Volume 12, No. 3, Fall 2001
ISEE Membership Renewal. It is now possible to become a member or renew memberships from the membership page of the ISEE website at http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html using a credit card. Don't miss out on the benefits of membershiprenew now!
ISEE Group Sessions at the APA Eastern Division meeting, in Atlanta 2001.
* Session One. Garret Hardin in Perspective. Stephen M. Gardiner (University of Canterbury, New Zealand), "The Real Tragedy of the Commons: Why Hardin's Conclusions Are More Plausible Than His Arguments." Martino Traxler (Agnes Scott College), "A Travesty of the Commons: Argumentum ad Hardinem. Commentator: Margaret Holmgren (Iowa State University). Session Chair: Michael Nelson (University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point).
* Session Two. Author Meets Critics: In Nature's Interests?
Interests, Animal Rights,
and Environmental Ethics, by Gary Varner. Commentators: Robert Elliot (University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia), "Priorities Among Interests: An Assessment." Elinor J. Mason (University of Colorado, Boulder) "Rights and Interests." Respondent: Gary Varner (Texas A&M University). Session Chair: Piers Stephens (University of Liverpool, UK).
ISEE Group Sessions at the APA Pacific Division meeting, in Seattle 2002.
* Session One. Author Meets Critics: Nicholas Agar, Life's Intrinsic Value: Science, Ethics, and Nature. Commentators: Gary Varner (Texas A&M University), Kevin DeLaplante, (Iowa State University), James Sterba, (University of Notre Dame), Christopher Preston (University of South Carolina). Respondent: Nicholas Agar (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand). Session Chair: Daniel Holbrook (Washington State University).
* Session Two. Author Meets Critics: David Strohmaier, The Seasons of Fire: Reflections on Fire in the West. Commentators: Peter List (Oregon State University), Peter Morrison (Pacific Biodiversity Institute), Deborah Slicer (University of Montana), Daniel Holbrook (Washington State University). Respondent: David Strohmaier (USDA Forest Service). Session Chair: Gary Varner (Texas A&M University).
ISEE Group Sessions at the APA Central Division meeting, in Chicago 2002.
* Session One. Author Meets Critics: Karen Warren, Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It Is and Why It Matters. Commentators: Martha Nussbaum (University of Chicago), Louke Van Wensveen (Loyola/Marymount University), Geoffrey Frasz (Community College of Southern Nevada). Respondent: Karen Warren (Macalester College). Session Chair: Peter Miller (University of Winnipeg).
* Session Two. The Earth Charter and Environmental Ethics. "Valuing Integrity: the Earth Charter and Environmental Ethics," Peter Miller, (University of Winnipeg). "Global Justice, Ecofeminism and the Earth Charter," Victoria Davion (University of Georgia). "Nurturing The Earth as a Moral Imperative," Ruth Lucier (Bennett College, North Carolina). Session Chair: Laura Westra (Osgood Hall Law School).
The International Association for Environmental Philosophy held its 5th annual meeting at Goucher College, Baltimore, October 6-8, 2001. Mark Sagoff (University of Maryland) gave the keynote talk, "Four Concepts of the Natural." Other sessions:
* Environmental Workshop: Posing the ProblemSuburban Sprawl in Greater Baltimore. Robert Kirkman (Michigan State) and Irene Klaver (North Texas).
* Environmental Issues in Deleuze and Heidegger. "On Movement: Darwin and Deleuze Towards an Ethico-Poetics," Sherry Brennan (Penn State). "Questioning Heidegger's Analysis of Technology," Lawrence Schmidt (Hendrix College). "The Ontological Foundations of Environmental Ethics," Chris Latiolais (Kalamazoo College).
* Politics / Ethics / Education. "Habermas' Discourse Ethics: An Untapped Potential," W.S.K. Cameron (Loyola Marymount). "The Moral Poverty of Education as Simulation," Kathryn Wayne (Western Washington). "Anarchism, Ecology, Education: Reading the Work of Mikhail Bakunin," Rebecca Matusewicz (Eastern Michigan). "ReLanguaging Speciesism: Extending Cheney's Postmodern Environmental Ethics," Cathy Glenn (Southern Illinois).
* Elements of Environmental Philosophy. "The Elements and Environmental Philosophy: From Empedocles' Rhizomata to Bachelard's Reveries," David Macauley (Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology). "Drinking Sun Melted Snow by Moonlight," James Hatley (Salisbury State). "The Return of the Wild When Wilderness Has Gone," Diane Michelfelder (Utah State).
* Multi-Planetary Ethics. "Earthbody Ethics," Glenn Mazis (Soka University). "Earth Cop Performative: Collapsing Binaries in Human-Environment Relations Through Activist Performance," Jonathan Gray (Southern Illinois).
* Roundtable Discussion. "Liminal Nature." Edward
Casey (SUNY/Stonybrook), Irene Klaver (North Texas) and David
* Givenness, Defilement, Transformation. "Nature's Other Side: Aesthetico-Theology and the Phenomenology of Givenness," Bruce Foltz (Eckerd). "Earth as Sacred Site: The Breaking of Defilement," Edward Mooney (Sonoma State). "Perception, Incarnation, and Transformation: Sacred Images of Human Corporeality (Michael Zimmerman (Tulane).
* Back to Basics. "Sacred Nature, Holy Earth, Whole Thinking," Gail Stenstad (East Tennessee State). "Dwelling in the Holy: Dolores LaChapelle on the Sacred," Kenneth Maly (Wisconsin/Lacrosse). "Paleolithic Cave Art: An Inquiry into the Origins of the Sacred," Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (Oregon).
The Trumpeter is now hosting and archiving Ecopsychology On-Line, a journal established by Theodore Roszak at California State University at Hayward. From 1996 to 1998, six issues of Ecopsychology On-Line were produced, outlining the principles behind ecopsychology and containing much of the early research and literature on the subject. The journal was the research outlet for the Ecopsychology Institute. Apart from this important literature, the site contains some very striking artwork. You can see all issues of Ecopsychology On-Line by clicking the button on the Trumpeter home page--http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca/.
Teaching Environmental Ethics. The ISEE newsletter solicits submissions on teaching environmental ethics, one of our most important professional responsibilities. Which readings, textbooks, videos work for you, and which don't? What topics do you cover in class? How do you link theoretical to practical issues? Does your class include a "service learning" or activist component? What is the best way to bring environmental ethics into intro ethics classes? Please submit short pieces, a few paragraphs to a few pages, to newsletter editor Phil Cafaro.
Schumacher College, now in its 10th year, has established itself as an international center of excellence in ecological studies, attracting some of the world's leading ecological thinkers, writers, innovators and designers. For details on their programs see their website at http://www.gn.apc.org/schumachercollege/ Courses for 2001/2002 are as follows:
* Belonging: Finding Our Place in a the World, instructors Patsy Hallen, Stephan Harding and David Abram, October 7-26, 2001.
* Farming for Better Food: Solutions to the Global Crisis in Agriculture, Mark Ritchie, Jules Pretty and Tim Lang, November 4-23.
* Digital Future? Information Technology and the Earth, Chet Bowers, Langdon Winner, January 6-25, 2002.
* Exploring Globalisation, Ann Pettifor, Tariq Banuri and Wolfgang Sachs, Feb. 3-22.
* Science with New Eyes: Science and the Nature of Life, Chris
Clarke, Rupert Sheldrake, Arthus Zajonc and Brian Goodwin, March
* The Roots of Learning: Schools, Land and Food, Prue Leith, Sue Clifford and Mary Tasker, March 23-28.
* Where Earth and Soul Touch: A Journey in Ecopsychology, John Seed, Ruth Rosenhek and Mary-Jayne Rust, April 14-May 3.
* Living Off The Sun: Building a Sustainable Energy Future, Godfrey Boyle, Peter Harper and Dave Elliott, May 12-24.
* Ecological Design, David Orr and John and Nancy Jack Todd,
* Life, Mind and Society, Fritjof Capra, June 30-July 19.
Schumacher College also offers occasional courses in Business and Sustainability; check their website for dates and instructors.
Syllabi Available. A website with course syllabi in religion
and ecology is:
http://www.environment.harvard.edu/religion/education/Syllabi/home.html> This site is maintained by the Harvard Forum on Religion and Ecology and contains about two dozen syllabi. (Thanks to Richard Foltz, University of Florida.)
The John Ray Initiative is an educational charity in the United Kingdom with a vision to bring together scientific and Christian understandings of the environment in a way that can be widely communicated and lead to effective action. The John Ray Initiative, QW212, Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education, Francis Close Hall, Swindon Road, Cheltenham GL50 4AZ. Website: http://www.jri.org.uk. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Phone 012 4254 3580.
Latin American or Latino/a Environmental Philosophy Position. University of North Texas, Denton, TX. The Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies seeks a tenure-track assistant professor or a tenured associate professor (Ph.D. in philosophy, religion studies, or related field required) beginning academic year 2002-2003. AOS: Environmental Ethics in Latin America or Latino/a Environmental Issues. AOC in one or more of the following: Environmental Justice, Human Rights, History of Philosophy or History of Religion, Ecology and Religion, Indigenous Studies, Latin American Philosophy. Fluency in English and Spanish (reading, writing, speaking) required. Responsibilities include 4 to 5 courses per academic year, research in areas of expertise, and occasional service on departmental, college, and university committees. Some teaching experience and publications desirable at the assistant professor level. Excellence in scholarship and teaching required at the associate professor level. UNT offers an undergraduate interdisciplinary minor in religion studies, a B.A. in philosophy, and an M.A. in philosophy with a concentration in environmental ethics. The university is located in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. See our website at http://www.phil.unt.edu. Please send letter of application, C.V., and letters of reference to Eugene C. Hargrove, Chair, Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 310920, Denton, TX 76201-0920. Interviews are planned for the November 2001 meeting of the American Academy of Religion and for the Eastern Division APA meeting in December 2001. Inquiries are welcome at 940-565-2266 or email@example.com. UNT is an AA/ADA/EOE committed to diversity.
Environmental Justice Position.
University of North Texas, Denton, TX. The Department of Philosophy
and Religion Studies seeks a tenured associate or full professor
(Ph.D. in philosophy or religion studies required) beginning academic
year 2002-2003. AOS: Environmental Justice and African-American
Philosophy or African-American Religion. AOC: Environmental Philosophy
or Religion and Ecology, Social and Political Philosophy, History
of Philosophy or History of Religion. Responsibilities include
4 to 5 courses per academic year, research in areas of expertise,
and occasional service on departmental, college, and university
committees. Excellence in scholarship and teaching required. UNT
offers an undergraduate interdisciplinary minor in religion studies,
a B.A. in philosophy, and an M.A. in philosophy with a concentration
in environmental ethics. The university is located in the Dallas-Fort
Worth metroplex. See our website at http://www.phil.unt.edu. Please
send letter of application, C.V., and letters of reference to
Eugene C. Hargrove, Chair, Department of Philosophy and Religion
Studies, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 310920, Denton, TX
76201-0920. Interviews are planned for the November 2001 meeting
of the American Academy of Religion and for the Eastern Division
APA meeting in December 2001. Inquiries are welcome at 940-565-2266
or firstname.lastname@example.org. UNT
is an AA/ADA/EOE committed to diversity.
The University of Florida, Department of Religion, invites nominations and applications for the Samuel S. Hill Chair in Christian Ethics. We seek an advanced Associate or Full Professor to teach undergraduate and graduate courses, contribute to the continued growth of the department, build links across the university, and strengthen the cultural, and research endeavors. Candidates should have a background in the history of Christian thought and engagement with contemporary issues and comparative perspectives. Concentration may be in any area of ethics, though we are especially interested in environmental ethics; other desirable specializations include economics, gender, and/or race. The University of Florida is a major research university with approximately 45,000 students. The Department of Religion is launching a new Ph.D. program, with a strong interdisciplinary emphasis, to complement our B.A. and M.A. programs. The position begins August 2002. Minimum qualifications include a distinguished publication record, substantial teaching experience, an earned doctorate or its equivalent, and the ability to contribute to the intellectual life of the department. Applicants should send a statement of research and teaching interests, CV, and contact information for two referees to Professor Anna L. Peterson, Department of Religion, 107 Anderson Hall, P.O. Box 117410, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7410. Nominators should send a letter of nomination and contact information for the nominee, along with available supporting materials. The deadline for applications and nominations is November 1, 2001.
New Directions in the Earth Sciences and the Humanities--Interdisciplinary Team Projects. The New Directions Initiative will award six grants of up to 10,000 dollars per team, contingent upon matching support by the team's home (or other) institution, for a total of up to 20,000 dollars, to six interdisciplinary teams engaged in case-based projects across the Earth/environmental sciences and the humanities. The goal of this competition is to support "experiments in interdisciplinarity"--to test the thesis that the integration of a humanities perspective with scientific information will lead to more effective and meaningful approaches to environmental challenges. Proposals are welcome across a wide spectrum of disciplines. For further information about the overall goals of NDI, see www.mines.edu/newdirections. For information on how to apply, contact New Directions Interdisciplinary Team Competition, Office of Special Programs and Continuing Education (SPACE), Colorado School of Mines, CSM Annex, 1600 Arapahoe, Golden, CO 80401. Proposals are due by January 15, 2002.
CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS
ISEE Group Sessions. Proposals are invited for individual papers or group sessions for the APA Western, Central and Eastern Division meetings. For the Western, contact ISEE newsletter editor Phil Cafaro, acting for ISEE treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. For the Central, contact the ISEE secretary, to be elected at the end of this year. For the Eastern, contact ISEE Vice-President Dale Jamieson. Addresses at the end of the newsletter. The deadline for proposals is September 1 for the Western and Central, March 1 for the Eastern.
The Trumpeter has two special issues in the works; an issue with the theme "Applying Environmental Ethics" guest edited by Annie Booth at email@example.com and a special "Education" issue guest edited by William Scott at firstname.lastname@example.org> and Andrew Stables at email@example.com. Contact them with suggestions and submissions. The editors are also looking for good articles that apply to the deep ecology movement. Generally, they'd like research papers that have not been previously published, but also want to include narratives, opinion pieces, poetry, and artwork. If you'd like to submit, please contact Bruce Morito at firstname.lastname@example.org or John Ollerenshaw email@example.com or.
Biotechnology and Environmental Justice Ethics & the Environment invites
submissions that address any area of biotechnology as it relates
to environmental justice. Send abstracts by January 31, 2002
to special issue editor Lori Gruen, Department of Philosophy,
Wesleyan University, Middleton, CT 06459. Or email Lgruen@wesleyan.edu>
Topics might include:
* Who should control the evolution of biotechnology and who should benefit from biotechnology? Should efforts be made to benefit the least well-off first and most?
* What are the consequences of biotechnologies in terms of health, the environment, social justice, and democracy?
