Volume 1, No. 4, Summer 1990
At the American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, in Boston,
December 28, in a midday session in a packed room, there was a panel discussion
on the topic, "Environmental Ethics: Current Trends and Future Prospects,"
with Andrew Brennan (Univer- sity of Stirling), Sara Ebenreck (Editor, EARTH
ETHICS), Bryan Norton (Georgia Institute of Technology), Holmes Rolston
(Colorado State University), Gary Varner (Texas A & M), and Eric Katz
(New Jersey Institute of Technology). At an evening sesson, again to a full
room, Tom Birch, University of Montana, presented a paper, "Universal
Consideration: All the Way Down with Considerability," with commentary
by Andrew Brennan, University of Stirling. Geoffrey Frasz, Sweetbriar College
and the University of Georgia, presented a paper, "Environmental Virtues,
Environmental Vices," with commentary by William Aiken, Chatham College.
See note on business meeting below. See also membership renewal notice and form on the back page. This will be your only notice.
At the Boston APA, William Vitek, Professor of Philosophy at Clarkson University led a session, "Teaching Environmental Ethics, sponsored by the American Association of Philosophy Teachers. Professor Vitek's syllabus and other curriculum materials are available by request from him at Center for Liberal Studies, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13676. A similar session was held earlier at the Eighth International Workshop-Conference on Teaching Philosophy held in August 1990 at Indiana University.
At the Boston APA, at a session sponsored by the Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals, Roberta Kalechofsky, presented a paper, "Jewish Law, Tradition, and Animal Rights: Is There a Usable Paradigm for the Movement?" with commentary by Eric Katz. Evelyn B. Pluhar presented a paper, "The Joy of Killing," which dealt critically with Ann Causey's recent paper, "On the Morality of Hunting," ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS 11(1989):327-343. Commentary was by Daniel A. Dombrowski. At issue was whether humans have an instinct or genetic disposition to hunt as a result of their evolutionary past and whether this has any relevance for sport hunting today.
The ISEE session at the Pacific Division of the APA, meeting March 28-30, 1991 in San Francisco will feature Donald C. Lee, University of New Mexico, giving a paper, "Toward a Unified Environmental Ethics," with commentary by J. Baird Callicott, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point. A second paper will feature Glen J. Parton's paper, "Radical Dualism: Toward a Critique of Deep Ecology," with commentary by George Sessions, Sierra College. A third presentation, "Environmental Ethics in the Soviet Union," will be either by an invited Soviet philosopher or by Ernest Partridge (if a Soviet philosopher is unavailable). Partridge has returned from a trip to the Soviet Union in the fall, including a conference on Lake Baikal. He is coediting a book of Soviet-American essays in environmental philosophy with Tony Struchkov. Further details from Professor Ernest Partridge, Department of Philosophy, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634-4080. Phones 714/441-2353 (home) and 714/773-3611 (main philosophy office).
J. Baird Callicott will address the Pacific Division APA in regular session presenting an invited address on environmental ethics, March 30, 1991. There will be commentators, including Ernest Partridge, as well as audience discussion in the two-hour session.
The Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals will have a session at the Pacific APA, either Friday, March 29 or Saturday, March 30, to be announced. The session will feature: Maxine Sheets-Johnstone, University of Oregon, "Taking Evolution Seriously," with commentary by Michael Bishop, Iowa State University; Roger Paden, George Mason University, "Autonomy and the Idea of Nature," with commentary by Peter Miller, University of Winnipeg; Katherine Grier, University of Utah, "Welcoming Animals into the Domestic Circle: The Changing Ethics of Animal Treatment, 1820-1860," with commentary by Mark W. Barber, St. Mary's College of Minnesota.
At the APA Central Meeting in Chicago, on Friday, April 26, in the evening, there will be a panel discussion on "The Integrity of Creation: Perspectives on Integrity." The panelists will be: William Desmond, Philosophy, Loyola College, Baltimore, Maryland; J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Peter Miller, Philosophy, University of Winnipeg. Laura Westra, Philosophy, University of Windsor will be a commentator and Jack Weir, Philosophy, Morehead State University, Kentucky will chair. This meeting will be held jointly with the Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals.
There will be a day-long ISEE session at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting, February 14-19, 1991, in Washington, DC. The theme is "Defining Ecosystem Health: Science, Economics, or Ethics?" divided into morning and afternoon presentations on February 15. The participants are Eugene Hargrove, Philosophy, University of North Texas, Moderator; J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Talbot Page, Economics, Brown University; Henry Regier, Biology, Ecology, Director of the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto; David Rapport, Economics, University of Ottawa; Mark Sagoff, Philosophy, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland; David Ehrenfeld, Resources and Environmental Conservation, Rutgers University; Robert Ulanowicz, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory; Larry Harris, Zoology, University of Florida; Susan Bratton, National Park Service, Athens, Georgia; and Robert Costanza, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory. The session has been organized by Bryan G. Norton, Social Sciences Division, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332. Phones 404/894-3195, division office; 404/894-8752, his office.
The 5th Australian Ecopolitics Conference will be held at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, April 4-7, 1991. Contact The Secretary, Ecopolitics V, Centre for Liberal and General Studies, University of New South Wales, P. O. Box 1, Kensington, N.S.W., 2033, Australia.
There will be an ISEE session at the Canadian Philosophical Association meeting in May at Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, on May 29. Tom Regan, Philosophy, North Carolina State University, will give an address, "Intrinsic Values in Nature?", with commentary by Peter Miller, Laura Westra, and Eric Katz.
In a second session, also on May 29, ISEE will join with the Canadian Society for Aesthetics on the theme of aesthetic values in nature. Allen Carlson, Philosophy, University of Edmonton, Alberta, will moderate the session. Tom Heyd, Faculty of General Studies, University of Calgary, is a participant in this session. Contact Peter Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9, Canada. Phones 204/786-9395 (office), 204/786-9340 (philosophy office), 204/452-9017 (home).
Andrew Brennan is organizing an ISEE session at the Joint Session of the Mind and Aristotelian Societies the second week of July in England. Contact him if interested. Address below.
The topic of the 1991 Mountain-Plains Philosophy Conference will be "Nature and Value." The conference will be held at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, October 10-12, 1991. The invited speaker will be Margaret Wilson, Princeton University. Paper submissions are invited. Submit papers to Deborah Soles, Philosophy Department, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67208. Phone 316/689-3125.
Professor Andrew Brennan is the contact person in the United Kingdom. Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland. Telephone (0786) 73171. Dues can be sent to Brennan, with checks made to the Society in amount ú6.50.
Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, N.S. W. 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122.
Persons elsewhere in Europe, Asia, and South America may remit to any of the above persons, as seems convenient in any of the four currencies.
The 1991 Environmental Ethics Curricula Development Workshop will be held at the Holiday Inn in Denton, Texas July 12-14, 1991. The workshop will be conducted by Eugene C. Hargrove, editor of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Speakers include Max Oelschlaeger, author of a forthcoming book, THE IDEA OF WILDERNESS (details below) and Pete Gunter, an environmental philosopher known for his work in preserving the Big Thicket in Texas. For more information write Eugene C. Hargrove, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 12396, Denton, TX 76203-3496. Phone 817/565- 2727.
At the World Congress of Philosophy, meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, with the theme "Man and the Environment," July 21-25, 1991, participants at an ISEE session will include Eugene Hargrove, Philosophy, University of North Texas; Michael Fox, Philosophy, Queens University, Canada; Karen Warren, Philosophy, Macalaster College, Minnesota; Michael Zimmerman, Philosophy, Tulane University; Frederick FerrÇ, University of Georgia; Tom Slaughter, Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts. Robin Attfield, Cardiff College, University of Wales, will present a major conference address, "Development and Environmentalism," as well as present a paper addressing some of the issues in Eugene Hargrove's book, FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Professor Evandro Agazzi, Fribourg University and President of the Federation International Des Societies de Philosophie, will participate informally. Persons interested in attending are urged to contact International Travel Specialists at 202/547-5220 about group rates. Another conference on the horizon is Moscow 1993.
Deadline for contributed papers for the 1991 ISEE meeting (late December 1991) in conjunction with Eastern APA will be March 31, 1991. Send proposals and papers to Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102. Phone 201/596-3266. The early deadline is required to meet APA Program requirements. Papers in all areas of environmental ethics are welcome and encouraged. Suggested reading time is 20-25 minutes.
Deadline for contributed papers for the 1992 Central APA, in April, is September 15. Send papers and proposals to Laura Westra, address below.
Deadline for contributed papers for the 1992 Pacific APA, in March, is also September 15. Send papers and proposals to Ernest Partridge, address above.
In addition to the general ISEE session at Eastern Division APA, ISEE has also received an invitation to participate in a joint session with the Society for the Philosophic Study of Genocide and Holocaust and the Radical Philosophy Association on the theme, "Holocaust, Genocide, Ecocide."
The Philosophy Department and Environmental Studies Program at California State University, Fullerton, announce a symposium, "Environmental Ethics Today, and into the 21st Century." The symposium, which will feature distinguished visiting environmental philosophers and scientists, will take place March 7-9, 1991, at the CSUF campus. This will be the 21st of a continuing series of symposia sponsored by the CSU-Fullerton Philosophy Department. Contact Ernest Partridge, Department of Philosophy, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634. Phones 714/773-3611 (office) and 714/441-2353 (home).
Request for course descriptions in environmental studies. ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW will publish in January 1992 a special issue on courses in environmental studies and asking for course descriptions. They will choose 30 as representative of the diversity within the field. Send your course and program materials by March 15 to Professor Bruce Piasecki, Urban- Environmental Studies Center, Sage Laboratory, Suite 2502 A, Rensselaer, Troy, NY 12180. Phone 518/286-6565. Fax 518/276- 6783. An earlier such volume was published by ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW in 1984.
Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada is currently advertising a tenure-track position at the Assistant Professor level to commence July 1, 1991. They hope to appoint a specialist in ethics who is qualified to teach courses in environmental ethics and able to contribute to the development of programs in environmental studies. Ph.D. or equivalent, teaching experience and publications preferred. Main responsibilities will include teaching and supervision in ethics at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Applicants should be qualified to teach courses in environmental ethics, with a strong research commitment in this field and an interested in participating in the development of programs in environmental studies. Applications, including a curriculum vitae and three letters of reference should be sent at once to Andrew Jeffrey, Chair, Department of Philosophy, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6. Phone 613/788-2110. In accordance with Canadian immigration requirements, priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents. Women, aboriginal peoples, visible minorities, and disabled persons are encouraged to apply.
The University of Georgia is currently advertising a joint position between the Faculty of Environmental Ethics and a department appropriate to the candidate's background. Tenure track, fall quarter 1991. Teach courses in the field, oversee growing undergraduate and graduation programs, pursue research in the subject, and thesis supervision. The Environmental Ethics Faculty is interdisciplinary, involving 42 faculty. The position will be recruited from persons in disciplines included but not limited to anthropology, biological sciences, history, philosophy, political science, religion, resource and environmental management, and sociology. Applications should include CV, four references, and a statement of interest and experience, sent by February 1 to Search Committee, Environmental Ethics Certificate Program, 122 Peabody Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
Some forthcoming special lectures at the University of Georgia-- February 26, Wes Jackson, "The Marriage of Ecology and Economics" March 12, Paul Santmire, "Themes for a Theology of Nature" March 19, Arne Vesilind, "Engineering and Environmental Ethics."
The former JOURNAL OF FOREST HISTORY has now been renamed FOREST AND CONSERVATION HISTORY. Alice E. Ingerson is editor and the journal is published by Duke University Press.
The Italian-based journal, PROBLEMI DI BIOETHICA, is adding an environmental focus to their journal, as well as expecting henceforth to publish articles in English as well as Italian. Laura Westra (address below) has joined their editorial board, and they invite suitable articles submitted.
Patricia Werhane, editor of the BUSINESS ETHICS QUARTERLY, expresses an interest in a special issue sponsored by the Society for Business Ethics and ISEE on business and the environment.
A conference, "Environmental Ethics and Military Affairs" was held at the West Point Military Academy sponsored by the Department of Philosophy and the Hastings Institute on November 6. About two dozen West Point faculty and staff were involved; others included a philosopher from Moscow and a Czech biophysicist. Contact Strachan Donnelley at the Hastings Center, 255 Elm Road, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510. Phone 914/762-8500.
The Hastings Center has cooperated with Hoffman-LaRoche Pharmaceuticals in a project developing materials for teachers to introduce bioethics into high school science. The four areas covered in the curriculum materials are: (1) Genetics, (2) AIDS, (3) Use of Animals in Science, and (4) Environmental Ethics. The project has been ongoing for a year and a half. Contact Strachan Donnelley at the Hastings Center, address above..
Tom Regan (North Carolina State University) and R. G. Frey (Bowling Green State University) will debate animal rights on April 4 at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Originally Regan was invited as a distinguished lecturer in a series funded by the Miller Committee there, the theme for 1991 being "Changing Cultural Values and the Role of the University," on the dates April 4-7. But there was protest both to the Department of Philosophy and to the Miller Committee. Letters from the Departments of Psychology, Physiology and Biophysics, and Cell and Structural Biology, as well as from the College of Agriculture, among others, protested Regan's appearance on campus.
The Department of Psychology was especially hostile. Emanuel Donchin, Head, wrote: "The Department of Psychology is currently reeling as it attempts to cope with a severe financial burden imposed by the all too real threat that we will be the subject of a terrorist attack by `animal activists' which follows quite routinely the visits on campus by the prominent ideologues of the `Animal Rights' movement, among which is Professor Tom Regan. ... The MillerComm endorsement accords speakers an honor, and a cachet, which is never a right and must always be earned by one's devotion to scholarship, by one's attainment of scholarly excellence, and by one's adhering to the highest standards of discourse and argument. None of this can be said of Prof. Regan" (Letter, April 19, 1990). "Tom Regan is clearly one who believes that he has the right, and perhaps the duty, to act on his `Truth' in a manner that is disrespectful of the rights others. ... As the likely target of the coercive attempts by the Animal Rights Movement to prevent our continued use of animals in research, I find this view morally repugnant" (Letter, May 11).
