Volume 12, No. 2, Summer 2001
ISEE Bibliography and Website. The ISEE Bibliography on line has been updated through December 2000. There you can find the main website text, which can be searched online and the results e-mail to you. The complete bibliography is also available there in various sized PDF files. See <http://www.cep.unt.edu/ISEE.html>. This site is at the University of North Texas and is maintained by Environmental Philosophy, Inc., thanks to Gene Hargrove. The bibliography is also available on four 3 1/2 disks at a cost of $ 10. For this contact Holmes Rolston, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
Also at this website, there is information about graduate programs in the U.S. and internationally. The ISEE Newsletters, issued four times a year, can be reached from this homepage. Bibliographic entries for the current year may be found in the newsletters; the next annual website update will be February 2002.
Lists of current anthologies and systematic works in environmental ethics are also available at this website. Syllabi from various courses in environmental ethics can be reached from this home page. The course syllabus project is maintained at Middle Tennessee State University in Tennessee. The direct address is: http://appliedphilosophy.mtsu.edu/ISEE/.
ISEE Secretary Resigns.
Dear ISEE Members,
On March l8th,2001, I offered my resignation as secretary and at the same time withdrew my candidacy for the position of ISEE historian, to which I had applied. I remained Canadian Representative. For various reasons, this notification was left out of the last Newsletter. I will repeat the gist of what I said. My reasons are:
l) there are irreconcilable differences between my position on the function and the future of ISEE, and that of the present leadership. I have found some support for my views, and I thank those who supported some aspect of my proposals. However these proposals were not offered for a vote, or discussed by many on the board. I can be of no use to ISEE under these circumstances.
2) I have been admitted to the Doctor of Jurisprudence program
at Osgoode Hall Law School. I have been granted full support for
the three years needed for my doctoral thesis tentatively titled
"Ecocrimes in National and International Law". I will
probably need to do an internship period at the International
Court of Justice (The Hague) or at the EU (Brussels) during that
I want to take this opportunity to thank first of all Gene Hargrove, the first person with whom I discussed the possibility of forming a society. He has always been a friend and an inspiration to me. I also want to thank past presidents Holmes Rolston, III, Mark Sagoff, and Baird Callicott, who did so much to establish and support ISEE. My warmest thoughts go out to the editors of the Newsletter for their tireless work, Jack Weir and Philip Cafaro, and to Max Oelschlaeger for getting the newsletter out for the past year or so. Finally a special thank you to Victoria Davion, head of the nominating committee, and all committee members. Victoria's task was especially hard and even thankless over the last year or two.
I welcome correspondence from any member of ISEE at my usual email address: email@example.com.
Teaching Environmental Ethics. "I feel that shooting prairie dogs is morally impermissible. Having grown up with them outside my school, they have entertained me through many a boring class." So wrote one of my students on her environmental ethics final this past semester. Had I helped her to better articulate an enlightened anthropocentric environmental ethicor failed to teach her the meaning of moral impermissibility?
The ISEE newsletter solicits submissions on teaching environmental ethics, one of our most important professional responsibilities. Which readings, textbooks, videos work for you, and which don't? What topics do you cover in class? How do you link theoretical to practical issues? Does your class include a "service learning" or activist component? What is the best way to bring environmental ethics into intro ethics classes? Please submit short pieces, a few paragraphs to a few pages, to newsletter editor Phil Cafaro.
Alan Carter has been appointed full professor in philosophy and environmental studies at University of Colorado, Boulder. This fills a position left vacant a couple years back by Dale Jamieson. Carter is currently head of the Department of Philosophy, Heythrop College, University of London, where he has been a number of years. See his website at <http://www.heythrop.ac.uk/acarter.htm>.
Jame Schaefer reports that
at Marquette University much is happening that is quite positive:
both an Interdisciplinary Minor in Environmental Ethics and a
Religion and Science program. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
David Macauley has accepted a position as Visiting Assistant Professor in the Environmental Studies Program at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio. He has taught previously at Emerson College, New York University and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Macauley received his Ph.D. from SUNY at Stony Brook in 1998 and has published articles in environmental philosophy, political theory and Continental philosophy. He is the author of Bewildering Order: Earth, Water, Air and Fire as Elemental Philosophy and Environmental Ideas (State University of New York Press) and Walking: Philosophical Foot Notes (Indiana University Press, forthcoming) as well as the editor of Minding Nature: The Philosophers of Ecology (Guilford Publications).
Michael Zimmerman's book Contesting Earth's Future will be translated into Chinese by Huang Yanping, Professor in the College of Chinese Culture and Law in Central South University. The book will be published by the Shanghai Joint Publishing Company, which also published the Chinese translation of Heidegger's Being and Time.
John van Buren, Department of Philosophy, Fordham University, is the founding Director of the university's new interdisciplinary Environmental Studies Program which will begin in Fall 2001. Linked to the 1999 Jesuit mission statement study on ecology "We Live In a Broken World--Reflections on Ecology," which makes recommendations for "greening the curriculum" of Jesuit universities and incorporating issues of environmental stewardship and justice into university life, the six course minor is designed for both science and non-science majors, combining two or more courses in environmental science with environmental philosophy courses, values and policy courses in other departments, and a capstone course integrating questions of science, ethical value, and social policy. For more information, contact John van Buren <email@example.com>.