* What are the ethical and/or political strategies for analyzing the plural and conflicting values associated with biotechnology and for resolving conflicts?
* How far is it reasonable/acceptable/legitimate to go in genetically modifying organism? What are the normative differences, if any, between genetically modifying plants, genetically modifying nonhuman animals, and genetically modifying humans? Should there be limits and if so, what justifies those limits?
* Should individuals who can afford it be permitted to develop biotechnologies of their choice? Are there ethical, political, social limits to personal uses of biotechnology? When, if ever, is the government justifies in intervening with the private pursuit of biotechnological ends?
* What sort of reconceptualization of our relationships to each other, to other animals, and to the natural world does biotechnology require and what are the advantages and disadvantages of this reconceptualization?
* What is the moral importance of public education and participation in decision making about these technologies?
Art, Nature, and Social Critique. Ethics & the Environment
invites philosophical writing on environmental ethics and
art, especially art that critically engages the ethics and politics
of human relations with nature, especially from the perspective
of socially-aware environmentalisms. For this special issue, the
editors invite articles in a wide range of topics, including:
the relationships between environmental ethics and aesthetics,
politics and art; how conceptions of nature are embedded in artforms;
art as a form of eco/political moral education and communication;
ecofeminist art and aesthetics; eco-music ; eco-art and community
activism. Each submission should include no more than two images
for consideration. Send submissions of no more than 7,500 words
by January 15, 2002 to: Chris Cuomo, Associate Professor of Philosophy,
ML 374, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221. Please feel free to e-mail questions or ideas to firstname.lastname@example.org>
Environmental Aesthetics. The 2nd Utah State University Colloquium on Environmental Aesthetics solicits submissions. The conference will take place September 27-29 in the Eccles Conference Center at Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Keynote speakers will include J. Baird Callicott (University of North Texas), Karsten Harries (Yale University) and Allen Carlson (University of Alberta). Submissions are welcome on any aspect of environmental aesthetics. Papers are preferred, but abstracts will be accepted. Papers should not exceed 30 minutes reading time and should include an abstract. The deadline for submissions is April 1, 2002. Please send two copies of paper and/or abstract to Professor Diane Michelfelder, Department Head, Department of Languages and Philosophy, 0720 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-0720. Phone: 435-797-2889. Fax: 435-797-1329. Email: email@example.com>
Society for Conservation Biology scientific committee invites proposals
for symposia for the 2002 conference in Canterbury, UK. Symposia
will either be related to the meeting theme or address newly emerging
topics Proposals should be as brief as possible and include (1)
a one-page outline, including the title, whether 2 or 3.5 hours,
goal or purpose, and explanation of why the topic is appropriate
and significant for an SCB symposium, (2) tentative list of speakers,
presentations titles, and whether they have agreed to participate,
and (3) complete contact information for the organisers.
Proposals for workshops and organised discussions are also invited. All proposals should be submitted by 15 October 2001 to Andrew Pullin (via e-mail) at the address below. The scientific committee will complete the selections of symposia, workshops, and discussions for inclusion at this meeting by 15 November 2000. For more information about symposia, workshops or discussions, contact: Andrew S. Pullin firstname.lastname@example.org> For other information contact: Nigel Leader-Williams <email@example.com>
Call to Earth, the journal of the International Association for Environmental Philosophy, seeks submissions. Deadlines for submissions are January 1 and June 1. Essays 2400 words or less; book reviews 700 words or less. The journal embraces a broad understanding of environmental philosophy, including not only environmental ethics but also environmental aesthetics, ontology, theology, philosophy of science, ecofeminism, and the philosophy of technology. We welcome a diversity of approaches to environmental issues, including the schools of Continental Philosophy, studies in the history of philosophy and the tradition of American philosophy. Please send submissions in the United States to: Professor Kenneth Maly, Department of Philosophy, UW-LaCrosse, La Crosse, WI 54601. (firstname.lastname@example.org) In Canada to: Ingrid Leman Stefanovic, Department of Philosophy, St. Michael's College, University of Toronto, 81 St. Mary Street, Box 578, Toronto, Ontario. Canada. M5S lJ4. (email@example.com)
Acada Books, a small press devoted to publishing environmental studies textbooks, was acquired in July by Rowman & Littlefield. Former owner Brian Romer will be continuing and expanding his editorial mission, with the goal to make Rowman & Littlefield the premier environmental studies textbook publisher in the industry. The program will focus on environmental studies as a whole, with a commitment to publishing textbooks that support the discipline with its distinctive needs and wants. He invites submission of any environmental-related textbook proposals. Contact Brian Romer, Field Publisher, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2825 SE 67th Ave., Portland, OR 97206. 503-788-1539. firstname.lastname@example.org>
Philosophy & Geography aims to publish the best and clearest philosophical work on the environment: Human and natural, built and wild, as well as clear-headed meditations on the nature of space and place. Typical articles will combine analytic rigor with a breadth of imagination. Send three copies of articles to Andrew Light, Assistant Professor of Applied Philosophy, Environmental Conservation Program, New York University, 246 Greene Street, Suite 300, New York, NY 10003. Email: email@example.com> Fax: 212-995-4832. Authors should aim for manuscripts of about 10,000 words, including notes.
Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy, aims to become the international forum for inclusive democracy, which encompasses radical green, feminist, indigenous and radical Third World movements. Past theme issues have included "Democracy, Ecology and Ethics," "Welfare and Democracy," and "Mas Media, Culture and Democracy." Forthcoming themes include "Globalisation, Feminism and Democracy" and "Post-modernism and the Democratic Project." Contributions to the journal, preferably but not exclusively on forthcoming themes, are solicited. Articles should not exceed 10,000 words and should include an abstract 150 words or less and a brief biography of no more than 100 words. Pleas send a computer (IBM) disc, preferably in Microsoft Word for Windows, and two letter-quality printed copies to Takis Fotopoulos, Editor, Democracy & Nature, 20 Woodberry Way, London N12 0HG, UK. Fax: +44 (0) 181-446-1633; email: firstname.lastname@example.org>
The Association for Practical and Professional Ethics will hold its 11th annual meeting February 28-March 3, 2002, in Cincinnati, Ohio. Paper submissions are invited on ethical issues in various fields, including the environment. Please send three copies of papers and a 250-word abstract to Dr. Brian Schrag, Executive Secretary, APPE, Indiana University, 618 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405.
The Seventh World Wilderness Congress will be held in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, Nov. 2-8, 2001. "Wilderness and People: An Action Agenda for Africa and the World" continues a notable series of conferences on wilderness. Website: www.worldwilderness.org. E-mail: email@example.com. Fax 27(0) 31 4624656. In the U.S. contact the Wild Foundation, Fax 805 640-0230.
Second National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Sustainable Communities: Science and Solutions. This conference will be held December 6-7, 2001, in Washington, DC. Sponsored by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and the National Council for Science and the Environment. Website: www.NCSEonline.org. E-mail: conference@NCSEonline.org. Phone 202/530-5810.
Outdoor America seeks submissions to its "Thinking Like a Mountain" department, which serves as a forum for thought-provoking essays or articles about prominent outdoor issues. This offers outdoor writers a chance to look past the traditional "who, what, where and when" to focus on "why." Writers may explore ethical controversies or venture beyond the traditional framing of prominent outdoor issues, such as wildlife management, outdoor recreation and sustainability. Length: 2,500 words. Prizes: $500 for accepted essays. Write to the "Thinking like a Mountain" Department, Editor, Outdoor America, 707 Conservation Lane,Gaithersburg, MD 20878-2983. URL: http://www.iwla.org/OA/tlm.html> EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org>
Challenges of Global Change, an interdisciplinary conference, took
place July l0-l3 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. According to Laura
Westra, this was a disappointing conference for an environmental
ethicist. All social sciences and physical sciences. No references
to ethics or even to laws. Only two people made brief references
to North/South justice, Robert Watson from the World Bank and
a UN Representative. Even the WHO was not allowed to participate
properly: those, including well-known
epidemiologists, who tried to show the connection between health problems and climate change were confined to a small poster area only.
The American Political Science Association met in San Francisco, Aug.29-Sept.2,2001. Several sessions had an environmental flavor. Laura Westra and Richard Hiskes participated in a session on emergent risks and democracy, and there were several other interesting sessions on national and international dimensions of environmental issues.
Intrinsic Value and Integrity of Plants in the Context of Genetic Engineering, an Ifgene workshop, took place on 9 - 11 May, 2001 at the Goetheanum, Dornach, Switzerland. This multidisciplinary workshop looked at: moves towards recognition of the intrinsic value of non-human organisms; approaches of different knowledges to the living world; specific examples of consequences of transgenic and organic plant breeding; ecological integrity as an appropriate technology in crop production; and socioeconomic & cultural integrity: their relation to crop plant integrity and husbandry. Papers given included the following:
* Dignity of plants and perception -- Christoph Rehmann-Sutter.
* Dignity of living beings and the possibility of a non-egalitarian biocentrism -- Klaus Peter Rippe.
* The intrinsic value of animals: its implementation in governmental regulations in the Netherlands and its implication for plants -- Henk Verhoog.
* Dignity of Man and Intrinsic Value of the Creature (Wuerde der Kreatur) -- conflicting or interdependent legal concepts in legal reality? -- Hanspeter Schmidt.
* Shamans and scientists -Jeremy Narby.
* A Goethean view of plants: unconventional approaches -- Jochen Bockemuehl.
* Ethical plant breeding techniques from an organic point of view -- Edith Lammerts van Bueren.
* Does gene transfer violate the integrity of plants? -- Michel Haring.
* Solutions of agronomic problems based on 'ecological integrity' -- Florianne Koechlin.
* A practising horticulturist's view on the integrity of plants -- Christian Hiss.
* The food plant from the processor's perspective: the example of the cocoa tree -- Craig Sams.
* The socio-cultural question: does genetic engineering advance sustainable development? -- Miges Baumann.
A full proceedings may be ordered. Find a summary & downloadable order form at http://www.anth.org/ifgene/papersMay2001.htm. Order inquiries to: email@example.com> UK order enquiries to David Heaf: firstname.lastname@example.org>
Is Patriotism a Dirty Word? Remarks from the newsletter editor.
Since I first became involved in conservation issues, fifteen years ago, I've wondered why environmentalists are usually seen as "liberals" while our opponents are seen as "conservatives." After all, environmental protection measures typically limit the liberties of individuals and corporations, while most "conservative" politicians are anxious to unleash laissez-faire capitalism upon society and the landscape--surely the most powerfully transforming force in world history. Here the typical labels seem misleading, at best, and perhaps 180 degrees off the mark.
Conservationists are conservative. We know what we want to conserve-livable neighborhoods, endangered species, towns and cities on a human scale, rivers where kids can still fish and swim like their grandparents did. We work to protect these things from the indifference or hostility of large forces that would sweep them away. We work to protect them from people who see them as unimportant compared to money and material wealth. We try to remind the general public that these things can disappear, will disappear, without a communal commitment to their protection.
I wonder similarly about patriotism. The word comes from the Latin root 'patria' or homeland. So patriotism would seem to indicate a general concern to protect the land and the people of one's homeland, however extensively one defines them. On this view, environmentalists are patriots par excellence, literally committed to protecting the land. Social progressives, with their concern to shield the less fortunate among us from the vicissitudes of market forces and to share the benefits of capitalism among all their fellow citizens, also seem patriotic. They are concerned for their fellow Americans, or Poles, or Chileans, in a way that the corporate executive trying to wring the last penny out of the land or his workers, is not.
If patriotism means a concern for the land and its people, and more than that, action in their defense, then I think environmental and social activists are patriots. How, exactly, did this word become the exclusive property of "conservatives" and militarists? Largely, I think, through progressives giving up on the word and the thing itself.
In the US, disillusionment over the Vietnam War and its attendant government mendacity certainly played a leading role in sinking patriotism among progressives, in the last thirty years. So has a laudable internationalism: a concern for people and places farther afield. So has the realization that patriotism can lead us astray, by justifying acts of aggression against other people and nations, or even just indifference to them. The idea that patriotism is a refuge of the simple-minded, makes us simple- minded, has also played a role. Henry Thoreau well expresses the intellectual's distrust of patriotism in these words from Walden:
"Every man is the lord of a realm beside which the earthly empire of the Czar is but a petty state, a hummock left by the ice. Yet some can be patriotic who have no self- respect, and sacrifice the greater to the less. They love the soil which makes their graves, but have no sympathy with the spirit which may still animate their clay. Patriotism is a maggot in their heads."
The dangers of patriotism are undeniable. Yet I can't help but think that progressives have made a mistake in ceding patriotism to the conservatives and militarists. As we've seen in the wake of the events of September 11, patriotism is a powerful force. I would go further, and say that it is also sometimes a justified emotion. People need to band together in difficult times. We need to work with others to preserve what is important to us. Not only do we need to do this--it feels good to do it. We draw strength and inspiration from one another; we enjoy being part of larger efforts to achieve some common good. This emotional component need not overrule reason and morality. Like our other emotions, it is not something to suppress or be embarrassed about, but rather part of being human. It can be put to better or worse uses.
In any case, I'm not sure that patriotism is as easily avoided as intellectuals think. It is a commonplace to say that environmentalism takes the place of religion, for many secular environmentalists. In a similar way, I think environmentalism takes the place of patriotism among many who would recoil from the term. For many of my friends in the Poudre Canyon Group of the Sierra Club, our environmental work provides camaraderie and a sense of something more important than our selves. It is our way of contributing to our local community and helping to define the meaning America. Why not recognize this and call it by its proper name?
As we Americans have seen in the past few weeks, patriotism can be powerful. I think that is the main reason why it is a mistake to cede it to the militarists and reactionaries. Americans have just received a severe shock, and our political situation is now very fluid. In the coming months, those leaders who can speak convincingly to common concerns and articulate a convincing vision of the common good will likely find the way open for their favorite policies, including environmental policies. It is important that progressives speak to our fellow citizens' legitimate concerns and point out a way that will truly be good for our country and for the world.
American environmentalists are already locked in a struggle with our opponents about the meaning of America. What will future environmental historians identify as our most lasting contributions to world history? National parks and the world's first important international wildlife treaty (the Pan-American Migratory Bird Treaty), or our undermining a world commitment to combat greenhouse warming? A trailblazing commitment to preserving all native species (the Endangered Species Act), or a gluttonous consumerism that undermines human and ecosystem health worldwide? These questions are up for grabs. American environmentalists need to convince our fellow citizens that we have the nobler, more generous, more far-thinking conception of what our country should be. We need to appeal to their patriotic concern to motivate them to action.
The newsletter welcomes responses to this piece on the meaning
and value of patriotism. The deadline for submissions to the
next newsletter is December 7.
Environmental Ethics in Micronesia, Past and Present.
