Catholic theologian makes a bold new proposal for planetary morality, on which rests, he claims, the fate of the Earth.
--Laura Meagher, TEACHING CHILDREN ABOUT GLOBAL AWARENESS. Cross- road/Continuum, 1991. 144 pages. Practical ideas to help children live responsibly in an interdependent world.
--Lewis G. Regenstein, REPLENISH THE EARTH: A HISTORY OF ORGANIZED RELIGION'S TREATMENT OF ANIMALS AND NATURE--INCLUDING THE BIBLE'S MESSAGE OF CONSERVATION AND KINDNESS TOWARD ANIMALS. Crossroad/Continuum, 1991. $ 11.21.
--Judith S. Scherff, ed., THE MOTHER EARTH HANDBOOK: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW AND DO--AT HOME, IN YOUR COMMUNITY, AND THROUGH YOUR CHURCH TO HELP HEAL OUR PLANET NOW. Crossroad/Continuum, 1991. 352 pages. $ 15.95 paper. Twenty-one contributors.
--Peter M. Haas, SAVING THE MEDITERRANEAN: THE POLITICS OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION. Columbia University Press, 1990. 303 pages. $ 42.00.
--Howard Bridgman, GLOBAL AIR POLLUTION: PROBLEMS FOR THE 1990'S. Columbia University Press, 1991. 288 pages. $ 20.00 paper, $ 59.00 cloth. Also Belhaven Press in the United Kingdom. Scientific principles in relation to social, political, and economic issues.
--Anthony B. Anderson, Peter H. May, and Michael J. Balick, THE SUBSIDY FROM NATURE: PALM FORESTS, PEASANTRY, AND DEVELOPMENT ON AN AMAZON FRONTIER. Columbia University Press, 1991. 256 pages. $ 35.00. The natural history, management, and economics of the babassu palm in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon.
--Anthony B. Anderson, ALTERNATIVES TO DEFORESTATION: STEPS TOWARD SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE AMAZON RAIN FOREST. Columbia University Press, 1990. $ 65.00. 281 pages.
--Robert Costanza, ed., ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS: THE SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY. Columbia University Press, 1991. 555 pages. $ 50.00.
Michael D. Young, TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT. Columbia University Press, 1991. 400 pages. $ 75.00 Also published by Belhaven Press in the United Kingdom.
--William Cronin, NATURE'S METROPOLIS: CHICAGO AND THE GREAT WEST (New York: Norton, 27.50). A study of Chicago's mid-nineteenth century rise and its ecological consequences. The first nature is the "original, prehuman nature" and the second nature is "the artificial nature that people erect atop first nature." "In the [meat]packer's world it was easy not to remember that eating was a moral act inextricably bound to killing. ... The sheer variety of these new standardized uses [for every part of the animal] testified to the packers' ingenuity in their war on waste, but in them the animal also died a second death. Severed from the form in which it had lived, severed from the act that had killed it, it vanished from human memory as one of nature's creatures. Its ties to the earth receded, and in forgetting the animal's life one also forgot the grasses and the prairie skies and the departed bison herds of a landscape that seemed more and more remote in space and time."
"The world of the market place, where city and country met, was-- and remains--a world of such forgetting. The farther a hog or a white-pine log or a bushel of grain was taken from nature, the more its value seemed to arise from the effort that human beings expended in bringing it to market. Cronin discounts this familiar theory of value. Nature is present in so many forms in NATURE'S METROPOLIS that it finally comes as a shock to realize that for Cronin nature--first nature, the nonhuman world of ecological relations--is already a thing of great inherent value, which belongs, in an important sense, to itself, and of which human beings are merely an inalienable part. This is what many believe but few have read in a scholarly work of history. By the logic of nature--not the logic of capital or the logic of the frontier--the settlement of America and the rise of its great cities look less like an opera of self-reliance than like a colossal burglary. `A sizeable share of the new city's wealth,' Cronin concludes, `was the wealth of nature stolen, consumed, and converted to human ends.'" From Cronin and Verlyn Klinkenborg review in NEW YORKER, July 29, 1991. Cronin is a professor of history at Yale.
--Ed Marston, ed., REOPENING THE WESTERN FRONTIER. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1990. 350 pages. Cloth $ 24.95; paper $ 15.95. Members of a far-flung network of free-lance writers contribute articles describing the changes they see occurring in their respective corners of the U. S. West. Thought-provoking and never dull.
--Craig L. LaMay and Everette E. Dennis, eds., MEDIA AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. 220 pages. $ 31.95 cloth, $ 17.95 paper. Advocacy vs. objectivity in environmental reporting. Does "newsworthiness" distort environmental reporting?
Do complex ecological, political, economic, and social issues have to be oversimplified for the media? Articles by journalists and others, including Jim Detjen, PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER reporter and president of the Society of Environmental Journalists.
--1991-92 GREEN INDEX: A STATE-BY-STATE GUIDE TO THE NATION'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. 168 pages. $ 29.95 cloth, $ 18.95 paper. A report card on all fifty states, using 200 indicators to rank each state.