How Pedestrian. For a different perspective on transit, see <http://www.tampabayonline.net/bguard/home.htm>. The writer took photos of a downtown Atlanta intersection with: 1) 40 cars with single occupant drivers; 2) 40 people at the intersection sitting in lawn chairs spaced as if they were in their cars; 3) 40 people in lawn chairs, spaced as if they were in a bus at the intersection; and 4) 40 people walking or riding their bicycles through the intersection. It's a great illustration of the crowding and paving caused by our over-reliance on cars, and on the possibilities for alleviating these problems through mass transit. Ideal for getting students to think.
An Open Letter from Barbara Kingsolver, author of The Poisonwood Bible, with a call-to-action against the threats the Bush administration poses to the environment.
Okay, I'll admit it, I spent the inaugural weekend in denial. (He's not my president. Most of us didn't actually vote for the guy ... ) Ignored the smarmy front-page photos of parades and balls, skipped straight to Section B to look for coverage of the protests. But the fact is, we now have a new administration that's hostile to the things I love most: human kindness, the dignity of diversity, and the wild glory of life on earth. It's time to move on from denial to the next stage, which would be bitter cynicism or action.
I'm opting for action, because I don't really have a choice. Looking out my window right now I can see my two girls outside under the mesquite trees in this precious riparian woodland where we live, and my heart starts to break for all the beautiful things they'll never see if I allow unchecked Bushwhacking in the next four years. Civil rights and reproductive choice I suppose we could win back in time (though not the lives lost along the way), but the waters and wild lands devastated will never come back. So I've taken a vow to spend at least some part of every week protecting the truths and places I treasure.
Part of that commitment involves this letter asking you to do the same. I'm fairly confident you'll agree with my concerns, because we're the majority. Not only did most of us not vote for the guy, we also -- by a handy majority, the polls say -- oppose the assault he and Gale Norton hope to launch. The widespread reputation of Americans for selfishness notwithstanding, we are wise and generous enough to care about lives and places beyond our own backyards.
Starting today, if you haven't already, I hope you'll do a handful of concrete things including these: Post the addresses of your legislators somewhere you'll see it, and make a habit of writing them weekly to help guide their decisions about social justice and the environment. Think of the California energy crisis as an opportunity to institute, in your home and your conversations with friends, a policy of conserving resources that will provide the only long-term solution. And get involved with your conservation community, locally and nationally.
A step I recommend is the Internet activist campaign called www.SaveBioGems.org. When you visit this site, it will take you only about ten minutes to send faxes to politicians and CEO's to voice your interest in protecting places like the Arctic Refuge, Greater Yellowstone, the Macal Rainforest of Costa Rica and Red Rock Wilderness of Utah. If you register there, the Natural Resources Defense Council will send you email alerts every so often (while also respecting your privacy) asking you to return to www.SaveBioGems.org to participate in a crucial fax or email campaign. [Other recommended sites include <www.audubon.org> and <www.wilderness.org>].
I believe the Bush administration has happened to us for a reason. Setting aside election fraud, family connections in Florida, and the fact that Republican districts almost everywhere have better voting machinery the reason is complacency: Too many people must have assumed that the things we cherish are permanently protected. We underestimated the power of wealthy corporations to put a Petroleocracy into the White House. Now that it's there, it's our obligation and our right as citizens to drown out its awful agenda with our voices. We have majority support, now we just have to use it.
Please take a minute to visit www.SaveBioGems.org, and if you agree with me, please extend this invitation to your friends and family. Thanks our kids ask the world of us, and my greatest hope is to give them one, intact. Truly yours,
Ends and Means is a journal of philosophy and technology published
twice yearly by the Centre for Philosophy, Technology and Society
at the University of Aberdeen. The journal is devoted to rigorous
philosophical exploration of social, moral and conceptual questions
arising in relation to technology. Although not committed to any
one school or style of philosophy, its editorial policy is to
publish only material of high philosophical quality written in
a style accessible to a wide readership. Contributions should
not exceed 7500 words, though shorter articles and discussions
are especially welcome. Two copies of a typescript should be submitted
to: Dr. Jonathan Friday, Centre for Philosophy Technology and
Society, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, SCOTLAND, AB24 3UB.
Alternatively texts may be submitted by email to Friday@abdn.ac.uk.
For more information visit the Centre's web-page at www.abdn.ac.ukat.
New Book Series: Environmental Philosophy and Ethics, State University of New York Press, edited by Baird Callicott and John van Buren. This new series welcomes submissions on metaphysical, epistemological, ethical, aesthetic, social-political, educational, and policy dimensions of the environment from all philosophical traditions, including the Analytic and Continental traditions; from all approaches in environmental philosophy; and from other disciplines addressing philosophical or ethical aspects of the environment. Its mission is to provide an open forum for the publication and discussion of philosophical works on theoretical and practical environmental issues and challenges facing humanity in the 21st century and beyond. Baird Callicott is Professor of Philosophy and Religion Studies and member of the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas, the author of numerous books on environmental philosophy, and former President of the ISEE. John van Buren is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Environmental Studies Program at Fordham University, the author of books and articles on Continental philosophy and environmental philosophy, and member of the Board of Directors of the International Association for Environmental Philosophy. For information and submissions, contact Jane Bunker, Acquisitions Editor, SUNY Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246, (518) 472-5003, firstname.lastname@example.org.
CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS
ISEE Group Sessions. Proposals are invited for individual papers or group sessions for the APA Western, Central and Eastern Division meetings. For the Western, contact ISEE newsletter editor Phil Cafaro, acting for ISEE treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. For the Central, contact ISEE secretary Laura Westra. For the Eastern, contact ISEE Vice-President Dale Jamieson. Addresses at the end of the newsletter. The deadline for proposals is September 1 for the Western and Central, March 1 for the Eastern.
Special note: we are currently looking for participants in
an "author meets critics" session on Karen Warren's
new book, Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What
It Is and Why It Matters. This will be held at the next Western
division meeting in Seattle, 2002. If you are interested in participating,
please contact Phil Cafaro.
The Seventh World Wilderness Congress will be held in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, Nov. 2-8, 2001. "Wilderness and People: An Action Agenda for Africa and the World" continues a notable series of conferences on wilderness. Website: www.worldwilderness. org. E-mail: email@example.com. Fax 27(0) 31 4624656. In the U.S. contact the Wild Foundation, Fax 805 640-0230.
The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its 15th annual meeting at the University of Hawaii, Hilo, July 29-August 1. "Ecological Lessons from Islands" is the theme. Visit www.uhh.hawaii-edu/~scb for further information.
The Ecological Society of America's 2001 annual meeting will be held in Madison, Wisconsin, August 6-10. The theme, "Keeping All the Parts: Sustaining and Restoring Complex Ecosystems," was chosen as a tribute to one of Madison's best-known sons, Aldo Leopold, who was ESA president when he died in 1948. For more information visit http://esa.sdsc.edu/madison/.
The Third International Convention on Environment and Development, "Sustainable Development: Fact or Dream, Ten Years After the Rio Summit," was held June 16-24 in Havana, Cuba. Major topics to be addressed included: Environmental Management for Sustainable Development, Environmental Law and Policy, Economy and Environment, Biological Diversity and Protected Areas, Energy and Sustainable Development, Environmental Health Issues, Environmental Education. You can obtain more detailed information on the agenda for this conference by accessing the conference web site: <http://www.cubaciencia.cu/hosting/3ra_conv/index.htm.>
Cuba was selected for special recognition by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) this year because of the extraordinary progress it has made during the last decade in creating model programs in sustainable development. Those interested in future interchanges with Cuban environmentalists and ecologists may contact Pam Montanaro and Caryn Mandelbaum, Cuba Program Coordinators, Global Exchange, 2017 Mission Street, Suite #303, San Francisco, CA 94708. Phone 415-255-7296, extension 231.
The Society for Philosophy and Technology held their 12th Bienniel Conference, July 9th - 11th 2001, at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Conference Theme: "Nature and Technology." Keynote Speakers were: Stephen Clark, University of Liverpool, "From Biosphere to Technosphere - What will it be like to inhabit a world designed by people?" Gordon Graham, University of Aberdeen, "Playing God: Is genetic technology in danger of crossing fundamental boundaries?" Deborah Johnson, Georgia Institute of Technology, "Nature and Information Technology: The Convergence of STS and IT Policy." Janet Radcliffe Richards, University College London, "Darwinism, Nature and Technology."
The Tenth Pacific Science Inter-Congress, meeting at the University of Guam, June
1-6, 2001, had two sessions on environmental ethics, organized
by James Sellman (Philosophy, University of Guam). Papers included:
* Fan, Kuan-Lung (National Taiwan University), "Some Coastal Environmental Problems in Taiwan."
* Rowe, Sharon (Philosophy, Kapialani Community College, Honolulu), "Returning to What Matters: Daoist Lessons for Ecofeminists."
* Wee, Cecilia (Philosophy, National Singapore University), "Descartes and Buddhism on the Environment."
* Sellman, James, "`Living on the Edge,' in Micronesian Environmental Philosophy."
* Buchanan, James (Ethics, Religion, and Society Program, Xavier University, Cincinnati), "From Complex Systems to Complex Values: Reconsidering Environmental Ethics from a Systems Perspective."
* OToole, J. Mitchell (University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia), "Valuing Land: Environmental Ethics on the Sydney Basin." Values of the original indigenous inhabitants compared with those of the English invaders, past and present.
* Bender, Andrea (Anthropology, University of Freiborg, Germany), "Environmental concepts, cultural values, and emotions: Implications for Marine Resource Use in Tonga." Though fishery stocks are declining, an ethic of sharing means there is still food enough for all, and this masks the decline.
* Rolston, Holmes, "Enforcing Environmental Ethics: Civic Law and Natural Value."
There were also dozens of papers on the conservation of coral reefs, and dozens more on specific conservation issues in the South Pacific. The Science Inter-Congress was followed by the Pacific Islands Environment Congress, June 11-15, also in Guam, with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency the principal sponsor.
"EarthSpirit Rising: A Conference on Ecology, Spirituality and the Great Work," took place June 15-17 at Bellarmine College, Louisville, KY. Presenters included Brian Swimme, Matthew Fox, Sister Miriam Therese MacGillis, Paul Winter, Connie Barlow, John Seed, and Ruth Rosenhek.