Part I. Living on the Edge: Traditional Micronesian Environmental Ethics. By James D. Sellmann, Philosophy, University of Guam, from a presentation at the Pacific Science Inter-Congress, June 2000. E-mail: email@example.com>
Environmental philosophy provides a gateway to develop a heuristic model to understand Micronesian philosophy. In large part to study Micronesian philosophy is to examine Micronesian environmental philosophy. Micronesian philosophy is based on correlative or analogical thinking--a type of thinking that is fairly common in the Asia-Pacific region and one that differs markedly from modern, scientific, causal thinking. In Micronesian correlative thinking the world consists of interacting bi-polar forces. Cosmology and ethics, is and ought, are not separate. Micronesian environmental ethics is rooted in environmental philosophy.
The Micronesia region is huge, larger than the United States, and consists of many hundreds of small islands (hence the name: micro-nesia, small island), organized into several nation states: The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (once the Caroline Islands), the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Belau, the Republic of Nauru, and the Republic of Kiribata (once the Gilbert Islands). In this huge region, the land area is little more than that of Rhode Island, and Guam, the southernmost of the Marianas, is the largest, about two hundred square miles.
There are two distinct island types in Micronesia that impact the cultures. There are the "high" islands, such as Guam, composed of volcanic and limestone rock, and the "low" lying coral atolls. The southern half of the island has exposed volcanics; the northern half of the island has limestone rocks overlaid on volcanics. Guam is really the highest mountain in the world, if you base elevation from the bottom of the Mariana Trench. The coral atolls, often lovely archipelagos and lagoons, offer sources of fish and are also unpredictable and subject to storms and overwash.
The peoples of the Pacific, and Micronesia in particular, constructed a worldview or philosophy based on their experience of living "on the edge" between conflict and harmony with this oceanic environment, abundant with sea and sparse with land. The various philosophies of Micronesia are first and foremost environmental philosophies. They are not abstract philosophies that speculate about the nature of abstract, eternal substances or ideas. The philosophies of Micronesia, like many of the world's ancient philosophies, develop out of human experiences with the forces of nature. Micronesian environmental experience presents people living with the forces of nature--fire, air, earth, water, wind, sun, moon, and stars, mountain and beach, river, reef, the ocean and its currents. The people are living with and making use of animals--dolphins, turtles, fish, birds, rats and bats--and plants--fruits, tubers, the life giving coconut and breadfruit, herbs, medical herbs and trees.
Micronesian environmental philosophy is derived from people's experience of both living in harmony with and living in conflict with the forces of nature. The people have the ideal belief that the totems, taboos, and the medicine man's skills maintain a balance between the forces of nature. The medicine man and medicine woman are recognized for maintaining harmony between the forces and the people. For any number of reasons (for instance, broken taboos, incurring the wrath of the ancestors, the medicine man's lack of skill, and so on) or for no apparent reason at all, Micronesians find themselves trying to live while they perceive or believe that they are being threatened by the forces of nature, or a nature spirit or an ancestor. For example, they need fish but do not catch any; they seek a certain current, wind or star for navigation but cannot find it. Their crops need rain but drought persists; they are threatened by storms, typhoons, waves, relentless wind and rain, thunder and lightning and so on. Trying to balance between harmony and conflict with the natural environment, Micronesians shape their lives and their worldview. Their cosmology is value laden. There are no bare "facts." Things always have value built into them. Ideally one wants to live in harmony with the forces of nature to enjoy eating and cohabitating at leisure. But one may find oneself struggling to stay alive--starving without fish or fruit, drowning in the ocean, being blown off course or adrift without a breeze, and so on. When the forces of nature are in balance with each other and when humans abide by the taboos, then harmony prevails. When the forces of nature are out of balance or when human needs and desires are out of balance with the forces of nature, then conflict is apt to arise. So balance, an ideal, is always "on the edge"; and the real often tips over into struggle and need.
Micronesian environmental philosophy contains an environmental ethic. In living on the edge between harmony and conflict, one can move in either direction. There is an ethic to promote balance and harmony within the forces of nature and within human interactions with nature. This could be called the ideal Micronesian environmental ethic. However, there is also what can be called the practical Micronesian environmental ethic that is exhibited when people find that either the forces of nature or human interaction with nature are out of sorts such that imbalance and conflict arise. This practical ethic pits humans against the forces of nature. It may well explain why some contemporary Micronesians embrace an anthropocentric view of nature and the self-interested benefits of capitalism. When environmentally minded scientists or eco-tourists discover that Micronesian property holders want to build hotels, oil refineries, or fishing industry despite the environmental degradation that will result, they may be mystified because they naively think that the only cultural value is harmony. The experience of conflict, however, gives credence to other values such as domination and exploitation. Micronesians living on the edge between harmony and conflict with nature are currently shaping and re-shaping their cultural ocean and landscape.
The Micronesian way of life is rooted in their dynamic relationship with the environment. Their relationship with the environment is expressed symbolically in their cosmology and environmental philosophy. Based on correlative or analogical thinking, there is no sharp distinction between fact and value. The way the world is entails a value judgment. Ideally, Micronesians would like to live in harmony with nature, that is living with a mutual exchange of energies, both contributing to and being supported by nature. Practically, when the forces of nature are perceived to be in conflict with each other or in conflict with human life, then Micronesians exploit natural resources to survive. In this sense Micronesian environmental ethics, tries to maintain a balance while living on the edge between harmony and conflict with nature. When food is in short supply, the clan will exhaust a resource. Now that capitalism has taken root, when some individuals feel that capital is in short supply, they are willing to sell ancestral lands, develop industry, even oil refineries, harbor oil tankers or do whatever it takes to develop economic interests. These exploitive activities are just as much a part of Micronesian environmental philosophy and ethics as is protecting resources and living in harmony with nature.
Part II. Guam Today: Still "on the Edge." Colonial Legacy and American Presence, by Holmes Rolston, III, also at the Pacific Science Inter-Congress.
Guam is a U.S. territory, acquired from the Spanish in 1898 at the end of the Spanish American War. During World War II, the Japanese captured it in 1941, with little fight as it was not fortified. The Americans liberated Guam in 1944, with an intense battle. A U.S. Naval base and a U.S. Air Force base dominate the island. There is also a massive tourist business, mostly Japanese, both the visitors and the owners. The indigenous culture, whose worldview is sketched above, is Chamorro; but this mixed with the Spanish for four hundred years, since 1668.
Across Micronesia in general, environmental conservation is mixed, with the more settled areas more troubled. A general problem is that, where life is already "on the edge," human impacts register sooner and more extensively on small islands than in continental environments. Flying foxes and insect-eating bats were the only mammals to reach Micronesia naturally. On Guam, most historians believe that the pre-Spanish Chammoros did not have pigs, dogs, or chickens; they were introduced by the Spanish. Other Pacific islanders had pigs, some had dogs. Ancient mariners also brought along rats and mice. Jesuit missionaries introduced water buffalo. The Philippine deer, Cervis mariannus, was introduced by the Spanish two hundred years ago. Black francolins have been introduced as game birds. Most of this upsets already fragile environments.
After World War II, the brown tree snake was accidentally introduced into Guam, probably on military vehicles. With no natural predators and abundant prey, the snake population steadily spread throughout the island. Some forested areas have up to 12,000 snakes per square mile. As the snakes dispersed, forest bird and fruit bat populations plummeted. By the late 1980's, twelve species of birds and the little Mariana fruit bat had disappeared from Guam. Guam may be the first place on Earth to lose all of its native birds, which will also have many ramifications in the native ecosystems. These ecosystems, always on the edge, have already been pushed beyond any recovery of their original integrity.
Introduced feral pigs and deer, over-hunting, and habitat loss from human development are also major factors in the decline and loss of Guam's native plants and animals. Soil erosion, pollution of various kinds, especially sewage from tourist developments, mostly raw sewage dumped at sea, and over-fishing seriously impact Guam's coral reefs. About 25% of the coral reefs are designated as reserves or preserves, sometimes more, sometimes less well protected. Visitors who stay terrestrial may think the fauna and flora somewhat depauperate; visitors who go underwater are startled with the biodiversity. More careful observation finds this too equally threatened.
Guam National Wildlife Refuge, at the far north, is the only federal wildlife preserve. One of three units is open to the public, the Ritidian area; two others are on military lands. The refuge is a turtle sanctuary for greenback and hopefully hawksbill turtles. Biologists there regularly see greenback turtles, but they have never seen hawksbills, which may be extinct in the region. The refuge also protects the endangered Mariana fruit bat, considered quite edible by the local peoples.
Guam has salt-tolerant vegetation along the coastal strands, with swamps and marshes on some southern coasts and rivers. In southern ravines there are ferns and palms, sword grasses, which give way to high savanna. Dense forests once covered the northern limestone plateau, which today is mainly scrub brush. In 1947, following the devastation of the war, a shrubby tree called tangan tangan (Leucaena) was seeded from aircraft to protect from erosion. It now grows in impenetrable thickets over much of the north of the island, preventing erosion and supplying some fuelwood, but having forever altered native ecosystems.
Guam, as with much of Micronesia, is a microcosm of the planet. Development is overwhelming, the colonial legacy is ambiguous, the military presence disproportionate, bringing prosperity and a degrading environment. But there is positive awakening both to threats and opportunities, revealed for example by the hundreds of papers at the Pacific Science Inter-Congress with conservation concerns, including two sessions on environmental ethics (See Newsletter, vol. 12, no. 2, Summer 2001.) Environmental ethics is one of the offerings in applied philosophy at the University of Guam.
Sounds of Silence: Antarctic Symphony. The British Antarctic Survey, with the Philharmonic Orchestra, commissioned a symphony from Peter Maxwell Davis, who traveled to Antarctica in the summer 1997-1998 in preparation for the work. The British composer led the Philharmonia in the premier of the resulting Antarctic Symphony at Royal Festival Hall, on May 6, 2001. Ralph Vaughn Williams, though he never traveled to Antarctica, wrote Sinfonia Antarctica in 1953, developed from his score for the film Scott in the Antarctic. Information on performances atwww.maxopus.com. Brief story in Science 292(15 June, 2001):2017.
In the Light of Reverence, 2001, a PBS documentary on Native American religious freedom, ethics and environment. 72 minutes. For purchase call KCTS at 800-937-5387. The video follows three controversies.
(1) The Lakota and Devil's Tower in Wyoming. The Lakota wish for no one to climb Devil's Tower, which they call the Lodge of the Bear. A compromise forbade climbing in June; this was overruled in court. Voluntary requests by the Park service followed, and June climbing has dropped by 85%, though climbers protest that they too have religious experiences on the tower. Not climbing the Lodge of the Bear is voluntary in June; not climbing Mt. Rushmore is illegal all year.
(2) The Hopi in Northern Arizona and mining on sacred lands. At Woodruff Butte, on private land, Hopis protest mining for stone building materials that upsets a pilgrimage to sacred sites, also archaeological sites. Mining the site for stone for re-paving Interstate 40 has been prohibited but private mining continues. Operators might preserve some sites, but Indians claim the whole area sacred and that they cannot reveal specific sites without weakening the sites. At Black Mesa, Arizona the Hopis signed a mining lease for coal, but Hopi's now claim that the mining company is extracting too much water from the aquifer, and affecting sacred springs.
(3) The Wintu at Mt. Shasta in northern California protesting a ski lodge and development. The narrative features Florence Jones, a shaman of Wintu tribe. The Forest service proposed a ski area, but the Wintu claim the area as church. New agers who come to a sacred spring there imitate Native Americans, but are not always welcomed by the native Americans who consider their springs profaned. The ski area proposal has withdrawn. Property owners in the area complain that tribal religions are being used to deprive them of property rights.
The Salmon Forest. 52 minutes. Produced, directed and
written by Caroline Underwood for CBC's "The Nature of Things."
On Canada's Pacific coast is the world's largest tract of intact
temperate rainforest, one of the most biologically diverse and
lush places on earth. Here millions of spawning salmon support
dense concentrations of forest life and grizzle bears, black bears,
bald eagles, seals, otters, gulls, and countless invertebrates
thrive. While much life here remains secret and unknown, this
film looks at the astounding links biologists have recently discovered
between different components of the ecosystem. Free preview for
purchase evaluation. Call toll free 1-800-543-3764 or order online
The God Squad and the Case of the Northern Spotted Owl. 57 minutes. Produced, directed and photographed by Emily Hart. This video investigates the controversial Endangered Species Committee proceedings over the Northern Spotted Owl and 44 proposed federal timber sales in southwest Oregon. In May 1992, a cabinet-level committee selected economic interests over the survival of a species. While the proceeding ostensibly focused on the owl and a limited number of timber sales, the controversy was a microcosm of a much larger debate concerning the fate of the Pacific Northwest's old growth forests and the Endangered Species Act. The story-behind-the-story, as told in surprisingly candid interviews with President Bush's cabinet members and others. Order from Bullfrog Films, contact information above.
RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS
Thanks to Greg R. Pritchard for editorial help in compiling this bibliography (as he has done earlier several times). Greg lives in rural Victoria, Australia, and is doing a Ph.D. on ecocriticism and whaling literature through Deakin University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org>
--Alexander, Charles P., "For the Birds," Time 157 (no. 2, June 4, 2001):66-67. Bird watching is hotter than ever, though 15% of 800 species that reside in or migrate through the U.S. are in serious decline. Main trouble: sprawl. Can fifty million birdwatchers turned conservationists save the environment? David Allen Sibley's The Sibley Guide to Birds has sold half a million copies in the first six months, the fastest selling bird book in history.
--Allen, William, "Restoring Hawaii's Dry Forests," Bioscience 50(no.12, 2000 Dec 01): 1037-.
--Arntzen, Sven, "Natural Beauty, Ethics and Conceptions
of Nature", in Ales Erjavec, Lev Kreft and Marija Bergamo
(utg.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Aesthetics
Pt. II, Acta philosophica XX
(Ljubljana: Filozofski institut ZRC SAZU, 1999), pp. 291-301.
--Asquith, Nigel M., "Misdirections in Conservation Biology," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001): 345-.
--Auer, Matthew R., Rafael Reuveny, and Lisa Adler, "Environmental Liability and Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe," The Journal of Environment And Development 10(no.1, 2001 Mar 01): 5-.
--Baker, Beth, "Environmentalists Sue Small Business Administration over Urban Sprawl," Bioscience 51(no.1, 2001 Jan 01): 14-.
--Barnhill, David Landis, and Gottlieb, Roger S., eds., Deep Ecology and World Religions. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001. This book grew out of a session on deep ecology and world religions at the 1997 American Academy of Religion, Annual Meeting. Sample chapters: Mary Evelyn Tucker, "Confucianism and Deep Ecology"; Eric Katz, "Faith, God, and Nature: Judaism and Deep Ecology"; Nawal Ammar, "Islam and Deep Ecology"; John B. Cobb, Jr., "Protestantism and Deep Ecology." And others.