--Donald Snow, INSIDE THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT: MEETING THE LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE. Covelo, CA: Island Press, January, 1992. 260 pages. $ 34.95. $ 19.95 paper. Leadership development needs among U. S. conservation groups. Some findings: budgetary concerns distance leaders from their members, mainstream conservation-environmental groups fail to work effectively with people of color, the rural poor, and other disenfranchised groups, leaders do not allow enough time for long-range planning. The next century will demand leadership of a kind seldom seen so far in the American conservation community.
--Joan Wolfe, MAKING THINGS HAPPEN: HOW TO BE AN EFFECTIVE VOLUNTEER. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 22.95 cloth, $ 14.95 paper. 240 pages. Volunteers are the backbone of grassroots environmentalism, but volunteers are often not as effective as they could be, because they must perform jobs for which they have little or no training.
--Donald Snow, ed., VOICES FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT: PERSPECTIVES FOR A NEW ERA. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 34.95 cloth, $ 19.95 paper. Nine articles on conservation as a political force, the role of women and minorities, conservation in academia, volunteerism, and international leadership.
--EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL YEARBOOK 1991. From the DocTer Institute for Environmental Studies. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. 1,100 pages. $ 165.00. A comprehensive guide to the environmental policies, laws, and regulations of the European Economic Community. Air and water pollution, nuclear safety, toxic and hazardous wastes, land reclamation.
--Bill Willers, ed., LEARNING TO LISTEN TO THE LAND. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. Attempts to combine environmental science and nature with spiritual and ethical values. Articles by E. O. Wilson on biological diversity, Wallace Stegner on wilderness, Barry Commoner on pollution control and prevention, Edward Abbey on runaway urban growth, Anne and Paul Ehrlich on population control. Bill Willers is a professor of biology at the University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh.
--Richard Critchfield, TREES, WHY DO YOU WAIT? AMERICA'S CHANGING RURAL CULTURE. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 29.95 cloth, $ 14.95 paper. 270 pages. A history chronicling the changes taking place in rural America.
--ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTMENTS: THE COSTS OF A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT. Report of the Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 40.00 cloth. 520 pages. What industry should expect in direct costs for implementing pollution control measures and undertaking compliance with environmental laws. The costs of forthcoming and projected environmental programs. An account of the $ 115 billion per year that the public and private sectors spend on pollution prevention and control.
--Tensie Whelan, NATURE TOURISM: MANAGING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 34.95 cloth, $ 19.05 paper. 220 pages. Trekking, bird watching, nature photography, wildlife safaris, mountain climbing, river rafting. Nature tourism amounts to $ 19.5 billion annually and is increasing at the rate of 30% each year. Right and wrong ways to do it, with particular attention to how countries can develop their economies while also protecting their natural resources.
--BUSINESS RECYCLING MANUAL. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 92.00 in a binder. 196 pages. Every business's recycling needs. Waste audits, marketing recyclables, monitoring and evaluating recycling programs.
--Steven J. Bennett, ECOPRENEURING: THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO SMALL BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL REVOLUTION. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons, 1991. $ 34.95 cloth, $ 17.95 paper. 308 pages.
--Deborah Gordon, STEERING A NEW COURSE: TRANSPORTATION, ENERGY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 34.95 cloth, $ 19.95 paper. 250 pages. How the transportation system contributes to environmental problems and how to fix it. Alternative fuels, advances in mass transit, ultra-fuel efficient vehicles, high-occupancy vehicle facilities, telecommuting and alterative work schedules.
--Charles L. Cadieux, WILDLIFE EXTINCTION. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 24.95 cloth. 259 pages. A sequel to THESE ARE THE ENDANGERED, 1981. The exploding human population, hunting, poaching, wildlife parks and zoos. Battles to maintain wild ecosystems.
--Wendy E. Hudson, ed., LANDSCAPE LINKAGES AND BIODIVERSITY. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 34.95 cloth, $ 19.95 paper. The need for protecting large areas and connecting these with corridors. The interaction of ecology at the landscape level and the conservation of biodiversity.
--Judith D. Soule and Jon. K. Piper, FARMING IN NATURE'S IMAGE: AN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO AGRICULTURE. Covelo, CA: Island Press, January, 1992. $ 34.95 cloth, $ 19.95 paper. 290 pages. A detail look at the pioneering work of The Land Institute, the leading educational and research organization for sustainable agriculture. Forward by Wes Jackson.
--CLIMATE CHANGE: THE IPCC RESPONSE STRATEGIES. By the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 55.00 cloth, $ 34.95 paper. 272 pages. This panel was established in 1988 by the World Meterological Organization of the United Nations Environment Programme to identify and evaluate a wide range of international strategies for limiting or adapting to climate change, and to review available ways of implementing these strategies.
--Tom Harris, DEATH IN THE MARSH. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1991. $ 24.95 cloth, $ 14.95 paper. 270 pages. The story of selenium poising, beginning in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in California. Selenium poisoning in 43 sites in fifteen states in the U. S. West. Early research that could have avoided the tragedy. Political obstacles to solving the crisis. Clean up efforts and possibilities.