Science, History, and the Ethics of
Hunting was the title of a conference recently held
at the University of Pennsylvania. Speakers included Patrick
Bateson and-Gary Varner. See the program at <http://www.vet.upenn.edu
The Thoreau Society Annual Gathering took place July 12-14 in Concord, Massachusetts. The keynote address, "Thoreau and the American Passion for Wilderness," was given by historian Donald Worster. Other talks included Laura Dassow Walls, "Thoreau, Poetry and Science" and a panel discussion, "Thoreauvian Perspectives on Wildness," chaired by Bradley Dean.
Between Heaven & Earth: The Plight of the Chesapeake Watermen. How a University of Wisconsin-Madison graduate student helped mediate a decades-long conflict between environmentalists and Cheseapeake Bay watermen. Produced by Jeffrey Pohorski and Skunkfilms, Inc., shown spring 2001 on Wisconsin Public Television (WPT). For more than 200 years, fishing has been the lifeblood of the Chesapeake Bay's Tangier Island, located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Yet, watermen have long been criticized for damaging the ecosystem upon which they rely for their survival, by scientists who assert that pollution, over-harvesting and run-off have destroyed sea grass beds, causing harvests to plummet.
When a group of environmentalists took up residence on the island almost 12 years ago, the stage was set for conflict. Many islanders thought the environmentalists' regulatory proposals were attacking their livelihood and saw them as their enemy. The battle over crabs, oysters and their natural habitat came to a head in 1995, when the conflict turned bitter and violent. UW-Madison doctoral candidate Susan Drake walked into the raging firestorm in 1997 and used her thesis on faith-based conflict resolution to help heal a conflict that many had considered hopelessly deadlocked. Drake, who had worked on environmental treaties for the U.S. State Department, came to Tangier after hearing about an arson attack on a shed owned by the regional environmental group and a spiritual revival that had swept the island in 1995. Drake believed that the conflict might prove an ideal testing ground for her thesis that conflict in faith-based communities requires faith-based resolutions. Drake's persistent appeals to their faith eventually had a positive effect. Obedience to the earth-keeping, fruitfulness and Sabbath principles ensures the preservation of the environment and maintains the integrity of the bay's fisheries. (Thanks to Peter Bakken for this citation)
RECENT ARTICLES AND BOOKS
Thanks to Mary McAfee, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Grand Junction, CO, for editorial help in compiling the bibliography for this newsletter.
--Ackland, Len, Making a Real Killing: Rocky Flats and the Nuclear West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999. 308 pages. Rocky Flats, just outside Denver, Colorado, was a manufacturing site for hockey-puck sized cores, made of plutonium, that detonate nuclear weapons. The plant was built and operated before we knew how to handle nuclear wastes and the managers were under intense pressure to produce at break-neck speed to keep up with what it was presumed the Russians were doing, all under a veil of secrecy, which put the public at great risks they knew nothing about. Now these mistakes leave as legacy one of the worst pollution problems in the U.S., costing tens of millions of dollars each year, and difficult if not impossible to clean up.
--Agar, Nicholas, Life's Intrinsic Value: Science, Ethics,
and Nature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Anything
living is intrinsically valuable, from the bacteriophage T4 to
humans. A biocentric ethic forms the platform for an ethic of
the environment. Just as physical science once dislodged humans
from the center of the universe, biological science challenges
the received wisdom that only humans are valuable in themselves.
Analysis of historic and contemporary views from Aristotle and
Kant to E. O. Wilson, Peter Singer, Holmes Rolston III, Michael
Ruse, and J. Baird Callicott.
Some chapter titles and themes: The psychological view of intrinsic value. Defining intrinsic value. Why are humans morally special? Scientific facts and values. The limits of ethical extensionism and beyond. Two types of natural kinds overlap. Combining the overlap of descriptive and metaphysical kind to unearth environmental value. Recent defenses of biocentrism. A morally specialized account of life. Commonsense and customized accounts of life. A biofunctional explanation of self-movement. Why the representationally alive are morally important. The teleological account of contents in biopreferences. The threat of genic selectionism. Sentience and goals. The shortcomings of individualism. Environmental value holism. Individualistic ethics of species and ecosystems. An impossible ethic? Does life value leave room for human lives? A call for a scientifically informed appreciation of nature. Agar is in philosophy, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand.
--Allen, William, Green Phoenix: Restoring the Tropical Forests of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. A narrative account of the development of Costa Rica's small, under-resourced Santa Rosa National Park into the impressively expanded and managed Guanacaste Conservation Area. Biology is only one piece of the action; the most is political, social, and economic elements--all the way from local farmers to powerful big landowners with vested interests to U.S. involvement and interests in Nicaragua. A key example of where researchers have become involved in these other aspects of conservation with great effectiveness.
--Arias, Hector M., "International Groundwaters: The Upper San Pedro River Basin Case," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):199- .
--Arnhart, Larry., "Thomistic Natural Law as Darwinian Natural Right", Social Philosophy and Policy (Winter 2001), Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. Reviewed recently in the Wilson Quarterly.
--Ball, Terence, "`The Earth Belongs to the Living': Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Intergenerational Relations," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):61- .
