Volume 1, No. 3, Summer 1990
Dates and times of the ISEE session at APA, Eastern
Session I, December 28, 11.15 a.m. to 1.15 p.m (2 hours), in the Radcliffe Room. This session will be a panel discussion on the topic, "Environmental Ethics: Current Trends and Future Prospects," with Andrew Brennan (University of Stirling), Sara Ebenreck (Editor, EARTH ETHICS), Bryan Norton (Georgia Institute of Technology), Holmes Rolston (Colorado State University), and Mark Sagoff (Center for Philosophy and Public Policy). There will also be a business meeting of ISEE, for the purpose of formally adopting a constitution and electing officers.
Session II December 28, 5.15 p.m. to 7.15 p.m. (2 hours) Suffolk Room. The presenters are Tom Birch, University of Montana, "Universal Consideration: All the Way Down with Considerability," with commentary by Andrew Brennan, University of Stirling, and Geoffrey Frasz, University of Georgia, "Environmental Virtues, Environmental Vices," with commentary by William Aiken, Chatham College. A great many more papers than could be used in the time allotted were received. Further opportunity is available at Central and Pacific meetings, and perhaps more time can be arranged at Eastern Division next year.
Also at the APA, Eastern Division, in a regular session, Bruce Morito, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph, will be giving a paper entitled, "Holism, Interest-Identity and the Principle of Learned Ignorance." Morito proposes a valuational basis for environmental issues grounded in an anthropocentric appreciation of the holistic nature of the relation between interest and environmental integrity. The paper is analytic in approach and primarily metaphysical in content; the aim is to establish a framework in which to articulate a basis for normative evaluations in environmental issues.
Deadline for completed papers for the 1991 ISEE meeting (late December 1991) in conjunction with Eastern APA will be March 31, 1991. Send proposals and papers to Eric Katz, Department of Humanities, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102. Phone 201/596-3266. The early deadline is required to meet APA Program requirements. Laura Westra, secretary of ISEE and previously at Auburn University, Alabama, has accepted a position in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Windsor. Her new address is Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada. Phones 519/253-4232, ext. 2334, office; 519/254- 6266, home in Windsor; 416/494-2495, home in Toronto.
Professor Andrew Brennan is the contact person in the United Kingdom. Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland. Telephone (0786) 73171. Dues can be sent to Brennan, with checks made to the Society in amount 6.50 pounds sterling.
Robert Elliot is the contact person for Australia and New Zealand. Send membership forms and dues in amount $ 15.00 Australian ($ 7.50 for students) to him. Address: Department of Philosophy, University of New England, Armidale, N.S. W. 2351, Australia. Telephone (087) 7333. Fax (067) 73 3122.
Ernest Partridge is organizing an ISEE session at the Pacific Division of the APA, meeting March 28-30, 1991 in San Francisco. Partridge will be returning from a trip to the Soviet Union in the fall, including a conference on Lake Baikal, and will make a report on Soviet environmentalism, where there are some interesting current developments philosophically as well as politically. Professor Ernest Partridge, Department of Philosophy, California State University, Fullerton, CA 92634-4080. Phones 714/441-2353 (home) and 714/773-3611 (main philosophy office).
J. Baird Callicott will address the Pacific Division APA in regular session presenting an invited address on environmental ethics, March 30, 1991. There will be a commentary by commentators as well as audience discussion in the two-hour session.
At the APA Central Meeting in Chicago, on Sunday, April 28, in the evening, there will be a panel discussion on "The Integrity of Creation: Perspectives on Integrity." The panelists will be: William Desmond, Philosophy, Loyola College, Baltimore, Maryland; J. Baird Callicott, Philosophy, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; Peter Miller, Philosophy, University of Winnipeg. Laura Westra, Philosophy, University of Windsor will be a commentator and Jack Weir, Philosophy, Morehead State University, Kentucky will chair. This meeting will be held jointly with the Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals.
Bryan Norton is organizing a day-long ISEE session for the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting, February 14-19, 1991, in Washington, DC. The theme will be "Defining Environmental Health: Science, Economics, or Ethics," divided into morning and afternoon presentations, with papers by philosophers, economists, and environmental scientists. Contact Professor Bryan G. Norton, Social Sciences Division, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, Phones 404/894-3195, division office; 404/894-8752, his office.
The 5th Australian Ecopolitics Conference will be held at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, April 4-7, 1991. Contact The Secretary, Ecopolitics V, Centre for Liberal and General Studies, University of New South Wales, P. O. Box 1, Kensington, N.S.W., 2033, Australia. Paper proposals by October 26, 1990.
The 1991 Environmental Ethics Curricula Development Workship will be held at the Holiday Inn in Denton, Texas July 12-14, 1991. The workship will be conducted by Eugene C. Hargrove, editor of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Speakers include Max Oelschlaeger, author of a forthcoming book, THE IDEA OF WILDERNESS (Yale University Press) and Pete Gunter, an environmental philosopher known for his work in preserving the Big Thicket in Texas. For more information write Eugene C. Hargrove, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 12396, Denton, TX 76203-3496. Phone 817/565-2727.
At the World Congress of Philosophy, meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, with the theme "Man and the Environment," July 21-25, 1991, participants at an ISEE session will include Eugene Hargrove, Philosophy, University of North Texas; Michael Fox, Philosophy, Queens University, Canada; Karen Warren, Philosophy, Macalaster College, Minnesota; and Michael Zimmerman, Philosophy, Tulane University. Please contact Laura Westra for suggestions and proposals as early as possible. Professor Evandro Agazzi, Fribourg University and President of the Federation International Des Societies de Philosophie, will also participate informally. Another conference on the horizon is Moscow 1993.
An ISEE symposium entitled "Challenges to Humanism" was held at the Joint Session, July 13-16, University of Essex, and featured two papers. Michael F. Smith, Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling, gave a paper criticizing ecohumanism generally and the work of Peter Singer and Paul Taylor in particular. T. L. S. Sprigge, Department of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, gave a paper criticizing the work of Holmes Rolston. There followed a discussion of possible ISEE activities in the United Kingdom and Europe. Andrew Brennan moderated the session.
Membership in ISEE now stands at about 225 members in 20 different nations.
Members are invited and encouraged, in consultation with the officers and governing board, to arrange programs and presentations at appropriate learned societies and other suitable forums.
The April 1992 issue of THE MONIST will be devoted to the topic of the intrinsic value or inherent worth of non-human natural entities and nature as a whole. The guest editor is J. Baird Callicott. Contributions are solicited and may be submitted either to J. Baird Callicott, Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI 54481 or to John Hospers, 8229 Lookout Mountain Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90046. Deadline: March 15, 1991.
Environmental Ethics Reprints. Environmental Philosophy, Inc., publisher of the journal ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, and a companion organization to ISEE, has launched a series of reprints for important books in the field of environmental ethics that have gone out of print. The first of these is Charles Birch and John B. Cobb, Jr., THE LIBERATION OF LIFE: FROM THE CELL TO THE COMMUNITY, and was released in August 1990. This book was originally published in 1981 by Cambridge University Press. Contact: Environmental Ethics Books, 1926 Chestnut Street, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-3496. Phone 817/565-2727.
Members and others are encouraged to submit appropriate items for the newsletter to Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, who is editing the newsletter. Phone 303/491-5328 (office) or 491-6315 (philosophy office) or 484-5883 (home). Fax 303-491-0528, 24 hours. Items may also be submitted to other members of the Governing Board. Include the name of an appropriate contact person, where relevant and possible. International items are especially welcomed.
Lancaster University (United Kingdom) announces an M. A. Program in Values and the Environment. The program is designed as a contribution to environmental education and policy formation which will appeal to working environmentalists as well as those just graduating. It aims to analyze critically a wide variety of attitudes toward the natural world, explore fresh approaches to environmental problems and develop awareness of the links between theory, policy, and practice in this area. It is open to philosophy graduates and to anyone whose academic or practice and work experience has given them an informed interest in environmental issues.
Some courses include "Ethical Theory and Environmental Values," "Land as a Community," "Science and the Domination of Nature," "Phenomenology and the Environment," "Conceptions of Animals, Plants and Nature in the West: A Historical Approach," "Aesthetics of the Environment," "The Representation of the Environment in the Visual Arts," "Biotechnology and the Environment," "Movements of Radical Opposition: Peace and Green," and "Environmental Management." Lancaster University is adjacent to some fine English countryside, including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Parks. Contact, Dr. Jane Howarth, Department of Philosophy, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YT, U. K.
Environmental Ethics at University of Wales, College of Cardiff. There are several programs: Ph.D. and M.Phil research degrees, as well as an M.A. in social ethics taken by course work. There is also a Center for Applied Ethics, with particular concerns in the environment, international relations and professional ethics and in medicine and biomedical science. Last year 22 students completed the M.A. in social ethics and this year 30 new students enrolled. An upcoming conference on "Ethics and the Environment" is March 23 (see below). Contact Robin Attfield, Philosophy Section, School of English Studies, Journalism and Philosophy, University of Wales, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE. Fax (0222) 371921. Phone (0222) 874025.