--William A. Nierenberg, ed. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE. New York: Academic Press, 1991. Four volumes, 2,500 pages. $ 165.00.
--Daan van Heere, "Ecological Worries, Europe 1992," ONE WORLD (World Council of Churches), No. 167, July 1991. Environmental concerns are still playing second fiddle to economic issues in the coming integration of Europe. The Single European Act comes into effect in full force in 1992 and brings with it ecological concerns, since the emphasis is on growth rather than sustainable development in a Europe already rather badly straining its environment. Plants are becoming extinct; polluted rivers and polluted air are the rule rather than the exception; in many places the land has been poisoned; the variety of animals is decreasing. The low priority given to environmental concerns in the process of European integration does not at all reflect European public opinion, however. One particular concern is that free traffic in a Europe without boundaries will greatly increase automotive pollution, including acid rain.
--Kristin Shrader-Frechette, "Review of Callicott, IN DEFENSE OF THE LAND ETHIC," BETWEEN THE SPECIES 6, no. 4, (Fall 1990): 185- 189. With reply by Callicott, pp. 193-195, and reply by Shrader- Frechette, pp. 195-196. Argument and counterargument about whether ecosystems are communities with enough definiteness to serve as the object of moral duty, whether moral norms can be derived from behaviors to which humans are disposed by evolutionary heritage, and whether the extent of change of historical time prevents considering the stability of an ecosystem as a norm in environmental ethics.
--James Shreeve, "Machiavellian Monkeys," DISCOVER, June 1991. A close look at our close relatives shows how important sneakiness and deceit have been in human evolution. Richard Byrne and Andrew Whitten, Scottish psychologists at the University of Saint Andrews, claim that nearly all primates practice tactical deception, some elaborately. Except for lemurs, the primate species are "a simian rogues' gallery of liars and frauds." "The sneakier the primate ... the bigger the brain." A conclusion is that the human brain evolved as an organ of deceit. With chimpanzees there are episodes where one chimpanzee uses deceit to expose the deceit of another. "Society, sneakiness, brain size, and intelligence are intimately bound up with one another." Deceptive episodes often involve hiding food or mating with females. Critics reply that the primates may be naturally selected for such behaviors, but that there is less intentionality than supposed by transference from apparently similar human behavior.
--Laura Westra, Kira L. Bowen, and Bridget K. Behe, "Agricultural Practices, Ecology, and Ethics in the Third World, " JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, vol. 4 (no. 1, 1991):60-77. The increasing demand for horticultural products for nutritional and economic purposes by lesser developed countries is well documented. Pesticide use is an integral component of most agricultural production, yet chemicals are often supplied without supplemental information vital for their safe use. A developing country faces a dilemma whether it should improve its situation without giving adequate consideration to environmental consequences. Westra is now at the University of Windsor, but was formerly at Auburn University, Alabama. Bowen and Behe are both professors in the College of Agriculture, Auburn University.
--Julia Moulden and Patrick Carson, GREEN IS GOLD (Harper Business Publications, 1991). $ 19.95. Billed as the first practical guide for companies going green. How to develop a green corporate strategy. Carson is the vice-president for environmental affairs for Loblaws (a food supermarket), the company that launched G.R.E.E.N., said to be one of the most successful environmentally friendly product lines in North America. The authors claim that jumping on the green bandwagon is "the biggest opportunity for business for the coming decade and the next century."
SCIENCE, August 16, 1991, is a special issue on biodiversity.
--Charles C. Mann, "Extinction: Are Ecologists Crying Wolf?" Critics say the mega-extinction predictions are exaggerated. Part of the trouble is whether the theory of island biogeography is applicable to tropical forests; part of the trouble is general ignorance about what is there, especially with insects and fungi, part of the trouble is how species are related to ecosystems, and how much human interference upsets systems outside the temperate zone.
--Michael E. SoulÇ, "Conservation: Tactics for a Constant Crisis." The fundamental factors that erode biological diversity are: population growth, poverty, misperception, anthropocentrism, cultural transitions, economics, and policy implementation failure. "Many conservationists argue that current cultural values are antithetical to effective conservation policies, and that a new ethic or a revolutionary change in human consciousness is necessary, before significant progress is made" (p. 746).
--T. L. Erwin, "An Evolutionary Basis for Conservation Strategies." Conservation strategies have been too anthropocentric--saving those species that are useful or interesting to humans. A more objective, nonanthropocentric conservation strategy would be to locate and save the evolutionary dynamic lineages, those ecosystem regions and species groups in which evolution and speciation is still actively taking place. Many of the species saved under current strategies are living fossils, dead-ends in the evolutionary process.
--Harold J. Morowitz, "Balancing Species Preservation and Economic Considerations." "Once the term `value' is introduced, the question moves to economics and ethics, both of which use that construct, but in very different senses. From a narrow economic point of view, we need a monetary metric of a species value to balance benefits against costs of preservation. View from environmental ethics no such direct measure is possible."
--David Jablonski, "Extinctions: a Paleontological Perspective."