--Berger, Joel, Anne Holyman, and William Weber, "Perturbation of Vast Ecosystems in the Absence of Adequate Science: Alaska's Arctic Refuge," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001 Apr 01): 539-.
--Berkeley, Bill, "Race, Tribe, and Power in the Heart
of Africa," World Policy Journal 18 (no. 1, Spring, 2001):79-97.
"This is an essay about evil. Its setting is Africa."
"The bad guys in Africa are black and white, and shades
in between. These stories are a measure of how much Africans
have in common with the rest of mankind, not how much the differ.
... Today there is genuine cultural diversity in the gallery
of twentieth century demonology, the late arrival of black fascism
providing the ultimate testimony that political sin, as with all
other kinds of sin and virtue, knows no color." And even
more discouraging for wildlife conservation in Africa. Abridged
from a forthcoming book: The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe
and Power in the Heart of Africa (Basic Books, 2001). Berkeley
is a journalist, with assignments for the New York Times.
--Borman, Margaret, "Can Governments Encourage a Reduced Fish Harvest to Allow Global Stocks to Regenerate Their Numbers," Journal of Environmental Law And Litigation 15(no.1, 2000): 127-.
--Botkin, Daniel, B., "The Naturalness of Biological Invasions," Western North American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):261-266. "A serious conundrum exists about invasive species: Biological invasions are natural and necessary for the persistence of life on Earth, but some of the worse threats to biological diversity are from biological invasions. ... If species never invaded new territories, they would be extinguished by catastrophic events in their previous habitats. ... One can either preserve a `natural' condition, or one can preserve natural processes, but not both. The preservation of natural processes requires change. ... Either preserve the natural processes and therefore preserve life over the long run, or preserve a single condition and either threaten the persistence of life or else substitute a great amount of human intervention for natural, dynamic processes." Botkin is in ecology at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
--Boudouris K. and Kalimtzis K., eds., Philosophy and Ecology,
vol. I, 256 pages. Vol. II, 256 pages. Athens, Greece: Ionia
Publications. 256 pages. Contributors seek the relevancy of
Greek philosophy with respect to our present-day environmental
Vol. I: http://www.hri.org/iagp/vol31.html>> Vol. II: http://www.hri.org/iagp/vol32.html>>
Samples from Vol. I:
* John P. Anton, "Aristotle and Theophrastus on Ecology"
* Warwick Fox, "Deep ecology and Virtue Ethics"
* Keekok Lee, "Aristotle: Towards an Environmental Philosophy"
* Theodore Tsolis, "Nature and Decay: Stoic Determinism and its Ecological Connotations"
* Laura Westra, "The Significance of Freedom and Limit in Aristotle's Notion of the Good and the New Earth Charter"
Samples from Vol. II:
* Sven Arntzen, "Is Presocratic Philosophy of Nature a Source of Man-nature Dualism?"
* G. Boger, "Aristotle on the Intention and Extension of Person and the Focal Concern of Environmental Philosophy"
* Konstantine Boudouris, "The Moral, Political and Metaphysical Causes of the Ecological Crisis"
* Warwick Fox, "Ethics and the Environment: Rethinking the Foundations of Value"
* Keekok Lee, "Anthropocentrism: Its Roots in Modern Western Philosophy and its Involvement with Modern Science/technology"
* Vitomir Mitevski, "Discovery of Harmony in Nature in Early Greek Philosophy"
* John O'Neill and Vernon Pratt, "Aristotelian Ethics and Post-Aristotelian Biology"
* Alexandar H. Zistakis, "Culture and Nature: How Culture Determines our Conception of Nature"
And many more. (Thanks to Sven Arntzen, Telemark College, Norway.)
--Bradie, Michael, "The Moral Status of Animals in Eighteenth-Century
British Philosophy." Pages 32-51 in Maienschein, Jane, and
Ruse, Michael, eds., Biology and the Foundations of Ethics. New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Bradie is in philosophy,
Bowling Green State University, Ohio.
--Bricker, Jennie L., and David E. Filippi, "Endangered Species Act Enforcement and Western Water Law," Environmental Law 30(no.4, 2000): 735-. Ms. Bricker and Mr. Filippi examine the intersection between the federal Endangered Species Act and western state water law. While the federal fish agencies are calling on water users to contribute a "proportionate share" of their water rights to meet instream flow needs for listed fish populations, the authors contend that a more precise, predictable, and fair approach is one that adheres to the basic principles of the prior appropriation doctrine.
--Briggs, James, "Ski Resorts and National Forests: Rethinking Forest Service Management Practices for Recreational Use," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 28(no.1, 2000 Fall): 79-.
--Broussard, Shorna R., Stephen B. Jones, and Connie A. Flanagan, "Forest Stewardship Education: Fostering Positive Attitudes in Urban Youth," Journal Of Forestry 99(no.1, 2001 Jan 01): 37-. Philadelphia students who participated in a forestry-based environmental education program were more knowledgeable about forestry and gained a great understanding of forest management, shifting their attitudes in favor of harvesting trees sustainably.
--Cameron, James, David J. Robertson, and Paul Curnow, "Legal and Regulatory Strategies for Ghg Reductions - a Global Survey," Natural Resources & Environment 15(no.3, 2001 Wint): 176-.
--Cannaughton, Kent, "Sustainability: The Key Forest Policy Issue of the New Millennium?," Journal of Forestry 99(no.2, 2001 Feb 01): 7-. The Journal presents this special section on forest sustainability in the hope that it will generate discussion and further responses on this elusive but increasingly critical concept.
--Carlsson, Fredrik, and Peter Martinsson, "Do Hypothetical and Actual Marginal Willingness to Pay Differ in Choice Experiments? Application to the Valuation of the Environment," Journal of Environmental Economics And Management 41(no.2, 2001): 179-.
--Castelletta, Marjorie, Navjot S. Sodhi, and R. Subaraj, "Heavy Extinctions of Forest Avifauna in Singapore: Lessons for Biodiversity Conservation in Southeast Asia," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000 Dec 01): 1870-.
--Cawthorne, Jane, "Risky Business: Rethinking the Social and Ecological Impact of Biotechnology," Environments 28(no.2, 2000): 65-.
--Ciochon, Russell and Nisbett, Richard, eds., The Primate Anthology: Essays on Primate Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation from Natural History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998. Twenty years of field studies and conservation efforts with primates.
--Clark, Tim W., "Developing Policy-Oriented Curricula for Conservation Biology: Professional and Leadership Education in the Public Interest," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, 2001 Feb 01): 31-.
--Coates, D.J., and K.A. Atkins, "Priority Setting and the Conservation of Western Australia's Diverse and Highly Endemic Flora," Biological Conservation 97(no.2, 2001): 251-.
--Cocklin, Chris, and Meg Keen, "Urbanization in the Pacific: Environmental Change, Vulnerability and Human Security," Environmental Conservation 27(no.4, 2001 Dec 01): 392-.
--Cole, David N., "Management Dilemmas That Will Shape Wilderness in the 21st Century," Journal of Forestry 99(no.1, 2001 Jan 01): 4-. The future of the wilderness system hinges on how we compromise between recreational access and wilderness protection.
--Cook, J.A., and S.O. MacDonald, "Should Endemism Be a Focus of Conservation Efforts Along the North Pacific Coast of North America," Biological Conservation 97(no.2, 2001): 207-.
--Corey, Michael A., Evolution and the Problem of Evil. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000. An approach that synthesizes the tenets of modern developmental psychology with the basic concepts of classical theism. The problem of evil, as well as the general fate of humans, is placed in a much larger and more optimistic contest than traditionally imagined.
--Creel, Scott, "Four Factors Modifying the Effect of Competition on Carnivore Population Dynamics as Illustrated by African Wild Dogs," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, 2001 Feb 01): 271-.
--Cuaron, Alfredo D., "A Global Perspective on Habitat Disturbance and Tropical Rainforest Mammals.," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000 Dec 01): 1574-.
--Curtin, Deane, Chinnagounder's Challenge: The Question of
Ecological Citizenship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1999. Environmental ethics with a focus on the third world.
The arguments used in the West are often out of context in other
cultures. Systematic features of the ways we in the West tend
to organize moral experience encourage us to believe we have understood
profoundly different cultures when we do not. In result, when
we try to help, we fail.
Nature and culture; living at the margins. The British utilitarians and the invention of the "Third World." The politics of agricultural "modernization." Gandhian legacies: indigenous resistance to "development" in contemporary India and Mexico. Recognizing women's environmental expertise. Radical first world environmental philosophy: a new colonialism? Callicott's land ethic. (Callicott is too monist; not pluralist enough; despite his claimed multiculturalism, in his monist zeal, "Callicott simply wipes entire continents off the map of environmental ethics" (p. 112). Ecosophy T and the Buddhist tradition. Ecological feminism and the place of caring. Democratic discourse in a morally pluralistic world. Putting down roots: ecocommunities and the practice of freedom.
Chinnagounder appears late in the book, a old man, over a hundred years old, in a village in India, who lives in the back of a stable on sheets of cardboard, and asks disconcerting questions. Curtin is in philosophy, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN.
--Davies, Lincoln L., "Lessons for an Endangered Movement: What a Historical Juxtaposition of the Legal Response to the Civil Rights and Environmentalism Has to Teach Environmentalists Today," Environmental Law 31(no.2, 2001): 229-. The twentieth century's two most important social movements, civil rights and environmentalism, derive from divergent paths but increasingly share a similar trajectory - one in which they are falling out of public favor as problems deemed already solved. In this Article, Mr. Davies examines from a historical perspective the legal treatment of these two movements to illustrate what environmentalists might change in the next century to ensure the accomplishment of their objectives and in turn, the health of our planet.
--DeGraaf, John, Wann, David, and Naylor, Thomas H., Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, 2001. London: McGraw-Hill, 2001. 275 pages. The modern world in developed countries has what amounts to a disease of consumption; we are typically consuming three times as much in goods and services as people did a half century ago. Surveys show that we are less happy. The disease is addictive and epidemic. De Graaf is an emeritus professor of economics, Duke University.
--Derr, Mark, "It Takes Training and Genes to Make a Mean Dog," New York Times, Feb. 4, 2001, D1, D5. Pit bulls, Rottweilers, German shepherds, mastiffs and other breeds have been selected by breeders for aggressiveness, although they also have to be trained to be aggressive, often by abuse. This does not particularly represent what they are by original wild nature. Any breed can sometimes become aggressive, and dog experts dislike banning any particular breed. Pit bulls and Rottweilers account for more than half of the fatal attacks on humans in the U.S. About 40% of American dog owners get dogs primarily for protection. They often favor such breeds, but are naive or careless about keeping such dogs out of situations where this aggressiveness will erupt in unwanted attacks.
--Dower, Nigel, "Does Global Citizenship Require Modern Technology?" CPTS Ends and Means (Journal of the University of Aberdeen Centre for Philosophy, Technology and Society), 5(no. 1, spring 2001): 9-24. Yes and no, with a lot of highly contentious issues in between. Yes, if one seeks to be someone who can effectively exercise global responsibility in the modern world. No, if (like Stoics of old, without technology) one has a conception of self identity and human being that accepts a global citizenship. "Modern technology is necessary for the actualisation of the idea of global citizenship in the modern world (though it is not necessary for the idea itself)" (p. 11). "Global citizenship then requires modern technology, not in the sense of needing it as it is, but in the sense of its being grounded in the facts of modern technology. We have seen this in at least three ways: as the causal context of our global problems, as that which enables global citizenship to be effectively expressed in action, but also as something to be controlled, modified and developed in the light of our global values. Perhaps we could conclude by saying that technology needs a global human face, but at the same time that global citizenship needs a flexible but strong technological backbone" (p. 24) Dower is in philosophy, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
--Drake, Deanne C., and Robert J. Naiman, "An Evaluation of Restoration Efforts in Fishless Lakes Stocked with Exotic Trout," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000 Dec 01): 1807-.
--Edwards, David, and Henderson, Caspar, "Can we trust the media on the environment?," The Ecologist 30 (No. 4, 2000 Jun 01): 22-23. Edwards says yes, Caspar no.
--Eichler, Margrit, "Introduction," Environments 28(no.2, 2000): 1-. In/equity and Un/sustainability: Exploring Intersections.
--Ellison, Peter, On Fertile Ground: A Natural History of Human
Reproduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Mounting evidence that the physiological regulation of ovulation,
fertilization, implantation, and the maintenance of a pregnancy
among humans is particularly specialized to protect high-quality,
large-brained offspring. Implantation and nurturance of the human
fetus with a haemochorial placenta, which endures a large and
consistent supply of nutrients, differ from those in most mammals.
Fetal growth is more rapid in humans than in gorillas and chimpanzees.
Birth in humans is a treacherous affair, because the pelvis is
barely large enough to allow the baby's enormous head to pass
through. Natural selection has compromised conflicting demands
of female locomotion, brain growth, and birth complications to
produce a delicate fitness-maximizing balance.
Human mothers store exceptional amounts of fat, during and after pregnancy, to support an equally exceptional rate of brain growth in the fetus and nursing newborn. These offspring then require a long period of nurture and education into culture. Raising humans requires a massive investment, typically about eighteen years. Ellison is an anthropologist at Harvard University.
--Fairfax, Sally K., "The Gentle Use of Working Landscapes,
" Different Drummer, vol. 3, no. 3, Summer 1996 (published
by the Thoreau Institute, Randal O'Toole, senior economist).
Reprinted in It's Not Easy Being Green, spring 2001, pp.
7-10 (Newsletter of the Christian Environment Project, P.O Box
80092, Portland OR 97280).
"Preoccupation with parks, wilderness, and the preservation of wild spaces for recreation is destructive.... because it miseducates us and our children about the relationship between humans and the natural world, and because it focuses attention on the wrong lands and the wrong activities .... Environmentalists, in my experience, have expended far too much effort lobbying the federal government for the preservation of untrammeled wilderness ... in the pursuit of the utterly nutso (sic) belief that if we can simply bar humans from those areas, they will be preserved, preferably forever.... The preservation of the world, I would argue, is not in `wildness', but in the working landscape. And defining that is more appropriately a regional, local and community undertaking than a role for the federal government....
The garden rather than the wilderness is the appropriate metaphor for the touchstone of land management. [But for environmentalists] The ideal landscape is not an agrarian setting as in Jefferson, where decent hardworking folk toil to make a living from the earth, but one which is totally removed from human use, except for the privileged to retreat for leisure and refreshment. No room is left in this vision for people to live and work in the natural world....The preoccupation with wilderness leaves no opportunity to learn about gentle use of the land.... " Fairfax is professor of forestry at UC-Berkeley, and the author of the second edition of Samuel Trask Dana's Forest and Range Policy: Its Development in the United States, 1956, 2nd ed., 1980, McGraw-Hill, a well-known text. (Thanks to Bill Willers, Biology, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh.)