On July 27-28, the House of Societies' Delegates of the Society of American Foresters had on its agenda three calls for SAF to consider adopting a land ethic, one from the New England Society, one from the Ohio Society, and one from the New York Society. The House of Societies' Delegates is composed of delegates from the 37 state and regional societies that make up the SAF and is an advisory body that meets for two days prior to the Annual SAF convention. They voted unanimously to recommend to the Council of the SAF, its ruling body, to have drafted a statement on a land ethic that would be submitted to the membership for vote, a mail ballot, if possible within a year's time. At the national conference, both the introductory speaker, Senator Patrick Leahy, of Vermont, and the concluding speaker, Art Smyth, President of the SAF, called for a land ethic. Independently, the Council has set up a Strategic Planning Task Force to plan a five year mission, including a mission statement, and listed several priority issues, one of which is a land ethic. A contact person is James E. Coufal, Profedssor of Forestry, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210. Phones 315/470-6565/6566.
The International Society for Ecological Economics met in May at the World Bank in Washington with a surprising turnout. About 150 were expected; 372 showed up for this first conference--"a whole group of people with interests in a revised macroeconomics consistent with physical and biological laws" (Ralph D'Arge, University of Wyoming). At present, lamented Hermann Daly, steady-state economist with the World Bank, "there is no point of contact between the macroeconomics and the environment." Various papers explored alternative theories of value into which both economics and ecology could be integrated. The Society has a journal, ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS, edited by Robert Costanza. Costanza will be participating in the ISEE symposium at the AAAS next February, details below. See story by Constance Holden, "Multidisciplinary Look at a Finite World," SCIENCE, 6 July 1990.
Eric Katz lead a presentation (with Steven Shaw) on "What's Wrong with Plastic Trees? The Ethics of Environmental Preservation" at a symposium, "`The Earth is the Lord's...' God, Man and Nature in Judaism," sponsored by the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City (and others), on Thursday evenings in April and May 1990. The series also featured Peter A. A. Berle, President of Audubon Society, David Ehrenfeld of Rutgers University, Wes Jackson of the Land Institute in Salina, Kansas, Bill McKibben, author of THE END OF NATURE, and a number of others. "`The Earth is the Lord's' Ecology as a Religious Concern," was shown on NBC- TV on Sunday, April 29, featuring David Ehrenfeld and Wes Jackson, produced by the Jewish Theological Seminary.
To the great surprise of primatologists, a new species of primate, a new lion tamarin, has been found in one of the world's most endangered ecosystems in the Atlantic forest region south of So Paulo, Brazil. The new species is named LEONTOPITHECUS CAISSARA, and is the fourth species of lion tamarin, all of them rare. The new species is known only in a troop numbering about a dozen. Story in SCIENCE, July 6, 1990.
The Swiss Federal Environmental Protection Agency is developing a long-term program for social science research in the field of the environment. They invite descriptions of current research programs underway elsewhere as models for research they might undertake. Contact Professor Peter Knoepfel, Institut de hautes Çtudes en administration publique (a foundation associated with the University of Lausanne), Centre de recherche, route de Chavannes 31B, CH-1007 Lausanne, Switzerland.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) are together launching a two-year program of research and consultation that hopes to lead to a global strategy and action plan to conserve the world's biodiversity. Phase I, drafting proposals, is now underway. Phase II will involve the formation of a task force, and Phase II implementation. J. Ronald Engel will be making a presentation on the ethical, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of the conservation of biodiversity at the IUCN General Assembly, meeting November 30 in Perth Australia. For further details contact him: Meadville/Lombard Theological School, 5701 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Phone 312/753-3199. Some relevant publications are listed in books and materials below.
A summary report (24 pages) of the Commission on the Adirondacks in the 21st century has been released, summarizing a much longer report. The report claims to be "New York State's last clear chance to create a truly great Adirondack Park." "There is room in this Park for people and nature to live together in mutual sustainable development." The report has drawn mixed reviews, praise from those interested in preservation and condemnation and protest from those interested in development. Many who live in the Adirondacks feel that they will be deprived of a livelihood if the recommendations are implemented, but the report makes important efforts to preserve the regional economy, especially wood products, while providing disincentives to overdevelopment. A good contact is Wayne Ouderkirk, Philosophy, North Central Regional Center at Cobleskill, Empire State College, State University of New York, Cobleskill, NY 12043-1701. Phone at the Regional Center: 518/234-5320.
The Union Institute offers a doctoral program with an emphasis in environmental studies. "A University without Walls," the Union Institute offers a core faculty in environmental studies of twenty persons, to be coupled with adjunct faculty in other institutions throughout North America. Several dozen such theses have already been completed. The Union Institute is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Contact: The Union Institute, 440 E. McMillan Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 45206-9914.
The JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ETHICS has issued a call for papers, dealing with ethical questions concerning the responsibilities of agricultural producers, the modification of ecosystems, animal welfare, the utilization of farmland and other resources, the safety, availability, and affordability of food, biotechnology, and related issues. Contact Hugh Lehman, Department of Philosophy, or Frank Hurnik, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1.
The Bucknell University Religious Studies Forum, Fall 1990 is on the theme "Responses to the Ecological Crisis," with four forums in each of the fall months. Thomas Berry was the lead speaker and other speakers deal with native American religious traditions, the Judeo-Christian traditions, and Eastern traditions. Contact: Mary Evelyn Tucker, Department of Religion, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837. Phone 717/524-1205.
The Pew Scholars Program in Conservation and the Environment. In 1989 the Pew Program in Conservation and Environment awarded 42 grants for a total of over $ 8 million dollars to nonprofit conservation organizations and academic centers for education, research, and related activities. In September 1988, a program was established to make awards to outstanding scholars who are committed to both research and the application of their findings to the pressing issues of the conservation of biological diversity and directly related environmental problems. Fellowships will be awarded to ten Scholars each in 1990, 1991, and 1992. Each award will be for the sum of $ 150,000 per Scholar over a three year period. Nominees are sought whose work addresses the conservation of biological diversity and directly related environmental research and problem solving. Nominees are encouraged from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, humanities, law, and engineering. Interested persons should note that application is by invitation only, so that no direct applications or proposals should be sent. The competition is not limited to U. S. scholars. The program is administered by the Program Office based at the School of Natural Resources at the University of Michigan. Dr. James E. Crowfoot is director. Address inquiries to: Dr. John Jensen, Associate Director, Pew Scholars Program in Conservation and the Environment, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109- 1115. Phone 313/936-2556. Fax 313/936-2195. This program is funded by Pew Charitable Trusts, established by the family of Joseph N. Pew, founder of the Sun Oil Company.
The National Association of Environmental Professionals says, in its statement of purpose and objectives, that it "seeks to provide its membership, other professionals in the environmental area, and the interested public with a means for interaction, and the opportunity for optimizing social and economic well-being while assuring the achievement of a healthy ecosystem." In its Code of Ethics, it states as its Creed: "The objectives of an Environmental Professional are: 1. to recognize and attempt to reconcile societal and individual human needs with the responsibility for physical, natural, and cultural systems. 2. to promote and develop policies, plans, activities, and projects that achieve complementary and mutual support between natural and man- made, and present and future components of the physical, natural, and cultural environment." Contact: National Association of Environmental Professionals, P. O. Box 15210, Alexandria, VA 22309-0210. Phone 703/660-2364.
Dale Jamieson and Michael H. Glantz are teaching a seminar in Philosophical Issues in Global Warming, fall semester 1990, at the University of Colorado Boulder. Contact Dale Jamieson, Department of Philosophy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309.
The ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOETHICS is being revised for a second edition, to appear in 1992. The first edition was largely oriented to medical ethics and health care, but an effort is being made in the second edition to include issues in environmental ethics and animal rights and welfare. About twenty articles are being commissioned in these areas. Holmes Rolston is the area editor in these fields. Warren Reich, Georgetown University, will be the general editor again; he edited the first edition. The area editors (about twelve persons) recently met in Washington, D. C. to plan entries for the second edition. Macmillan is the publisher.
Brunetto Chiarelli, Director, Centre for Bioethics, Societa' Italiana di Bioetica, Italy, Universita' di Firenze, Via del Proconsolo, 12, 50122, Firenze, is publishing a newsletter and has offered to publish parts of our own NEWSLETTER with it, including membership information.
Udo Ernst Simonis has published a new book, BEYOND GROWTH: ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, through the Science Centre, Berlin, which is a member of ISEE. They have a list of other publications available. Most, but not all, are in German. Their address is: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fur Socialforschung, gGmbH, D-1000, Berlin, Reichpietschuter 50. Director: Dr. Bernard Glaeser.
W. Michael Hoffman (Philosophy, Bentley College, Waltham, MA) in a presidential address to the Society for Business Ethics, meeting in San Francisco, August 10, linked business ethics and environmental ethics. The paper was titled, "Business and Environmental Ethics" and argued for the responsibility of business to a much larger group than its own stakeholders. He proposed that "naturalistic ethical guidelines such as those suggested by Holmes Rolston should be set forth for business to follow when its activities impact upon ecosystems." These guidelines are in Rolston's "Just Environmental Business," Chapter 11, in Tom Regan, ed., JUST BUSINESS (Random House, 1984), a college text in business ethics.
Laura Westra will present a paper entitled "Respecting the Integrity of the Earth: the Need for New Values in Environmental Ethics," at the School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, on November 1. She is supported by a grant from the GTE Foundation.