--Paul R. Ehrlich and Edward O. Wilson, "Biodiversity Studies: Science and Policy." "The loss of biodiversity should be of concern to everyone for three basic reasons. The first is ethical and esthetic. ... The second reason is that humanity has already obtained enormous direct economic benefits from biodiversity. ... The third reason, perhaps the most poorly evaluated to date, is the array of essential services provided by natural ecosystems."
The JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES, vol. 3, 1991, contains articles on the theme: "Ecology and Food: Restoring Man and Nature."
--C. Tudge, "The Rise and Fall of HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS," PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY, London, B 325 (1989):479-488. Human beings have broken the ecological `law' that says that big, predatory animals are rare. Two crucial innovations have enabled us to alter the planet to suit ourselves and thus permit unparalleled expansion: speech and agriculture. However, natural selection has not equipped humans with a long- term sense of self-preservation. Our population cannot continue to expand at its present rate for much longer, and the examples of many other species suggest that expansion can end in catastrophic collapse. Survival beyond the next century in a tolerable state seems most unlikely unless all religions and economies begin to take account of the facts of biology. If this occurred, it would be a step in cultural evolution that would compare in import with the birth of agriculture. "I take it also to be self-evident that ours is not the only important species; that other creatures have a `right' to occupy this planet, and that we at times have to bow to their needs, even at cost to ourselves."
--David Holmstrom, SURVIVAL OF THE GALAPAGOS, a four part series on the difficulties in ecotourism in the Galapagos, in THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, August 19-22, 1991. "Invasion of the Ecotourist," "Balancing Nature, Man, and Money," "Wildlife in Transition," and "Can We Both Visit and Protect?" Excellent case study in ecotourism.
--Gary Snyder, DIMENSIONS OF A LIFE, edited by John Halper. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991. 464 pages. $ 17.00 paper. Memories of Snyder by friends and colleagues, on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday.
--Peter D. Moore, "The Exploitation of Forests," SCIENCE AND CHRISTIAN BELIEF (Exeter: Paternoster Press) 2(1990):131-140. The disharmony between humans and the natural world is nowhere better illustrated than in the study of forest ecosystems. Since prehistoric times the removal of forest cover in temperate areas has led to retrogressive practices in vegetation and this form of destruction is now accelerating in the tropics, possibly creating global problems. The stewardship demanded of Christians in Genesis requires that Christians seek alternative ways of deriving sustenance from the forests, using sustainable harvesting. Peter Moore is an ecologist in the Division of Biosphere Sciences, King's College, London.
--WHO COUNTS?, special issue of the newsletter, ISSUES IN ETHICS, of the Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA. Vol 4, no. 1, Winter/Spring 1991. Articles: "Ethics and the Spotted Owl Controversy" and "Who Should Pay: The Product Liability Debate."
--Bernard E. Rollin, "Social Ethics, Veterinary Medicine, and the Pet Overpopulation Problem," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 198(no. 7, April 1, 1991):1153-1156. Companion animals differ from animals used for food or experimentation in the bonding that humans establish with their pets. Nevertheless, companion animals are subject to major abuses, where there is no semblance of justification for the abuse. Pet abuse is the worst sort of animal abuse, for it is totally wanton, senseless, and useless. Those concerned for animal welfare have not adequately addresssed this issue. Veterinarians have a particular responsibility here.
--Kristin Shrader-Frechette and Earl McCoy, "Theory Reduction and Explanation in Ecology," OIKOS 58 (no. 1, 1990):109-114. How ecology could benefit from incorporating some formal tools of philosophy. The reduction of ecological theories is premature. Some nonfalsifiable ecological principles are not scientific laws, subject to testing. Statistical laws and stochastic processes might provide the best grounds for the scientific stature of ecology.
--Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Scientific Method, Anti- Foundationalism, and Public Decisionmaking," I RISK--ISSUES IN HEALTH AND SAFETY 23(Winter, 1990):23-41. Examines the failure of foundationalist positivism, how the experts are often wrong, and what lessons are to be learned from the experts' errors.
--Kristin Shrader-Frechette, RISK AND RATIONALITY: PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR POPULIST REFORMS (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). 272 pages. $ 39.95 cloth. $ 15.95 paper. Neither charges of irresponsible endangerment nor countercharges of scientific illiteracy in the public frame risk issues properly. Risk evaluation as a social process can be rational and objective, even though all risk-evaluation rules are value-laden. Shrader-Frechette defends "scientific proceduralism," a new paradigm for assessment when acceptance of public hazards is rational, recognizing that laypersons are often more rational in their evaluation of scientific risks than either experts or governments have acknowledged. Science need not preclude democracy.
--Dallas Burtraw, "Compensating Losers When Cost-Effective Environmental Policies Are Adopted," RESOURCES (Resources for the Future), Summer 1991, no. 104.
--Jeffrey B. Hyman and Kris Wernstedt, "The Role of Biological and Economic Analyses in the Listing of Endangered Species," RESOURCES (Resources for the Future), Summer 1991, no. 104.
--WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL DIRECTORY, 6th edition. Business Publishers, Inc. 951 Pershing Drive, Silver Spring, MD 20910-4464. $ 225, plus $ 8 postage. Over 1,000 pages, 60,000 listings.