--Balvanera, Patrica et al (eight others), "Conserving Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services," Science 291(2001):2047. A lead editorial in Science. "Above all, we must remember that biodiversity is in serious jeopardy for a reason: namely, that the opportunity costs of conservation are perceived to be too high. The best hope for biodiversity is to create and align diverse incentives for conservation wherever possible and to integrate these into the larger policy-making arena."
--Bassett, Libby, ed., Earth and Faith: A Book of Reflection for Action. New York: United Nations Environment Programme, 2000. Produced by the New York office of UNEP, headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. Brings forward the voices of the world's religions as engaged partners in facing the current environmental crisis, resulting from the Forum on Religion and Ecology, Mary Evelyn Tucker, Coordinator. The Germeshausen Foundation has supported the printing of 50,000 copies. Copies available from UNEP: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
--Bekoff, Marc, "Animal Emotions: Exploring Passionate Natures," Bioscience 50(no. 10, Oct. 1, 2000):861- .
--Bellesiles, Michael A., Arming America: The Origins of a National Gun Culture New York: Knopf, 2001. Contrary to the gun-toting myth, "gun ownership was exceptional in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries, and guns became a common commodity only with the industrialization of the mid-nineteenth century" and the militarization of American during the Civil War. Prior to that soldiers routinely entered combat with swords, pikes, or even hoes. Pioneers ate meat from the woods, but snared it; guns and bullets were inefficient. clumsy, and expensive. Muskets often exploded, gunpowder could not be used in the rain, and were difficult to aim. Hunting with guns was an upper class activity. The Kentucky marksmen that could outshoot the British are mythology. The Western shoot-ups of the movies are pure fiction. The gun culture was created by gun entrepreneurs, such as Samuel Colt. As is no surprise, Bellesiles has lots of critics.
--Bergman, Roger, "Theocentric or Anthropocentric? Catholic Teaching on the Environment: A View from the Great Plains." Pages 204-228 in Lawler, Michael G., and Risch, Gail S., eds., Practical Theology: Perspectives from the Plains. Omaha: Creighton University Press, 2000.
--Biermann, Frank, "The Case for a World Environment Organization," Environment 42(no. 9, Nov. 1, 2000):22- . Some people argue that a centralized international organization is essential to improve the creation and implementation of more effective environmental policies. Will this type of system end the fragmentation among various existing agencies and treaties that deal with the environment?
--Blatter, Joachim, Ingram, Helen, "States, Markets and Beyond: Governance of Transboundary Water Resources," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):439- .
--Boyce, Thomas E., Geller, E. Scott, "Encouraging College Students to Support Pro-Environment Behavior: Effects of Direct Versus Indirect Rewards," Environment and Behavior 33(no. 1, Jan. 1, 2001):107- .
--Boyle, David, "Wall Street 2," The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):26- . The world economy today is worryingly similar to that of 1929?just before the catastrophic Wall Street Crash. Could it all happen again?
--Bugnion, Veronique, Reiner, David M., "A Game of Climate Chicken: Can EPA Regulate Greenhouse Gases Before the U.S. Senate Ratifies the Kyoto Protocol?" Environmental law 30(no. 3, 2000):491- . Bugnion and Reiner explore the various scientific, political, and legal debates regarding the action necessary to reverse the negative effects of global warming. They also discuss the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ability to use provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to promulgate and implement emissions standards addressed by the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, the authors conclude that, although EPA's authority to implement such standards is unclear, Congress could amend the CAA to explicitly authorize EPA to promulgate standards for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.
--Buhrs, Ton, "Green Planning in Australia and Canada: Dead or Alive?" Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):102- .
--Burgmann, Verity, "The Social Responsibility of Labour versus the Environmental Impact of Property Capital: The Australian Green Bans Movement," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):78- .
--Burrows, Mae, "Just Transition," Alternatives 27(no. 1, Winter 2001):29- . Moving to a green economy will be more attractive when programs are designed to remove job loss fears, and focus on transition to a more sustainable future.
--Canadian Graduate Environmental Studies Programs, Alternatives 27(no. 1, Winter 2001):41- . Alternatives presents its third annual annotated graduate directory.
--Capra, Fritjof, The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1996. Chapter 1 is "Deep Ecology: A New Paradigm."
--Carle, David, "Reformation Through Amputation: Expanding National Parks by Shrinking National Forests," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):39- .
--Carter, Alan, A Radical Green Political Theory. London: Routledge, 1999. 409 pages. Claims to be the first systematic, comprehensive environmental political philosophy. Exposes the relationships between the ever-worsening environmental crises, the nature of the prevailing economic structures, and the role of the modern state, and concludes that the combination of these factors is driving humanity towards destruction. After analyzing authoritarian, reformist, Marxist and anarchist approaches to the environmental problem, the author argues strongly that only the most radical of political practices can prevent an ecological catastrophe. This is explored through analysis of social relationships, power, the state, anarchism and Third World development. Sample chapters: Chapter 6: The state and nature: Radical green values: feminist, socialist and anarchist. An environmentally hazardous dynamic. An environmentally benign interrelationship? The coherence of green political thought. Chapter 7: Towards a cooperative autonomy. Anarchism. Cooperative autonomy. A green vision. Two justifications of civil disobedience. A duty of radical disobedience. More details: http://www.heythrop.ac.uk/cartargpt.htm. Carter is in philosophy at Heythrop College, London, and moving to a position in philosophy and environmental studies at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
--Cassidy, K. M., Grue, C. E., and Aubry, Keith B., "Using current protection status to assess conservation priorities," Biological Conservation 97(no. 1, 2001):1- .