Laura Westra will participate in a panel discussion on environmental ethics at the invitation of the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto on October 28. The conference is observing the Fourth Annual Rain Forest Week and is sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and others. Westra will speak on "The Integrity of the Earth." Charles Taylor, McGill University, will speak on "Technology and Environmental Attitudes" and Thom Alcoze will speak on "Amerindian Ecology."
We have received a letter of congratulations and expression of keen interest from THE CENTRE FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACEBUILDING, 9 West Street, Chipping Norton, Oxon, OX7 5LH, U. K. The directors are Brigadier Michael Harbottle, OBE (Ret.) and Eirwen Harbottle, Patron Lady Gourlay. They emphasize environmental education in the schoolroom, produce PEACE CHILD films and many other activities through a global network, including the GAIA INITIATIVE. Contact them for further information.
The Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor and Ralph Johnson, Head, have provided support covering the cost of copying and reproducing NEWSLETTER No. 2, as well as supplying the mailing envelopes. They have also produced the mailing labels for the present NEWSLETTER No. 3. A heartfelt thank you is in order.
Jobs in Environmental Conservation
JOB-SCAN is a monthly environmental and natural resources job listing published by the Student Conservation Association, Inc., P. O. Box 550, Charlestown, NH 03603. The scope of JOB-SCAN includes corporate, government, and non-profit employment as well as internships and volunteer positions. Phone 603/826-4301. Fax 603/826-7755. Subscriptions are 6 months $ 22, 1 year $ 39. About 24 pages of job listings each issue. Write for an issue and alert students to it. This is another one that should be in every college career and placement office. For others see ISEE NEWSLETTER, Summer 90.
Recent Books, Articles, and Other Materials
--George Sessions, "Deep Ecology in California." To appear in a special California issue of DIALECTICS AND HUMANISM (POLISH INTERNATIONAL PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL), 1990-91. Sessions traces the distinctive development of deep ecology in California, acknowledging important roots outside California (Leopold, the Transcendentalists, Muir in Wisconsin, Naess in Norway, others in Australia). "It would be safe to say that the rebirth of radical ecology in the 1960's was largely a California phenomenon." He closes with California at crisis point. "The ultimate fate of California, in all likelihood, will be decided in the coming decade or two." Copies from George Sessions, Department of Philosophy, Sierra College, Rocklin, CA 95677-3397.
--Warwick Fox, TOWARD A TRANSPERSONAL ECOLOGY: DEVELOPING NEW FOUNDATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTALISM. Transpersonal ecology represents a creative meeting ground between environmental philosophy and transpersonal psychology. It brings together the psychologist's understanding of the self beyond personal ego with the ecologist's belief in the inherent value of all living things. An in-depth analysis of the deep ecology movement. Boston: Shambahala Publications, October 1990. Fox is a National Research Fellow at the Center for Environmental Studies at the University of Tasmania.
--Robin Attfield and Katharine Dell, eds., VALUES, CONFLICT AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Oxford, Ian Ramsey Center, Oxford and Center for Applied Ethics, Cardiff. Values, methods, and procedures of decision-making in matters affecting the environment--an effort to relate environmental philosophy to social practice. Contains some far-reaching recommended changes to social practice.
--Robin Attfield, "Deep Ecology and Intrinsic Value: A Reply to Andrew Dobson," COGITO 4(Spring 90):61-66. A discussion of whether intrinsic value is relevant to the Green Movement politically, replying to Andrew Dobson, "Deep Ecology," COGITO, 3/1 (1989):41-46. Dobson claims, "There may be no doubt that Deep Ecology is indeed the Green Movement's philosophical basis," but Attfield replies that various philosophical positions can support the Green Movement. A theory of intrinsic value in some nonhuman living things, both those with and without subjective experience, is intelligible and important in supplying a philosophical basis for the Green Movement. Attfield is at the University of Wales, College of Cardiff.
--James P. Lester, ed., ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS AND POLICY: THEORIES AND EVIDENCE (Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1989). Twelve essays on the conservation and environmental movements, public opinion, interest groups, party politics, congress, the federal bureaucracy, the courts as these enter into environmental policy. Also chapters on international environmental politics and alternative views of the environmental problematic.
--Kevin W. Kelley, ed., THE HOME PLANET Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley, 1988. Also published in Moscow: MIR Publishers. An extraordinary book of photographs of Earth from space, with reflections from the hundred or so men and women from thirteen countries who have flown into Earth orbit or to the lunar surface. Edited for the Association of Space Explorers, this large volume conveys the dazzling and profound existential and visual impact of seeing our planet from space. With the Soviets and others alike, the experiences are often religious in the broad sense of that term, a sense of being grasped by an unexpected encounter with this mysterious and ineffable planet. The perception of vulnerability, combined with wonder and adoration, give rise to a resolve to protect the planet against onslaughts by the human species. For a perceptive review see, James Huchingson, "Earthstruck," ZYGON, September 1990.
--Mary Evelyn Tucker, MORAL AND SPIRITUAL CULTIVATION IN JAPANESE NEO-CONFUCIANISM: THE LIFE AND THOUGHT OF KAIBARA EKKEN (1630- 1714) (Albany: SUNY Press, $ 16.95 paper. A study that reflects the possible basis for an environmental ethics in Neo-Confucian thought. The author is in the Department of Religion at Bucknell University and is teaching a course on Religion and Ecology. She has a particular interest in religious attitudes towards nature in Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shinto.
--Norman J. Vig and Michael E. Kraft, eds., ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN THE 1990S: TOWARD A NEW AGENDA. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1990. A Division of Congressional Quarterly, Inc. (1414 22nd Street, N. W., Washington, DC 20037). Vig is at Carleton College; Kraft is at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. 17 articles. Sections: Environmental Policy and Politics in Transition; Public Policy Dilemmas; Toward a Global Environmental Policy; Ethics, Values, and the Future of Environmental Politics. Some sample titles: Geoffrey Wandesforde-Smith, "Moral Outrage and the Progress of Environmental Policy: What Do We Tell the Next Generation about How to Care for the Earth?"; Richard N. L. Andrews, "Risk Assessment: Regulation and Beyond"; "Daniel Mazmanian and David Morell, "The `NIMBY' Syndrome: Facility Siting and the Failure of Democratic Discourse."
--Joy Williams, "The Killing Game," ESQUIRE, October 1990, pp. 112-128. An ESQUIRE style diatribe against hunting. "Why the American hunter is blood-thirsty, piggish, and grossly incompetent." "Hunters kill for play, for the thrill of it." "Sport hunting is immoral. It should be made illegal. Hunters are persecutors who ought to be prosecuted." Williams cites and dislikes Rolston's position on hunting.
--Jane J. Mansbridge, ed. BEYOND SELF-INTEREST. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. A new study of the possibility of altruism and cooperation in public and private life, with implications for an enlightened environmental policy.
Some recent books available in Australia from Primavera Press, P. O. Box 575, Leichhardt 2040, Australia:
--Dorothy Green, ed., DESCENT OF SPIRIT: WRITINGS OF E. L. GRANT WATSON. Grant Watson (1885-1970) wrote on the natural history of Australia, especially the wonder and beauty of biological adaptations.
--PATRICK WHITE SPEAKS. The passionate public life of Australia's most acclaimed novelist and Nobel prize recipient, outspoken as a committed environmentalist.
--JUDGMENTS OF JUSTICE LIONEL MURPHY, edited by A. R. Blackshield et al. Sixty judgments from a controversial High Court Judge, including that on Franklin Dam.
--Roderick Frazier Nash, THE RIGHTS OF NATURE: A HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. Here available in an Australian edition.
--Lynda L. Butler, "State Environmental Programs: A Study in Political Influence and Regulatory Failure." WILLIAM AND MARY LAW REVIEW, vol. 31, no. 4, Spring 1990. Butler is at the School of Law, College of William and Mary.
--"Symposium: Eastern Water Law," VIRGINIA ENVIRONMENTAL LAW JOURNAL, vol. 9, no. 2, Spring 1990. Seven articles on the struggle to evolve Eastern water laws that protect the integrity of the environment.
--Charles F. Wilkinson, "Values and Western Water: A History of the Dominant Ideas," Western Water Policy Project, Discussion Series Paper No. 1, Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado, School of Law, Boulder, CO, 1990. The ten principal values associated with water and an inquiry how far water law supports these values. There are a half dozen other related papers in this series.
--Alistair Graham, EYELIDS OF MORNING: THE MINGLED DESTINIES OF CROCODILES AND MEN (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1990). The Nile crocodiles, a classic study, reissued after being long out of print. Originally published in 1973. $ 24.95 in paper.
--Gary E. Varner, "Biological Functions and Biological Interests," SOUTHERN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY 28 (Summer 1990): 251-271. Varner defends the empirical claim that plants have needs in some sense in which simple artifacts do not, and the normative claim that those needs qualify plants for direct moral consideration. Using the concept of a biological function, we can specify, in a nonarbitrary way, what is and is not in the "biological interests" of a plant, and we can say that plants have interests without implying that simple artifacts do. Certain inadequacies of the dominant mental state theory of individual welfare suggest that such "biological interests" are morally genuine interests, which qualify their possessor for direct moral consideration. Varner critiques and attempts to improve on work by Goodpaster, Taylor, and others, showing that these authors have not paid sufficient attention to the philosophy of biology and as a consequence none has as yet identified a genuine distinction consistent with contemporary philosophy of biology that allows us to attribute interests to a non-conscious organism without implying that simple artifacts do also. Varner is Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Texas A & M University.