--Foster, Charles H.W., "Nonprofits in Forestry: Lessons from Three New England States," Journal of Forestry 99(no.1, 2001 Jan 01): 27-. Leaders of New England conservation organizations are enthusiastic about their individual roles and convinced that working together--with each other, with industry, and with government--has genuine potential for promoting good forestry.
--Frodeman, Robert, ed., Earth Matters: The Earth Sciences, Philosophy, and the Claims of Community. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. 15 contributors. Part I. Rock Logic: The Nature of the Earth Sciences. Part II. The Earth Sciences in the Life of the Community. Includes: Polkinghorn, Brian, "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Managing and Resolving Environmental Conflicts"; Sarewitz, Daniel, "Science and Environmental Policy: An Excess of Objectivity," (a geologist illustrates prevalent, false ideas of objectivity); Borgmann, Albert, "The Transparency and Contingency of the Earth"; Oelschlaeger, Max, "Natural Aliens Reconsidered: Causes, Consequences, and Cures"; McLean, Scott, Moores, Eldridge M., and Robertson, David A., "Nature and Culture" (report of a program by this name at the University of California, Davis); Part III. Philosophic Approaches to the Earth. Includes: Benammar, Karim, "Sacred Earth"; Lingis, Alphonso, "Ecological Emotions". And more.
--Gibbons, J. Whitfield, David E. Scott, and Christopher T. Winne, "The Global Decline of Reptiles, Deja Vu Amphibians," Bioscience 50(no.8, 2000): 653-.
--Gleick, Peter H., "Global Water: Threats and Challenges Facing the United States: Issues for the New U.S. Administration," Environment 43(no.2, 2001): 18-. The lack of clean water in developing nations undermines regional economic and political security. Poor management of U.S. water may also have destabilizing repercussions by threatening world food supplies. What can be done to address these issues.
--Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica, vol. 14, January
2001, no. 1. An online journal published at Firenze University,
Italy and Firenze University Press. Special issue on environmental
* C. L Soskolne, "International transport of hazardous waste: legal and illegal trade in the context of professional ethics"
* R. F. Noss, "Sustaining Ecological Integrity"
* J. R. Sterba, "Environmental justice without environmental racism"
* P. A. Vodopianov, "The Determining Factors of Ecosystem Stability Preservation"
* Franco Pedrotti, "Biological Ethics in the Thought of Oscar De Beaux"
* Philip Cafaro, "Less is More"
* Mauro Tognon and Paolo Carinci, "Bioethics and Contaminated Vaccines
* Sven Arntzen, "Integrity and Uses of Nature"
* Willy Weyns, "Policy impact assessment: the European Press union and the environment
* Rosangela Barcaro, "The Right to Die Debate: A Survey"
* Stig Wandén, "Ethics, Prices and Biodiversity"
* Gene C. Sager, "Environmental Education Ponderings From Down Under"
* Global Bioethics: Domains and Mission Statement
--Goforth, Robyn L., and Carol R. Goforth, "Appropriate Regulation of Antibiotics in Livestock Feed," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 28(no.1, 2000 Fall): 39-.
--Gorte, Ross W., "Multiple Use in the National Forests: Rise and Fall or Evolution?" Journal of Forestry 97 (no. 10, November, 1999):19-23. Nobody much likes "multiple use" any more; "ecosystem management" has replaced it. But is this multiple use rejected or resurrected under a more fashionable name? Different commentators see it different ways. "Multiple use" seemed unable to resolve conflicts when they grew intense. "Ecosystem management" seems fuzzy, an uncertain replacement, although "ecosystem management" in some form is likely to be official management policy for the foreseeable future. Gorte is a natural resource economics and policy specialist with the U.S. Library of Congress.
--Gossling, Stefan, "Tourism -- Sustainable Development Option?," Environmental Conservation 27(no.3, 2000 Sep 01): 223-.
--Gowans, Matthew, A Latter-day Saint Environmental Ethic, M. A. thesis, Colorado State Universitu, summer 2001. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints supports a strong environmental ethic. This is developed (1) in teaching regarding the intrinsic value of the "soul," a concept applied not only to humans but to animals, plants, and all living beings (recalling both Biblical and Mormon texts and Aristotle's concept of soul). All creation can express a kind of joy in life. (2) Teachings regarding stewardship show that God expects humans to be stewards of the Earth, a concept defended against criticisms. The principle of sacrifice emphasizes human interdependency and selfless sacrifice. (3) Latter-day saints work for a promised "Zion," a vision of harmony and flourishing on Earth.
--Guha, Ramachandra, "The Prehistory of Community Forestry in India," Environmental History 6(no.2, 2001 Apr 01): 213-.
--Haapala, Arto, "Aesthetics, Ethics, and the Meaning of Place", in Ales Erjavec, Lev Kreft and Marija Bergamo (utg.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Aesthetics Pt. I, Acta philosophica XX (Ljubljana: Filozofski institut ZRC SAZU, 1999), pp. 253-264.
--Hains, Chris, Development and Conservation Issues in Africa, M. A. thesis, Colorado State University, summer 2001. The thesis evaluates ways in which development and nature conservation, both valuable goals, can be achieved in Africa. Objections to prevailing forms of development, that they do not succeed for pragmatic reasons and that Western ideas about development and conservation are misplaced impositions on Africa. Although improving the lives of humans and conserving nature can be difficult, there is adequate evidence that these goals are attainable. Nor is it always necessary to favor human centered development over the conservation of nature. Some conservation projects, even if they do not focus on improving the welfare of humans, can still be justified. Hains, who spent two years in the Peace Corps in Lesotho (South Africa), is now in a Ph.D. program in African history, University of Minnesota.
--Hamilton, A., A. Cunningham, and F. Kayanja, "Conservation in a Region of Political Instability: Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000): 1722-.
--Harding, Elaine K., Elizabeth E. Crone, and Eric L. Walters, "The Scientific Foundations of Habitat Conservation Plans: A Quantitative Assessment," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001}: 488-.
--Hart, John, "A Jubilee for a New Millennium: Justice for Earth and Peoples of the Land," Catholic Rural Life, Spring 2001, pp. 23-31. Adapted from Hart's keynote address at the annual meeting of the National Catholic Rural Life Conference, November 2000. The Divine Spirit calls people to care for their niche in creation, to care for each other, and to care for all life. In the Christian tradition, creation and incarnation are woven together in the biblical Jubilee Year, which serves as a periodic reminder for people to acknowledge and actively fulfill their responsibilities to God, to each other, and to all creation. Hart is in theology and environmental studies, Carroll College, Helena, MT.
--Haught, John F., "Is Religion Responsible for the Ecological Crisis?" Pages 183-201 in Haught, Science and Religion: From Conflict to Conversation. Mahway, NJ: Paulist Press, 1995.
--Heaf, David J., and Wirz, Johannes, eds., Intrinsic Value
and Integrity of Plants in the Context of Genetic Engineering,
Proceedings of an Ifgene workshop on 9-11 May 2001 at the Goetheanum,
Dornach, Switzerland. ISBN 0-9541035-0-5. Summary & downloadable
order form at:
Ecological integrity as an appropriate technology in crop production, socioeconomic and cultural integrity: their relation to crop plant integrity and husbandry. Examples:
* Christoph Rehmann-Sutter, "Dignity of plants and perception"
* -Klaus Peter Rippe, "Dignity of living beings and the possibility of a non-egalitarian biocentrism"
* Edith Lammerts van Bueren, "Ethical plant breeding techniques from an organic point of view"
* Michel Haring, "Does gene transfer violate the integrity of plants?"
* Christian Hiss, "A practising horticulturist's view on the integrity of plants"
--Helmy, Eric, "Teeth for a Paper Tiger: Redressing the Deficiencies of the Recovery Provisions of the Endangered Species Act," Environmental Law 30(no.4, 2000): 843-. The recovery planning provisions of the Endangered Species Act suffer from two notable defects: the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce need not promulgate recovery plans within any specified time frames, and such plans are not enforceable. In this comment, Mr. Helmy illustrates the ecological consequences and legal inadequacies of these defects. He then suggests how legislatures, administrative agencies, and practitioners may rectify or circumvent these defects to effect species recovery.
--Henderson, Caspar, "Coral Decline," The Ecologist 31(no.1, 2001 Feb 01): 58-. The stunning collapse of coral reef systems around the world.
--Hepburn, Ronald W., The Reach of the Aesthetic: Collected Essays on Art and Nature. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate, 2001. Ten essays, many of them already celebrated as seminal contributions to aesthetics, especially to the aesthetic appreciation of nature. Examples: "Trivial and serious in the aesthetic appreciation of nature", "Restoring the sacred as a concept of aesthetics"; "Values and cosmic imagination." And more. Hepburn is emeritus in philosophy, University of Edinburgh.
--Hettinger, Ned, "Defining and Evaluating Exotic Species," Western North American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):257-260. Exotics are species that are foreign to an ecological assemblage in the sense that they have not significantly adapted to resident biota or to local abiotic conditions, and resident species have not significantly adapted to them. Although they need not be human introduced nor damaging, when they are, a negative appraisal of such exotic species can be justified. Human introduction of exotics into natural systems typically increases human influence over those systems, thus diminishing their wildness. Valuing nature for its wildness is a rationale for the national parks' policy of letting nature take its course. Thus, Yellowstone Park has a strong reason for removing human-introduced exotics and for welcoming naturally migrating exotics. Disvaluing exotics that are neither human introduced nor damaging simply because they are foreign smacks of xenophobia. But given that wanton human mixing of species threatens to homogenize the earth's biological communities, biological nativism is justified as a way to preserve the diversity between such communities. Hettinger is in philosophy at the College of Charleston, Charleston, SC.
--Hill, Barry E., and Nicholas Targ, "The Link between Protecting Natural Resources and the Issue of Environmental Justice," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 28(no.1, 2000 Fall): 1-.
--Hoare, Richard, "African Elephants and Humans in Conflict:
The Outlook for Co-existence," Oryx 34 (no. 1, 2000):34-36.
--Hughes, Jennifer B., Gretchen C. Daily, and Paul R. Ehrlich, "Conservation of Insect Diversity: A Habitat Approach," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000 Dec 01): 1788-.
--Jackson, Leland J., Anett S. Trebitz, and Kathryn L. Cottingham, "An Introduction to the Practice of Ecological Modelling," Bioscience 50(no.8, 2000 Aug 01): 694-.
--James, Alexander, Kevin J. Gaston, and Andrew Balmford, "Can We Afford to Conserve Biodiversity?," Bioscience 51(no.1, 2001): 43-.
--Jensen, Mari N., "Common Sense and Common-Pool Resources," Bioscience 50(no.8, 2000 Aug 01): 638-.
--Johnson, K. Norman, Chair, and Committee of Scientists, USDA,
"Sustaining the People's Lands: Recommendations for Stewardship
of the National Forests and Grasslands into the Next Century,"
Journal of Forestry 97 (no. 5, May, 1999):5-12. Thirteen "scientists"
(although various of its members: law professor, natural resource
policy specialist, would not usually be called scientists) report
their recommendations to the Secretary of Agriculture. "The
committee believes that sustainability in all of its facets--ecological,
economic, and social--is the guiding star for stewardship of the
national forests and grasslands." "The committee recommends
that ecological sustainability provide a foundation upon which
the management for national forests and grasslands can contribute
to economic and social sustainability. Johnson, chair of the
committee, is in forest management and policy, Oregon State University.
One committee member, Roger A. Sedjo complains that the report is "Mission Impossible," Journal of Forestry 97 (no. 5, May, 1999):13-14. The report's "recommendation that `sustainability should be the guiding star for the stewardship of the national forests' is fundamentally different from the concept of management for `the sustainable production of multiple outputs'." Another problem is that National Forests locally plan for one thing; the U.S. Congress budgets for something else.
--Kaiser, Jocelyn, "Recreated Wetlands No Match for Original," Science 292(6 July 2001):25. A report by the National Research Council finds that the "no net loss" of wetlands program is a failure, and a major reason is that re-created wetlands, which developers are allowed to make in lieu of native wetlands that they sacrifice for development, are little more than cattail ponds. The report is available on web: Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act, NRC, June 2001: www.nap.edu/books/0309074320/html
--Kautz, Randy S., and James A. Cox, "Strategic Habitats
for Biodiversity Conservation in Florida," Conservation Biology
15(no.1, 2001 Feb 01): 55-.
--Kaya, Z., and D. J. Raynal, "Biodiversity and Conservation of Turkish Forests," Biological Conservation 97(no.2, 2001): 131-.
--Kelly, N. M., "Changes to the Landscape Pattern of Coastal North Carolina Wetlands under the Clean Water Act, 1984-1992," Landscape Ecology 16(no.1, 2001): 3-.
--Kimmerer, Robin Wall, "Native Knowledge for Native Ecosystems," Journal of Forestry 98 (no. 8, August, 2000):4-9. "When European settlers first set foot on this continent, they were awe-struck by the bounty of the forest, its abundance of plant foods, fish, and game. They described the indigenous people as living off the `provender of the forest primeval.' The colonists were right about the abundance but mistaken about its source. Far from being a wilderness, the land was intensively managed by Native Americans to increase the availability of food." "Indigenous knowledge systems have much to offer in the contemporary development of forest restoration. ... Native people's traditional knowledge of the land differs from scientific knowledge, both have strengths that suggest the value of a partnership between them." Kimmerer is in forestry, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse.
--Kitossa, Tamari, "Same Difference: Biocentric Imperialism and the Assault on Indigenous Culture and Hunting," Environments 28(no.2, 2000): 23-.
--Kline, Philip, "Grizzly Bear Blues: A Case Study of the Endangered Species Act's Delisting Process and Recovery Plan Requirements," Environmental Law 31(no.2, 2001): 371-. Analyzes the Endangered Species Act's delisting process by specifically focusing on the current delisting controversy surrounding the grizzly bear. Mr. Kline discusses the current procedure, recent changes, and the current debate surrounding reauthorization.
--Knegtering, E., H.J. Van Der Windt, and A.J.M. Schoot Uiterkamp, "Trends in the Legal Status of Indigenous Species," Environmental Conservation 27(no.4, 2000): 404-.
--Koontz, Tomas M., "Money Talks--but to Whom? Financial Versus Nonmonetary Motivations in Land Use Decisions," Society & Natural Resources 14(no.1, 2001): 51-.