John E. Zehr, Head of the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, wrote: "Even a cursory examination of the published work of professor Regan leads to the conclusion that, without an adequate scientific background, he speaks from a point of view which has bought into the dogma of the fringes of the animal rights movement. A discussion by Professor Regan will not be open and objective, but will be a sophisticated rationalization of an emotionally and biased point of view" (Letter, April 19). W. R. Gomes, Dean of the College of Agriculture, wrote that "animal rights issues have moved from the Philosophy Department to the Police Department." "We have severe reservations about his [Regan's] motives and his methods" (Letter, April 23). Alan Fredrick Horwitz, Head of the Department of Cell and Structural Biology, wrote, "It is not in the best interests of our department or the biomedical community to support this speaker."
In result, Frey was added to balance Regan's appearance and the event moved technically to precede the lecture series, although held earlier on the opening day. The Miller Committee has partially funded the event, although the protests have continued. For information about the event, contact Jeff McMahan, Department of Philosophy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 105 Gregory Hall, 810 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Phone 217/333-2889.
The 1990 National Wildlife Conservation Directory is now online for computer access. This is one of the most extensive conservation directories, and has been for many years (and still is) available in annual printed edition. There are numerous reference sections and indices such as U. S. and Canadian national, state, and provincial wildlife and fishery administrators, major colleges and universities that offer professional training in conservation and environmental protection, National Forests, Parks, Seashores, Wildlife Refuges, and Bureau of Land Management Districts, conservation offices of foreign governments, and sources of audio-visual materials, periodical, and directories. The conservation directory is online through EcoNet and is found in the conference "nwf.consdirect".
For details on EcoNet, see NEWSLETTER 1, 2, Summer 1990, p. 5. This is a major source of computerized environmental information.
World Wildlife Fund has appointed a full-time Ethics and Conservation Officer to its staff. Allison Phillips, a theology graduate and specialist in environmental education, will head the program, which includes publication of THE NEW ROAD, radio programming, and maintaining a network of contacts numbering in the thousands around the world. She is located in Gland, Switzerland.
The Sierra Institute, University of California, Santa Cruz, offers an interdisciplinary natural history field program of extended studies and university extension. In addition to more scientifically oriented field classes, there is a unit entitled, "California Wilderness: Nature Philosophy and Religion." Backpack from April 4 to May 30 in four of California's premier and diverse wild areas--Death Valley, Big Sur, the Yolla Bolly Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada. Spring in these remarkable places will be the setting for lively explorations of nature's influential role in literature, philosophy, and religion. Three interrelated courses are involved: American Nature Philosophers (Emerson, Thoreau, Muir, Leopold, Deep Ecology, Ecofeminism), Perspectives on Nature (gatherer-hunters, agricultural societies, industrial civilization, post-industrial environmental perspectives, bioregionalism, green politics, transpersonal ecology) and a practicum: Introduction to Wilderness Education. The instructor is Walker Abel. Contact: Sierra Institute, Box AA, University of California Extension, 740 Front Street, # 155, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. Phone 408/427-6618.
David Rothenberg, the translator of Arne Naess's recent book on ecology and lifestyle, is teaching a graduate class, ESP 547, Ecophilosophy, at the Graduate School in Environmental Studies, Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH, and offers to share with interested persons a syllabus and draft anthology that collects 22 readings suitable for graduate study in ecophilosophy. Contact David Rothenberg: 151 Harvard Street, # 2F, Cambridge, MA 02138. Phone 617/497-7825.
The University of San Francisco, School of Education announces the development of the Adult Learners International program with special interest areas in sustainable development and environmental education. Offered within the Educational Administration Program for Organization and Leadership, course work can lead to a certificate, a Master of Arts Degree, or an Ed.D. in either of the special interest areas. The first course in the program series, EDOL 795, The Environment and Sustainable Development, begins in late January. Formal enrollment into the degree program is not required, but course enrollment is limited.
H. B. Peter expresses an interest in an ISEE meeting to be held on the continent of Europe, perhaps at the Institute for Social Ethics, of which he is in charge, in Bern Switzerland. The Institute for Social Ethics (ISE) was founded in 1971 is is funded by the Swiss Federation of Protestant Churches; the main office is in Berne, a French office is in Lausanne. Peter is also professor of social ethics at the Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Berne. Address: Dr. H. B. Peter, Institut för Socialethik, 3007 Bern Sulgenauweg 26, Switzerland. Phone (031) 46 25 14. Fax (031) 46 54 18.
Global Warming software package. Connie Guglielmo in the September 11, 1990 MACWEEK reviews two software packages for the Mac, one of which is "Global Warming," a hypercard stack developed by a group of volunteers at Apple and presented to Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev during his July visit to San Francisco. The stack provides information on the scientific concepts and controversies surrounding global warming. The price is about $ 10.00. Also available through EcoNet.
Holmes Rolston made a fact-finding and consulting trip to South Africa on ethics in wildlife conservation in October 1990, as the guest of Southern African Forum.
The University of Pittsburgh offers a three week summer program for undergraduates with college credit in Yellowstone National Park. The course is Biological Sciences 74: UHC Ecology Field Course. One week emphasizes paleontology, geomorphology, and geology, a second ecology, and the third environmental ethics and values in the park. The program runs July 23 through August 21. Contact Harry O. Corwin, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Phone 412/624- 4256.
Worldviews, a nonprofit organization based in Antwerp, Belgium, is launching an ambitious international scientific research program, "Contrasting Cultural Roots and the Global Environment." The program expects by comparative studies of the cultural bases of existing organized environmental movements to facilitate cross- cultural, global environmental and survival strategies. The program starts in 1991 and will continue from 3-4 years. Participation by interested persons is encouraged. A project summary and proposal is available on request. Professor Leo Apostel is president of Worldviews. Contact: Dr. Willy Weyns, Project Manager, Wildestraat 14, B-9961 Assenede, Belgium. Phone 03/238 23 53.
Environmental Ethics Reprints. Environmental Philosophy, Inc., publisher of the journal ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, and a companion organization to ISEE, has launched a series of reprints for important books in the field of environmental ethics that have gone out of print. The first of these is Charles Birch and John B. Cobb, Jr., THE LIBERATION OF LIFE: FROM THE CELL TO THE COMMUNITY, and was released in August 1990. This book was originally published in 1981 by Cambridge University Press. Contact: Environmental Ethics Books, 1926 Chestnut Street, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-3496. Phone 817/565-2727.
The April 1992 issue of THE MONIST will be devoted to the topic of the intrinsic value or inherent worth of non-human natural entities and nature as a whole. The guest editor is J. Baird Callicott. Contributions are solicited and may be submitted either to J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI 54481 or to John Hospers, 8229 Lookout Mountain Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90046. Deadline: March 15, 1991.
The University of New Mexico Institute for Public Policy conducted a 1990 survey of citizen opinions on environmental issues. A sample finding:
Some people believe that mankind has dominion over nature,
and should use it as a resource to serve human ends; others
argue that humans are merely a small part of nature, and
should severely limit human actions to those that do
absolutely no harm to the environment or other creatures.
What is your opinion on a five point scale?
1. 24.7% Absolutely no harm
5. 10.9% Dominion
For a copy, contact Dr. Hank C. Jenkins-Smith, Director, UNM Institute for Public Policy, Department of Political Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Phone 505/277- 1099.
Following the midday session at the Boston APA in December, there was also a business meeting of ISEE for the purpose of formally adopting a constitution and electing officers. A constitution, prepared by the Governing Board was adopted unanimously. Copies are available on request from the Secretary. In sum, the Constitution provides for individual, student, and organizational members, stated annual meetings, a president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer with rotating terms of three years, a process for their nomination and election, and a Governing Board consisting of the officers and others chosen particularly to insure international representation. The organizing officers (Holmes Rolston, President; Eric Katz, Vice-President; Laura Westra, Secretary, and Peter Miller, Treasurer) were elected to continue until a nominating committee brings further recommendation at the next annual stated meeting.
A treasurer's report was also received. In summary, in $US about $2,000 was received in membership fees, about $ 1,100 spent to print and mail the Newsletter, with significant contributions of services and materials by several academic institutions involved. There is in addition about $ 200 Canadian, about ú214 in a British account and a small amount in Australian dollars.
Membership in ISEE now stands at about 350 members in 25 different nations.
Members are invited and encouraged, in consultation with the officers and governing board, to arrange programs and presentations at appropriate learned societies and other suitable forums.
Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing the newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax: 303-491-0528, 24 hours. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed.
Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials
Articles in ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS are not reported here, on the assumption that readers of ISEE are also readers of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Other journals that readers will wish to consult regularly are BETWEEN THE SPECIES, JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ETHICS, EARTH ETHICS, AGRICULTURE AND HUMAN VALUES, and THE TRUMPETER.
--TRUMPETER, Fall 1990, is a special issue on "Wild Animals and Human Life." Twelve short articles.
--HYPATIA, January 1991, is a special issue on ecofeminism, edited by Karen Warren.
--WITNESS, Winter 1989, is a special issie on new nature writings.
--Stephanie Mills, ed., IN PRAISE OF NATURE, Covelo, CA: Island Press, 1990. 258 pages. $ 14.95 paper, $ 22.95 cloth. A smorgasbord of nature writing: John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Barry Lopez, Wendell Berry, John McPhee, Edward Abbey, Rachel Carson, and others. There is an annotated bibliography of more than 100 books comparable to Davis's ECOPHILOSOPHY (Newsletter, Spring, 1990, p. 7) with these major differences: it is more broadly conceived both topically and temporally and the notations and reviews are written by many authors, among them Baird Callicott.
--Robin Attfield and Katharine Dell, eds., VALUES, CONFLICT AND THE ENVIRONMENT, published by the Ian Ramsey Centre, Oxford, and the Centre for Applied Ethics, Cardiff. 110 pages. 1989. This report of the Environmental Ethics Working Party, Ian Ramsey Center, St. Cross College, Oxford is a timely and stimulating contribution to current discussions about the future of the environment and human interaction with it. In the main report (Part One) a method of comprehensive weighting is introduced, defended, and then applied to public procedures and social practice. In Part Two, there is a criticism of comprehensive weighting and a response. Part Three contains four essays that depict value systems that form the broader sources of values in environmental issues: the Judeo-Christian tradition, and the traditions of secular humanism, Marxism, and environmentalism. The report is available at ú10.00, domestic postage included, ú12.00 overseas, from The Principal's Secretary, Westminster College, Oxford OX2 9AT, U. K. Please make checks payable to Westminster College.
--Don Ihde, TECHNOLOGY AND THE LIFEWORLD: FROM GARDEN TO EARTH. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. The closing chapter is "The Earth Inherited: Stewardship Recommendations for the Inherited Earth." "My first recommendation must be a worldwide conservation ethic" (p. 197). Idhe is a dean and philosopher at the State University of New York, Stony Brook.
--D. W. Schindler, et al., "Effects of Climatic Warming on Lakes of the Central Boreal Forest," SCIENCE, 16 November 1990. A preview of the effects of increased greenhouse warming on boreal lakes. "The disappearance or warming and increased chemical concentrations of boreal freshwaters could cause the extirpation of cold water species assemblages that include some of the world's most valuable fisheries."
--Hmoud F. Al-Kahem, "Wildlife Conservation in Saudi Arabia," in WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA, Proceedings of the First Symposium, Riyadh, February 1987, edited by Abdulaziz H. Abu-Zinada, Paul D. Goriup, and Iyad A. Nader, National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development, Publication No. 3, Riyadh, 1989. Most people underestimate the merits of wildlife preservation. Often, threats to wildlife are not treated sufficiently seriously. Human encroachment on wildlife habitat can lead to extinction. Threats to Arabian fauna are discussed. Arguments for native species protection are presented. Recommendations for Arabian wildlife preservation are proposed. In English. Al-Kahem is in the Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
--L. J. Webb and J. Kikkawa, eds., AUSTRALIAN TROPIC RAINFORESTS: SCIENCE--VALUES--MEANING. East Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO Publications, 1990. 185 pages. 19 essays organized into sections on "The Depths of Time," "Natural Processes," "Value and Meaning, "Future Perspectives." Some sample essays: J. Davidson, "Values and Uses: Seeing the Forest Through Different Eyes"; I. Lowe, "Scientific Objectivity and Values"; D. A. Ratcliffe, "Conserving Wild Nature: Purpose and Ethics"; J. R. Engel, "Rainforest as Metaphor: The Search for Public Education in the Australian Wet Tropics"; M. Charlesworth, "Nature's Rights." An excellent mixture of science and conscience. Len J. Webb is with the Division of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland; Jiro Kikkawa is in the Department of Zoology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia.
--Wendell Berry, WHAT ARE PEOPLE FOR? San Francisco: North Point Press, 1990. With a concluding essay on "Nature as Measure" (of the success of agriculture. Other essays: "A Few Words in Favor of Edward Abbey" and "God and Country" (Christianity and ecology).
--Gary Snyder, THE PRACTICE OF THE WILD. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1990. The important lessons nature teaches along with a sense of larger themes rising out of the Earth.
--Max Oelschlaeger, THE IDEA OF WILDERNESS FROM PREHISTORY TO THE PRESENT. New Haven: Yale University Press, forthcoming late March or early April 1991. 500+ pages. An intellectual history drawing evidence from philosophy, anthropology, theology, literature, ecology, cultural geography and archaeology. Chapters: 1. The Idea of Wilderness, from Paleolithic to Neolithic Culture. 2. Ancient Mediterranean. 3. Modernism: Transmutation of Wilderness into Nature. 4. Wild Nature: Critical Responses to Modernism. 5. Thoreau. 6. Muir. 7. Leopold. 8. Robinson Jeffers and Gary Snyder. 9. Contemporary Wilderness Philosophy, from Resourcism to Deep Ecology. 10. Cosmos and Wilderness, A Postmodern Wilderness Philosophy. Oelschlaeger is in the Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas. A work continuing, enlarging, and sometimes correcting the tradition of Roderick Nash, WILDERNESS AND THE AMERICAN MIND, one of Yale's all time best sellers.