--Ramachandra Guha, THE UNQUIET WOODS: ECOLOGICAL CHANGE AND PEASANT RESISTANCE IN THE HIMALAYA (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990). $ 29.95. A study of India's forests, its people, and its state. Guha focuses on a series of peasant movements against commercial forestry, up to and including the Chipko (hug the trees) movement. The author claims that Chipko, mistakenly characterized solely as an environmental movement, is above all a peasant struggle in defense of forest rights.
--Daniel Kemmis, COMMUNITY AND THE POLITICS OF PLACE. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. A former speaker of the Montana House of Representatives and presently the mayor of Missoula, Montana, argues that the American loss of capacity for public life parallels their loss of a sense of place. Highly recommended by Wes Jackson, Land Institute, Salina, Kansas.
--John C. Hendee, George H. Stankey, and Robert C. Lucas, WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT. 2nd ed., 1990. An extensively revised edition of a work first published by the U. S. Forest Service in 1978. Republished by the International Wilderness Leadership Foundation. Address: 211 West Magnolia, Fort Collins, CO. $ 40.00. 500 pages. This second edition insures that this work will remain the standard in the field. Among the new materials is a chapter on "International Concepts of Wilderness Preservation and Management." Six nations now have specific wilderness protection in something similar to the American sense: The United States, Canada, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, though almost all nations have some parks and preserved areas.
Among the most accessible of recent books and articles on what's at stake in the controversies over logging in the U. S. Pacific Northwest:
--Elliott A. Norse, ANCIENT FORESTS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Corvela CA: Island Press, 1990. $ 19.95 paper. $ 34.05 hardbound.
--Keith Ervin, FRAGILE MAJESTY: THE BATTLE FOR NORTH AMERICA'S LAST GREAT FOREST. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers, 1989. $ 14.95 paper.
--Catherine Caufield, "The Ancient Forests," NEW YORKER, May 14, 1990.
--"Owl vs. Man," TIME, June 25, 1990. "The timber industry says that saving this spotted owl will cost 30,000 jobs. It isn't that simple." "There is no way to avoid hard choices. The U. S. will have to recognize that no society can have it all at all times-- unfettered harvesting of natural resources, full employment and a healthy and rich environment. The soft hoot of the owl, an ancient symbol of wisdom and foresight, beckons us to resolve both its future and our own." --Daniel Doak, "Spotted Owls and Old Growth Forest Logging in the Pacific Northwest," CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 3(4) (1989):389-396.
--USDA Forest Service, FINAL SUPPLEMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR AN AMENDMENT TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGIONAL GUIDE, vols 1, 2. USDA Forest Service, Portland, Oregon, 1988.
Some recent IUCN and WRI materials are: (Also see notice of the two year program of research and consultation above).
--Jeffrey A. McNeeley, Kenton R. Miller, W. V. Reid, R. A. Mittermeier, T. B. Werner, CONSERVING THE WORLD'S BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY. 1990. Available for $ US 18.00, including postage, from IUCN Publications, 1196 Gland, Switzerland; World Resources Institute, P. O. Box 4852 Hamden Station, Baltimore, MD 21211; or World Bank Publications, P. O. Box 7247-8619, Philadelphia, PA 19170-8619.
--Walter V. Reid and Kenton Miller, KEEPING OPTIONS ALIVE: THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY. 1990. World Resources Institute, see above.
--CARING FOR THE WORLD: A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY. This is the new title for the successor to the World Conservation Strategy, now released in a June 1990 draft. Avilable from World Conservation Center, Avenue du Mont Blanc, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.
--UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LAW REVIEW, vol. 1986, no. 2, is a symposium, STEWARDSHIP OF LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCES, with 14 articles, all relevant to environmental ethics. The three main areas are philosophy of resource control, distribution of water rights, and land and urban growth. Some representative articles: --Charles E. Little, "Has the Land Ethic Failed in America? An Essay on the Legacy of Aldo Leopold"
--Lynda L. Butler, "Defining a Water Ethic Through Comprehensive Reform: A Suggested Framework for Analysis"
--Eric T. Freyfogle, "Water Justice" James M. Caragher, "The Wilderness Ethic of Justice William O. Douglas"
--Lynton Keith Caldwell, "Land and the Law: Problems in Legal Philosophy"
The issue is available for $ 7.00 from the College of Law, 76 Law Building, 504 East Pennsylvania Ave., Champaign, IL 61820.
--Aldo Leopold, THE RIVER OF THE MOTHER OF GOD, AND OTHER ESSAYS BY ALDO LEOPOLD. Susan L. Flader and J. Baird Callicott have edited this collection of 59 unpublished and obscurely published pieces by Leopold, many from the Leopold archives at the University of Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, forthcoming 1991.
--James Rachels, CREATED FROM ANIMALS: THE MORAL IMPLICATIONS OF DARWINISM. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. $ 19.95. Rachels enlists Darwin in the animal rights movement. Darwin opposed the use of steel traps against vermin and could become enraged at someone abusing a horse. He disliked vivisection. More importantly, Darwin narrowed the discontinuity between humans and animals, showed our kinship with animal life both in origins and biological character. This perhaps devalues human life from the classical concepts of human dignity, but it also elevates the worth of animal life. Rachels is professor of philosophy, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
--"Where the Sky Stays Dark," TIME, May 28, 1990. The lifting of the Iron Curtain reveals the planet's most polluted region. Central Europe especially is an environmental disaster, with substantial percentages of the population afflicted with environmental diseases.
--"A Sizzling Scientific Debate," TIME, April 30, 1990. Skeptics say evidence for the greenhouse effect is not so hot. But many scientists counter that failure to curb CO2 emissions amounts to a dangerous experiment with the atmosphere.
--Holmes Rolston, III, "Property Rights and Endangered Species," UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO LAW REVIEW 61(1990):283-306. Rolston examines especially endangered plant species on private property and claims that property ownership is an imperfect right and does not include the right to jeopardize endangered species, a constraint consistent with the Endangered Species Act. Nor do landowners whose expectations of development are so constrained have any claim to compensation under the "just takings" clause of the Fifth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution. Rather, they are precluded from doing harm in the tradition of police power. Protecting such species from harm involves a development of law with an appropriate respect for natural history. Copies on request from Holmes Rolston.
--Luna B. Leopold, "Ethos, Equity, and the Water Resource," ENVIRONMENT, March 1990, pp.16-20, 37-42. An address given February 15, 1990, the Abel Wolman Distinguished Lecture, sponsored by the Water Science and Technology Board of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in Washington. "The proliferation of public agencies dealing with water has led to a dissassociation of their policies, their procedures, and their outlook from the operational health of the hydrologic system." "It is deplorable that the government agency most responsible for managing water in water-short regions continues to be so insensistive to the hydrologic continuum and to equity among claimants." "The resource establishment, especially in the field of water, is stuck on the shoals of special interests, a lack of long-term perspective, and a shortage of public-minded leadership."
--Donald Worster, "The Ecology of Order and Chaos," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(1990):1-18. Classical ecology had much order, equilibrium, harmony, and it was possible to admire such nature, respect it, and form a policy of integrating society with such nature. But recent ecology has seen much disorder, disturbance, perturbation, chaos in natural systems, leaving the puzzling question whether such nature is worthy of respect and preservation. The tendency to see more chaos in ecosystems is part of a larger trend in other sciences--physics, astronomy, chemistry, climatology, mathematics--an interdisciplinary science of chaos. Nature at the system level is often unpredictable, either in principle or too complex to be modeled. But this new tendency to see disorder may not just be discovering objective facts about nature; it may be a projection onto nature of a "post- modernist" ideology about society, believing that societies too are fundamentally erratic.
--J. Baird Callicott, "Genesis Revisited: Murian Musing on the Lynn White, Jr., Debate," ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY REVIEW 14(1990):65-90. The roots of the ecological crisis are as Greek as they are Hebrew. John Muir read Genesis with neither the despotic (subdue and conquer) nor the stewardship model, but rather with an ecocentric-bioegalitarian model. This is not the perspective of the first creation story (the P-account), but it is the perspective of the second creation story (the J-account). Though second in the biblical text, this is the earlier Hebrew account, an atavistic account that sees anthropocentrism as the original sin. Muir's own lifestyle was of this kind. Persons in contemporary society, however, since they have fallen into this anthropocentrism, cannot realistically undertake such a primitive return to nature. But they can perhaps reach a Self-realization, an ecological self (in the sense advocated by Naess) that does transcend anthropocentrism.
--Murray Bookchin, REMAKING SOCIETY: PATHWAYS TO A GREEN FUTURE. (Boston: South End Press, 1990. 204 pages. $ 10 paper. Social ecologist Murray Bookchin explores the origins of the humans-over- nature hierarchy to find it originates in dominance hierarchies within human societies. These go back to the ascendance of elders in early human society and the dominance of warrior males over other men and nearly all women. It continues in the dominance of nation-states and multi-national corporations. Such hierarchies warp the creative powers of humanity in the service of power rather than of life. Bookchin's ideal is a rational, ecologically oriented society using its cultural achievements for its own benefit and for that of the natural world. Bookchin dislikes the atavistic mystical tendencies he sees emerging in ecofeminists, deep ecologists, and some members of Green political parties. Bookchin is director emeritus of the Institute for Social Ecology in Vermont.