Ned Ludd Books, P. O. Box 5141, Tucson, AZ 85703, offers an extensive catalog of books on environmentalism and "the big outside." With sections on eco-philosophy and land ethics. There is more than a little attention to "politically incorrect" authors.
Videotapes and media
The following four videotapes are produced by the Children's Television Workshop and are inexpensive and excellent. The set of four is available for $ 65.00; individual tapes priced below. VCA Teletronics, Inc., 50 Leyland Drive, Leonia, NJ 07605. 800/822- 1105, Operator # 12. Teacher's guides available. Next time you need to address youth or children, or have an adult session at which there are children who also need entertaining and educating, use one of these. Holmes Rolston has copies.
THE ROTTEN TRUTH. 30 minutes. $ 18.45. Video for kids with a surprisingly adult message, and the very kidsy nature of the video can be used for some adult philosophizing. "You can't make nothing out of something." "It's all still there." Landfills, incineration. Recycling makes something else out of something, nature's way. Nature uses and reuses, and so should we. Reduction, especially excess wrapping. Newspapers decompose in a year, a wooden chair in 20 years, a leather purse in 50 years. A plastic diaper lasts 300-500 years, outlasting the baby, and the baby's baby, and the baby's baby's baby. The Statue of Liberty lasts 1,500 years. A glass bottle will last 1,000,000 years; why use it once? "What does your garbage say about you? A lot. And garbage never lies." Excellent production.
YOU CAN'T GROW HOME AGAIN. 60 minutes. $ 23.45. Excellent introduction for children and youth. Features Costa Rica and gives particular attention to insects, also to ecological interdependencies. Maps of shrinking rainforests; their potential usefulness and respect for the biodiversity there. Visits a family living on formerly forested lands and explains the unsuitability for farming. Explores raising iguanas for food.
DOWN THE DRAIN. 30 minutes. $ 18.45. Excellent introduction for children to water cycle, water use, water pollution, water treatment, water conservation. "The dinosaurs drank it; the Pharoahs drank it; Lincoln drank it, and now you can drink it too." Except that, "we're going over the limit of what nature can cope with." Average domestic use is 120 gallons per day per person, but the average needed to produce a fast food lunch, from growing it to consuming it, is 1,400 gallons. Leaks waste 20% of water supply in most cities. The general portrayal is of human society a misfit in the hydrologic cycles.
BOTTOM OF THE BARREL. 30 minutes. $ 18.45. Introduction for children. What we use oil for. Oil spills, the damage they do, and how they are cleaned up, and, really, impossible to clean up. Where oil comes from, exploration for oil. Distilling oil, oil products. America's enormous appetite for oil, and how we are running out. How we can use less oil.
ONE EARTH COMMUNITY: A DECLARATION AND STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES FOR THE EARTH CHARTER" has been produced by the Working Group of Religious Communities on UNCED, released at Geneva, August 12, 1991. The statement is four pages in length. Over fifty representatives of religious traditions from around the world met at the Ecumenical Institute, Bossey, Switzerland, from August 8- 10. The statement has been formally communicated to Working Group III of UNCED, which is expected to formulate an EARTH CHARTER.
A sample section: "Life is a gift and elicits our respect, awe and reverence. We share one earth community, one human family, one destiny. We cherish and respect the rich diversity of life, and celebrate the beauty of the earth. For us, as members of one family, love and caring are the basis of our relationship with one another and with nature. The earth community is our greatest gift and sacred trust. We recognize a call to receive this gift gratefully, to draw earth's sustenance carefully, and to share it equitably."
Ten principles include responsibility toward the earth as a whole, the indivisibility of ecological justice and social justice, the rights of future generations, a transnational approach, a precautionary burden of proof, the protection of biodiversity, and a polluter pays principle.
John Seed, an Australian rainforest activist, is giving several institutes and seminars in the United States September through October. One contact is Interface Institute, Box 860, Watertown, MA 02171. Phone 617/924-1100.
A conference on "Environment for Europe" was held June 21-25 at Dobris Castle, near Prague, Czechoslovakia, with about 200 persons attending. The conference was sponsored by the Czech and Slovak Commission for the Environment in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities and with the assistance of the UN Economic Commission for Europe. One session was devoted to "Human values and environmental ethics." A contact is Juraj Igor Michal, Federal Committee for the Environment, Czechoslovakia. Fax 422 254964.
The American Phytopathological Society at its annual meeting in St. Louis, MO, in August, considered a proposed code of ethics, drafted by Larry Stowell and Laura Westra. The Society will study the matter for a year. Although the president, O. W. Barnett, of Clemson University, endorsed such a code, many delegates did not see the need for it, and representatives of Monsanto and Ciba- Geigy spoke out against any revision of ethics that would reduce chemical dependency or increase organic farming. The proposed code reads, in part, "Plant Pathologists shall perform their services in such a matter as to husband the world's resources and the natural and cultured environment for the benefit of present and future generations. Plant Pathologists shall be most concerned with the direct and primary effect of their suggestions and recommendations upon the environment and shall inform those to or with whom they render professional services concerning any detected or predictable effects upon the natural and cultured environment. Plant Pathologists shall also consider the indirect, secondary and tertiary environmental effects of their recommendations." Other sections deal with performing professional responsibilities with "integrity" and with "objectivity and independence."