--Kristin Shrader-Frechette, RISK AND RATIONALITY (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991 (January). Shrader-Frechette "defends a populist account of environmental risk." More details later. Shrader-Frechette is in the philosophy department at the University of Southern Florida, Tampa.
--Russell E. Train, "Religion and the Environment," RENEWABLE RESOURCES JOURNAL, Summer 1990. Environmental concerns have been "one of the most fundamental concerns to agitate human society within living memory" and yet there has been an "almost total obliviousness of organized religion toward the environment." An article based on an address to the North American Conference on Religion and Ecology, May 18, 1990 in Washington, D.C.
--Congressional Forum on Wetlands Loss, RENEWABLE RESOURCES JOURNAL, Summer 1989. Selected short articles. "Of the more than 200 million acres of wetlands which existed in the lower 48 States when the United States was settled, more than half--nearly 100 million acres--have been converted." "Three-fourths of the remaining wetlands in the continental U. S. are privately owned. Only about 0.5 percent of privately owned wetlands are under some form of conservation protection." See below for wetlands video.
--Rosemary Rodd, BIOLOGY, ETHICS, AND ANIMALS. Oxford University Press, 1990. 280 pages. $ 55.00. Rodd uses philosophy and biological approaches to address the various attitudes in the debate over animal rights. Rodd justifies ethical concern within a framework that is grounded in evolutionary theory and provides detailed discussion of practical situations in which ethical decisions have to be made. Rodd claims to offer to moral philosophers a biological background to the ethical questions involved and to offer biologists an approach to the ethics of animal rights that is rooted in biological theory.
--Rachels, James, THE MORAL IMPLICATIONS OF DARWINISM. Oxford University Press, 1990. How Darwinism and evolutionary history brings humans and animals closer together both descriptively in science and prescriptively in morals. See note in Fall 1990 NEWSLETTER. Comparable in many ways to Rodd's book, but one thing that is not comparable is the price. Rachels' is only $ 19.95 for 256 pages; Rodd's is $ 55.00 for 280 pages. Fortunately, the logic in Oxford's books is better than the logic of their pricing.
--Gerald F. Gaus, VALUE AND JUSTIFICATION: THE FOUNDATIONS OF LIBERAL THEORY (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Part I is a theory of value. Part II is a theory of moral justification. Part I concludes with a brief section on "Anthropocentrism and the Environment" (pp. 247-250). Gaus's "Affective-Cognitive Theory in no way precludes environmental objects or ecosystems from being rationally valued for themselves; a rational valuer may even see them as having a greater intrinsic value than humans. ... So, far from opposing ascriptions of intrinsic value to the environment, the Affective-Cognitive Theory has no difficulties embracing the qualities of environmental objects and systems to which environmental philosophers typically point as grounds of their intrinsic value. Richness, complexity, diversity, and organic unity are precisely those properties that evoke interest and so ground intrinsic valuing." Nevertheless such valuing is an activity of humans or other affective-cognitive valuers, and the question "Would the environment have value if there were no humans or valuers?" is "unimportant" or "moot," not false but "pointless."
--Dorothy L. Cheney and Robert M. Seyfarth, HOW MONKEYS SEE THE WORLD. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. 389 pages. $ 24.95. The first book to explore the communication and intelligence of these free-ranging primates using field experiments and the theories of modern cognitive science. This book is likely to become the standard reference for biological and behavioral detail in evaluating cognitive theories that compare and contrast humans and monkeys.
--Mark Bekoff and Dale Jamieson, eds., INTERPRETATION AND EXPLANATION IN THE STUDY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR. Vol. I: INTERPRETATION, INTENTIONALITY, AND COMMUNICATION. $ 45.00 Vol. II: EXPLANATION, EVOLUTION, AND ADAPTATION. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. $ 45.00. Twenty-one essays in vol. I; 16 essays in vol. II. Softcover. Some sample essays: John Andrew Fisher: "The Myth of Anthropomorphism"; Michael L. Rosenzweig, "Do Animals Choose Habitats?"; Bernard E. Rollin, "How Animals Lost Their Minds: Animal Mentation and Scientific Ideology"; John DuprÇ, "The Mental Lives of Nonhuman Animals"; and a concluding section in vol. II on Moral Dimensions. Bekoff is professor in the Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology and Jamieson is professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Colorado.
--Gil Langley, ed., ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION: THE CONSENSUS CHANGES. London: Routledge, 1989; sold in U. S. by Chapman and Hall, an imprint of Routledge, Chapman, and Hall, 1989. Ten essays, mostly British but also American and Australian.
--Dan Dagget, "Death for the Bear," HARROWSMITH'S COUNTRY LIFE, December 1990. High-tech bear hunting, with radio telemetry computerized hounds, high-powered four-wheel drives, high-powered telescopic rifles, infrared night scopes, video-enhanced images, including the latest guerilla weapons, and all the rest. Fair chase? Nobody asks when a fast-paced business executive wants a bear quick over a weekend. Nor do many ask what this is doing to the bear populations. Dagget is conservation chairman of the Sierra Club of Northern Arizona and writes guidebooks for the United States Forest Service.
--Tom Wolf, "The Los Utes Case: Forestry Seeks Its Soul," AMERICAN FORESTS November, December 1990. "A badly botched timber sale on the Santa Fe National Forest in New Mexico raises questions about where the ethical soul resides in today's practice of forestry. The agency blundered on the 900-acre Los Utes timber sale and blew it in a fashion that has everyone disturbed. .. Can there--and should there--be an environmental ethic for foresters." "It is simple to say that what happened at Los Utes is wrong, both technically and ethically, but it is difficult to fix responsibility in a way that will result in better performance next time." The area is three miles upstream from Bandelier National Monument. Tom Wolf is an author and forester who has worked for The Nature Conservancy and The Trust for Public Land.
--James Trefil, "Modeling Earth's Future Climate Requires both Science and Guesswork," SMITHSONIAN, Dec. 1990. "Predictions of global warming, catastrophic or otherwise, depend on both what we do know and our assumptions about what we don't. I have seen a piece of the 21st century and I don't like it very much. We are going to face serious problems, and we will have to face them while the scientific evidence for the seriousness (and even the existence) of the problems is clouded by doubt and controversy. Worse, the aspects of scientific knowledge presented to the public will appear contradictory and ambiguous, and will give us little on which to make our decisions." Useful article, readable by undergraduates, and sets the stage for discussion of the ethical puzzles of decisions made on incomplete scientific knowledge, probabilities, involuntary risks, and so on. James Trefil is a well-known physicist and author at George Mason University.
--Gabriel Schoenfeld, "The Soviet Union: Rad Storm Rising," ATLANTIC, December 1990. A ghastly tour of a land of radioactive sausage, poisoned onions, and bald children. The accident at Chernobyl called world attention to the deficiencies of the Soviet Union's nuclear-energy problem, but few people are yet aware of just how contaminated by radioactivity the Soviet Union is. In several of at least ten major accidents at nuclear power stations there have been significant emissions of radioactivity. Much farmland and food is contaminated. In 1989 there were over 200 unplanned shutdowns or reductions of performance. Schoenfeld is a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C.
--David Seamon and Robert Mugerauer, eds., DWELLING, PLACE AND ENVIRONMENT: TOWARDS A PHENOMENOLOGY OF PERSON AND WORLD. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989 edition of a book earlier published by Nijhoff and out of print. Seventeen essays, an important collection in the resurgent literature on the sense of dwelling in place. Some sample essays: Michael E. Zimmerman, "The role of spiritual discipline in learning to dwell on earth"; Anne Buttimer, "Nature, water symbols and the human quest for wholeness"; Henri Bortoft, "Counterfeit and authentic wholes: Finding a means for dwelling in nature" Edward Relph, "Geograph- ical experiences and being-in-the-world: The phenomenological origins of geography."
--David Seamon, "Humanistic and Phenomenological Advances in Environmental Design," THE HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGIST 17 (no. 3, Autumn, 1989):280-293. The sense of place (GENIUS LOCI) is receiving increasing academic and professional attention in the literature on environmental design and theory. One of the three leading components that structure a sense of place is the natural setting that establishes a specific physical and ecological context, the nature of which is partly atmospheric and intangible. Seamon is in the Department of Agriculture at Kansas State University.
--E. Casey, GETTING BACK INTO PLACE. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
--John A. Hayward, "Environmental Management--Science or Ethics?" A distinguished lecture at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Environmental management in New Zealand has been highly professionalized in a relatively brief period of time and operated within a development ethic. "The result is that whereas science has enabled us to consider and debate the environmental implications of alternative courses of action, the moral or ethical decision as to our choice of option have been prescribed for us and not open to debate. Thus, although decisions relating to the use of our environment should be based on both ethical and scientific considerations, the ethical issues have been consistently subservient to the scientific. However, the recent New Zealand legal and Parliamentary decisions indicate clearly that ethical issues are, in future, to be considered in the allocation of use of our environments."
"The Environment Act of 1987 requires that: `...in the management of natural and physical resources, full and balanced account is taken of - (i) The intrinsic values of ecosystems; and
(ii) All values which are placed by individual and groups on the quality of the environment; and
(iii) The principles of the Treaty of Waitangi [of 1975, a treaty with indigenous peoples]; and
(iv) The sustainability of natural and physical resources; and (v) The needs of future generations.'"
John A. Hayward is with the Centre for Resource Management, University of Canterbury and Lincoln College. Address: University of Canterbury, Private Bag, Christ Church, New Zealand.
--Douglas Bowman, BEYOND THE MODERN MIND: THE SPIRITUAL AND ETHICAL CHALLENGE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS (New York: Pilgrim Press, 1990) $ 10.95. Deep cultural-religious roots of the environmental crisis are explored. Spirit-Nature dualism is Earth-destructive. Mechanism, materialism, individualism, and patriarchialism reinforce the pattern. Bowman wants to recover the Christian creation-centered tradition in ways that connect with Trinitarian belief and follow Jesus in being "receptive, prophetic, compassionate."
--Charles Birch, William Eakin, Jay McDaniel, eds., LIBERATING LIFE: CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL THEOLOGY. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1990. Traces an emerging consensus among theologians from differing backgrounds and with differing perspectives: "an anthropcentric ethic, understood as an emphasis on human well-being at the expense of the earth and other living beings, must be replaced by an ethic of respect for life and environment."
--Geoffrey R. Lilburne, A SENSE OF PLACE: A CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY OF THE LAND (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1989). 139 pages. $ 10.95. Chapters: 1. From the secular city to a theology of the land. 2. The centrality of the land in aboriginal and Hebrew religion. 3. Shattering the territorial chrysalis: from the exile to the Christian scriptures. 4. The poetics of space: place and space in the Western tradition. 5. The Christification of holy space: incarnation and the land. 6. Defining incarnational praxis. An Australian theologian draws from the culture and literature of his native Australia to offer a vision of ecological responsibility that is biblical, practical, and poetic. Lilburne is now professor of theology at the United Theological Seminary in Dayton, Ohio.
--Catherine L. Albanese, NATURE RELIGION IN AMERICA: FROM THE ALGONKIAN INDIANS TO THE NEW AGE. University of Chicago Press, 1990. 267 pages, $ 24.95. Five chapters examine nature as symbolic religious center in the views of the aboriginal Americans and the first Europeans; in the "organic" compact of the Founders; in the Transcendentalists; in the "sectarian healers" of the late 19th century; and finally in several contemporary manifestations. The Amerindians' sense of themselves as a part of nature contrasts with the Puritan's fears of wilderness. These themes were subsumed, to a degree, by the Freemasons of the early republicans. But when Emerson, Thoreau and John Muir attempted to reconcile these disparate legacies, they only succeeded in transforming them into another conundrum: an Aristotelian belief in nature as "really real" versus a Platonic concept of nature as "ideal" or "illusory." In the course of her survey, Albanese examines several kinds of late 19th century mind cures; herbalists, homeopaths, chiropractors and others preached a kind of Christian physiology teaching that harmony with natural forces was a means to ordering and using those forces for one's own good and the good of society. Einstein and Planck upset the belief in such an order, but the new, fluid science of the 20th century has produced today "recapitulated pieties" of the nation's beginnings, as in the writings of Annie Dillard. At issue in this ethereal debate was the tangible question of whether human beings were to harmonize with nature or to have mastery over it. Really a set of far-ranging essays more than a narrative account of nature religion in America. Albanese is professor of religious studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara.
--ALIVE NOW!, January/February 1991, is a special issue, "The Earth." 64 pages. This is an inspirational guide for high school youth published by the Methodist Church. Various short quotations from Robinson Jeffers, Joseph Meeker, Holmes Rolston, Jay McDaniel, Thomas Berry, Gary Snyder, Wendell Berry, native Americans, African, Australian and other indigenous peoples, Jewish liturgies, as well as from the Bible. Some of the materials are composed by youth. Contact: The Upper Room, 1908 Grand Avenue, P. O. Box 189, Nashville, TN 37202-0189.
Lewis G. Regenstein, REPLENISH THE EARTH: A HISTORY OF ORGANIZED RELIGION'S TREATMENT OF ANIMALS AND NATURE. New York: Crossroad/Continuum, 1990. 256 pages. $ 14.94 paper. "Includes the Bible's message of conservation and kindness to animals."
Michael W. Fox, ANIMALS HAVE RIGHTS TOO: A PRIMER FOR PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND YOUNG PEOPLE. New York: Crossroad/Continuum, 1990. 144 pages. $ 9.95 paper. Fox is the vice president of the Humane Society of the United States.
--Carol J. Adams, THE SEXUAL POLITICS OF MEAT: A FEMINIST- VEGETARIAN CRITICAL THEORY. New York: Crossroad/Continuum, 1990 paperback release. $ 12.95.