--Ray Gambell, "Whaling: A Christian Perspective," SCIENCE AND CHRISTIAN BELIEF 2(no. 1, April 1990):15-24. Dr. Ray Gambell is the Secretary of the International Whaling Commission and has been involved with the biology and management of whales since 1963. Whaling has a long history of depleting successive stocks and the whale has become the symbol of our mishandling of environmental matters in general. The biblical foundation for the human dominion of nature should be the source of a sound conservation ethic. It implies responsible stewardship, including the taking of no more than sustainable harvests. In the case of whales this has not happened, through ignorance and greed. The problem of humane killing of animals is highlighted, and whalers ought to cause death within a few minutes. The question of whether or not whales are intelligent is left open, but they are not made in the image of God, and are not, therefore, the equals of humans. Certain Arctic communities are dependent on whales with no reasonable alternatives available. Gambell is sensitive to the issue of whether humans ought to kill whales at all, but disagrees with Tom Regan's claim that whales have a right to life.
--ANNALS OF EARTH is a periodical published by the Center for the Protection and Restoration of Waters at Ocean Arks International and the Lindisfarne Association. Ocean Arks was incorporated in 1982 to disseminate the ideas and practice of ecological sustainability throughout the world. It has recently established a Center for the Protection and Restoration of Waters. Lindisfarne, founded in 1972, is an association of individuals and groups dedicated to fostering the emergence of a new global culture. Their objective is to "restore the land, protect the seas, and inform the Earth's stewards." ANNALS OF EARTH can be obtained for a contribution of $ 15.00 annually. Address: One Locust Street, Falmouth, MA 02540. John Todd is president of Ocean Arks International and Nancy Jack Todd is vice-president and editor of ANNALS.
--Rex Ambler, GLOBAL THEOLOGY: THE MEANING OF FAITH IN THE PRESENT WORLD CRISIS (Philadelphia: Trinity, 1990). 90 pp. paper. Pollution, depletion of natural resources, and the continuing threat of nuclear war illustrate the fragility of our planet. They also fuel a spiritual crisis. Ambler points the way toward a responsible faith that does not take tragedy as the last word.
--Eric T. Freyfogle, "The Land Ethic and Pilgrim Leopold," UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO LAW REVIEW 61(1990):217-256. An examination of whether and how far the Leopold land ethic can be incorporated into natural resource law. Freyfogle is professor of law, University of Illinois.
--David J. Rapport, "What Constitutes Ecosystem Health?" PERSPECTIVES IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 33(1) (1989):120-132. There are analogies and disanalogies between human health and ecosystem health. Three measures of ecosystem health are: the identification of critical characteristics or vital signs, measures of the counteractive capacity to handle stress loadings, risk factors from certain anthropogenic stresses. Naturally healthy ecosystems can be more periodic or fluctuate more widely than sometimes thought. What counts as a healthy managed ecosystem, including an agro-ecosystem? A useful article, reasonably short, and readable by students.
--Frederick W. Boal and David N. Livingstone, eds., THE BEHAVIOURAL ENVIRONMENT: ESSAYS IN REFLECTION, APPLICATION, AND RE-EVALUATION. London and New York: Routledge, 1989. Hardbound, 337 pages. Humans behave in their world according to the way they perceive it to be, and this is not always, perhaps not often, the way the world really is. "Decision-makers operating in an environment base their decisions on the environment as they perceive it, not as it is. The action resulting from their decision, on the other hand, is played out in a real environment" (p. 9). These "filtered worlds" (p. 290) are what the late William Kirk, longtime geographer at the Queen's University of Belfast called "the behavioral environment," and two of his colleagues have edited this collection of sixteen essays evaluating that idea. Kirk held that "the behavioral environment" specified the essence of geography and provided it with a unifying model. Geography arises where humans perceive natural systems, and that subjective gestalt, "the behavioral environment," shapes human actions in their worlds, with the real "phenomenal world" responding sometimes more sometimes less than as perceived. The authors here offer sophisticated appraisals of how this model has fared over the last forty years. Perception is important, but is it the essential concept of geography? Somehow, the entwined destinies of nature and culture does seem to be the domain of geography, which could make it a quite relevant science blending the subjective in human perception with the objective in landscapes.
--Nigel Dower, ed., ETHICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBLITY (London:Gower Publishing Co., Avebury Imprint, 1989, Pounds 32.00; available in U.S. from Gower Publishing Co., Old Post Road, Brookfield, VT 05036, 160 pages for the modest price of $ 58.95!). Contents: What is environmental ethics?; The metaphysics of environmentalism; Do future generations matter?; Animal rights and human wrongs; Democracy and environmental change; After Chernobyl: the ethics of risk-taking; Bibliography. Nigel Dower is Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Aberdeen.
--Joel Jay Kassiola, THE DEATH OF INDUSTRIAL CIVILIZATION: THE LIMITS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE REPOLITICIZATION OF AN ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990). $ 19.95 paper; $ 59.50 hardback. The contemporary ecological crisis within industrial society is caused by the values inherent in unlimited economic growth and competitive materialism. The limits-to-growth critique of industrial civilization is the most effective stance against an otherwise dominant and invincible social order. A prescription of the social changes that must be implemented to transform industrial society into a sustainable and more satisfying society. Kassiola is professor of political science at Brooklyn College.
--Andrew Revkin, THE BURNING SEASON: THE MURDER OF CHICO MENDES AND THE FIGHT FOR THE AMAZON RAIN FOREST (Houghton Mifflin, 1990, $ 19.95). Chico Mendes was a Brazilian frontier union leader, an organizer of a national federation of wild rubber tappers in the state of Acre. He came to the United States and England to promote the conservation of the forests, which the rubber tappers wish to maintain as "extractive reserves," a battle fought against land speculators who were burning down immense stretches of forest. The wild rubber trees grow scattered in the primary forest, but this requires 700 acres to obtain an amount of latex that can be gotten from a single acre of planted rubber, especially from planted Asian rubber. Mr. Mendes was murdered in December 1988, one of several hundred activists killed in Brazil that year. Subsequently there has been much interest in him as a martyr for both the cause of the poor and environmental
Videotapes and media
THE LAST ELEPHANT is the Audubon Society's first conservation feature film moving from the documentary format to that of an action/adventure love story and a searing indictment of the poaching that threatens to wipe out the African elephant by the end of the century. This is playing several times this fall on Superstation TBS.
PROBLEM CHILD a problem movie. The Universal Pictures release, PROBLEM CHILD, starring John Ritter, is about a couple who adopt a child, only to find that he is sadistic and destructive. The boy's excesses of violence and cruelty constitute the comedy of two ensuing hours and feature prominently the repeated abuse of a cat. The TV teasers for the film show the cat being put in the dryer, being thrown, and walking with broken legs in casts. Some fear that children who see the movie will form the impression of adults laughing at the spectacle of a sociopathic child torturing the family cat. In Defense of Animals is organizing a boycott of the film.
RACE TO SAVE THE PLANET. Ten one-hour programs for fall 1990 prime-time U. S. television are scheduled, with the first program shown on October 4. With an anticipated audience of 12 million viewers for each of the programs, this is one of the most ambitious public education efforts on the environment. The programs are:
1. The Environmental Revolution - October 4
2. Only One Atmosphere - October 11
3. Do We Really Want to Live This Way? - October 18
4. In the Name of Progress - October 26
5. Remnants of Eden - November 1
6. More for Less - November 8
7. Save the Earth--Feed the World - November 15
8. Waste Not, Want Not - November 22
9. It Needs Political Decisions - November 29
10. Now or Never - December 6
Some PBS stations will be using another format, the "showcase format," and will air all ten programs prime time, two per night, October 7-11, and then also show the ten as scheduled above but not prime time. Produced for PBS by WGBH Science Unit and others in the U.S., Australia, India, and Europe, with support from a number of prominent foundations. A 13-week college level course is geared to the series, with two textbooks, and 100,000 high school teachers have received a teacher's guide. Contact Anne Blackburn, Outreach Coordinator, RACE TO SAVE THE PLANET, WGBH Educational Foundation, 125 Western Avenue, Boston, MA 02134. Phone 617/492-2777, extension 4374.
UNNECESSARY FUSS vividly documents the abuse of primates in head injury experiments conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. It was produced with rare footage taken by the researchers themselves and subsequenty taken from the laboratories without permission. Difficult to watch at times and leaves little doubt that animal experiments need to be carefully monitored. Dr. James Wyngaarden, Director of the National Institutes of Health, defended the Head Injury Clinic as "one of the best in the world," and the clinic was endorsed as being humane by other authorities, who dismissed protests as "unnecessary fuss," but the videotaped scenes make mockery of these defenses. Experiments at the clinic, which were funded by one million dollars annually of taxpayer money, were later terminated by the Secretary of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, partly on the evidence of these tapes. Running time 28 minutes. For sale for $ 18.00 from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, P. O. Box 42515, Washington, DC 20015. Phones 202/726-0156, 202/770-7444.