--Chapple, Christopher Key, and Tucker, Mary Evelyn, eds.,
Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water.
Cambridge: Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University,
2000. Some two dozen contributors. Some samples:
--Dwivedi, O. P., "Dharmic Ecology."
--Agarwal, Anil, "Can Hindu Beliefs and Values Help India Meets Its Ecological Crisis?"
--Lai, Vinay, "Too Deep for Deep Ecology: Gandhi and the Ecological Vision of Life."
--Habeman, David L., "River of Love in an Age of Pollution."
--Fisher, William L., "Sacred Rivers, Sacred Dams: Competing Visions of Social Justice and Sustainable Development along the Narmada.".
Chapple is in Asian studies, Loyola Marymont University in Los Angeles. Tucker is in religion, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA.
--Chavez, Octavio E., "Mining of Internationally Shared Aquifers: The El Paso-Juarez Case," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):237- .
--Clark, William C., "America's National Interests in Promoting a Transition to Sustainability: Issues for the New U.S. Administration," Environment 43(no. 1, Jan. 1, 2001):18-26. For humanity to meet the environmental challenges of the 21st century, it must develop a vision of the future that encompasses the multiple dimensions of a global relationship between society and the environment. What is America's role in promoting this transition? Clark is at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
--Claussen, Eileen, "Global Environmental Governance: Issues for the New U.S. Administration," Environment 43(no. 1, Jan. 1, 2001):28- . The magnitude of the global environmental agenda makes it almost impossible for individual institutions and governments to respond effectively. People and organizations need to work together to solve problems and potential crises facing the environment.
--Coglianese, Cary, "The Constitution and the Costs of Clean Air," Environment 42(no. 9, Nov. 1, 2000):32- . The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has issued thousands of regulations and enforcement actions under the authority of the Clean Air Act. But is this act constitutional?
--Coppolillo, Peter B., "The Landscape Ecology of Pastoral Herding: Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Livestock Production in East Africa," Human Ecology 28(no. 4, Dec. 1, 2000):527- .
--Dawson, Jane I., "The Two Faces of Environmental Justice: Lessons from the Eco-Nationalist Phenomenon," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):22- .
--DeBoer, Kristin, "Thomas Berry interviewed by Kristin DeBoer," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):93- .
--DeCarolis, Joseph F., Goble, Robert L., and Hohenemser, Christopher, "Searching for Energy Efficiency on Campus: Clark University's 30-Year Quest," Environment 42(no. 4, May 1, 2000):8- . An analysis of 30 years of energy consumption patterns and efforts to reduce energy use illustrates how a small institution can set an example while confronting society's significant challenges.
--deHart, Allen, Hiking North Carolina's Mountains-to-Sea Trail. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. One thousand miles of trail from Clingman's Dome, the highest peak in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and past Mount Mitchell, the highest peak east of the Mississippi, down to Jockey's Ridge, the largest dune on the Atlantic Coast.
--del Rio, Carlos Martinez, Broyles, Bill, "The Sonoran Desert National Park: A Modest Proposal of Extraordinary Scope," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):53- .
--Dobson, Andrew, ed., Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Normative issues at stake in the relationship between environmental sustainability and social justice. The collection results from three intensive seminars searching these issues. Dobson is in politics, Keele University, UK.
--Dunlap, Riley E., Van Liere, Kent D., Mertig, Angela G., and Jones, Robert Emmet, "Measuring Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A Revised NEP Scale." Journal of Social Issues 56(Fall, 2000):425-442. This article provides a revised and expanded "NEP Scale" that replaces the one originally published in 1978 that has become the most widely used measure of endorsement of an ecological paradigm or worldview. Dunlap is in environmental sociology, Department of Sociology and Department of Rural Sociology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. E mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
--Dunn, Steve, Friedman, Robert, and Baish, Sarah, "Coastal Erosion: Evaluating The Risk," Environment 42(no. 7, Sep. 1, 2000):36- . Severe storm events and global warming contribute to seacoast degradation and destruction. Scientists and policy makers are trying to develop strategies to alleviate the damage.
--Almeida, Michael J., Bernstein, Mark H., "Opportunistic Carnivorism," Journal of Applied Philosophy 17(no. 2, 2000):205- .
--Edelman, Marc, "The Green Republic: A Conservation History of Costa Rica," Human Ecology 28(no. 4, Dec. 1, 2000):651- .
--Falkowski, P. et al (16 others), "The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of the Earth as a System," Science 290(2000):291-296. "Our knowledge of the carbon cycle within the oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, and the atmosphere is sufficiently extensive to permit us to conclude that although natural processes can potentially slow the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2, there is no natural `savior' waiting to assimilate all of the anthropogenically produced CO2 in the coming century." Authors are from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) Working Group on climate change.
--Fischedick, Manfred, and Supersberger, Niko, "Erneuerbaren Energien gehört die Zukunft (The future belongs to renewable energies)" In German. Natur und Kultur 2(no. 1, 2001):76-96. Abstract: Rising temperatures, severe storms, eroded coast lines ? will this be our future? All the evidence seems to indicate that this will happen if we don't change our behaviour. Indeed we have an alternative to burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas, we don't have to accept the greenhouse effect as a natural event (which it really isn't). One possible way out of the imminent dilemma is increasing the use of renewable energies and an efficient use of energy. A practical solution how this can be achieved is presented.