--John Richard Schrock, "Dissection," THE KANSAS SCHOOL NATURALIST vol 36, no. 3 (February 1990):3-15. "The loss of dissection, vivisection, and experimentation from public school science classes may pose a more serious threat to the intellectual and physical health of the human population than recent challenges to animal use in biomedical research. ... The absolute need for examination of real organisms in the classroom and in other science education settings is not self-evident. Indeed, a shallow and naive understanding of the learning process is used to purvey videotapes, models, computer simulations and stuffed animals as equivalent or superior to real laboratory experiences. The function of this issue of this issue of the KANSAS SCHOOL NATURALIST is to clarify how the examination of real material is essential to all students' science literacy, and to help biology teachers `hang tough.'" Schrock is in the Department of Biology at Emporia State University and directs the biology education program there. See also "Classroom Cut-Ups" under videotapes and item on dissection protested in issues, below.
--FIFTY SIMPLE THINGS KIDS CAN DO TO SAVE THE EARTH. The Earthworks Group, especially John Javna. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1990. 4900 Main Street, Kansas City, MO 64112. Environmental ethics for kids. Start them early.
--Bill McKibben, THE END OF NATURE. Now released in paperback, Anchor, 1990, $ 9.95.
--Margaret L. Knox, "In the Heat of the Hunt," SIERRA, November/December 1990. Article on hunting, with subsidiary essays by a hunter and a non-hunter, also a short on an iguana hunt in Africa. Many environmentalists say the debate should not be about wildlife, but about ecosystems. Thinking about animals as a resource does for deer what the timber industry has done for old-growth forests. Militant anti-hunters share a moral certainty with anti-abortionists who throw blood on pregnant women entering planned parenthood clinics. Their fervor makes it easy for hunters to dismiss their arguments.
--Richard Conniff, "Fuzzy-Wuzzy Thinking About Animal Rights," AUDUBON, November 1990. Ignorance about nature is the movement's doctrine. Animal welfare advocates hold that nature is essentially benign and lack any sense of the first law of nature, which is eat and be eaten. The legal skin trade is more likely to save an endangered species than to wipe it out. Citing Peter Singer's ANIMAL LIBERATION, Conniff claims, "in reality the animal rights movement has elevated ignorance about nature almost to the level of a philosophical principle."
--David E. Cooper and Joy A. Palmer, eds., THE ENVIRONMENT IN QUESTION. Forthcoming by Routledge in late 1991. Cooper is a philosopher and Palmer in the school of education at the University of Durham, England. This is an internationally oriented anthology with fifteen contributors, with relatively short articles, designed to serve as an undergraduate introduction to a broad spectrum of issues. Sample entries: C. A. Hooker, "Responsibility, Ethics and Nature," F. C. T. Holliday, "The Dumping of Radioactive Waste in the Deep Ocean: Scientific Advice and Ideological Persuasion," Mary Midgley, "Towards a More Humane View of the Beasts?," Holmes Rolston, "Challenges in Environmental Ethics." A complete list of entries will appear in this newsletter later.
--Christopher Manes, GREEN RAGE: ENVIRONMENTALISM AND THE UNMAKING OF CIVILIZATION. New York: Little, Brown. 291 pages. $ 18.95. Manes, once a Fulbright scholar and early associate editor of EARTH FIRST!, wrote GREEN RAGE during his first year of law school at the University of California at Berkeley. He chronicles the historical events, political context, and social impetus that created the radical environmentalist groups, such as Greenpeace and Earth First! Radical environmentalism may be the last chance for turning away from destroying the planet to cohabiting the planet with other life forms. GREEN RAGE is already a best-seller on the West Coast.
--Mikko Saikku, "The Extinction of the Carolina Parakeet," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(# 3, Fall 1990):1-18.
--Robert Loverly, "Wisconsin's Acid Rain Battle: Science, "Science, Communication, and Public Policy," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(# 3, Fall 1990):21-48.
--Richard W. Judd, "The Coming of the Clean Waters Acts in Maine, 1941-1961," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(# 3, Fall 1990):51-73.
--Hwa Yol Jung and Petee Jung, "Gary Snyder's Ecopiety," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(# 3, Fall 1990):75-87.
--John D. Leshy, "Water and Wilderness/Law and Politics," LAND AND WATER LAW REVIEW (University of Wyoming, College of Law) 33 (no. 2, 1988):389-417. Excellent article summarizing what is and what is not at stake in the current controversy over water rights that go with wilderness designation. Although opponents of water rights for wilderness have been noisy, in fact existing water rights holders have little at stake, since wilderness water rights "are for the most part rights to in-stream, non-consumptive use, which means that they actually preserve flows for diversion and consumptive use below the federal reservation." Wilderness water rights are also typically junior, since they date from the wilderness designation. Wilderness advocates have achieved signal victories in convincing the nation that significant tracts of federal land ought to be set aside and preserved in their natural condition "as embodying an ethical expression by our culture about itself and its relationship to our natural heritage." Opponents of wilderness water rights can often successfully delay new wilderness designations, since Congress dislikes tampering with the status quo in water law. On the other hand Congress and the federal courts have regularly insisted that designation of federal lands implies reservation of water adequate for the purposes of the designation. Opponents of wilderness water rights may find their strategies successful in short term only to lose credibility in the long term, given how little is really at stake and the considerable popularity of wilderness. "Wilderness is ... the driving engine in federal land management policy just about every place roadless areas exist." Leshy is professor of law, Arizona State University.
--Edward Goldsmith, Peter Bunyard, Nicholas Hildyard, Patrick McCully, IMPERILED PLANET: RESTORING OUR ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEMS. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990. $ 39.95. By the editors of THE ECOLOGIST.
--John Nichols, THE SKY'S THE LIMIT: A DEFENSE OF THE EARTH, New York: W. W. Norton, 1990. $ 14.95. Essays with photographs of Northern New Mexico by the author of THE MILAGRO BEANFIELD WAR who is a passionate defender of the environment. "Today all landscape photography is an act of conscience and commitment."
--Dixy Lee Ray, TRASHING THE PLANET. Washington, D. C.: Regnery Gateway, 1990. $ 18.95. Ray, former chair of the Atomic Energy Commission, lambastes environmental activists and their puppets in the media for confusing and frightening the public about complex scientific issues. Her answer for the most part is technology. "A well tended garden is better than a neglected woodlot."
--Bruce Piasecki and Peter Asmus, IN SEARCH OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXCELLENCE: MOVING BEYOND BLAME. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990. $ 9.95 paper. Traces the historical and recent abuses of land, air, and water, but also describes many examples of public and private entities successfully searching for and finding solutions. Government has a key role as facilitator and coordinator. "The true test for American environmentalism is to achieve a better balance between fear of ecological catastrophe and trust in our political system."
--Robert Finch and John Elder, THE NORTON BOOK OF NATURE WRITING. New York: W. W. Norton, $ 29.95. A 921-page tome with the best of such English and American writing over the last two centuries, 125 substantial selections by 94 writers. "Nature writing asserts both the humane value of literature and the importance to a mature individual's relationship with the world of understanding fundamental physical and biological processes" (Introduction).
--Janet Lembke, LOOKING FOR EAGLES: REFLECTIONS OF A CLASSICAL NATURALIST. New York: Lyons and Burford, 1990. $ 19.95. The author spent several decades translating Greek and Latin poetry and now lives with her retired chief-petty-officer husband on the banks of North Carolina's lower Neuse River. There she roams the wilds and wetlands, taking as her chief mentors Aristotle, Pliny the Elder, and other classical natural historians. Ancient eyes observed and variously interpreted the same natural phenomena that offer themselves to our inspection, and asked some of the same questions.
--BEYOND THE MYTHIC WEST, prepared by the Western Governor's Association. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith, 1990. $ 29.95. Pictures by some of the best photographers in the U. S. West today and essays by Stewart Udall, former Arizona Congressman, Charles Wilkinson, University of Colorado Law School, William Kittredge, a rancher turned writer and English professor, and others.
--Kenneth Brower, ONE EARTH. San Francisco: Collins, 1990. $ 39.95. Photographs recording the environmental impact of human activities, including men, women, and children around the world working and fighting to save a bit of Earth.
--THE GLOBAL ECOLOGY HANDBOOK: WHAT YOU CAN DO ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS. Boston: Beacon Press, 1990. $ 16.95 paper.
--Jeremy Rifkin ed., THE GREEN LIFESTYLE HANDBOOK: 1001 WAYS YOU CAN HEAL THE EARTH. New York: Henry Holt, 1990. $ 10.95 paper.
--Karen Christensen, HOME ECOLOGY: SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL WAYS TO GREEN YOUR HOME. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing Co., 1990. $ 15.95 paper.
--Judith Scherff, ed., THE MOTHER EARTH HANDBOOK: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW AND DO--AT HOME, IN YOUR COMMUNITY, AND THROUGH YOUR CHURCH-- TO HELP HEAL OUR PLANET NOW. New York: Crossroad/Continuum, 1990. $ 14.95 paper.
--Ingrid Newkirk, SAVE THE ANIMALS! 101 EASY THINGS YOU CAN DO. New York: Warner Books, $ 4.95 paper. Animals "are not inferior to human beings but rather just different from us, and they really don't exist for us nor do they belong to us."
--Joni Seager, THE STATE OF THE EARTH ATLAS, New York: Touchstone Books, Simon and Schuster, 1990. A series of maps with interpretations. $ 13.95.
--H. C. Coombs, THE RETURN OF SCARCITY: STRATEGIES FOR AN ECONOMIC FUTURE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. By an Australian economist. $ 17.95.
--Ralph H. Lutts, THE NATURE FAKERS: WILDLIFE, SCIENCE, AND SENTIMENT. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishers, 1990. $ 22.95.
--John Young, SUSTAINING THE EARTH. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990. By a professor of history and director of the Center for Environmental Studies at the University of Adelaide, Australia. $ 19.95.
--Stephen A. Spongberg, A REUNION OF TREES: THE DISCOVERY OF EXOTIC PLANTS AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO NORTH AMERICA. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990. Trees and shrubs as introduced into North America and their environmental effects.
--The annual series RESEARCH IN PHILOSOPHY AND TECHNOLOGY contains the following recent volumes: vol. 9, 1989, TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS vol. 10, 1990, TECHNOLOGY AND RELIGION vol. 11, forthcoming spring 1991, TECHNOLOGY AND POLITICS vol. 12, forthcoming spring 1992, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Frederick FerrÇ, Philosophy, University of Georgia, is editor of the series.
--Stuart Rosenbaum and Robert Baird, eds., ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION: THE MORAL ISSUES. Buffalo, N. Y. Prometheus Books, forthcoming March 1991.
--Bernard Rollin, ANIMAL RIGHTS AND HUMAN MORALITY, revised edition. Buffalo, N. Y. Prometheus Books, forthcoming late 1991 or early 1992. A revised edition of a well-known work, the first edition published in 1981, a decade ago.
--Lee Nisbet, ed., THE GUN CONTROL DEBATE: YOU DECIDE. Buffalo, N. Y. Prometheus Books, 1990.
--Jon Wynne-Tyson, compiler, THE EXTENDED CIRCLE: A COMMONPLACE BOOK OF ANIMAL RIGHTS (New York Paragon House, 1989). 436 pages. First American edition of a source book of quotations released in Britain in 1985. Hundreds of quotations from all ages and places concerning respect for life and the moral treatment of animals.
--Brenda Almond, "Environmental Values," in her MORAL CONCERNS (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1987). "A language of values may meet environmentalist needs better than a language of narrowly defined morality and, specifically, of duties." But Almond is not sure that we can "formulate the notion of objects of value outside the experience of human beings," although when humans do experience natural things they can value them for what they are in themselves. Almond is reader in
philosophy and education, University of Hull.
--Robert Elliot, "Environmental Degradation, Vandalism and the Aesthetic Object Argument," AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY 67(1989):191-204. Environmental degradation is wrong, among other reasons, because "the natural environment possesses aesthetic value and its despoliation, or even modification, destroys or diminishes that value." This involves "the claim that what has aesthetic value has intrinsic moral value." Elliot defends this position against John Passmore's argument that environmental degradation is wrong because it involves vandalism and Thomas Hill, Jr., suggestion that the degradation is wrong because it violates ideals of human excellence. "A plausible account of intrinsic moral value, which does not construe it as objective and marks it off from merely valuing something for its own sake, permits explanations of the wrongness of environmental degradation in addition to ones couched solely in terms of ideals of human excellence. Accounts of the latter kind offer a distorted perspective on such cases." Elliot is professor of philosophy at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia and contact person for ISEE in Australia and New Zealand.
--TENNESSEE LAW REVIEW, vol. 56, no. 1 (Fall 1988) is a symposium "Developing an Environmental Ethos: Christopher Stone and EARTH AND OTHER ETHICS" with articles by Stone and others: Milner S. Ball, "Moral Pluralism, the Tardis and Rattlesnakes"; Stephen Toulmin, "The Case for Cosmic Prudence"; A. Dan Tarlock, "EARTH AND OTHER ETHICS: The Institutional Issues"; and the Sagoff article below.
--Mark Sagoff, "Ethics, Ecology, and the Environment: Integrating Science and Law." Book length article, including an excellent (and provocative) treatment of current theory and issues within ecological science, in what might first be thought an unlikely place, a law journal, but this is in anticipation of integrating ecoscience into environmental policy. A nonrealist view of environmental science. Environmental policy looks to ecosystem science for help, but theoretical mathematical ecology is seldom of any use in telling us what we need to know in the complex interactions of ecosystems. Their variability thwarts the application of theory to nature. Ecosystem science does not have the time, knowledge, or resources to learn all about ecosystems, and current science is seldom realist anyway. "Mathematical population ecology has relied on very idealized assumptions that have no real relationship to the phenomena of natural history" (p. 124). Empirical models of ecosystems can be quite useful, but they are not theoretical, and only map the aspects of ecosystems that we pragmatically or practically wish to manage, preserve, or conserve. "The science of ecology finds itself in the midst of an identity crisis" (p. 153). Objective, absolute theory is impossible and what kind of ecosystem science ecologists get depends on the goals they choose; if ecologists accentuate utilitarian management they get one kind; if they choose to appreciate values in nature ecologists will orient their studies differently and learn other things.