A forthcoming TV program placing Sam Beckett of "Quantum Leap" into the body of a laboratory chimpanzee is provoking supporters and opponents of animal research. NBC's provocative series projects its hero, Sam Beckett, back into the 1970's where he inhabits the body of a research chimpanzee set to die or suffer severe injuries in a crash-impact test. A recent TV Guide announcement of the episode waved a red flag and provoked biomedical research advocates, especially the Foundation for Biomedical Research, to request NBC to cancel or alter the program. The program hopes to portray an animal's emotional and intellectual characteristics. Some quite invasive experiments were conducted in the 1970's. Story in LOS ANGELES TIMES, August 12, 1991, p. F1, p. F10.
"Captain Planet" is the newest super-hero on television for kids, taking the environmental crusade to the Saturday-morning pajama crowd. Captain Planet and the Planeteers" is now the most-watched syndicated children's program. Captain Planet is the brainchild of Ted Turner, founder of Turner Broadcasting System. He battles the "looting and polluting eco-villains" of our time. The cartoon features five young people from around the world who help fight environmental destruction, aided when Gaia, the spirit of Earth, gives the Planeteers magic rings that allow each of them to control an element of nature, also to summon Captain Planet when in trouble. The program is being shown in eighty nations. Product-licensing has proved difficult. All toys using Captain Planet's image are required to be environmentally safe, and single-use items are not allowed. Media Research Center, an organization that monitors liberal bias in the media, has ranked it first place on the list of the top ten most biased television shows. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, August 22, 1991, p. 13.
Environmental Magazines Defy the Publishing Slump. Defying long odds and a slumping advertising market, new environmental magazines are muscling their way onto newsstands and carving out a new publishing niche. BUZZWORM (86,000 copies, E (80,000 copies), and GARBAGE (100,300 copies) are selling well at bookstores and newsstands. The old standbys, AUDUBON (471,000), SIERRA (518,000), and GREENPEACE (1,500,000), are doing well, but are turning more consumer-oriented to attract readers and boost sales. AUDUBON underwent a major shakeup with almost the entire editorial staff replaced. AUDUBON is seeking to attract more youthful readers, and, to appeal to this group, expects to feature more articles about the relationship between humans and the natural world rather than nature appreciation pieces. The Wilderness Society's WILDERNESS, having introduced advertising only a few years ago, has now decided to drop advertising entirely. MOTHER EARTH NEWS (350,000) folded last year but was revived under new management. Nevertheless environmental magazines are few in number besides sports magazines. Story in WALL STREET JOURNAL, September 10, 1991.
The U.S. Senate has passed a Colorado Wilderness Bill (sponsored by Colorado senators Wirth and Brown) that environmentalists consider to set a bad precedent on water, but the bill will face tough going in the U.S. House. The designation of further Colorado wilderness has been stalled for a number of years over the question of whether and how wilderness designation affects water rights within the wilderness. Traditionally designation has been presumed to reserve water rights sufficient for the purposes of the wilderness, but the new legislation departs from this in favor of water development. Water interests would like to pass the Colorado Bill not only for development within Colorado but also to set a precedent for future designation elsewhere. This was less of an issue with high country wilderness, because the water flows down and is available below the wilderness, but it has become more of an issue when wilderness is designated downstream from existing or potential water rights above, more often potential uses than water uses already taking place.
A wildlife refuge on the most contaminated square mile in America? Denver's Rocky Mountain Arsenal was long used by the U. S. Army to produce chemical weapons. Twenty years ago Shell Oil became a tenant on the site and produced herbicides and pesticides. Both the Army and Shell have been held responsible for cleanup at one of the top ten Superfund sites in America. The land may or may not be cleaned up in a way that is suitable for human use, but perhaps wildlife can live there. Many wildlife are already present on less contaminated areas of the 17,000 acres involved, but in other areas wildlife have to be frightened away lest they be quickly harmed by the pollutants. In some areas migrating waterfowl spending a single night on a pond there have become too disoriented to fly. Partial cleanup will cost $ 2 billion and is underway. Story in THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, September 12, 1991, pp. 10-11.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has set up a task force on declining amphibians. There will be an office located in Corvalis, OR, and the work of the task force will extend around the world, since amphibians are in world-wide decline.
The U.S. and Japan have been battling over the survival of the hawksbill turtle. The U. S. was on the verge of imposing trade sanctions against Japan in mid-May because of that nation's continued threat to hawksbills. At the last moment, the Japanese announced a major change in policy that could help save the venerable turtles. The shells are coveted in Japan where the shell has traditional ceremonial use, as in combs for a bride's hair, and the shells can command a higher price than ivory. The U.S. Interior Department estimates that Japan imported 18,000 hawksbill turtles last year and 234,000 during the 1980's.