--Lacy, Peter M., "Our Sedimentation Boxes Runneth Over: Public Lands Soil as the Missing Link in Holistic Natural Resource Protection," Environmental Law 31(no.2, 2001):433-. Mr. Lacy explores the extent of the United States "soil law" in the handful of soil-related provisions buried in various public land and natural resource laws, concluding that the lack of a public lands soil law leaves the soil resource significantly under-protected. He argues that because soils are critical and life-sustaining ecosystem components, and holistic approach to natural resources protection requires that soils be protected to avoid undermining much of the legal protection afforded to other natural resources.
--Laidlaw, Ruth K., "Effects of Habitat Disturbance and Protected Areas on Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000): 1639-.
--Lambert Colomeda, Lorelei Anne, Keepers of the Central Fire: Issues in Ecology for Indigenous Peoples. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1999.
--Land Ethic: Meeting Human Needs for the Land and its Resources. No editor listed. Bethesda, Md: Society of American Foresters, 1998. ISBN 0-939970-76-7. Preface by William Forbes. Introduction by James E. Coufal. Two dozen contributions, often previously published, often in the Journal of Forestry. The ongoing discussion among foresters (and philosophers, including J. Baird Callicott) about the Society of American Forester's professional land ethic.
--Langholz, Jeff, James Lassole, and John Schelhas, "Incentives for Biological Conservation: Costa Rica's Private Wildlife Refuge Program," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000): 1735-.
--Lea, Nancy Smith, "Colliding Modes of Transportation; Issues of Inequity and Unsustainability," Environments 28(no.2, 2000): 51-.
--Lehari, Kaia, and Sarapik, Virve, eds., Koht ja Paik, Place
and Location, Estonian Academy of Arts, Proceedings. 2000. ISSN
1406-2895. ISBN 9985-60-901-8. Papers are either in English
only or in Estonian and also translated into English. Features
environmental aesthetics. From a seminar, "Place and Location,"
held at the Estonian Art Academy, December 1998. Twleve contributors.
* Yrjö Sepänmaa, "Face to Face with the Landscape,"
* Arnold Berleant, "The Wilderness City: An Essay on Metaphorical Experience"
* Kaia Lehari, "The Road that Takes and Points"
* Marja Kallasmaa, "Places, Names and Place Names"
(Thanks to Sven Arntzen, Telemark College, Norway.)
--Lewis Jr., William M., Stephen K. Hamilton, and James F. Saunders III, "Ecological Determinism on the Orinoco Floodplain," Bioscience 50(no.8, 2000 Aug 01): 681-.
--Light, Andrew, and David Roberts, "Toward New Foundations in Philosophy of Technology: Mitcham and Wittgenstein on Descriptions," Research In Philosophy & Technology 19 2000): 125-.
--Linzey, Andrew, "Against Biodiversity," The Animals' Agenda 21(no.2, March, 2001): 21-. "Managing" nature can often mean meddling where we don't belong.
--Liston-Heyes, Catherine, "Setting the Stakes in Environmental Contests," Journal of Environmental Economics And Management 41(no.1, 2001): 1-.
--Lomborg, Bjorn, The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Each decade sees its new environmental obsessions. In the 1960s it was pesticides and the population explosion. In the 1970s there was the oil crisis, the imminent failure of the food supply and the fear of nuclear power. In the 1980s the deserts were advancing, acid rain was killing trees, the ozone layer was thinning and the elephant was on the brink of extinction. In the 1990s we had retreating rain forests, falling sperm counts, plagues of new diseases, genetically modified crops and, of course, climate change. How many of these came true? If you take the trouble to examine the facts, you will find a remarkable thing. On all but the most recent scares, where the jury is still out, the alarmists were badly wrong. There has been no rise in cancer caused by chemicals, population growth slowed rather than accelerated, oil reserves grew rather than fell, food production per head increased even in poor countries, nuclear accidents were few and minor, deserts did not advance, acid rain killed no forests, the damage to the ozone layer was minimal, the elephant was never in danger of extinction, rain forests are still 80 per cent intact, sperm counts did not fall. Lomborg concedes that humans probably are adding to natural warming trends by producing greenhouse gases. But he is scathing about the exaggerated claims and mistaken remedies offered by the environmental movement, and argues that we should be spending money now on improving the lot of the developing world, rather than trying to limit carbon dioxide emissions by regulation. "Global warming is not anywhere near the most important problem facing the world". Lomberg is a Danish statistics professor.
--Lopes, M. Aparecida, and Stephen F. Ferrari, "Effects of Human Colonization on the Abundance and Diversity of Mammals in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000): 1658-.
--Loy, Frank E., "The United States Policy on the Kyoto Protocol and Climate Change," Natural Resources & Environment 15(no.3, 2001 Wint): 152-.
--MacCleery, Douglas W., "Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic: Is It Only Half a Loaf?" Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 10, October, 2000):5-7. Leopold's land ethic, increasingly embraced by Americans, only gets us halfway there; the rest of the ethic is reducing consumption. "If one accepts the extension of ethics to the management of land, it would seem to be a relatively minor leap of logic to accept the idea that one's consumption choices--which also affect land--have an ethical content as well." But few Americans make this connection. Most live with a disconnect--wanting the full loaf when half a loaf might be enough. "Any ethical or moral foundation for ecological sustainability is weak indeed unless there is a corresponding focus on the consumption side of the natural resource equation." MacCleery is in forest management with the USDA Forest Service, Washington. With three commentaries, one by John Lemons, one by Valerie A. Luzadis, one by Alberto Goetzl.
--May, David S., "Intellectual Property and Environmental Law," Natural Resources & Environment 15(no.3, 2001 Wint): 195-.
--McCarty, John P., "Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001 Apr 01): 320-.
--McDorman, Ted L., "The 1999 Canada-United States Pacific Salmon Agreement: Resolved and Unresolved Issues," Journal of Environmental Law And Litigation 15(no.1, 2000): 1-.
--McFague, Sally, Life Abundant: Rethinking Theology and Economy for a Planet in Peril. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001. The global marketplace and consumer society seduces us with an attractive and compelling vision of an abundant life, but behind the vision are injustices, a growing chasm between rich and poor around the globe, and the destroying or degrading of our Earth's ecosystems, upon which we and all species depend. Christians glimpse a very different abundant life, one that is congruent with ecological realities, with justice, and with God's intention for the entire creation. McFague is at the Vanderbilt School of Theology.
--McNeill, J. R., Something New under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth Century. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.
--McShea, Robert J. and McShea, Daniel W., "Biology and Value Theory." Pages 307-327 in Maienschein, Jane, and Ruse, Michael, eds., Biology and the Foundations of Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. "A Biologically based, naturalistic, species-universal, and prescriptive value theory" (p. 307). "The `emotive,' `human nature,' or `psychological' basis" of ethics. "Feeling or emotion is the sole possible motivation to action, ... all or almost all humans have the same evolved species-specific feelings" and a universal prescriptive ethic can be based on these emotions. Robert McShea, deceased, taught political science at Boston University; Daniel McShea is in zoology at Duke University.
--Meffe, Gary K., "Crisis in a Crisis Discipline," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001): 303-.
--Milani, Raffaele, "The Aesthetic Exploitation of Landscape", in Ales Erjavec, Lev Kreft and Marija Bergamo (utg.), Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Aesthetics Pt. II, Acta philosophica XX (Ljubljana: Filozofski institut ZRC SAZU, 1999), pp. 121-130.
--Mitchell, Don, "The Lure of the Local: Landscape Studies at the End of a Troubled Century," Progress In Human Geography 25(no.2, 2001): 269-.
--Morriss, Andrew P., and Richard L. Stroup, "Quartering Species: The `Living Constitution,' the Third Amendment, and the Endangered Species Act," Environmental Law 30(no.4, 2000): 769-. Mr. Morriss and Mr. Stroup argue that the Endangered Species Act (ESA) violates the Third Amendment by forcing landowners to quarter endangered species. They further claim that the ESA fails to protect endangered species by misallocating the burdens of that quartering.
--Muller, Robert N., and David S. Naehr, "Are Universities Leaders in the Stewardship of Conservation Lands?," Bioscience 50(no.8, 2000): 707-.
--Myers, Norman and Kent, Jennifer, Perverse Subsidies: How Misused Tax Dollars Harm the Environment and the Economy. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001.
--Mynott, Pam, "Beleaguered British Badgers," The Animals' Agenda 20 (No. 3, 2000 May 01): 11.
--Newberry, Beatrice, "Running with gorillas," The Ecologist 30 (No. 4, 2000): 44-45. A unique conservation project in West Africa (Gabon) is turning the received wisdom about gorilla survival on its head, and may provide new hope for the survival of the great apes.
--Nicholson, Charles F., Robert W. Blake, and John Schelhas, "Environmental Impacts of Livestock in the Developing World," Environment 43(no.2, March, 2001): 7-. The combination of population growth and rising demands for meat and dairy products is increasing stress on the environmental and natural resources. How can the world produce enough food while minimizing deforestation, loss of biological diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions.
--Nixon, Will, "The Species Only a Mother Could Love," The Amicus Journal 21 (no. 2, Summer 1999):28-32. "Freshwater mussels are the most endangered order of animals in the country. Does anybody give a damn?" 10% of species are already extinct. 70% of the remaining 300 species are at risk. 69 species are formally protected under the Endangered Species Act. One problem: "It's hard to feel sorry for a mussel. It is simply not that easy to get worked up about a cold-blooded, gluey morsel of mollusk flesh lodged in a drab brown shell at the bottom of a creek." Other problems: Dams and degraded rivers and streams.
--Nunez, Theodore W., "Catholic Social Ecology: A Reply to Bookchin," Providence: Studies in Western Civilization 5: 3/4 (Fall/Winter 2000): 115-129.
--Nunez, Theodore W., "Land Use Policy and the Ecological Common Good: Responding to the Problem of Urban Sprawl." Pages 1-36 in Eigo, Francis A., ed. Ethical Dilemmas in the New Millennium (II). Villanova, PA: Villanova Univ. Press, 2001.
--Nurden, Robert, "Baka Beyond," The Ecologist 31(no.4, 2001 May 01): 54-. Robert Nurden shows how central Africa's Baka pygmies are suffering both from `development' and from well-meaning attempts to help them.
--Ogden, John C., "Maintaining Diversity in the Oceans: Issues for the New U.S. Administration," Environment 43(no.3, April, 2001): 28-. The notion of the ocean as an inexhaustible resource is being exploded by the realities of overfishing, habitat destruction, coastal population growth, and ocean warming. Cooperation among nations, states, and organizations is essential to maintain marine diversity.
--Place, Frank, and Keijiro Otsuka, "Population, Tenure, and Natural Resource Management: The Case of Customary Land Area in Malawi," Journal of Environmental Economics And Management 41(no.1, Jan., 2001): 13-.
--Pletscher, Daniel H., and Michael K. Schwartz, "The Tyranny of Population Growth," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2000): 1918- .
--Pollution in the Arctic and Antarctic. Polar Record, vol. 37, no. 202, July 2001 is a theme issue devoted to pollution and its remediation in frozen ground, Arctic and Antarctic, permafrost, fuel spills, waste disposal, landfills.
--Pompetzki, Monika, "Papers," Environments 28(no.2, 2000): 11-. Domination, Alienation, Integration: Three Models of Human-Environment Relations Applied to Land Use in Niagara.
--Pottinger, Lori, "Dammed If You Do," The Ecologist 31(no.1, 2001 Feb 01): 50-. The new report from the World Commission on Dams is a strong condemnation of much of the world's dam-building.
--Pouta, Eija, and Mika Rekola, "The Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Willingness to Pay for Abatement of Forest Regeneration," Society & Natural Resources 14(no.2, 2001): 93-.
--Povilitis, Tony, "Toward a Robust Natural Imperative for Conservation," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, 2001): 533-.
--Powers, Melissa, "The Spirit of the Salmon: How the Tribal Restoration Plan Could Restore Columbia Basin Salmon," Environmental Law 30(no.4, 2000): 867-. Columbia River salmon have undergone significant losses in populations due to habitat degradation and destruction. In the face of continued salmon population declines and the real threat of extinction, several fish management entities have developed various salmon recovery plans over the years. Ms. Powers argues for state and federal agencies to adopt the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission's "Spirit of the Salmon" tribal restoration plan. She contends that the tribal restoration plan is the best hope for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. Ms. Powers details the plan's main elements, how the plan could lead to salmon recovery, and the significance of the plan as a unique exercise of tribal sovereignty.
--Pressey, R.L., and R.M. Cowling, "Reserve Selection Algorithms and the Real World," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, Feb. 2001): 275-.
--Puth, Linda M., and Karen A. Wilson, "Boundaries and Corridors as a Continuum of Ecological Flow Control: Lessons from Rivers and Streams," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, Feb. 2001): 21-.
--Putz, Francis E., Geoffrey M. Blate, and John Robinson, "Tropical Forest Management and Conservation of Biodiversity: An Overview," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, Feb. 2001): 7-.
--Radcliffe, Samuel J., "A Professional Code of Ethics for the 21st Century: The Ethics Committee's Proposal," Journal of Forestry 98 (no. 7, July 2000):16-21. Report by the chair of the Society of American Forester's Ethics Committee, proposing a new Code of Ethics for the SAF. Radcliffe is president, George Banzhaf & Company, Milwaukee.
--Radcliffe, Samuel J., "Core Values, Ethics, and Forestry." Pages 151-158 in Forestry Forum: The Land Ethic. Bethesda, MD: The Society of American Foresters, 1998. Radcliffe is president, George Banzhaf & Company, Milwaukee.
--Rangan, Haripriya, and Marcus B. Lane, "Indigenous Peoples and Forest Management: Comparative Analysis of Institutional Approaches in Australia and India," Society & Natural Resources 14(no.2, Feb. 2001): 145-.
--Redford, Kent H., and Andrew Taber, "Writing the Wrongs: Developing a Safe-Fail Culture in Conservation," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, Dec. 2000): 1567-.
--Reid, Walter V., "Biodiversity, Ecosystem Change, and International Development: Issues for the New U.S. Administration," Environment 43(no.3, Apr. 2001): 20-. Unless major steps are taken to restore and protect the Earth's ecosystems, scientists predict that tens of thousands of species will likely go extinct. Why is it in the best interest of the United States to address the biodiversity problem? What domestic and international actions should the U.S. administration take?
--Reiner, David M., "Climate Impasse: How the Hague Negotiations Failed," Environment 43(no.2, Mar. 2001): 36-. The recent climate negotiations at The Hague, which promised to build on progress made during earlier talks, ended in disappointment. Ambiguities in the Kyoto Protocol and the intransigence of individual nations and alliances contributed to this failure.
--Reinhart, Daniel P., et al, "Effects of Exotic Species on Yellowstone's Grizzly Bears," Western North American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):277-288. Exotic species may lead to the loss of substantial quality grizzly bear foods, including much of the bison, trout, and pine seeds that Yellowstone grizzly bears currently depend on.