World Championship Prairie Dog Shoot. Sharpshooters killed 2,956 prairie dogs in two days, July 14-15, in a prize-shooting contest, a shot in the arm to a small town Western Colorado community. Each of the 109 contestant hunters was allowed 50 rounds, and the winner was a local rancher, Earl Reams, who killed 47. High-tech shooting aids were often used, though many of the shots were not clean kills. Many had protested the contest as inappropriate, including the state governor and spokespersons from the Colorado Division of Wildlife, though the Commission on Wildlife declined to stop the event. About two dozen animal rights (fewer than expected) picketed the event. "The issue here isn't prairie dog rights. It is people's rights," declared Shari Fraker, complaining that the protestors were trying to deny hunters their constitutional rights. The small town mayor, John Vanderpool, received three separate death threats and wore a .38 revolver and a bulletproof vest at the ceremonies. Said George Nyfeler, regional field representative of the National Rifle Association, "What we see here is not a difference of opinion, but hate against hunters who are acting responsibly in the sporting use of firearms." A frequent complaint was that urban people had no business telling rural people how they ought to live. Media coverage of the much-publicized event included the LOS ANGELES TIMES, PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, National Public Radio, CBS, NBC, and PEOPLE MAGAZINE. The event was billed as a sporting event, but later justifications claimed a threatened infestation of local ranches with prairie dogs, with the simultaneous claim that the shooting did not really affect the local population of prairie dogs significantly. See ISEE Newsletter, Summer 1990, and story in the DENVER POST, July 16, 1990.
The Greening of the U. S. Army. On June 28, Senator Sam Nunn (Democrat from Georgia), Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, announced a proposal to shift substantial U.S. military and intelligence resources to address rapidly growing environmental problems. After long resisting the implications of the cold war's end for military operations, the defense establishment has begun to consider redeploying its resources to counter a more ominous threat than the Russians, the death of the planet itself. Military forces are considered ideal for rescue efforts after natural disasters resulting from flooding and storms, also for cleanup after oil spills, for restoration projects requiring much manual labor. U. S. intelligence and the widely deployed marine fleet and air transport systems are proposed for data gathering and research on global warming, climatic change, and other global trends. See story by Mark Sommer in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 25, 1990, p. 18.
A proposal to mine titanium, zircon, and rutile from dunes on the eastern shores of Lake St. Lucia in South Africa has sparked the largest outcry ever faced in that country. More than a quarter of a million South Africans have signed petitions opposing the dune- mining. Lake St. Lucia and its surroundings form the largest estuarine ecosystem on the African continent and constitute one of its richest wildlife reserves. A complex mosaic of coastal sand dunes, forested sandhills, grasslands, thorn thickets, marshes, lakes, and ocean coast create a habitat abounding with large populations of hippopotamus, crocodiles, white pelicans, pink- backed pelicans, and over 350 other species of birds.
Extinction of ciclids in Lake Victoria. Lake Victoria in central Africa, the second largest freshwater lake in the world, is home to 250-300 species of ciclids, 99 percent of which are endemic to that lake. The native fauna ranged from a few inches to a foot in length. The Nile perch, which averages four feet in length and weighs up to 400 pounds, was introduced by British colonial officials primarily as a sport fish. Since the late 1970's the perch population has boomed and decimated the ciclid population. There is a current effort to rescue ciclids and keep them in aquaria elsewhere. The native fish were the primary source of protein for 8 million people, but the natives are largely unable to catch and use the Nile perch, which requires commercial fishing equipment unavailable to them. Story by Laurie Ann Peach, CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 20, 1990.
Mikhail Gorbachev on environmental policy and ethics. "The ecological imperative has powerfully entered the politics of states and the people's everyday life. ... Humanity is part of the biosphere, and it--the biosphere--is a single whole." "I have to admit that it is only recently that the entire and vital significance of the ecological problem has been realized in the Soviet Union at the level of policy. ... Perestroyka, having changed the actual philosophical approaches to the problems of social development, also has radically changed our views on ecology." "The greening of politics is an affirmation of the priority of values common to humanity ... it is the return to mankind of his awareness of himself as part of nature. The moral improvement of society is impossible without this. We have already embarked upon the fundamental restructuring of the whole matter of environmental protection within the country. ... There lies a huge amount of work ahead to harmonize the relationship between man and nature." Gorbachev also called for drawing up an "international code of ecological ethics" at the UN Conference in Brazil in 1992. Address, January 20, 1990, to the Global Forum on Environmental Protection and Development for Survival, Moscow. The text is in WORLDWIDE ISSUES, January 22, 1990, pp. 4-8.
Bald eagles are recovering well in all regions of the United States except the Southeast where recovery is disappointing. Over the last quarter century the number of nesting pairs in the lower 48 states has climbed from about 600-700 to 2,600. Also there is continuing concern about maintaining habitat. A proposal by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to reclassify its status from endangered to threatened may be released this fall.
Stop Junk Mail! Americans receive almost 2 million tons of junk mail every year. To stop your name from being sold to most large mailing list companies, write to Mail Preference Service, Direct Marketing Association, 11 West 42nd Street, P. O. Box 3861, New York, NY 10163-3861. This will reduce your junk mail by 75%.
The Wisconsin state legislature and Governor Tommy Thompson have enacted a bill that will ban many materials from Wisconsin landfills by 1995. No lead acid batteries, yard waste, cardboard, polystyrene, magazines, newspapers, office paper, tires, or containers made of glass, aluminum, steel, or plastic! The state will also be helping to finance local recycling programs, although the funds will come from a controversial tax on businesses' gross
On 3 July, an appeals court in Washington, DC, turned down a last- ditch attempt by animal activists to forestall final scientific experiments--which are to be followed by euthanasia--on three of the remaining six "Silver Spring monkeys." The condition of the elderly primates, whose arms were denervated for experiments a decade ago, has deteriorated badly and veterinarians say they should be euthanized. The monkeys are at the Delta Regional Primate Center in Louisiana. Brain wave tests on one monkey, performed before he was euthanized early this year, showed a far greater degree of cortical reorganization following the nerve damage than had been anticipated. The custody of these monkeys has been the cause of ongoing battles between animal activists and health authorities since 1981 when police seized the animals from the Silver Spring, Maryland, laboratory of researcher Edward Taub.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife has formally declared that the northern spotted owl (STRIX OCCIDENTALIS CAURINA) is a threatened species and that continued cutting of old-growth forests at present rates is placing the species in jeopardy. Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act prohibits federal agencies from doing this, and most of the cutting is on national forests. The Fish and Wildlife study estimates that logging in 17 national forests in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California must be reduced by at least 50 percent. This would be one of the biggest land protection measures ever for a single species. According to a federal estimate this could cost up to 28,000 timber jobs in the next ten years. At the same time the economy in the Northwest is adding more than 120,000 jobs each year, and logging accounts for only 2 percent of employment in Washington and 6 percent in Oregon. The logging industry in recent years has had record harvests, record profits, and record exports, although many jobs have been lost due to automation.
About 25 percent of all trees cut in the Northwest last year were shipped overseas; these logs come from private or state lands. Exports are already outlawed from federal forests and a bill that prohibits log exports from state lands is in the final phases of consideration in Congress and is expected to pass. Up to 90 percent of the old growth of the Pacific Northwest has already been cut, and these jobs would be lost in twenty years even without the owl. About 3,000 pairs of owls remain. For books and articles on the subject, see earlier.
Although the spotted owl is now under the protection of the Endangered Species Act, this does not protect the owl as much as one would hope. The Bush Administration has announced its plans to save the owl by saving 450 pairs of owls, but it is also a plan that cuts back logging activities by less than 10%. In the long run many think that this will have a serious negative impact on the survival of these owls. Environmentalists contend that Bush's plan will allow so much logging in the next two years that little room will be left to carry out any of the long-term plans that are agreed upon.
Former Attorney General Edwin Meese III has called for radical revision of the Endangered Species Act. "The Endangered Species Act should be amended so that human welfare ordinarily is preferred to the welfare of lesser species. ... Frequently, tens of thousands of jobs are at stake, illustrated by the timber cutting curtailed by listing the spotted owl as a threatened species. Workers should not be insouciantly sacrificed for a handful of lyrical worshippers of pristine life who obtain visual delight from an occasion glimpse of the owl. ... Why should the nation shield endangered or threatened species EN BLOC from such valuable federal activities as the sale of timber, or of oil and gas leasing, or the licensing of hydroelectric projects. ... Much of contemporary environmentalism is nothing but nonsense on stilts." Bruce Fein and Edwin Meese III, "Endangering a Species-- Our Own," LOS ANGELES TIMES, 30 July 1990.
Senator Mark Hatfield (Oregon) and Representatives Les AuCoin and Bob Smith (Oregon) and Sid Morrison (Washington) have introduced legislation in the U.S. Congress that would override the Endangered Species Act, the National Forest Management Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act to maintain high levels of cutting. The legislation would also reduce the legal rights of citizens to challenge actions by federal agencies that threaten these forests.
Representative Jim Jontz (Indiana) has introduced H. R. 4492, the Ancient Forests Protection Act, a bill with over 120 co-sponsors. This bill would temporarily halt logging of all "ecologically significant" ancient forests on federal land until scientists chosen by the President's Council on Environmental Quality can decide how much, if any, can be logged sustainably without harming other values, such as endangered species. In addition, there are another half dozen relevant bills before Congress.