--Ford, H. A., Barrett, G. W., and Recher, H. F., "Why have birds in the woodlands of Southern Australia declined?" Biological Conservation 97(no. 1, 2001):71- .
--Forell, Parker, "A Fox in the Forest," Call to Earth. vol. 2, no. 1, 2001, pp. 13-14. An account of an encounter with a fox.
--Frankel, Mark S., and Chapman, Audrey R., "Facing Inheritable Genetic Modifications," Science 292(2001):1303. Inheritable genetic modifications are coming sooner than most realize (at least for the wealthy and in developed countries). "We should begin establishing an oversight process now so that we can make informed and reasoned choices about the future." Both authors are in science and policy programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
--Gallon, Gary, "Green and Growing," Alternatives 27(no. 1, Winter 2001):22- . Environmental job numbers now rival those for the traditional sectors such as oil, chemicals and steel.
--George, Kirstin, "Local and Grassroots: A Success Story from a Maine Land Trust," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):89- .
--Germic, Stephen A., American Green: Class, Crisis, and the Development of Nature in Central Park, Yosemite, and Yellowstone. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Lexington Books, 2001. The urban park and the frontier park, two kinds of public monuments that played a part in the formation of U.S. national identity. Geography, ecocriticism and narrative studies of the national(ist) importance of parks in the nineteenth century. Complicates conventional distinctions between the urban and the rural, city and frontier, east and west. The ideological implications of three efforts to legislate nature and space.
--Gillroy, John Martin, Justice and Nature: Kantian Philosophy, Environmental Policy, and the Law. Baltimore, MD: George Washington University Press, 2001. Criticizing the cost- benefit paradigm, Gillroy proposes an alternative way to conceptualize and create environmental policy, one that allows for the protection of moral and ecological values in the face of economic demands. Drawing on Kantian definitions of who we are as citizens, how we act collectively, and what the proper role of the state is, Gillroy develops a philosophical justification for incorporating non-market values into public decision making His new paradigm for justice toward nature integrates the intrinsic value of humanity and nature into the law. Gillroy is in environmental law and policy at Bucknell University.
--Goodman, Jordan and Walsh, Vivien, The Story of Taxol: Nature
and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 296
pp. $ 28.00. Taxol is an extract from yew trees, from which
is derived paclitaxel, the single most prescribed anti-tumor agent.
Development of the drug took from 1966 until approval in 1992,
amidst controversy. The Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) is found,
infrequently, in Pacific Northwest old growth forests, home to
the spotted owl. Environmental groups opposed destruction of
the forests for the yew bark (partially at a time when benefits
of taxol were uncertain); bark collectors legal and illegal became
involved; media loved the controversy. Bristol-Myers Squibb developed
a semi-synthesis that uses the needles, not the bark, and therefore
does not require destroying the tree.
Reviewed by McGuire, William P., "Developments from a Beneficial Bark," Science 292(2001):1073-1074. McGuire adds that when Bristol-Myers Squibb's exclusive rights to paclitaxel expired, it came to light that the company had used patents to block the entry of several generic and less expensive alternatives, thereby reducing the availability of the drug to cancer patients who needed it.
--Gottlieb, Robert, Environmentalism Unbound: Exploring New Pathways for Change. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2001. A new strategy for social and environmental change that involves reframing and linking the movements for environmental justice and pollution prevention. The environmental movement's narrow conception of "environment" has isolated it from vital issues of everyday life, such as workplace safety, healthy communities, and food security, that are often viewed separately as industrial, community, or agricultural concerns. This fragmented approach prevents an awareness of how these issues are also environmental ones. Gottlieb is in urban and environmental policy at Occidental College.
--Grant, Lindsey, Too Many People: The Case for Reversing Growth. Santa Anna, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000. Uncontrolled population lies at the root of most of the world's problems: food, water, land, air, climate, energy. Europe as an example of how growth can be reversed. By reducing population numbers to something like half of the current world population it would be possible for humans to live in harmony with their environment. Grant was formerly a Foreign Service Officer, National Security Council, Department of State Policy Planning, and also Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Population Affairs.
--Gupta, Aarti, "Governing Trade in Genetically Modified Organisms: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety," Environment 42(no. 4, May 1, 2000):22- . Despite widely varying priorities, intense negotiations have finally paid off in the development of a worldwide agreement concerning the transport and use of genetically modified organisms.
--Huemer, Ariana, "Scapegoats and Underdogs: The Pit Bull
Dilemma." The Animals' Agenda 20(no. 4, Jul. 1, 2000):30-
. Examines whether efforts to restrict certain dogs are based
on fact or fear.
--Hancocks, David, A Different Nature: The Paradoxical World of Zoos and their Uncertain Future. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001. Hancocks, with his eye sharpened by biophilia, sees the good, the bad, and the downright ugly. "We should not accept zoos as they are." Hancocks wants to re-invent the zoo. Zoos evolved from pure spectacle, to lip-service dedication to science, and finally, in the best cases, to research and conservation. But, with a few exceptions, "zoos can immediately stop degrading the word `conservation' by employing it so irresponsibly." Hancocks is the director of Australia's Open Range Zoo at Werribee.