--Rekola, M., E. Pouta, and C.-Z. Li, "Incommensurable Preferences in Contingent Valuation: The Case of Natura 2000 Network in Finland," Environmental Conservation 27(no.3, Sept. 2000): 260-.
--Revkin, Andrew C., "A Message in Eroding Glacial Ice: Humans Are Turning Up the Heat," New York Times, Feb. 12, 2001, p. A1, A4. Kilimanjaro's icecap is on a hasty retreat, at a pace such that the snows of Kilimanjaro will disappear in fifteen years. Snow and ice on tropical alpine mountains is disappearing fastest of all, though this is retreating from Montana to Mount Everest to the Swiss Alps. Scandinavia seems to be an exception, apparently because shifting storm tracks in Europe are dumping more snow there. Various adverse effects on people and wildlife.
--Rigg, Catherine M., "Orchestrating Ecosystem Management; Challenges and Lessons from Sequoia National Forest," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, Feb. 2001): 78-.
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Natural and Unnatural; Wild and
Cultural," Western North American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):267-276.
In a theme issue on exotic species in Yellowstone National Park.
Originally the Aubrey L. Haines Distinguished Lecture at the
Fifth Biennial Scientific Conference on the Great Yellowstone
Ecosystem, National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, WY,
October 11-13, 1999.
Yellowstone National Park's mission and policy can be clarified by analysis of the "natural" and the "unnatural." "Nature" is a comprehensive word, on some uses excluding nothing; more useful is a contrast distinguishing "nature" and "culture." Specifying "wild nature" denotes spontaneous nature absent human influence. Critics claim that the meaning of "wild nature," especially of "wilderness" is a foil of "culture." Pristine nature, often romanticized, is contrasted with a technological and industrial culture. By this account, "wilderness" is a social construction.
Nevertheless "wild nature" successfully denotes, outside culture, an evolutionary and ecological natural history, which remains present on the Yellowstone landscape, jeopardized by numerous human influences, including the invasions of exotic species. Natural processes have returned in the past, as when native Americans left the landscape. Natural processes can be preserved today, because of, rather than in spite of, park management. Over much of the North American landscape nature is managed and at an end. Yellowstone provides an opportunity to encounter and to conserve "untrammeled" nature as an end in itself, past, present, and future. Key words: nature, natural, wild, pristine, wilderness, culture, management, exotics. Rolston is in philosophy at Colorado State University.
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Enforcing Environmental Ethics: Civic Law and Natural Value." Pages 349-369 in James P. Sterba, ed., Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives (London: Routledge, 2001). How far ought environmental values be enforced by legislation? Although caring and virtue may be preferred over law-like ethics, enforcement is more widespread than often recognized, extending from Acts of Congress to lighting campfires. The environment is a commons and this necessitates our acting in concert, with enforcements ranging from incentives to penalties, prison, even death. Environmental ethics needs and stands in some tension with democracy. Legislation ought protect animals, species, and ecosystems. Ought it ever defend these against basic human interests? Can such legislated ethics function internationally, as with a universal human right to a quality environment? Rolston is in philosophy at Colorado State University.
--Rosenzweig, Cynthia, and William D. Solecki, "Climate Change and a Global City: Learning from New York," Environment 43(no.3, Apr. 2001): 8-. This case study of metropolitan New York--supported by data from the Metropolitan East Coast Regional Assessment--analyzes the multidimensional and interactive effects of climate change on megacities. The complex nature of these impacts promises to challenge urban environmental managers worldwide.
--Ross, Stephen David, The Gift of Property: Betraying Genitivity, Economy, and Ecology, An Ethic of the Earth. Albany, State University of New York Press, 2001.
--Rothenberg, David and Ulvaeus, Marta, eds., The World and the Wild. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2001. Wilderness as a global issue. Wilderness has an important place in the environmental thought and policy of any nation, industrial or developing. With contributions from Nepal, Borneo, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, India, South Africa, and the United States. Wilderness is not a northern colonialist conceit irrelevant in the plans of third world countries. Contributors include: Vance Martin, Pramod Parajuli, Zeese Papanikolas, Sahotra Sarkar, Philip Cafaro and Monish Verma, David Western in exchange with John Terborgh, Ian Player, William W Bevis, Kathleen Harrison, Tom Vanderbilt, Antonio Carlos Diegues, Dan Imhoff, Edward A. Whitesell, Evan Eisenberg, and Damien Arabagali. Reprints, often from Terra Nova.
--Rowland, F. Sherwood, "Climate Change and Its Consequences: Issues for the New U.S.," Environment 43(no.2, Mar. 2001): 28-. Most scientists agree that global warming exists. Although uncertainty remains about its effects, its threat should be addressed by implementing actions to control the drivers of climate change, developing climate models with greater predictive power, and exploring responses to its possible effects.
--Russell, Keith C., and Chuck Harris, "Dimensions of Community Autonomy in Timber Towns in the Inland Northwest," Society & Natural Resources 14(no.1, Jan. 2001): 21-.
--Rutledge, Daniel T., Christopher A. Lepczyk, and Jianguo Liu, "Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Endangered Species Hotspots in the United States," Conservation Biology 15(no.2, Apr. 2001): 475-.
--Sarewitz, Daniel, "Science and Environmental Policy: An Excess of Objectivity." Pages 79-98 in Frodeman, Robert, eds., Earth Matters: The Earth Sciences, Philosophy, and the Claims of Community. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000. Scientists and decision makers alike tend to view the role of science in environmental policy as prescriptive. The goal is to create objective information that can cut through the morass of politics and enable wise decisions. Sarewitz claims that in the real world this happy result rarely emerges. What one finds instead are politicians using science to back their political positions. But rather than seeing this as a problem caused by politicians distorting the scientific facts for partisan purposes, Sarewitz suggests another possibility: that nature itself resists unitary characterization. The appeal to science to resolve our environmental questions thus presents us with an "excess of objectivity." Science can better serve to help us reach solutions we have set adjudicating social goals prior to the science. Sarewitz is with the Center for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, Columbia University, and long worked for the U.S. Congress in science policy.
--Schullery, Paul and Whittlesey, Lee, "Mountain Goats and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: A Prehistoric and Historical Context," Western North American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):289-307. Native mountain goats were near Yellowstone in the past but no authority has located them there previously. Some goats are now found in Yellowstone, presumably migrating from introduced populations in nearby Montana, though possibly from native populations in Idaho further away. Park policy does not welcome the goats. Both authors are with Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone Center for Resources.
--Schullery, Paul, "What is Natural? Philosophical Analysis and Yellowstone Practice," Western North American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):255-256. Introducing a series of articles on exotics in Yellowstone National Park, from the 5th Biennial Science Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.
--Schuster, Ervin G., and Krista M. Gebert, "Property Tax Equivalency on Federal Resource Management Lands," Journal of Forestry 99(no.5, May 2001): 30-. A look at the relationship between federal land payments and the likely property taxes those lands would generate if taxed at the same rate as other lands.
--Shaikh, Sobia Shaheen, "Ideas," Environments 28(no.2, 2000): 77-. Conceptualizing Linked Social and Ecological Injustice.
--Sideris, Lisa H., The Limits of Theodicy: Ecological Theology, Natural Selection, and the Problem of Suffering in Nature, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Religious Studies, Indiana University, 2000. A critical examination of Christian environmental ethics. Much ecological theology has ignored natural science, particularly evolutionary perspectives. This neglect produces practical and theoretical problems, many of which revolve around the problem of suffering in nature, and whether it can and ought to be eradicated. Invoking an an ecological model of nature that resembles pre-Darwinian and Romantic views, such ethicists issue an imperative to love and liberate nature from a suffering which is, in fact, integral to nature. Sideris proposes an alternative approach that incorporates elements of science and theology, arguing that it is possible to extend a qualified, less-interventionist, and more discriminating ethic of love to nature. The advisor was Richard B. Miller.
--Simberloff, Daniel, "Biological Invasions--How Are They
Affecting Us, and What Can We Do about Them?" Western North
American Naturalist 61(no. 3, 2001):308-315. Nonindigenous species
affect native ecosystems, communities, and populations in myriad
ways, from plants (and a few animals) that overgrow entire communities,
to plants and animals that hybridize individual native species
to a sort of genetic extinction. Further, nonindigenous species
sometimes interact to worsen each other's impact. These impacts
are commonly seen in national parks throughout the United States.
The key policy change required to alleviate this threat is a shift from blacklists of prohibited species and a presumption of harmlessness to a combination of white and blacklists and a presumption that any species may be damaging. This new guiding philosophy must be inculcated at international and national levels, which will not be easy during a period when free trade is seen as an unmitigated blessing. Within the United States, enhanced cooperation and coordination will be required among all parties (i.e. federal, state, and local agencies as well as private entities) charged with managing invasions. Internationally, the key forum is the World Trade Organization.
Various management tools available to combat nonindigenous species have produced some striking successes, but new research could improve their effectiveness and reliability. There is a particular need for research on ecosystem management to control introduced species. In the face of the increasingly publicized onslaught of invaders, there is a widespread tendency to view increased biotic homogenization as inevitable. However, advances in both policy and technology could greatly slow this process and perhaps (in consort with restoration measures) even reverse it. The necessary pressure and resources to effect these changes must come from an increasingly alarmed and vocal public. Simberloff is in ecology and evolutionary biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
--Sixel, Freidrich W., in cooperation with Luther, Bladev R., Nature in Our Culture: A Study in the Anthropology and Sociology of Knowing. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2001. Environmental problems are not a consequence of incorrect science but of the history of Western society. The dominant culture that has developed in modernity serves, primarily, the dominance of that culture. An egoistic instrumentalism forces the modern individual to view everything in terms of its usefulness. Only a culture that resurrects in itself its own "Nature-ness" will rectify our present problematic Nature. With particular attention to Goethe.
--Smith, David M., "Geography and Ethics: Progress, or More of the Same?," Progress In Human Geography 25(no.2, 2001): 261-.
--Smyth, A. V., "Foresters and the Land: The Evolution of SAF's (Society of American Foresters') Land Ethic," Journal of Forestry 93(no. 9, 1995):22-25.
--Society of American Foresters, The Land Ethic: Meeting Human Needs for the Land and its Resources. No editor listed. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters, 1998. About fifteen reprints, largely from the Journal of Forestry, dealing with the land ethic. Leopold and his critics. J. Baird Callicott and his critics. Laura Westra on integrity. James Coufal. Jack Ward Thomas. And others.
--Sonnekus, L. P., and Breytenbach, G. J., "Conservation Business: Sustaining Africa's Future," Koedoe (Research Journal, South African Parks) 44, no. 1, 2001, pp. 105-123. Protected areas in Africa suffer from a lack of funds and are often surrounded by extremely poor communities. Many conservation staff assume that business and profitability are unethical and will destroy natural resources. But there are ways to integrate entrepreneurial thinking with conservation principles and ethics. This is illustrated from a workshop that assisted conservationists at the South African Wildlife College (near Kruger National Park). The group involved identified many innovative ways in which they could derive sustainable income from natural resources while simultaneously achieving their conservation objectives. Sonnekus is in education, University of South Africa, Pretoria. Breytenbach is with the South African Integrated Development Initiative, Cramerview, R.S.A.
--Spear, John R., "Conservation Medicine: The Changing View of Biodiversity," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, 2001): 1913-.
--Sterba, James P., "Environmentalism: The Human Bias in Traditional Ethics and How to Correct It." In Sterba, Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Singer's Utilitarian Environmentalism. Regan's Kantian environmentalism. Taylor's Kantian environmentalism. Priority principles for biocentric pluralism, correcting other positions. Two examples (modifying Taylor): (1) A Principle of Human Defense: Actions that defend oneself and other human beings against harmful aggression are permissible even when they necessitate killing or harming individual animals or plants or even destroying whole species or ecosystems. (2) A Principle of Human Preservation: Actions that are necessary for meeting one's basic needs or the basic needs of other human beings are permissible even when they require aggressing against the basic needs of individual animals and plants or even of whole species or ecosystems. (pp. 33- 34). Two other principles are of (3) Disproportionality and (4) Restitution. Sterba is in philosophy, University of Notre Dame.
--Straede, Steffen, and Finn Helles, "Park-People Conflict Resolution in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal: Buying Time at High Cost," Environmental Conservation 27(no.4, Dec. 2001): 368-.
--Straede, Steffen, and Helles, Finn, "Park-people Conflict Resolution in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal: Buying Time at High Cost?" Environmental Conservation 27 (no. 4, 2000):368-381. Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal, is a major tiger and rhino sanctuary, also a dozen other charismatic species, located in lowland Nepal (the Terai), and surrounded by an exploding, impoverished human population. Local peoples have been permitted to cut grasses, mostly for thatch, in the park ten days a year; they also take much fuelwood without penalty, though this is officially illegal. The authors present survey data and argue that forest conservation is being compromised, habitat being degraded, and that, whether one is concerned for the tigers and rhinos or not, even the grass cutting program is not sustainable. The deeper problems are only being postponed. They recommend some possible changes for the better. The authors are in forestry and natural resource economics, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark.
--Strohmaier, David J., The Seasons of Fire: Reflections on Fire in the West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2001. The moral nexus between fire, humans, and the landscape of the American West. Epistemological role of natural phenomena, such as fire. Fire as axis mundi. sacrament, object of fear, and object of reverie. An apologetic on behalf of the value of fire, and on behalf of those who find value in watching, tending, and actively engaging fire. Strohmaier, for many years a fire fighter himself, has also studied environmental ethics, and is now a public comment analyst with the U.S. Forest Service in Missoula, MT. ISEE will sponsor an "Author Meets Critics" session on this book at the Pacific APA in Seattle, 2002.
--Swenson, J.J., and J. Franklin, "The Effects of Future Urban Development on Habitat Fragmentation in the Santa Monica Mountains," Landscape Ecology 15(no.8, Dec. 2000): 713-.
--Terborgh, John, "In the Company of Humans," Natural
History 109(no. 4, May 2000):54-63. Animals that prefer the company
of humans. "Sometimes wild animals are attracted to people.
They seem to weigh the risks of association with us and conclude
that under certain circumstances, hanging out with Homo sapiens
is the safest thing to do." One example is a peccary that,
injured, took up living near a research station in the Amazon,
near Trail 1, a main thoroughfare. "Our peccary must have
decided that the risk of consorting with humans was less than
the one it faced by remaining alone in the forest. Perhaps it
had noticed that the jaguar was seldom in the vicinity of the
station. Whatever its reasoning, the huangana [peccary] was right.
Its vigor and agility steadily improved until, one day, a herd
of its species crossed Trail 1 and our peccary was gone."
Terborgh is director, Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke
--Tesi, Moses K., ed., The Environment and Development in Africa. Lanham, MD: Lexington Press, 2000.