John W. Mumma, U. S. Forest Service Region One Head, the supervisor of 13 national forests in Idaho, Montana, and the Dakotas, was forced to resign for his refusal to cut timber at the rate desired by Montana and Idaho Congressmen, under pressure from timber interests. Mumma is a 32-year veteran of the Forest Service, who is 51 years old. He was officially ordered to take a desk job in Washington, but refused. "The pressure is there and it is intense," said Orville Daniels, supervisor of the 2.5 million acre Lolo National Forest in Montana. Earlier, a federal judge, William L. Dwyer, issued an injunction against logging in parts of the Pacific Northwest. Dwyer found that there was "a deliberate and systematic refusal by the Forest Service and the Fish and Wildlife Service to comply with laws protecting wildlife," but that "this is not the doing of scientists, foresters, rangers, and others at working levels of these agencies. ... It reflects decisions made by higher authorities in the executive branch of government." A Congressional Subcommittee on the Civil Service has begun to issue subpoenas to top Forest Service officials, who are to appear at a hearing to determine whether professional land managers are being harassed. The hearings are to include professional and scientific credibility and to explore the rights of employees to speak out in defense of environmental ethics. Story in NEW YORK TIMES, September 16, 1991, p. A1, p. A12. Federal or state resource personnel who believe they have been limited in free speech, or who have suffered repression or reprisal and who wish to testify in these hearings are invited to contact the Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics, P. O. Box 11615, Eugene, OR 97440. Phone 503/484-2692.
The Ancient Forests Protection Act of 1991 (H. R. 842, Jim Jontz, Democrat from Indiana) remains under consideration by Congress. Environmentalists consider it a strong bill.
The Pacific Northwest Forest Community Recovery and Ecosystem Conservation Act of 1991 (S.1536) has been introduced by Senator Brock Adams (Democrat from Washington). The bill would ease the economic transition for timber dependent workers and communities, allow western states to restrict log exports, set aside many significant stands of old growth and salmon habitat, and initiate extensive forest ecosystem research.
The University of Richmond Law School claims to be the first law school in the nation to require environmental law of all its graduates and to teach it as well to first-year classes.
Less packaging makes more sense. Proctor and Gamble is going to "nude packaging" for several of its products, and selling goods with less packaging is an increasing emphasis in merchandising. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 18, 1991, p. 7.
Trouble on the Yangtze River. China's leaders are considering whether to build a large dam on the Yangtze River, the Three Gorges Project, which would have many adverse effects: disrupting the rise and fall of the river, causing losses for 75 million people downstream from the dam site, threatening an array of wildlife, especially the Yangtze dolphin species, of which only about 200 remain, and threatening the Siberian crane and Chinese sturgeon. The scale of the project is so vast that environmental and social assessments are difficult. Officials in Bejing claim that gains in flood control, hydropower, and shipping would far outweigh the injuries to humans and to the environment. Chen Jisheng, director of the Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute, says, "In China we have many problems to solve and so the government can't make the dolphin the top priority." Demands must be placed on nature to serve the needs of society. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 23, 1991, p. 4.
When Proctor and Gamble ran a series of ads touting the compostability of Luvs and Pampers (disposable diapers), the National Association of Diaper Services countered with an ad: "Ninety days ago this was a beautiful tree. Five hundred years from now it will still be a disposable diaper."
Microlivestock? "Like computers, livestock for use in developing countries should be getting smaller and smaller," says a report of an expert panel of the National Research Council, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences. The panel argues that as humans take up more and more of the space on the planet, something has got to give. Conventional cattle "mainframes" are much too large; they require too much expense and space. Instead, the NRC wants microcattle, "tiny, user-friendly species for home use." Also available: micropigs and microsheep. One problem: dogs eat them! Story in SCIENCE, July 26, 1991, p. 378.
Recent and Upcoming Events --October 4-6. "Environmental Values and the Liberal Arts College," Lutheran College Faculties Conference, October 4-6, at Concordia College, Moorhead, MN. See announcement earlier.
--October 4-5, "Technology, Alienation, and Human Values: The Ethical Consequences of Technology's Distancing Effects." Conference at the University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, including Mark Sagoff, "Technology and the Environment," analyzing public policy issues that have arisen as a result of novel, "technological" attitudes toward the natural environment. Contact: Department of Philosophy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-3392.
--November 3-7, session on "The Importance of Ethics in Environ- mental Research and Decision Making" at the annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Seattle. Papers are invited. Contact Brad Marden, c/o METI/USEPA, 200 SW 35th Street, Corvallis, OR 97333. Phone 503/757-4604. Fax 503/420-4799.
--November 4-8. Global Assembly of Women and the Environment-- Partners in Life, Miami, Florida. Success stories on women in environment are especially invited to the attention of the assembly. Contact Worldwide Network: World Women in the Environ- ment, 1331 H Street, NW, Suite 903, Washington, DC 20005. 202/347-1514. Fax 202/347-1524. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah is the project director.