"When models, equations, and principles that suggest prudential reasons for environmental protection prove to be unfounded or spurious, those who support them are left with little to contribute to public debate, because they have abandoned the moral and aesthetic rationale which may have motivated the search for the prudential arguments in the first place. It might be better and more honest if ecologists candidly admit the ethical and aesthetic goals that guide their research, rather than hide them under dubious or conjectural prudential and economic arguments" (p. 181). "I argue that estuaries, forests, lakes, and other ecosystems may properly be said to have a life--a natural history- -and a good of their own; moreover, they may be studied scientifically in these normative terms. In presenting the thesis that ecological communities have a good of their own, I mean to take a small step toward establishing a basis for an environmental ethic. It seems plausible to argue, at least, that ecosystems may be legitimate objects of moral attention or worth in themselves if they have an objective good of their own--that is, if terms such as `health,' `integrity,' `thriving,' `well being,' or their opposites can meaningfully be predicated of them" (pp. 191-192). Sagoff is at the Center for Philosophy and Public Policy, University of Maryland.
--Brian Huntley, Roy Siegfried, and Clem Sunter, SOUTH AFRICAN ENVIRONMENTS INTO THE 21ST CENTURY. Cape Town: Human and Rousseau Tafelberg, 1989. 127 pages. An effort to integrate environmental, political, and social issues as these loom in South Africa's uncertain future. Excellent descriptions of degrading conditions, joined with conservative political philosophy. Laissez faire economics is the key to the redistribution of wealth. "Too much state intervention" is the chief trouble (p. 58). They document that whites earn nearly ten times the per capita income of blacks (p. 50). They document that 70% percent of farmland is owned by 50,000 white farmers and only 13% by 700,000 black farmers (17% other) (p. 55). From these premises they conclude, "What is needed is a much larger cake, not a sudden change in the way it is cut" (p. 85). Black land ownership of land has long been severely restricted by law. Brian Huntley was until recently Manager of Ecosystem Programmes, Council for Scientific Research, but has become Director of Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Cape Town, a primary institution for botanical conservation in South Africa. Roy Siegfried is an ecologist at the University of Cape Town and director of an the FitzPatrick Ornithological Institute there, involved in bird and marine conservation. Clem Sunter, trained in philosophy, politics and economics, is a chief officer for environmental affairs with Anglo American Corporation in South Africa, the largest corporation in the nation.
--ROTATING THE CUBE: ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES FOR THE 1990S, An INDICATOR SA (South Africa) Issue Focus. Durban: Department of Geographical and Environmental Sciences and Indicator Project South Africa, University of Natal, April 1990. 118 pages. Twenty eight authors on various environmental issues--water, air, pollution, soil loss, mining, again excellent descriptions of a degrading environment, but this time with more misgivings about the inability of government successfully to regulate industries and agribusiness in the common good.
--Alan B. Durning, APARTHEID'S ENVIRONMENTAL TOLL. Worldwatch Paper 95. May 1990. 50 pages. $ 4.00. Worldwatch Institute, 1771 Massachusetts Ave., N. W. Washington, DC 20036. A startling paper. "Apartheid reveals with exceptional clarity the way unfairness within the human estate extends its damage into the natural estate as well." "Forced relocations and natural increase combine to give the homelands an average population density higher than all but three countries on the continent." "Air and water near mining and smelting operations are little monitored, and what monitoring is done is not reported." "Aside from oil exporters and the notoriously inefficient centrally planned economies, South Africa is the most energy-intensive country in the world." "On a per person basis, white South Africans are the world's worst greenhouse offenders." "The bantustan system leaves South Africa with a pattern of land ownership more skewed than any on the seven continents."
--ENDANGERED WILDLIFE is the journal of the Endangered Wildlife Trust, South Africa, c/o The Johannesburg Zoological Gardens, Jan Smuts Avenue, Parkview, 2193.
--NEW GROUND: A JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT has just been launched in South Africa as a journal with a black perspective on environmental conservation. The first issue was September 1990. Address: P. O. Box 62054, Marshalltown 2017, South Africa.
--Lawrence E. Johnson, A MORALLY DEEP WORLD: AN ESSAY ON MORAL SIGNIFICANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 180 pages, $ 39.50. Johnson advocates a major change in our attitude toward the nonhuman world. He argues that nonhuman animals, and ecosystems themselves, are morally significant beings with interests and rights. He considers recent work in environmental ethics in the introduction and then presents his case with precision and clarity. Written in an attractive, nontechnical style. Johnson is professor of philosopher, Flinders University, Australia.
--Lynton K. Caldwell, BETWEEN TWO WORLDS: SCIENCE, THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT AND POLICY CHOICE. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 200 pages, $ 44.50. Will humans adapt their ways of life to conserve the natural systems upon which their future and the living world depend? Caldwell attempts an integrated analysis of the interrelationships among science, the environmental movement, and public policy. Special emphasis is given to the interaction of environmentalism and science in generating public and international environmental policies.
--Mikhail Gorbachev, "The Ecological Imperative," text is printed in EARTH ETHICS, Fall 1990. "An international code of ecological ethics ... should be binding on all countries." Gorbachev's address to the 1990 Global Forum on Human Survival in Moscow, January 1990.
--Thomas R. Dunlap, SAVING AMERICA'S WILDLIFE. Princeton: Princeton University Press, March 1991. 238 pages. Cloth: $ 35.00. Paper: $ 9.95. A history of wildlife preservation in America by a historian at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
--Robert N. Brandon, ADAPTATION AND ENVIRONMENT. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 232 pages. $ 29.95. A theoretical study that focuses on the crucial role of environment in the process of adaptation, hoping to make evolution by natural selection more empirically testable.
--Irene Diamond and Gloria Felman Orenstein, eds., REWEAVING THE WORLD: THE EMERGENCE OF ECOFEMINISM. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1990. 320 pages. $ 14.95 paper. 26 essays, including essays by Carol P. Christ, Susan Griffin, Charlene Spretnak, Ynestra King, Michael E. Zimmerman, Starhawk, and Catherine Keller.
--John Perlin, A FOREST JOURNEY: THE ROLE OF WOOD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION. New York: W. W. Norton, 1989. 445 pages, $ 26.95. Without forests, there would have been no civilization. Wood provided the principal fuel and building material for nearly every society from the Bronze Age to the 19th century. But civilization has always meant the death of forests, nearly always to the detriment of the civilization destroying its forests.
--Richard Tobin, THE EXPENDABLE FUTURE: U. S. POLITICS AND THE PROTECTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, Duke University Press, 1990. Cloth $ 45.00, paper, $ 17.95. A comprehensive and critical evaluation of the politics of biological diversity in the United States.
--Roderick Nash, ed., AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTALISM: READINGS IN CONSERVATION HISTORY. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. The third, revised edition of an earlier work, the first edition was under the title: THE AMERICAN ENVIRONMENT: READINGS IN THE HISTORY OF CONSERVATION, 1968; the second edition was in 1976.
--W. Bruce Shepard, "Seeing the Forest for the Trees: `New Perspectives' in the Forest Service" RENEWABLE RESOURCES JOURNAL, Summer 1990. The USDA Forest Service, in the face of mounting criticism from both without and within, has recently announced a "New Perspectives" program. Earlier, the Forest Service had believed that rational management and scientific expertise could replace politics but when asking how and for whom the forests ought to be managed "answers to those questions come not from science but from values and interests." "New perspectives" "goes against the grain of foresters who are comfortable with questions that can be answered on the basis of `fact,' but who are uncomfortable with questions that can only be answered by reference to values and interests. See more on the "New Perspectives" in forestry under Issues, below.
--Alan G. McQuillan, "Is National Forest Planning Incompatible with a Land Ethic?" JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, May 1990. "The forestry profession has not developed an acceptable methodology for allocating forest land among often mutually exclusive uses." "The question about which lands are suitable for timber production is NOT one that the profession is well-prepared to answer." The Forest Service "determines what lands to allocate to timber harvest on the basis of whether they are needed to meet timber production targets established for each forest rather than on the basis of the forest lands' inherent productive potential. These targets may be passed down to the forest level or on the basis of local timber production goals set to meet the needs of existing or projected milling capacity in or near each national forest. Either way, by allowing output targets to drive the land allocation process, Forest Service planners can avoid the more difficult question of whether road building and timber harvesting represent the highest and best use of any particular ground in the forest." "It is hardly surprising that the agency tends toward schizophrenia." McQuillan is director of the Wilderness Institute, University of Montana, Missoula.
--Raymond Bradley and Stephen Duguid, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, vol. II. Simon Fraser University, Institute for the Humanities, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. 1989. 215 pages. $ 12 Canadian. An anthology, the perspectives are varied, including the university, business, and government sectors, scientists, ecologists, philosophers, policy analysts and policy critics.
--R. Edward Grumbine, "Cooperation or Conflict? Interagency Relationships and the Future of Biodiversity for U.S. Parks and Forests," ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 15, no.1, 1990. So far the Forest Service and the National Park Service have done little cooperatively to implement the biodiversity mandates of such laws as the Endangered Species Act and the National Forest Management Act. The ideological and political histories of the Forest Service and the Park Service are explored to determine the roots of interagency conflicts. Several recent models of cooperative reform are critiqued. Cooperation must be framed within conservation biology and must place primary emphasis on ecosystem patterns and processes as well as on individual species. Management policies must be reframed within a context of ecocentric values. Grumbine is Director, the Sierra Institute, University of California, Santa Cruz.
--ENTREE, a periodical of Campus Ministry Communications, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, devotes the November 1990 issue to "Caring for the Creation: The Church and the Environmental Crisis." Some articles: David H. Petering, "Roots for a Bioethic," Frances F. Saunders, "Environmental Health and Ecological Justice," Jeff Merkel, "Wilderness Spirituality," "Peter Bakken, "God and Garbage: A Theology of Trash." Copies available for $ 2.00 from ELCA Distribution Service, 426 South Fifth Street, Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440. Phone 800/328- 4648.
--Christopher Plant and Judith Plant, eds., TURTLE TALK: VOICES FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Santa Cruz: New Society Publishers, 1990. 132 pp. $ 11.70 paper. Fourteen interviews with leaders of the activist North American bioregional movement. The turtle has become the symbol of the bioregional movement, from a native American name for the Earth: Turtle Island.
--Robert B. Keiter, "Taking Account of the Ecosystem on the Public Domain: Law and Ecology in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem," UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO LAW REVIEW, 60 (no. 4, 1989):923-1007. There is developing "a new vision of public land management--a vision that bases management on ecosystem principles rather than on traditional boundary lines," and much recent law moves in this direction. "Greater Yellowstone presents federal land managers with a paradigmatic setting for testing and implementing an ecosystem-based management philosophy." "Already the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem concept has fused two world- renowned national parks, several well-known wilderness areas, and the adjoining national forest lands into a regional entity that has engaged public attention at national and international levels. ... In short, the ecosystem concept provides the fundamental premise for regional management and thus brings a compelling new vision to the ongoing debate over the future of the public domain." Keiter is professor of Law, University of Wyoming, Laramie. See also entries on Yellowstone in Issues, below.
--John A. Baden and Donald Leal, eds., THE YELLOWSTONE PRIMER: LAND AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE GREATER YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1989. 220 pages, cloth $ 29.95, paper $ 12.95. Claims an alternative means of ecosystem land management based on secure property rights and principles of free-market environmentalism known as the New Resource Economics.
--B. L. Driver, ed., CONTRIBUTIONS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES TO MULTIPLE- USE MANAGEMENT: AN UPDATE (Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, October 1990), USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-196. Articles on the ways in which social sciences can enable a better valuing of nature and natural resources.
--Robert H. Nelson, "Unoriginal Sin: The Judeo-Christian Roots of Ecotheology," POLICY REVIEW, Summer 1990, no. 53. Environmental issues are becoming more important in the churches, but the new trends in environmental theology veer toward secularism, paganism, and Asian religions in a "pantheistic veneration of nature" "in which humanity must be understood as part of and not distinct from nature." But nature is red in tooth and claw, and at the same time, in "virtual self-contradiction" to the urged immersion of humans in nature, "the actual goal of environmentalism is the opposite: to inculcate a new morality with respect to the natural world that is found nowhere else in nature."
"The real source of the appeal of environmentalism may be that it offers traditional religious messages of the West in a new secular form--a form that, in an age of rampant secularism, lends these traditional messages great authority." Deep ecology is a kind of secular faith, with a version of the fall of humans from primitive innocence into technological greed and sin, alienated from an Eden Earth. For environmentalists, "save" means both "preserve" and "curb the influence of evil." "Reunion with nature for many in the current age has assumed the traditional meaning of reunion with God." The religious ascetic tradition also returns in environmental "preaching that material possessions and the good life are unnatural and to this extent evil." "Current environmental theology suggests that the poor should be content with their condition and are perhaps even better off for it." In fact, the Biblical stewardship theme, in which humans are distinct from and with dominion over nature, commissioned to tend and build a worldly residence, though disliked by deep environmentalists and ecotheologians, is the only adequate theological model for the protection and conservation of nature. POLICY REVIEW is published by the conservative think-tank, The Heritage Foundation, Washington.
--Robert E. Gordon, Jr. and George S. Dunlop, "Creature Comfort: The Revitalization of American Wildlife," POLICY REVIEW, Summer 1990, no. 53. How sound scientific management has succeeded in bringing back large populations of deer, bighorns, black bear, alligators, bald eagles, moose, mountain lions, Gila trout, javelina, turkeys. This shows nature's resiliency but does not support any "let nature take its course" nonmanagement policy.
Both authors are with the National Wilderness Institute in Washington, D.C.
--Alfred Runte, YOSEMITE: THE EMBATTLED WILDERNESS. University of Nebraska Press, 1990.