--Thiel, Jo, Land Communities, Land Ethics, and Private Land, M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, fall 2001. Three metaphysical views of land are analyzed: the market view, the mechanistic view, and the land community view. The land community view is most adequate and leads to a land ethic, with the goal of land health, distinguished from the pristine integrity of wild nature. Land health is the responsibility of private landowners as well as appropriate public policy. Land owners must envision themselves as members of three types of community in order correctly to pursue a land ethic: the ecosystemic community, the ethical community, and the social community. Thiel is now in a Ph.D. program with the University of Colorado, Denver, in public affairs, focusing on non-profit environmental organizations and their role in environmental policy. Holmes Rolston was the principal advisor.
--Thompson, John, O. J. Reichman, and Sharon Y. Strauss, "Frontiers
of Ecology," Bioscience 51(no.1, Jan. 2001): 15-.
--Uhl, Christopher, and Amy Anderson, "Green Destiny: Universities Leading the Way to a Sustainable Future," Bioscience 51(no.1, Jan. 2001): 36-.
--Urquhart, Stephen, "Protecting Access to Federal Lands: The Roads Less and Less Traveled," Natural Resources & Environment 15(no.3, 2000 Wint): 192-.
--Walls, Margaret, and Karen Palmer, "Upstream Pollution, Downstream Waste Disposal, and the Design of Comprehensive Environmental Policies," Journal of Environmental Economics And Management 41(no.1, Jan. 2001): 94-.
--Walpole, Matthew J., Harold J. Goodwin, and Kari G.R. Ward, "Pricing Policy for Tourism in Protected Areas: Lessons from Komodo National Park, Indonesia," Conservation Biology 15(no.1, Feb. 2001): 218-.
--Walton, R. Brent, and Daniel J. Gunter, "United States v. Locke: The Supreme Court Preempts States from Protecting Their Navigable Waters and Marine Resources from Oil Tanker Spills," Journal of Environmental Law And Litigation 15(no.1, 2000): 37-.
--Warren, Mary Anne, "The Moral Status of Nonhuman Life." Pages 370-385 in James P. Sterba, ed., Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives (London: Routledge, 2001). Sterba bridges anthropocentric and biocentric forms of environmental ethics with a compromise. He accords moral status to all living organisms, as well as to species and ecosystems, but retains a limited preference for human over nonhuman interests. I agree with this strategy, but disagree with the way in which his principles treat all nonhuman organisms as having essentially the same moral status. I argue that organisms of different species often differ in moral status, both because of differences in their intrinsic value, and because of their different relationships to human beings and terrestrial ecosystems. Warren is in philosophy at San Francisco State University.
--Westing, Arthur H., "Core Values for Sustainable Development," Environmental Conservation 23(no. 3, 1996):218-225. Analyzes United Nations and other international agreements to find that the core values include: (1) An environment of quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being. (2) Solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. (3) Education on environmental matters to create enlightened opinion and responsible conduct. (4) In formulating long-term plans for economic development, due account shall be taken of the long-term capacity of natural systems. (4) Nature shall be respected and its essential processes shall not be impaired.
--Whitten, Tony, Derek Holmes, and Kathy Mackinnon, "Conservation Biology: A Displacement Behavior for Academia?," Conservation Biology (no.1, Feb. 2001): 1-. Academic conservation biology and biologists were quite ineffective in the dramatic deforestation of Sumatra, an all too typical case. "Perhaps conservation biology is merely a displacement activity for concerned biologists within the academic system. Deep inside they would really love to attack the alpha male of conglomerate-led forest destruction, but a lack of access and funds, and the political and social complexities of conservation management, means they huddle together, metaphorically scratching their backsides and snorting" (p. 3).
--Wilkie, David, Ellen Shaw, and Philippe Auzel, "Roads, Development, and Conservation in the Congo Basin Roads," Conservation Biology 14(no.6, Dec. 2000): 1614-.
--Wilkinson, Bill, "Sustainability and Small Ownerships," Journal of Forestry 99(no.2, 2001): 30-.
--Williams, Daniel R., and Stewart, Susan I., "Sense of Place: An Elusive Concept That Is Finding a Home in Ecosystem Management," Journal of Forestry 96 (no. 5, May, 1998):18-23. "Sense of place" offers resource managers a way to identify and respond to the emotional and spiritual bonds people form with certain spaces. Reason for the increasing interest in sense of place. Four recommendations for managers: (1) Know and use the variety of local place-names. (2) Communicate management plans in locally recognized place-specific names. (3) Understand the politics of places. (4) Pay close attention to places that have special but different meanings to different groups. Devil's Tower, Wyoming, is an example: rock climbers versus a sacred site. Williams is in Leisure Studies, University of Illinois. Stewart is a research social scientist, USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Evanston, IL.
--Williams, Ivor D., and Nicholas V.C. Polunin, "Differences between Protected and Unprotected Reefs of the Western Caribbean in Attributes Preferred by Dive Tourists," Environmental Conservation 27(no.4, Dec. 2000): 382-.
--Wilson, Patrick Impero, "Deregulating Endangered Species Protection," Society & Natural Resources 14(no.2, Feb. 2001): 161-.
--Wolters, Volkmar, Whendee L. Silver, and Johannes A. van Veen, "Effects of Global Changes on Above- and Belowground Biodiversity in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Implications for Ecosystem Functioning," Bioscience 50(no.12, Dec. 2000): 1089-.
--Wood, B., "Maintaining Vegetation Diversity on Reserves: The Relationship between Persistence and Species Richness," Biological Conservation 97(no.2, 2001): 199-.
--Wynn, Mark, God and Goodness: A Natural Theological Perspective. London: Routledge, 1999. The world is impressive, and suggests a divine orgin, because of its beauty and its openness to the emergence of life, sentience, and mind. The Earth is an integral whole, and its disvalues can best be interpreted in an ecological context. When natural phenomena are considered in their ecosystemic context, nature appears to be neither wasteful, nor cruel, nor blind. It is unsurprising that we often fail to grasp the value of the natural world, because we lack the necessary necessary familiarity with relevant ecological theory. Wynn is in philosophy of religion, Australian Catholic University.
--Xu, Z., and Bengston, D. N., "Trends in National Forest Values Among Forestry Professionals, Environmentalists, and the News Media, 1982-1993," Society and Natural Resources 10(1997):43-59. Forest values are "relatively enduring conceptions of the `good' related to forests and forest ecosystems" (p. 44). There has been "a shift in forest values away from easily defined and measured economic values toward values that are much more difficult to measure and that often been neglected or ignored" (p. 55).
--Zimmerman, Michael J., "In Defense of the Concept of Intrinsic Value," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 29(1999):369-410. Intrinsic value, though with a long rich history, including that in G. W. Moore, has come under recent attack. These attacks are unsuccessful, with particular attention to that of Judith Jarvis Thomson. Positive arguments are elusive; nevertheless it seems clear that morally sensitive persons will favor certain things, but not others, for their own sakes. Zimmerman is at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
Scientists endorse expanding forests and buying and selling
credits to fight global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change is endorsing two strategies that have been points
of contention between the U.S. and Europe in efforts to complete
a climate treaty. The panel concludes that by protecting existing
forests and planting new ones, countries could blunt warming by
sopping up 10-20 percent of the heat-trapping carbon dioxide.
Also the cost to industrialized countries could be cut in half
if they were allowed to buy and sell credits earned by those that
make the deepest reductions in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse
gases. See Andrew C. Revkin, "Report to Endorse Expanding
Forests To Fight Global Warming," New York Times, Feb. 16,
2001, p. A1, A5.
Bush's First Six Months. After sixth months in office, here's a partial damage report on the compassionate conservative's environmental actions:
* Significantly eased field-testing controls of genetically engineered crops.
* Cut by 50% funding for research into renewable energy sources.
* Tried to revoke rules that reduced the acceptable levels of arsenic in drinking water.
* Proposed to eliminate new marine protections for the Channel Islands and the coral reefs of northwest Hawaii. (San Francisco Chronicle, April 6, 2001)
* Cut funding by 28% for research into cleaner, more efficient cars and trucks.
* OK'd Interior Department appointee Gale Norton to send out letters to state officials soliciting suggestions for opening up national monuments for oil and gas drilling, coal mining, and foresting.
* Abandoned a campaign pledge to invest $100 million for rain forest conservation.
* Rescinded a proposal to increase public access to information about the potential consequences resulting from chemical plant accidents.
* Suspended rules that would require hardrock miners to clean up sites
on Western public lands.
* Pulled out of the 1997 Kyoto Treaty global warming agreement.
* Eliminated funding for the Wetlands Reserve Program, which encourages farmers to maintain wetlands habitat on their property.
* Cut Environmental Protection Agency budget by $500 million.
* Proposed to curtail the ability of groups to sue in order to get an animal placed on the Endangered Species List.
* Rescinded rule that mandated increased energy-saving efficiency regulations for central air conditioners and heat pumps.
* Repealed workplace ergonomic rules designed to improve worker health and safety.
* Abandoned campaign pledge to regulate carbon dioxide (CO2), the waste gas that contributes to global warming.
* Banned federal aid to international family planning programs that offer abortion counseling with other independent funds.
* Nominated David Lauriski--ex-mining company executive--to post of Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health.
* O.K.'d Interior Secretary Gale Norton to go forward with a controversial plan to auction oil and gas development tracts off the coast eastern of Florida.
* Announced intention to open up Montana's Lewis and Clark National Forest to oil and drilling.
* Proposes to re-draw boundaries of nation's monuments, which would technically allow oil and gas drilling "outside" of national monuments.
* Renegotiating free trade agreement with Jordan to eliminate safeguards for the environment and workers' rights.
* Appointed recycling foe Lynn Scarlett as Assisstant Undersecretary for policy at the Interior Department. Scarlett, president of a libertarian think tank, is in principle opposed to most government regulation.
* Took steps to abolish the White House Council on Environmental Quality.
* Allowed Interior Secretary Gale Norton to shelve citizen-led grizzly bear re-introduction plan scheduled for Idaho and Montana wilderness.
* Refused to fund continued cleanup of uranium-slag heap in Utah.
* Chose a Vice President who said on "Meet The Press," "If you want to do something about carbon dioxide emissions, then you ought to build nuclear power plants.
* Is pushing for development of small nuclear weapons to attack deeply
buried targets-weapons which would violate the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
* Proposes to reverse regulation protecting 60 million acres of national forest from logging and road building.
* Appointed John Bolton-who opposes nonproliferation treaties and the U.N.-to Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security.
* Nominated Linda Fisher--an executive with Monsanto--for the number two job at the Environmental Protection Agency.
* Nominated J. Steven Giles-an oil and coal lobbyist-for Deputy Secretary of the Interior.
* Nominated Bennett Raley--who advocates repealing the Endangered Species Act --for Assistant Secretary for Water and Science at Interior.
* Proposes to ease permit process-including environmental considerations-for refinery, nuclear and hydroelectric dam construction. (Washington Post, May 18). * Proposes to give government the authority to take private property through eminent domain for power lines.
* Proposes that $1.2 billion in funding for alternative renewable energy come from selling oil and gas lease tracts in the Alaska National Wildlife Reserve.
* Plans on serving genetically engineered foods at all official government functions.
* Forced out Forest Service chief Mike Dombeck and appointed a timber industry lobbyist.
* Nominated William Myers III as solicitor general of the Interior Department. Myers, who sued Interior over its grazing policies for the National Cattleman's Association, is now in charge of enforcing those policies.
* Nominated Donald Schregardus, who failed to enforce environmental laws as head of Ohio's EPA, as chief of enforcement at the federal EPA. (Schregardus recently bowed out, after fierce opposition from environmentalists.)
* Nominated Mark Rey, co-author of the infamous 1995 salvage rider, for the Agriculture Department's top natural resources post.
* Nominated Thomas Sansonetti, a member of the property-rights group the Federalist Society and a coal industry lobbyist, as chief enforcer of environmental laws at the Department of Justice.
* Nominated Mike Parker to oversea the Army Corps of Engineers, with regulatory authority over wetlands. In ten years as a Congressman from Mississippi, Parker earned a zero rating from the League of Conservation Voters three times.
Brace yourselves, there's still three and half more years to go!
Penguins in trouble worldwide. Populations are declining and evidence is mounting that global warming is a prime cause. Shortage of fish, or krill, leaves the birds starving. Or toxin blooms like a red tide, due to warming, kill the birds. Ten of the world's seventeen species are listed as threatened or endangered. See Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Penguins in Trouble Worldwide," New York Times, June 26, 2001, p. D1, p. D2.
Peter Singer on having sex with animals. Not natural, not normal, perhaps, but not undignified. In the online sex magazine Nerve, with the title "Heavy Petting," Singer reviews Dearest Pet: On Bestiality, by Midas Dekkers, a Dutch biologist, and suggests that the next taboo that should crumble is that against having sex with animals. He concludes: "This does not make sex across the species barrier normal, or natural, whatever those much-misused words may mean, but it does imply that it ceases to be an offense to our status and dignity as human beings." Consistent in his utilitarianism, what counts is pleasure or pain. Singer condemns sex with animals that pains them, for example copulating with a chicken, using the hen's cloaca and decapitating the hen. But then he doubts whether this is really worse (causing more suffering) than the routine practice of keeping hens in battery cages and eating them. Singer is in ethics at Princeton University. The review is online at: http://www.nerve.com/ Opinions/Singer/heavyPetting/ A scathing criticism by Peter Berkowitz, "Puppy Love," is in The New Republic. Berkowitz is at George Mason University Law School.
Corporate Intimidation and Academic Cowardice. Two business professors at Boise State University and an environmental activist have reached a settlement with the University of Denver, which they sued for defamation last year after the university retracted an article they had published in its law journal. Under the deal, Denver will apologize to the authors and pay them an undisclosed amount. William Wines and Mark Buchanan of Boise State and Donald Smith, the Idaho field representative for the Alliance for the Wild Rockies, published "The Critical Need for Law Reform to Regulate the Abusive Practices of Transnational Corporations: The Illustrative Case of Boise Cascade Corporation in the Mexico's Costa Grande and Elsewhere" in the Spring 1998 issue of the Denver Journal of International Law and Policy. The authors wrote that some multinational corporations, particularly Boise Cascade, had committed environmental abuses and had contributed to civil unrest in Mexico that had resulted in human rights abuses. Under pressure from Boise Cascade, the university withdrew the article without contacting the authors and directed two major electronic legal-text providers to remove it from online access. Boise Cascade also wrote letters to the authors demanding that they cease distributing copies of the article. See The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 7, 2001, A25.
President: Kristin Shrader-Frechette. 336 O'Shaughnessy Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: Kristin.Shrader-Frechette.email@example.com.
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Max Oelschlaeger. Department of Humanities, Arts, and Religion,
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ISEE REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES
Africa: Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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