--November 7. 1991 American Veterinary Medical Association, Animal Welfare Forum, on the theme "The Veterinarian's Role in the Welfare of Wildlife." Palmer House Hotel in Chicago. With sessions devoted to philosophical and ethical issues. Holmes Rolston will give an opening address. Contact: John R. Boyce, D. V. M., Ph. D., Assistant Director of Scientific Activities, American Veterinary Medical Association, 930 N. Meacham Road, Schaumburg, IL 60196-1074. Phone 708/605-8070.
--November 8-12. World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet, in Miami, FL. Sponsored by the Women's Environment and Development Program. The meeting will prepare a women's action agenda for the UNCED conference in Rio. Contact the WEDP, 845 Third Ave., 15th Floor, New York, NY 10222. Phone 212/759-7982.
--November 16-18. Global Change and the Human Prospect, Washington, D.C., sponsored by Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society
--November 22-24. Environmental Ethics Nature Interpretation Workshop at the Piney Woods Conservation Center, Broaddas, TX. See details earlier.
--November 23-26, American Academy of Religion at Kansas City, MO. One of the sections is "Religion and Ecology." Contact Eugene C. Bianchi, Department of Religion, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322. Phone 404/727-7598.
--January 20-22, 1992. Ethics and Simulation in the Service of Society, part of the 1991 Society for Computer Simulation Multiconference on Computer Simulation, Hyatt Newporter, Newport Beach, CA. Papers are invited on the simulation of ecology and environmental issues, including risk assessment and evaluation, and the relations of computer simulation to biological conservation ethics and policy. Contact Helena Szczerbicka, Institut fÅr Rechnerentwurf und Fehlertoleranz, UniversitÑt Karlsruhe, 7500-Karlsruhe, Postfach W-6980, Germany, Tel: Europe (.+49) 721 608 4216, or SCS, P. O. Box 17900, San Diego, CA 92177.
--February 10-21, 1992. 4th World Congress on Protected Areas,
--February 27-29, 2992. "The Global Village: Ethics and Values in a Shrinking, Hurting World," Miami, FL, with emphasis on higher education and the environment. See details earlier.
--March 16-18, 1992. "Stability and Change in Nature: Ecological and Cultural Dimensions," a biophilosophical analysis of concern for the environment, in Budapest, Hungary. See detailed announcement above.
--March 25-28. ISEE session at Pacific American Philosophical Association, at Portland, Oregon. See announcement above.
--March 28, 1992. ISEE panel jointly with American Catholic Philosophy Association, San Diego, CA. See details above.
--March 30-31, 1992. "International Perspectives on Business Ethics," conference at the Center for Business Ethics, Bentley College, Waltham, MA 02154-4705. Phone 617/891-3433. Deadline for paper submissions, October 31, 1991, suggested length 15 double-spaced pages. One of the themes is "the impact of multinational corporate operations on the environment and culture of host countries."
--April 5-7, 1992. "Theory Meets Practice," International Symposium on Environmental Ethics, at the University of Georgia, Athens. Sponsored by the University of Georgia and the Fondazione Lanza (Padua, Italy). See details under announcements.
--April 24-25, 1992. Central APA at Louisville, KY.
--May 17-20, 1992. Fourth North American Symposium on Social Science in Resource Management, University of Wisconsin, Madison. One of the general themes is environmental ethics; another is ethnic minorities and the environment. Contact: Donald R. Field, School of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, 1450 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706.
--May 25-29. Conference on Ethics and Environment, in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, preparatory to UNCED in Rio. See details earlier. Tentative dates.
--June 1-12, 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to be held in Brazil. See announcement earlier.
--June 9-12, 1992. Second International Conference on Public Service Ethics in Siena, Italy. See details earlier.
--June 21-27. International Development Ethics Association (IDEA), Third International Conference on Ethics and Development, Universidad Nactional Autonoma de Honduras, June 21-17, 1992. See details earlier.
--June 28-July 2, 1992. Joint ISEE meeting with the Society for Conservation Biology, at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. See details earlier.
--July 11-13, 1992. Second World Congress on Violence and Human Coexistence, Montreal. ISEE Roundtable on environmental violence and ecofeminism. The Society for Animals and Ethics will also hold meetings. Papers are invited on violence against the environment and against the rights of future generations. Contact Professor Venant Cauchy, Chair, Organizing Committee, University of Montreal, P. O. Box 6128, Succ. A., Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7. Fax (514) 343-2252.
--July 25-August 1, 1992. "Global Ecology and Human Destiny," will be the theme of the Star Island Conference, the annual conference of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science (IRAS), held on Star Island, a Unitarian retreat center off the coast of Portsmouth, NH. Contact the conference chair, Karl Peters, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL 32789.
--July 20-23, 1993. Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference, Philosophy and the Natural Environment, Cardiff, Wales. Contact Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, Philosophy Section, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE, U.K.
--August 22-28, 1993, 19th World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow. This will include sessions on environmental ethics and philosophy. ISEE has been invited to organize sessions also. Roundtable discussions can have no more than two persons from the same nation. Deadline for submitted general papers is August 30, 1992. Contact Congress Secretariat, Volkhonka 14, Moscow 119842. Fax (7095) 200-32-50.