--Environmental Ethics in Space? "Should We Implant Life on Mars?" an essay by Christopher P. McKay and Robert H. Haynes, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1990. "Traditional theories of value are based on two ingrained habits of human thought: anthropocentrism and geocentrism. Principles of ethics have been formulated primarily to guide and govern the relations among people here on Earth. The scope of ethical theory has recently been expanded, however, to encompass all forms of nonhuman life, ecosystems and even inanimate structures, such as rocks, landforms and barren planets. This radical environmental ethic includes the idea that Earth's rich and diverse biota is inherently good. Thus, the biosphere as we know it is by definition what these theories assert ought to be." Turning to the solar system, "ecopoiesis" is "the fabrication of a self-sustaining ecosystem on a lifeless planet." "Clearly, ecopoiesis raises philosophical issues that can be resolved only by adopting a cosmocentric theory of intrinsic values." "If and only if no potentially viable forms of life are found should we attempt to introduce emigrant species from Earth." McKay is a research scientist with NASA in California and Haynes is distinguished research professor of biology at York University, Toronto. NASA has just launched an eight-year "Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence--Microwave Observing Project (SETI-MOP)" that will scan 10 billion times more search space than the sum of all previous searches.
Videotapes and media
Reminder: Holmes Rolston has a list of videotapes for environmental ethics, available on request. Please also call to his attention for this Newsletter other relevant videotapes. Videotapes, sometimes only excerpts from them, can be effective discussion starters.
Ted Nugent DOWN TO EARTH. "America's # 1 Rock 'n Roll Bowhunter in his native habitat, the great out-of-doors. See raw, unedited footage when Ted whacks 'em and stacks 'em." A rock and roll star who delights in killing, proclaims himself as a "gut pile addict," and recommends it as a cure for alcohol and drugs. Repeated scenes of kills of feral pigs, goats, turkeys, squirrels, armadillos, exotic game, and "wasn't that great, or what" The kill "cleanses your soul." Anti-hunters are the lunatic fringe and hunters are the real conservationists in America. "It's all legal, all ethical, and a great American heritage." "A raw, natural, family video." About 40 minutes, $ 25.00, from Ted Nugent's Bowhunter's World, Inc., P. O. Box 763, Grand Haven, MI 49417. 616/847-0756. (Thanks to Ann Causey for spotting this one.)
WETLANDS IN CRISIS. 20 minutes. 1989. U. S. Fish and Wildlife video on the loss of wetlands and wildlife, especially waterfowl, and their goal of "no net loss" of further wetlands. Aesthetically well done and a good summary presentation of the crisis. Rental free (1/2 inch VHS) from U. S. Fish and Wildlife Audio Visual Office, Room 3444, 18th and E Streets, N. W., Washington, DC 20240. Contact Nan H. Rollison. Phone 202/343- 5611. There is also an office in Denver, CO. 303/236-7904.
CLASSROOM CUT-UPS. 14 minutes. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals videotape, taken by undercover agents at Ward's and Carolina Biological Supply, discussed below in Issues. Cats, dogs, rats, frogs being callously and inhumanely killed and prepared, injected with formaldehyde, apparently while still alive. Portions of these tapes were shown on ABC-TV. Interviews with students and teachers and alternatives for more humane and more effective teaching. $ 15.00. A report of these investigations, DYING FOR BIOLOGY, is also available for $ 2.00. Contact: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), P. O. Box 42400, Washington, DC 20015. Phone 301/770-PETA. See also the Schrock entry above.
Audubon television specials upcoming: March 1991, TROPICAL FORESTS (working title), on TBS Superstation. May 1991, OVERGRAZING ON PUBLIC LANDS (working title), on TBS. October 1991, TOXICS AND WILDLIFE (working title), on TBS. December 1991, WILDLIFE AND CLIMATE CHANGE (working title), on TBS March 1991, ECOTOURISM (working title), on TBS May 1991, AFRICAN ELEPHANTS (working title), on TBS Most of the current Audubon series (beaches, wildlife, ancient forests, arctic refuge, wolves, dolphins) will be rerun July/August/September 1991 on PBS. Audubon Television Programs, 801 Pennsylvania Avenue, S. E., Washington, DC, is the place to contact for information on upcoming releases. Phone 202/547-9009. MINDWALK, an ecologically-oriented motion picture released in 1990, is based on Fritjof Capra's TURNING POINT and produced by Bernt Capra, his brother. The movie features a conversation among a physicist (Liv Ullman), a politician (Sam Waterson), and a poet (John Heard). Most of the discussion takes place as the three characters walk the various rooms of the chateau on the French island of Mont St. Michel. Many of today's "successes" have been forged in the name of progress, mindless of their effect on the environment. We have failed to create a sustainable civilization and this is readily apparent by the condition of forests, topsoil, air, and atmosphere. Plant and animal species are quickly disappearing while the human population is exploding at an inconceivable rate; and all the while the global economy continues to widen the rift between the rich and the poor. MINDWALK attempts an intelligent assessment of our global condition to point toward a more sustainable, holistic, and ecological world view.
Video Project catalog for 1991 contains the following 1990 releases on environment: RAIN FORESTS: PROVING THEIR WORTH, 31 minutes. THE FORESTS THROUGH THE TREES, 58 minutes. Northern California redwoods. SPACESHIP EARTH: OUR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT, 25 minutes. YOU CAN'T GROW HOME AGAIN, 58 minutes, a rainforest primer for children. SAVE THE EARTH: A HOW-TO VIDEO, 60 minutes. WORLD POPULATION, 7 minutes. TINKA'S PLANET, 12 minutes. Recycling for children. THE ROTTEN TRUTH, 30 minutes. Introduction to the garbage crisis. THE MILITARY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 29 minutes. CLEANING UP TOXICS AT HOME, 30 minutes. CLEANING UP TOXICS IN BUSINESS, 30 minutes. GLOBAL DUMPING GROUND: THE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTE, 60 minutes. ORCA: KILLER WHALE OR GENTLE GIANT?, 26 minutes. WHERE HAVE ALL THE DOLPHINS GONE?, 58 minutes. Contact: The Video Project, 5332 College Avenue, Suite 101, Oakland, CA 94618. Phone 415/655-9050. BEFRIENDING THE EARTH: THOMAS BERRY'S THEOLOGY OF RECONCILIATION BETWEEN HUMANS AND THE EARTH, a 13 part video series, each 30 minutes, each $ 24.95, set $ 300.00. Contact Twenty Third Publications, 185 Willow Street, Mystic, CT 06355.
Penn State Audio Visual Services has produced (in connection with a Biodiversity conference recently held there) a catalog of over fifty "Media Dealing with Biodiversity" in their holdings and available for distribution, both rental and purchase. Contact Audio-Visual Services, University Division of Media and Learning Resources, Special Services Building, University Park, PA 16802. Phones 800/826-0132 or 814/863-3103. DANCES WITH WOLVES, a current boxoffice release, probes Indian and white relations during the U. S. Western settlement. Sometimes only the wolf seem sane. John Dunbar, a soldier, flees the madness of the Civil War, is befriended by Sioux Indians and a prairie wolf. In need of buffalo, the Sioux are dismayed by the white hunters' slaughter of buffalo only for their tongues. The Sioux in turn, though humane enough among themselves, are at war with the Pawnees. The soldier is captured by U. S. Calvary, savage and brutal toward the supposed traitor, recaptured in turn by the Sioux, though Dunbar must part from them, or else prove their undoing. Dunbar is named "Dances with Wolves" by the Sioux for his revelry with the wolf. Often melodramatic and incredible (the Indians shoot half a dozen arrows into a white wagon driver before he is killed, but bring down thundering bison with a single arrow), nevertheless an interesting study in Indian and white worldviews, with their environmental outlooks, that can open a philosophical discussion. Impressive shots of a bison herd. Filmed with members of the Sioux tribe in South Dakota and elsewhere.
Ecosystem model for Yellowstone. The National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service, through the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee, recently released a significant draft document entitled VISION FOR THE FUTURE, A FRAMEWORK FOR COORDINATION IN THE GREATER YELLOWSTONE AREA. "No place in North America, perhaps no place on earth, is a more fitting site to pioneer ecosystem management. The Greater Yellowstone Area has the public and legislative support, the agency enthusiasm, and the unparalleled natural resources, to provide a world class model of such management."
Yellowstone fire policy, meanwhile, remains in limbo. The interim policy is one of total suppression, although the Interagency Fire Policy Review Team recommended reinstitution of the natural fire program. The Park is collecting comments on the alternatives to be considered in the revised policy. The debate about what to do with bison that walk out of the park continues. The latest response calls for park rangers and Montana state wildlife personnel to shoot cows and yearlings, to neuter the calves, trap, and sell them, and the let public "hunters" have at the bulls.
Last winter there were 3,217 applicants for a once-in-a-lifetime chance to bag one of North America's ten largest animals. Residents pay $ 200 and nonresidents $ 1000 for a license. Neither the fire nor the bison policy suggests much ecosystem management. See also the Keither and the Baden and Leal entries in Recent Books, Articles above.
U. S. Forest Service Chief F. Dale Robertson has withdrawn proposals for oil and gas leasing on more than 22,000 acres of grizzly bear habitat near Yellowstone National Park. The action was taken in response to appeals filed by the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, the Sierra Club, the Wilderness Society, and the Mineral Policy Center, who claimed that the leasing plan put forth by the Forest Service violated the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the Forest Service's own leasing regulations, particularly in failing to provide adequate protection to the threatened grizzly bear.
A group of biologists, writing in SCIENCE, have called for revision of the present policy constraining recombinant DNA organisms from being released for field tests in the environment, to be replaced by what they call a risk-based oversight of experiments in the environment. Revision of the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA would be required. See article by Henry I. Miller, Robert H. Burris, Anne K. Vidavar, and Nelson A. Wivel in SCIENCE, 26 October 1990.
Professor of marine affairs. The University of Washington seeks a professor of marine affairs, a tenure-track position available September 1991. The candidate should have the Ph.D. in one of the natural sciences that relate to the marine environment, or, alternatively, a degree in another field with a substantial background in natural science. The position will involve teaching and research concerned with the application of scientific information in the resolution of marine environmental policy problems. Contact: School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Phone 206/543-7004.
"God is green," says the Archbishop of Canterbury, and his statement is being quoted throughout the English-speaking religious world with no evident surprise and with general approval. Green godliness is becoming a frequent theme in contemporary theology. (For some caution, see the Robert H. Nelson entry above.)
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is producing a statement on the church and the environmental crisis, also addressing appropriate technology. The three year study is expected to be completed in 1993. Contact Larry Jorgenson, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 8765 West Higgins Road, Chicago, IL 60631-4190. Phone 312/380-2710. See also the ENTREE entry under recent articles and materials.
Nations ban ocean dumping. In November in London, at a five-day meeting of signatories to the London Dumping Convention, 43 nations reached a consensus to phase out industrial waste dumping at sea by 1995, a ban expected to becoming binding on all 64 nations that have signed the 20-year old treaty. Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, and Brazil sponsored the resolution, and the United States, Britain, Germany, France, the Soviet Union, and Japan concurred in the consensus. Each member country is expected to prosecute their own flagships found violating the ban.
Heinz-Australia has added a dolphin safe label on its tuna products. H. J. Heinz has undertaken a worldwide initiative to protect dolphins from death, injury, and harassment in association with tuna fishing. Earlier this year (1990), Heinz's StarKist Seafood Company, the world's largest tuna canner, became the first major tuna company to adopt a "dolphin safe" policy. In an annual report to stockholders, Dr. Anthony J. F. O'Reilly, Heinz chairman, resident, and CEO, says, "Aside from weight loss and wellness, perhaps the most compelling consumer requirement we see emerging is concern for the environment. A recent Gallup poll reveals that three out of four Americans identify themselves as `environmentalists' and 41% think of themselves as `strong environmentalists.' This translates into consumer activism, with three people in 10 claiming to have boycotted a company's products because of its environmental policies. In ever greater numbers, consumers want environmentally safe products, packaging and processing. The Green Movement isn't just a domestic phenomenon; it is an international one, often supported by influential political parties."
The Sweetwater Rattlesnake Round-up will be held March 7-10. The World's largest, the round-up draws up to 30,000 spectators annually and has resulted in the capture and killing of up to 18,000 snakes at a single weekend event. Now in its thirty-third year, the event is ostensibly to rid the country of rattlesnakes, while also claiming that the population is not threatened, and to make money for the Jaycees, who buy and sell the skins in the snake paraphernalia trade. Snakes are driven out of their dens with gasoline fumes, which also kill large numbers of harmless snakes, as well as insects and amphibians. The event has been rather little studied by ecologists, social scientists, or environmentalists. Other round-ups are held in Pennsylvania, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and Oklahoma, and in several other Texas cities. Contact Jack Weir, Department of Philosophy, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, who has a critical paper on this event forthcoming.
The inspector general of the U. S. Interior Department has lambasted his federal colleagues at the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, charging that they may be sending species to extinction. An Interior Department report says 600 known-to-be endangered and 3000 probably endangered or threatened domestic species still await listing. At the current rates, it could take almost 50 years just to handle this backlog, by which time hundreds of these will be extinct if left unprotected. A main problem is lack of money to complete the listing, but the report also blasted the structure and management of the endangered species program. Story in SCIENCE, November 2, 1990.
National Institutes for the Environment? House and Senate conferees have agreed to an appropriation of $ 400,000 in the 1991 EPA budget for a National Academy of Sciences study of whether there should be a National Institutes for the Environment, modeled after the National Institutes of Health. A committee for the National Institutes for the Environment is located at the American Institute of Biological Sciences, 730 11th Street, N. W. Washington, DC 2001-4521.
The University of Georgia, on the initiative of its new president, Charles Knapp, has set up a Task Force at the University Level to try to bring about "environmental literacy" for all graduates of the University of Georgia. Frederick FerrÇ, Philosophy, is co- chairman of the Task Force.