The Animal Damage Control Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, operates under a $ 45 million budget "to promulgate the best methods of eradication, suppression or control" of the nations predatory and other wild animals and to "conduct campaigns for the destruction or control of such animals" (as authorized by the 1931 Act, still in effect). The national unit refuses to release a summary of kills, but information is often available at the state level. In 1988, in 35 states, the mortality count for mammals was 140,246. Included were 76,033 coyotes, 9,143 beaver, 5,195 foxes, 1,163 bobcats, 289 bear, and 203 mountain lions. If birds are included, the total kill was almost 4.6 million animals. Much of the predator kill is on public lands at public expense to protect livestock. According to recent estimates by the GAO, today's ranchers on federal land pay only one fifth of market value for the forage consumed by their cattle and sheep. The public lands of the West produce only about 2 percent of the US beef supply, and states such as Iowa, Nebraska, or Missouri produce more beef than all of the public lands combined. Of particular concern recently is the lion kill. Grizzlies and wolves were decimated much earlier, but lions will not eat carrion and thus are difficult to poison. Their principal prey is deer, available in large numbers. They thus have survived as the only big predator remaining in many rural and wildland ecosystems. From January through April, The Animal Damage Control Division killed 13 lions on one ranch alone in Arizona, an unprecedented kill. Story in CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, July 12, 1990.
Global warming dissenters have been put down. After about a year of dissent by a minority, often featured in the media, an international panel assessing greenhouse warming has pointedly denied the validity of objections being raised. A report produced by a working group of the International Panel on Climate Change is being discussed at a major international meeting in October that hopes to provide governments with options for responding to greenhouse warming. There is virtual unanimity, the report says, among greenhouse experts that a warming is on the way and that the consequences will be serious. Things still look pretty grim in the greenhouse world of the not so distant future. The warming will likely be large enough to have socially significant effects, though estimates still range from moderate but significant to just short of catastrophic. The driving force for greenhouse warming (CO2 emissions) is rapidly accelerating. The warming of the past century is real, though detection of greenhouse warming with high confidence will likely require a decade or more of waiting. See story in SCIENCE, August 3, 1990. For an earlier story emphasizing the dissent, see TIME, April 30, 1990.
In two strongly worded memos, U. S. Forest Service Supervisors have told the Federal Chief F. Dale Robertson that the present management of the service is out of touch with the values of the public and the values of many of its own employees. The statements were prepared November 14-16, 1989.
Region One Supervisors (13 national forests in Montana, northern Idaho, North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota) expressed "a growing concern that we have become `an organization out of control.'" "We have become a dysfunctional Forest Service Family." "We are not meeting the quality land management expectations of our public and our employees."
In a longer statement, 65 forest supervisors in Regions 1, 2, 3, and 4 (essentially the Rocky Mountain West and Southwest, Utah, and Nevada, and the high plains states) complained that "The emphasis of national forest programs does not reflect the land stewardship values embodied in forest plans, Forest Service employees and the public." "Public values and personal values of Forest Service employees, including forest supervisors, are changing." "Employees and the public are dissatisfied with the quality of today's resource management. They strongly support our mission statement, but they do not believe we are living it." "Many members of the public and many of our employees no longer view us as leaders in environmental conservation. Past and present forest practices do not meet the high quality land management expectations of the public and our employees. For example--clearcutting, riparian management, water quality and a large percept of western rangelands are in poor condition after 80 years of management." The supervisors urged the chief to "develop a strategy to become well known leaders in environmental conservation," and "to lead the effort to develop the Administration's environmental program."
In a third statement, the Forest Supervisors of Regions 5, 6, and 10 (California, the Pacific Northwest, and Alaska) said, "Confusion about our philosophy is undermining the corporate climate and public perceptions. We continue to work on short-term fixes to get us through another crisis--to keep `getting out the cut,' but the land and our employees are showing the pressure. `Caring for the Land' needs strong advocacy from all of us. ... We must have a more even budget/program mix between commodity and non-commodity values."
These internal Forest Service memos received national attention on the ABC-TV news show "Prime Time Live," which broadcast a feature on the old-growth timber controversy, on January 5, 1990.
The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A) has now being ratified by the presbyteries a brief statement of faith (80 lines), which contains the following:
"We rebel against God; we hide from our Creator.
Ignoring God's commandments,
we violate the image of God in others and ourselves,
accept lies as truth,
exploit neighbor and nature,
and threaten death to the planet entrusted to our care.
We deserve God's condemnation.
Yet God acts with justice and mercy to redeem creation."
The statement is expected to be ratified and will be the most
recent in the Presbyterian Book of Confessions.
Mollusks (mussels, snails, clams, oysters) are showing an alarming decline, with pollution named as the main culprit. Overuse of fertilizers, pesticides, sloppy sewage plants, deforestation, erosion, and other contaminants have contributed to the die off. Of 225 species of native mollusks in North America, 38 are listed as endangered or threatened by the Fish and Wildlife Service. Mollusk specialists insist that another 50 ought to be listed. Twelve are extinct. In result, about 45 percent of native species are either extinct or of concern. Mollusks are critical for keeping rivers clean and serve as food for fish, raccoons, otters, muskrats, and other animals.
"Eco-Kamikazes Wanted." An article appeared under this title in the September 22, 1989 EARTH FIRST! JOURNAL. "Are you terminally ill with a wasting disease? Do you have AIDS, ALS, brain cancer, or syphilis? Don't go out with a whimper; go out with a bang! Undertake an eco-kamikaze mission. ... A 'hit list' is available upon discreet inquiry."
Recent and Upcoming Events
--July 20-21. "The Meaning of Water," held on Cape Cod, sponsored by the Center for the Protection and Restoration of Waters. Keynote address, "All Life is Animated by Water," by Vladimir Vernadsky. Other participants: Wes Jackson, Lynn Margulis, David Orr, William I. Thompson, John Todd, Nancy Jack Todd, and numerous others. Topics: Water and Gaia, Water in Cities, Water from Space, Water and Politics, Restoration of Water, Water in Esoteric Traditions. Contact the Center at Ocean Arks International, One Locust Street, Falmouth, MA 02540. Phone 508/540-6801. See earlier for more on Ocean Arks International.
--July 30-Aug 3. "Conservation Biology and Wyoming's Endangered Species" at Grand Teton National Park. Contact Donn Kesselheim, Wyoming Outdoor Council, 201 Main Street, Lander, WY 82520. Phone 307/332-7031.
--August 16-21. Conference on Environmental Ethics and Sustainable Development, at Estes Park, Colorado. Participants included Baird Callicott, Frances Moore Lappe, Bryan Norton, Jack Weir, Max Oelschlaeger, Pete A. Y. Gunter, Holmes Rolston. Contact Pete A. Y. Gunter, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-3496.
--August 25. Breaking Down the Barriers to Participation of Women in Angling and Hunting. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources. Contact: Dana Nelson 715/346-3717.
--August 30-September 1. "Ethics and Environmental Politics," First International Conference, at Borca di Cadore, Italy. Borca di Cadore is a village and conference site near Padova. Three featured addresses were: Franz Bockle, Moral Theology, University of Bonn, "Environmental Ethics: Philosophical and Theological Foundations"; Sebastiano Maffettone, Professor of Political Philosophy, University of Palermo, "Ethics in Environmental Policy-Making"; and Kenneth E. Boulding, University of Colorado, Emeritus, "Environmental Ethics and the Earth Economic Systems."
Others lectures were by Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Philosophy, University of South Florida, Antonio Autiero, Moral Theology, University of Bonn, and Laura Westra, Philosophy, University of Windsor. Professor Giorgio Ruffolo, the Italian Minister for Environment, took part in the conference. Contact: Dr. Corrado Poli, Fondazione Lanza, via Dante, 55, 35139 Padova, Italy. Phone (49) 34034. A North American contact is Dr. Peter Timmerman, the Secretariat, Human Dimensions of Global Change Programme, IFIAS, 39 Spadina Road, Toronto, Canada M5R 2S9. Phone 416/926-7570.
--September 11-14, "Spirit and Nature," a symposium at Middlebury College, Vermont, J. Ronald Engel of Meadville/Lombard Theological School spoke on "Liberal Democracy and the Fate of the Earth. Also on the program were Sallie McFague, Vanderbilt Divinity School, and the Dalai Lama.
--September 21-23. Andrew Brennan and Hans Peter Durr symposium on environmental ethics at the British Society for the Philosophy of Science, Wolfson College, Cambridge. See details earlier.
--September 23-28. Valuing Natural Resources, a conference at the Banff Centre for Management, Banff, Alberta. Contact Program Coordinator, Resource Management, The Banff Centre for Management, Box 1020, Banff, Alberta T0L 0C0, Canada. Phone 403/ 762-6327.
--September 29. Conference including papers on "Evil in the Non- Human World" and "Effects of the Fall," sponsored by Christians in Science. London, England. Contact Conference officer, Christians in Science, 38 de Montifort Street, Leicester LE1 7GP, England.
--October 4-5. "Contemporary Christian Approaches to Animal Well- Being," conference at Duke Divinity School, Durham, N.C. Plenary presentations by Stanley Hauerwas, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Andrew Linzey. For information contact Jay MacDaniel, Department of Religion, Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas 72032. Phone 501/450-1366.