Laboratory dissection of animals protested. Two members of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) went undercover and got hired by two of the nation's major suppliers of preserved animals to biology teachers, Carolina Biological Supply and Wards Biological Supply. They secretly videotaped animals being killed and prepared. The Carolina Biological tape is an account of cats being prodded to enter boxes to be gassed, and cats and rats being injected with formaldehyde, apparently while still alive. Many, perhaps most, of the cats and dogs are stolen or abandoned pets. Even staunch defenders of animal dissection are this time acknowledging that the evidence looks damning. The clandestine videotapes were shown on ABC-TV on October 22, intensifying a growing debate about the use of animals for teaching purposes. See the PETA videotape, CLASSROOM CUT-UPS, above.
The use of live animals for teaching has been considerably reduced and sentiment against using dead ones for dissection is increasing. Many colleges now allow alternatives to dissection. A recent survey by the Association of American Medical Colleges show that of 126 accredited schools, 92 are using animals for dissection or live experimentation. Sixty-one of these now allow students to choose alternatives and only 22 require direct student involvement. Veterinary students increasingly use real patients rather than healthy animals for teaching purposes. See story on this and the preceding item, SCIENCE, November 9, 1990. Also see Schrock entry in recent articles, above.
The Pine Street Inn, a shelter for the homeless in Boston, received an offer for a benefit fashion show to benefit the shelter. When animal rights activists discovered that the fashion show included furs, they threatened to picket the event. Caught between pro-fur and anti-fur groups, the shelter felt obliged to return nearly $ 3,500 to organizers of the benefit--money otherwise designated to help the homeless and the hungry. Item in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, December 31, 1990, p. 14. In Michigan, a new law legalizes the long standing practice of giving game to food pantries. Hunters in the state, who bag about 25 million pounds of venision annually, want to share their game with the homeless. Animal protection groups object, arguing that the law encourages hunting. Some health department officials also worry that uninspected meat might be unsafe. Charitable groups seeking to feed the poor find themselves caught in a crossfire. Item in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, December 31, 1990, p. 14.
"The State of the Planet" was the theme of the first in a series of Conferences comprising a path of preparation for the 1993 Centennial of the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago. Dr. Gerald Barney, director of the GLOBAL 2000 report, presented the main address. Subsequent programs were arranged in five areas: The Earth, Human Communities, Science and Technology, Economics and Justice, and Power, Politics, and Liberation. The six conferences are designed to prepare for the 1993 Centennial of the Parliament of the World's Religions, which is now being planned by a committee numbering nearly 200 Chicagoans of different religious traditions. The original Parliament was held in Chicago in 1893 and remains the longest and largest interfaith gathering in history. Contact Ron Kidd, Administrator, 407 South Dearborn #600, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone 312/435-2716.
Big Green beaten badly. The controversial environmental initiative dubbed "Big Green" by its backers was soundly defeated by Californians. Proposition 128, which sought bans on certain pesticides and a dramatic reduction of greenhouse gases among numerous other provisions, lost badly when two-thirds of the state's voters rejected the sweeping measure. Four months earlier environmentalists were predicting a sure victory, and as late as one month before the election polls showed public opinion split on the measure. But support continued to erode under an onslaught of radio, television, and print advertisements warning of dire economic consequences if the measure passed. Backers of the proposition, including many Hollywood celebrities, raised $4.7 million. However opponents to Big Green, primarily oil, chemical, and agricultural interests, raised more than three times that amount: $17 million. Chevron alone contributed $800,000 towards Big Green's defeat.
The U.S. Congress ended the 101st Congress in late October after a session that provided both good and bad news for the environment.
Clean Air Act clears final hurdles. With compromises on air toxics and acid rain, the House-Senate clean air conference committee finally reached an agreement on the long-awaited overhaul of the nation's clean air law. The conferees have been negotiating to resolve the differences in the Senate and House versions of the bill since July 13. The conferees accepted fairly strong air toxics provisions after much deliberation over special exemptions for steel coke ovens and garbage incinerators. The steel industry will be able to get an extension on toxic emissions from coke ovens until the year 2020 if they meet certain interim standards. The conferees adopted the House's stronger residual risk standard that would protect those exposed to uncontrolled emissions from the residual risk of cancer by an "ample margin of safety." An ample margin of safety is defined as being equal to a 1-in-10,000 cancer risk after the agreed-upon maximum controls are applied to an industry. The acid rain provisions in the final bill would cut annual sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from power plants in half by the year 2000. The Senate accepted the much stronger House coastal air pollution provisions, which will protect coastal areas--excluding the coasts of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas--from smog emissions from offshore oil rigs.
1990 Farm Bill. The 1990 Farm Bill is complex (a copy is thicker than the Washington phone book) but generally tries to nudge farmers toward a more environmentally responsible mode of farming. The Bill has to be reauthorized every five years and is the most pervasive federal land-use regulation. Some principal concerns were the 22 billion pounds of pesticides doused on crops each year, the massive groundwater depletion, and the loss of hundreds of thousands of acres of wetlands and billion of tons of topsoil each year. House-Senate conferees approved a five-year bill that commits farmers to conservation of wetlands and better tracking of pesticide use. Congress increased wetlands protection by closing loopholes in the swampbuster provisions, and can now deny subsidies to farmers who destroy wetlands. Congress also initiated a long-term wetland easement program, whereby the government will pay farmers for setting aside high-quality wetlands from crop production. The 1990 Farm Bill will require farmers to maintain records on the use of restricted pesticides. However, environmentalists were defeated in their efforts to adopt the "circle of poison" provisions, which would have limited the export of pesticides that are banned or unregistered in the United States.
Congress turned back efforts to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska to oil and gas development. Congress also refused to accelerate the logging of ancient forests in the Pacific Northwest and California. Congress took several steps to halt the destruction of tropical rain forests and also pushed for environmental reforms of the lending practices of international banks.
Tongass National Forest. Passage of this new law ends a decade- old fight over environmentally unsafe and economically unsound logging practices in the nation's largest national forest. The new Tongass bill prohibits timber cutting on over one million acres of the forest, of which 296,080 acres would be designated as wilderness.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Congress defeated efforts by President Bush and the oil industry to open the 1.5 million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil and gas development. However, Congress also blocked passage of legislation permanently to protect the Arctic Refuge.
Wilderness. Congress passed new bills to protect millions of acres of wilderness in Arizona, Illinois, Maine, and Nevada. Congress considered, but did not pass, bills to protect endangered wilderness in Idaho, Montana, Utah, Colorado, California, and North Carolina. Sen. James McClure (R-ID) and Rep. James Hansen (R-UT) mounted an assault on the Wilderness Act itself by proposing that the Forest Service, not Congress, should make final wilderness determinations.
Water rights. Two victories were scored for protecting water resources within wilderness areas when statewide wilderness bills for both Nevada and Arizona expressly reaffirmed Congress' intent to reserve a water right. Attempts to designate wilderness without protecting federal reserve water rights were all defeated.
Congress passed and Busch signed an oil spill bill that increases shipowner liability 800 percent, sets no liability limits for government cleanup costs related to Outer Continental Shelf facilities and vessels carrying OSC oil, creates a $ 1 billion fund for cleanup and compensation, requires double hulls on all oil transport vessels (existing vessels to retrofit over the next 20 years), and states that the federal government, not the spiller, is in charge of cleanup and removal for all major spills.
Bills to reform the 1872 Mining Law were introduced, but did not pass.
National Parks Marine Protection Act. In July President Bush signed into law the National Parks Marine Resources Protection Act (H.R. 2844). The Act enables the recovery of response costs and damages resulting from actions that injure marine resources within national parks and insures that funds recovered are applied to damage repair and replacement of injured park resources. The law extends protection to the 23 marine units within the National Park system.
Congress designated the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, the nation's largest, covering approximately 2,600 square nautical miles (3,500 square statute miles) and stretching from just south of Miami southwestward to the Dry Tortugas, 200 miles distant. Waters on both sides of the Keys are included, thereby protecting the contiguous United States' only complete tropical marine ecosystem, including seagrass beds, fringing mangroves, and spectacular coral reefs.
Congress passed its Commerce, State, and Justice Appropriations Bill, which contains record high funding for the National Marine Sanctuary Program for the fiscal year 1991. The legislation provides approximately $ 4.1 million directly to the program for its general operation and for a study of a potential humpback whale sanctuary in Hawaii.
Environmental Education Law. Congress passed and President Bush signed in November an Environmental Education Law. This restores the federal mandate for environmental education and creates a vital new National Environmental Education and Training Foundation.
New Perspectives in Forestry. Partially in response to the rise of the Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics (see Spring 1990 ISEE Newsletter) and the letters of concern to the Chief from the Regional Supervisors (see Fall 1990 Newsletter), the United States Forest Service has initiated a program called New Perspectives in Forestry. Workshops and symposia are being held at numerous locations. In a graphics presentation, New Perspectives is "a state of mind, principles and philosophy about sustainable forestry and harmony between man and land, ... biological diversity, ecosystem health, and long-term productivity." "Principles and philosophy of News Perspectives include: a land ethic: `Caring for the Land,' sustainablity of resources, multiple use/multiple value, and integrated, adaptive ecosystem management." Its methods include "intelligent humility: we don't even know all the questions yet," and "ecological integrity of regional ecosystems; seeing the forests as well as the trees." The presentation summarizes, "New Perspectives signals a paradigm shift:
-land as living ecosystem
-man as member of land-community, not master of nature
-first obligation: stewards of the legacy for future generations
-second obligation: meet this generations's material needs
-desired future conditions of land guide action, not output targets." The presentation concludes with a quotation from the UPANISHADS, "Let not any one species encroach upon the rights of others," with quotations from Aldo Leopold, and others. One emphasis (which some philosophers have been pressing for some time) is to "broaden the concept of multiple-use to include multiple-values and the concept of sustained yield to include sustainability of all important values." Hal Salwasser with a core team of five persons in the USFS Washington office leads the New Perspectives effort at that level. Phone 202/453-9793. Core teams have also been established in each of the ten national regions. The Forest Service has also prepared a booklet for public distribution, CONSERVING OUR HERITAGE: AMERICA'S BIODIVERSITY. See also the W. Bruce Shepard and McQuillan entries above.
A wilderness philosophy developed by the Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2) of the Forest Service to help "determine what in wilderness will be protected and to what degree" contains the following "premises": "Wilderness is not only a commodity for human use and consumption. There are intrinsic values in wilderness ecosystems other than user/public concerns. "The objective in wilderness management is to provide for a natural user experience rather than user enjoyment. The enjoyment of any or all parts of a wilderness experience is purely a personal matter for the individual user to decide. "All components of the wilderness resource are equally important. That is, no components of the wilderness resource are of lesser value. "A wilderness component is important even if users of the wilderness are unaware of its existence. "All trophic levels are equally important. For example, micro-organisms are equally as important as elk or grizzly bears. "The most sensitive components of the wilderness resource are to be protected rather than those of `average' or `normal' sensitivity. "Each wilderness component is important for itself as well as how it interacts with other components of the ecosystem. That is, the individual parts of the wilderness ecosystem are equally as important as the sum of the parts. "The physical components of the ecosystem are equally as important as the biological components. "Wilderness components are to be protected from human-caused change rather than from damage. Terms such as "damage" and "harm" are prejudicial where `human-caused change' is value neutral. "The goal in wilderness management is to protect the natural condition of the resource rather than the condition of the resource as first monitored. That is, if initial monitoring in a wilderness identifies human-caused impacts, appropriate actions should be taken to remedy those impacts. "While it may not be possible to manage every wilderness in a natural or near natural state, each wilderness should be managed in as pristine a condition as the specific (local) bio-physical, legal, scientific and social/political situation will allow." Contact Dennis Haddow, Air, Aviation, and Fire Management, or Lee Carr, Recreation, Cultural Resources and Wilderness, USDA Forest Service, 11177 W. 8th Avenue, P. O. Box 25127-0127, Lakewood, CO 80225. Phones (Haddow) 303/236-9562; (Carr) 303/236-9502.
Scotland has no national parks, one of the few nations of the world without any. A number of proposals have been made that Scotland should have National Parks, but the suggestions have come to nothing. Last year, the subject was raised again and the Countryside Commission for Scotland has issued a report and proposed four National Parks: Loch Lomond and the Trossachs, one to take in the area of Ben Nevis (Scotland's highest mountain), GlenCoe and the Blackmount, another in the area of the Cairngorms and the fourth to take in an area of Wester Ross. These areas, particularly the first three are under threat from excessive human pressure, from overgrazing by sheep and an overpopulation of red- deer, also the expansion of commercial conifer planting.
A Museum of the Environment? The Environmental Awareness Trust has now affiliated with ISEE. The aims of the trust are "to increase public knowledge and understanding of the natural and physical environment and its interrelationship with the social and economic circumstances of communities throughout the world by creating one or more museums of the environment and by providing lectures and educational activities for adults and children." The word "museum" does not capture all that the trust hopes to achieve, since it intends not simply to be an educational resource but also a source of authoritative expertise on environmental issues.
The principles of the museum are: (1) independence from political, religious, or commercial influence and commitment to academic integrity and objectivity; (2) a critical approach to environmentalism and environmental values; (3) the intention to become an authoritative source on environmental matters, not just a campaigning implement; (4) to communicate awareness through the most stimulating form of exhibition; (5) having as wide a range of interests as possible. The Trust hopes that the first center in the United Kingdom may set a pattern for further museums in other parts of the world. Contact: Angela Baskeyfield, Environmental Awareness Trust, 66 Lincoln Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LH, U.K.
The Centre for International Peacemaking is now affiliated with ISEE. Set up in 1983, it is dedicated to initiatives that build on common interests between groups in various countries to help international relations. The CIP supports initiatives on disarmament, confidence building, collective security, and environmental education. A recent CIP environmental project involved cooperation between schools in the United Kingdom and Kenya in collecting and monitoring the seeds of food plants threatened with extinction. The Centre facilitated work on the shape, weight, germination, and growth of seeds of CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA in conjunction with Kew Gardens and an East London School. Several departments in the school were involved in work associated with the project. Another project with an environmental dimension is presenting local performances of the musical PEACE CHILD. Contact: Eirwen Harbottle, 9 West Street, Chipping Norton, Oxon, OX7 5LH, U.K.