--October 5-7. Fourth International Conference of the Biopolitics International Organization, Athens Greece. The theme is environmental education and the establishment of an International University for the Bio-Environment. Further information from Dr. Arvanitis, 10 Tim. Vassou St., GR 115 21, Athens, Greece.
--October 5-7. New Jersey School of Conservation, Montclair State College, Fall Environmental Education Workshop, for teachers and interpretive naturalists. Address: RD # 2, Box 272, Branchville, NJ 07826.
--October 7-13. Forest '90. First International Symposium on Environmental Studies on Tropical Rain Forests, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Contact: Dra. Marlene Brilhante Motta, Admin. Sec., Organizing Committee--Forest '90, P. O. Box 3591, 20001 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Fax: 55-21-252-9269.
--October 13-19. Conference on "Natural Areas and Yosemite: Prospects for the Future," at Yosemite National Park and the Sheraton Hotel and Conference Center, Concord, California. Papers are invited. A keynote is address is by Gilbert Grosvenor, President of the National Geographic Society. The conference is part of the Yosemite Centennial Celebration, and includes six plenary sessions with prominent speakers, as well as field trips to a number of San Francisco Bay natural areas. Contact The Yosemite Fund, 155 Montgomery Street, # 1104, San Francisco, CA 94104 or Coordinator, NA/Yosemite Centennial Symposium, CGNRA, Fort Mason Bldg. 201, San Francisco, CA 94123.
--October 16-18. Managing Wildlife in the Southwest--A Symposium. University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ. Contact: Drs. Paul R. Krausman and Norman S. Smith, Division of Wildlife, 325 Biological Sciences E. Building, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85271. Phone 602/621-3845.
--October 19-21. "Earth and Spirit," addressing the spiritual dimensions of the environmental crisis. An international conference sponsored by the Chinook Learning Center at Seattle, Washington. Conference presenters include Thomas Berry. Contact Chinook Learning Center, Box 57, Clinton, WA 98236. Phone 206/321-1884.
--October 22-25. "Biodiversity and Landscapes: Human Challenges for Conservation in the Changing World," a conference sponsored at Pennsylvania State University featuring a diverse group of wildlife professionals, economists, sociologists, artists, ecologists, paleontologists, engineers, and including philosophers Eugene Hargrove, Bryan Norton, Holmes Rolston, George Sessions, and Carl Mitcham. Contact Deb Hagar, Event Coordinator, Biodiversity and Landscapes, Center for Biodiversity Research, Environmental Resources Research Institute, 117 Land and Water Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Phone 814/863-0050.
--November 8-11. International Environmental Ethics Conference for Nature Interpreters. Conservation Education Center, Springbrook State Park, RR # 1, Box 53, Guthrie Center, Iowa, 50115. Phone 515/747-8383. Speakers include Margot Alder, National Public Radio; Anne Cederberg, nature interpreter; Mark Edwards, trails coordinator for Iowa Department of Natural Resources; Eugene Hargrove, editor of ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS; Clifford Knapp, environmental education at Northern Illinois University; Bruce Lupfer, National Park Service; Wayne Ouderkirk, Empire State College; Phil Pister, California Fish and Game; Karen Warren, philosophy, Macalaster College; and Danielle Wirth, environmental educational specialist with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Contact Danielle Wirth at the address above, or Eugene Hargrove, Department of Philosophy, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 13496, Denton, TX 76203-3496.
--November 11-14. "National Symposium on Urban Wildlife," Stouffer Five Seasons Hotel, Cedar Rapids, IA. Contact: Dr. Lowell Adams, National Institute for Urban Wildlife, 10921 Trotting Ridge Way, Columbia, MD 21044.
--December 27-30. ISEE annual meeting and session at the American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division, Boston, MA. See details earlier.
--February 1991. World Council of Churches conference at Canberra, Australia, on the theme, "Come Holy Spirit, Renew Creation."
--February 14-19, 1991. ISEE session at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D. C. See details earlier.
--February 20-22, 1991. National Research and Development Conference on the Control of Hazardous Materials. Disneyland Hotel, Anaheim, CA. Contact: HMC-R&D, ANAHEIM, 9300 Columbia Boulevard, Silver Spring, MD 20910-1702. Phone 301/587-9390. Discussions of risk assessment, evaluation, and ethical issues are included.
--February 28-March 3, 1991. American Society of Environmental History Conference, "The Environment and the Mechanized World," University of Houston, Texas. Contact Martin V. Melosi, Department of History, University of Houston, TX 77204-3785. Phone 713/749-2967.
--March 23, 1991, "Ethics and the Environment," one-day conference at University of Wales, College of Cardiff, sponsored by the Centre for Applied Ethics. In addition to speakers from Cardiff, Keekok Lee from Manchester will speak, as well as Heta Hayry and Matti Hayry from Helsinki. Contact Robin Attfield, Philosophy Section, School of English Studies, Journalism and Philosophy, University of Wales, P. O. Box 94, Cardiff CF1 3XE. Fax (0222) 371921. Phone (0222) 874025.
--March 28-30, 1991. ISEE session at the Pacific Division, APA, in the San Francisco Bay area. See details above.
--March 12-15, 1991. Biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains. A Symposium at Colorado State University, sponsored by College of Forestry and Natural Resources, CSU, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. D. A. Forest Service, National Park Service, the Nature Conservancy, and the Audubon Society. The symposium will feature several prominent keynote speakers, multiple paper sessions, and other media presentations. A call for papers has been issued. Contact for paper abstract submission: Fritz L. Knopf, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Ecology Research Center, 4512 McMurray Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525. If interested in an ISEE panel at this symposium, contact Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, CSU, Fort Collins, CO 80523. For early registration, contact Biodiversity Symposium, Office of Conference Services, Colorado Sate University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
--March 14-16, 1991. "Ecological Prospects: Theory and Practice," The Fifth Annual Casassa Conference, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles. Speakers include Patricia C. Wright, Department of Anthropology, Duke University, founder of a preserve in Madagascar, MacArthur Fellow; Daniel B. Botkin, Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, author of DISCORDANT HARMONIES: A NEW ECOLOGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Oxford, 1990); Alfred W. Crosby, Department of American Studies and American Civilization Programs at the University of Texas, author of ECOLOGICAL IMPERIALISM: THE BIOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF EUROPE, 900-1900. Proposals for papers are invited. Contact: Christopher Chapple, Director, Casassa Conference, Loyola Marymont University, Los Angeles, CA 90045. Phone 213/338-7670 or 213/338-2907.
--March 26-27, 1991. Conference: "Practicing Stewardship and Living a Land Ethic," at Harrisburg, Pa, sponsored by Pennsylvania State University. Contact Professor Stephen Jones, Department of Forestry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
--March 22-26, 1991. 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Edmundton, Alberta. Contact: L. L. Williamson, Wildlife Management Institute, 1101 14th St., N. W., Suite 725, Washington, DC 20005. Phone 202/371-1808.
--April 4-7, 1991. 5th Australian Ecopolitics Conference, University of New South Wales, Sydney. See details earlier.
--April 8-10, 1991. Issues and Technology in the Management of Impacted Wildlife, Snowmass Village, Aspen, Colorado. A call for papers has been issued. Contact Susan Q. Foster, Thorne Ecological Institute, 5398 Manhattan Circle, Boulder, CO 80303. Phone 303/499-3647.
--April 27-30, 1991. ISEE session at the Central Division, APA, in Chicago. See details above.
--May 10-12, 1991. "Earth Ethics Forum `91: Green Visions and Pathways for the 3rd Millennium" to be held at Saint Leo College, Saint Leo (North Tampa), Florida. A call has been issued for papers in environmental ethics relating to philosophy, religion, education, sociology, economics, business, and Third World development. Contact Saint Leo College, Department of Religious Studies, P. O. Box 2127, Saint Leo, FL 33574-2127. Phone 813/397- 9042. Or: Earth Ethics Forum '91, Earth Ethics Research Group, Inc., 13938 85 Terrace North, Seminole, FL 34646. Phone 813/397- 9042.
--May 14-19, 1991. International Conference on Science and the Management of Protected Areas. Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. A call for papers has been issued. Contact Neil Munro, Director, Policy Planning and Research, Canadian Parks Service, Atlantic Region, Environment Canada, Historic Properties, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 1S9.
--June 9-14, 1991. "Human Responsibility and Global Change," International Conference on Human Ecology, at Goteborg, Sweden. Sponsored by the University of Goteborg, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and others. Contact Maj-Lis Foller, Department of Human Ecology, University of Goteborg, Viktoriagatan 13, S-411 25 Goteborg, Sweden. Phone +46 (31) 631310.
--July 12-14, 1991. Environmental Ethics Curricula Development Workship, Denton, Texas. See details earlier.
--July 21-25, 1991. World Conference of Philosophy, Nairobi, Kenya, on "Philosophy, Man and the Environment." See more detailed announcement earlier.
--September 27-29, 1991. Conference on "Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life," at Colorado State University. Contact Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. Phone 303/491-6315.
--October 1991. Henryk Skolimowski conference at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, Poland. See details earlier.
--May 17-20, 1992. Fourth North American Symposium on Social Science in Resource Management, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Contact: Donald R. Field, School of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, 1450 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706.
--June 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to be held in Brazil.