Riddle of whale deaths. More dead sperm whales have been washed up on the shores of the United Kingdom in 1990 than in the past fifty years, according to Vasili Papastavro of the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. In the spring, six of the whales were washed ashore dead on the shores of Mull, an inshore island off the West of Scotland. A local expert, Richard Fairbains, suggests that a virus may not be the cause, although Mr. Papastavro notes that a virus related to the one responsible for large number of seal deaths has been playing havoc with Mediterranean dolphins. The dead whales off the west of Scotland are particularly puzzling, since sperm whales prefer deep to shallow water and are not normally found between the Outer Hebrides and the Scottish mainland. The UK Department of the Environment and the Scottish office have negotiated to see whether funding can be found to support further investigations. Story in OBAN (SCOTLAND) TIMES, November 11, 1990.
Ecology and the Persian Gulf. In a widely publicized speech in November 1990, King Hussein of Jordan suggested that war in the Gulf could "lead to an environmental catastrophe the likes of which the world has not experienced since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant." This prediction was confirmed by a study undertaken by correspondents for THE GUARDIAN newspaper. They note that the Iraqi army is reported to have mined 300 Kuwait oil wells. Allowing for a 30 percent failure rate, blowing the heads off 200 of Kuwait's 1000 wells would release around 1.5 million barrels of oil each day. If ablaze, the CO2 emissions would add about 3 percent to the atmospheric burden attributable to crude oil products. Any oil released to the sea, either from land sources or from attacks on tankers, would threaten the Gulf's marine ecosystems.
In the same report, John Vidal points out that a prime military target inside Iraq is the poison gas plant in the desert 25 miles northwest of Samarra. This plant is capable of producing four tons of the nerve gas Tabun and 16 tons of mustard gas every month. If subject to direct bombing, a plume of toxic vapor would be released that could drift up to fifty miles and kill every living thing it touched. John Vidal notes that in 1943, in a little-documented World War II episode, the Allies bombed an Italian freighter in Bari, loaded with 100 tons of mustard gas. The resulting loss of life in the city of Bari was about 1000 people. Story in THE GUARDIAN, Friday, November 16.
In the largest conservation project undertaken in the U.S., the Nature Conservancy has purchased the 321,703-acre (500 square miles) Gray Ranch in New Mexico's southwestern "boot heel." The Conservancy is now managing the ranch with its own staff and the help of a ranch manager and cowboys who are running cattle there, anticipating forming a long-term plan for the site that will insure the maintenance of its unusual ecological features.
The National Wildlife Federation presents frequent advertising spots on TNN (The Nashville Country Music Channel) put together by their Committee on Pure Water. Various well-known country music artists, portrayed against mountain, hill, or ocean backgrounds, plead for environmentally sound actions such as recycling, conservation, and even avoiding disposable diapers, ending with the slogan, "Pure Water, Pure Country." This started even before the group ALABAMA had a number one rated song and video, "Pass It on Down," which denounced environmentally poor practices and attitudes, released on Earth Day 1990.
Earth First! in an August 1, 1990 newsletter featured articles advocating "cow hunting" as a means of eliminating cattle grazing on public lands. The justify this approach by claiming that the shooting will bring controversy and will bring public attention to the problem and it is "one of those things individuals can do to make the world a better place to live." The recommended weapon is a bolt-action 30-06 caliber rifle with a telescopic sight using 180 grain cartridges, although shotguns may be preferred because it is difficult to determine which gun buckshot is fired from. "Don't worry about the meat going to waste because there are plenty of predators that will care for it; cattle should be thought of as one more exotic game animal introduced into the environment; cattle are easy to hunt so the success rate should be high; cattle are good animals to get your kids or spouse started on."
Recent and Upcoming Events
--January 31-February 2. "Resource Professionals and Scientists as Environmental Advocates," American Fisheries Society, Oregon Chapter, at Gleneden Beach on the Oregon coast (north of Newport). With addresses by David Ehrenfeld, Rutgers University, Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University, Jerry Franklin, U. S. Forest Service, and others. Contact: Dan Bottom, American Fisheries Society, Oregon Chapter, P. O. Box 722, Corvallis, OR 97339. Phone 503/737-4431.
--February. World Council of Churches conference at Canberra, Australia, on the theme, "Come Holy Spirit, Renew Creation."
--February 14-19. ISEE session at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC. See details earlier.
--February 20-22. National Research and Development Conference on the Control of Hazardous Materials. Disneyland Hotel, Anaheim, CA. Contact: HMC-R&D, ANAHEIM, 9300 Columbia Boulevard, Silver Spring, MD 20910-1702. Phone 301/587-9390. Discussions of risk assessment, evaluation, and ethical issues are included.
--February 23. "Philosophy and the Environment," an undergraduate conference at Siena College, Albany, NY. There will also be a presentation by Professor William Vitek, Clarkson University, on teaching environmental ethics. Contact and send undergraduate papers to Raymond D. Boisvert, Department of Philosophy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211.
--February 28-March 3. American Society of Environmental History Conference, "The Environment and the Mechanized World," University of Houston, Texas. Contact Martin V. Melosi, Department of History, University of Houston, TX 77204-3785. Phone 713/749- 2967.
--March 7-10. Sweetwater, Texas, Rattlenake Round-up!! See above.
--March 14-16. Ecological Prospects: Theory and Practice. Fifth Annual Cassassa Conference, at Loyola Marymont University, Los Angeles. Both humanistic and scientific perspectives. Contact: Christopher Chappel, Director, Cassassa Conference, Loyola Marymont University, Los Angeles, CA 90045. Phones: 2l3/338-7670 or 338-2907.
--March 16-17. New England Environmental Conference, Tufts University, Medford, MA. Among the major speakers who will address the 1991 New England Environmental Conference are: J. Gustave Speth, President, World Resources Institute; J. William Futrell, President, Environmental Law Institute; Dr. Noel J. Brown, Director, North American Liaison Office, United Nations Environment Programme; Dr. Frances Spivy-Weber, Director of International Issues, National Audubon Society; Dr. Michael Atchia, Chief, Environmental Education and Training, United Nations Environment Programme; and Dr. William Moomaw, Director, Center for Environmental Management, Tufts University. Contact: Nancy W. Anderson or Polly Bradley at 617/381-3451.
--March 23. "Ethics and the Environment," one-day conference at University of Wales, College of Cardiff, sponsored by the Centre for Applied Ethics. In addition to speakers from Cardiff, Keekok Lee from Manchester will speak, as well as Heta Hayry and Matti Hayry from Helsinki. Contact Robin Attfield, Philosophy Section, School of English Studies, Journalism and Philosophy, University of Wales, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE. Fax (0222) 371921. Phone (0222) 874025.
--March 28-30. ISEE session at the Pacific Division, APA, in the San Francisco Bay area. See details above.
--March 12-15. Biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains. A Symposium at Colorado State University, sponsored by College of Forestry and Natural Resources, CSU, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. D. A. Forest Service, National Park Service, the Nature Conservancy, and the Audubon Society. The symposium will feature several prominent keynote speakers, multiple paper sessions, and other media presentations. For registration, contact Biodiversity Symposium, Office of Conference Services, Colorado Sate University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
--March 14-16. "Ecological Prospects: Theory and Practice," The Fifth Annual Casassa Conference, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles. Speakers include Patricia C. Wright, Department of Anthropology, Duke University, founder of a preserve in Madagascar, MacArthur Fellow; Daniel B. Botkin, Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, author of DISCORDANT HARMONIES: A NEW ECOLOGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Oxford, 1990); Alfred W. Crosby, Department of American Studies and American Civilization Programs at the University of Texas, author of ECOLOGICAL IMPERIALISM: THE BIOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF EUROPE, 900-1900. Contact: Christopher Chapple, Director, Casassa Conference, Loyola Marymont University, Los Angeles, CA 90045. Phone 213/338-7670 or 213/338-2907.
--March 26-27. Conference: "Practicing Stewardship and Living a Land Ethic," at Harrisburg, Pa, sponsored by Pennsylvania State University. Contact Professor Stephen Jones, Department of Forestry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
--March 22-26. 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Edmundton, Alberta. Contact: L. L. Williamson, Wildlife Management Institute, 1101 14th St., N. W., Suite 725, Washington, DC 20005. Phone 202/371-1808.
--April 4-7. 5th Australian Ecopolitics Conference, University of New South Wales, Sydney. See details earlier.
--April 8-10. Issues and Technology in the Management of Impacted Wildlife, Snowmass Village, Aspen, Colorado. A call for papers has been issued. Contact Susan Q. Foster, Thorne Ecological Institute, 5398 Manhattan Circle, Boulder, CO 80303. Phone 303/499-3647.
--April 18-21. "Environmental Rights in Conflict" at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Sponsored by the Philosophy and Religious Studies Department. Main Speakers: Eugene Hargrove, Philosophy, University of North Texas; Deal Hudson, Philosophy, Fordham University; Thomas Fleming, Editor, Chronicles, Rockford, Illinois; Jay McDaniel, Department of Religion, Hendrix College; Melvin Kranzberg, History of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology; Eugene Spitler, Chevron, USA, San Francisco; Norbert Schedler, Honors, University of Central Arkansas; Curtis Hancock, Philosophy, Rockhurst College; Eugene Bianchi, Department of Religion, Emory University. Contact: Professor Joseph Pappin III, Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR 72204. Phone 501/569-3313.
--April 24-27. Western Social Science Association in Reno, Nevada, with a section on Resource and Public Land Use. Professionals from economics, political science, sociology, environmental psychology, human ecology, natural resources, and recreation will participate. Contact: Nina Burkhardt, National Ecology Research Center, 4512 McMurray Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400.
--April 25-27. ISEE session at the Central Division, APA, in Chicago. See details above.
--May 1-5. International Earth Education Conference, Potsdam, NY. The program includes sessions on creating Earth education programs, with a focus on outdoor education. Contact: The Institute for Earth Education, Box 288, Warrenville, IL 60555. Phone 708/393-3096.
--May 9-11. National Conference on Economic Value of Wilderness in Jackson, Wyoming. Papers are especially invited for a session on noneconomic methods of valuing wilderness. Contact: Claire Payne, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Lab, Carlton Street, Athens, GA 30602.
--May 10-12. "Earth Ethics Forum `91: Green Visions and Pathways for the 3rd Millennium" to be held at Saint Leo College, Saint Leo (North Tampa), Florida. Speakers: Thomas Berry, Kristin Shrader- Frechette, J. Ronald Engel, Hazel Henderson, Laura Westra, Virginia Abernethy. In all, 25 speakers from the U.S., Canada, Europe, Africa, and Asia will present in plenary and parallel sessions. Attendance fee is $ 95.00 which includes meals. Contact Saint Leo College, Department of Religious Studies, P. O. Box 2127, Saint Leo, FL 33574-2127. Phone 813/397-9042. Or: Earth Ethics Forum '91, Earth Ethics Research Group, Inc., 13938 85 Terrace North, Seminole, FL 34646. Phone 813/397-9042.
--May 14-19. International Conference on Science and the Management of Protected Areas. Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. A call for papers has been issued. Contact Neil Munro, Director, Policy Planning and Research, Canadian Parks Service, Atlantic Region, Environment Canada, Historic Properties, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 1S9.
--June 9-14. "Human Responsibility and Global Change," International Conference on Human Ecology, at Goteborg, Sweden. Sponsored by the University of Goteborg, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and others. Contact Maj-Lis Foller, Department of Human Ecology, University of Goteborg, Viktoriagatan 13, S-411 25 Goteborg, Sweden. Phone +46 (31) 631310.
--June 19-22, Symposium on the History of Agriculture and the Environment, National Archives Building, Washington, D. C. Contact Douglas Helms, National Historian, Soil Conservation Service, P. O. Box 2890, Washington, DC 20013. Phone 202/447- 3766.
--June 20-22, Symposium on National Forest History and Interpretation, Missoula, Montana. Contact the Center for Continuing Education, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. Phones 406/243-4623 or 243-2900.
--July 12-14. Environmental Ethics Curricula Development Workshop, Denton, Texas. See details earlier.
--July 21-25. World Conference of Philosophy, Nairobi, Kenya, on "Philosophy, Man and the Environment." See more detailed announcement earlier.
--July 29-31, Conference on the Discourse of Environmental Advocacy, Alta, Utah. Focuses on how persons communicate about and act toward the natural world and emergent environmental problems. Papers are invited. Contact: James G. Cantrill, Department of Speech, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855.
--12-26 August. World-wide Decline in Hunting Session at the 20th World Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists in Godollo, Hungary. Contact: Fern Filion, Session Chair, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, K1A OH3, Canada. Fox 819/953-6283.
--September 27-29. Conference on "Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life," at Colorado State University. Contact Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 303/491-6315.
--October 1991. Henryk Skolimowski conference at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland. Includes addresses by the Dalai Lama, Gro Bruntland, Mother Teresa, Arne Naess, Thomas Berry, Murray Bookchin, and others. For further information contact Professor Henryk Skolimowski, 1002 Granger, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, who is also to occupy the first chair of ecological philosophy established in Poland. Phone 313/665-7279.
--October 10-12. Mountain-Plains Philosophy Conference, "Nature and Value," at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, details earlier.
--November 4-8. Global Assembly of Women and the Environment-- Partners in Life, Miami, Florida. Success stories on women in environment are especially invited to the attention of the assembly. Contact Worldwide Network: World Women in the Environment, 1331 H Street, NW, Suite 903, Washington, DC 20005. 202/347-1514. Fax 202/347-1524. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah is the project director.
--May 17-20, 1992. Fourth North American Symposium on Social Science in Resource Management, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Contact: Donald R. Field, School of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, 1450 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706.
--June 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to be held in Brazil.