--Hancocks, David, A Different Nature: The Paradoxical World of Zoos and their Uncertain Nature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. The existence of zoos is paradoxical and their existence is uncertain. We should not accept zoos as they currently are; there is good, but too much is bad and downright ugly. Zoos have evolved from pure spectacle, to lip-service dedication to science, and finally, in the best cases, to research and conservation. But, generally, zoos ought immediately to stop degrading the word "conservation" by employing it so irresponsibly. Hancocks is the director of Australia's Open Range Zoo at Werribee.
--Hayden, Anders, "Good Work, Less Toil," Alternatives 27(no. 1, Winter 2001):12- . The job-spend treadmill exhausts us and the planet. It's time to jump off.
--Hebard, Elaine Moore, "A Focus on a Binational Watershed with a View toward Fostering a Cross-Border Dialogue," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):281- .
--Herring, Horace, "The Search for a Utopian Energy Policy," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):168- .
--Hirsch, Robert M., Miller, Timothy L., and Hamilton, Pixie A., "Using Today's Science to Plan for Tomorrow's Water Policies," Environment 43(no. 1, Jan. 1, 2001):8- . Population growth and increasing demand for water are adding stress to water quality and availability. How can the United States develop effective water management policies for the future?
--Hull, R. Bruce, Gobster, Paul H., "Restoring Forest Ecosystems: The Human Dimension," Journal of Forestry 98(no. 8, Aug. 1, 2000):32- . Lessons from the social sciences and humanities can help successfully plan and implement restoration projects.
--Hume, Bill, "Water in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):189- .
--Ingram, Helen, "Transboundary Groundwater on the U.S.-Mexico Border: Is the Glass Half Full, Half Empty, or Even on the Table?" Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):185- .
--Isenberg, Andrew C., The Destruction of the Bison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
--Ita, Melford, "Okomu: Which Way Forward?" The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):49. Okomu Forest Reserve, southwest Nigeria, was planned for sustainable forestry. Plan failed, and fifty indigenous communities have suffered, with a population of 50,000 persons. Western-inspired international agreements are not the way to help the `developing' world.
--Jepson, Paul, Jarvie, James K., McKinnon, Kathy, and Monk, Kathryn A., "The End for Indonesia's Lowland Forests?" Science 292(2001):859-860. Indonesia once had a model conservation biology program for a national protected area system, and was the first nation to sign the Biodiversity Convention. "Today, Indonesia is a society in transition, torn apart by economic and political crises, and the gap between scientific best practice and the reality of current forest mismanagement could hardly be wider. If the current state of resource anarchy continues, the lowland forests of the Sunda Shelf, the richest forests on Earth, will be totally destroyed by 2005 on Sumatra and 2010 on Kalimantan." Generally, corruption at all levels.
--Jolly, Alison, "Monkeys in the Back Garden," Science 291(2002):1705-1706. With a special appeal for the field biologists of developing countries, desperate for grants from the pool of international research funding. The salary of a full professor in Madagascar is $ 100 a month. They, far more than rich world colleagues, need the personal contacts made at international congresses, but they are far less likely to find the airfare. Also, from where they stand the Western conservation ethic can seem like economic imperialism, built up on a slimy morass of Western hypocrisy. And the far-off romance of the wild may translate for them into monkeys in the back garden. But these field biologists are those who can lead the way teaching local people's pride and wonder to combine and say that it is in all our self-interest to save biodiversity. Jolly, an ex-president of the International Primatological Society, worked on ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar. She has been based at Sussex University and at Princeton University.
--Kellett, Michael, "Main Weeds National Park: The Best Way to Restore the Wild," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):60- .
--Kennedy, Donald, Sant, Roger W., "A Global Environmental Agenda for the United States: Issues for the New U.S. Administration," Environment 42(no. 10, Dec. 1, 2000):20- . The world faces myriad environmental problems ranging from global climate change to the depletion of natural resources. How can strong political leadership help to overcome these challenges?
--Kerr, Andy, Salvo, Mark, "Livestock Grazing in the National Park and Wilderness Preservation Systems," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):45- .
--Kimmerer, Robin Wall, "Native Knowledge for Native Ecosystems," Journal of Forestry 98(no. 8, Aug. 1, 2000):4- . What can indigenous knowledge systems offer for the evolution of the philosophy and practice of ecological restoration? Traditional knowledge is a potential source for emerging models of ecosystem management.
--King, Bob, Faulkner, Annie, "Protected and Connected: Weaving the Wildlands Web in Southwest New Hampshire," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):84- .
--Krupnick, Alan J., "How Much Will People Pay for Longevity?" Resources (Resources for the Future), Winter 2001, Issues 142. "Cost-benefit analyses having anything to do with air pollution generally show huge benefits, primarily in terms of an individual's willingness to pay to reduce mortality risks, which far outweigh the costs incurred. In a controversial case to be decided this spring, the U.S. Supreme Court will consider whether the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should rely on these analyses to set its air quality standards, among other issues. New research at RFF indicates that individuals, particularly the older ones at most risk, may place a much smaller dollar value on how much they would pay to live longer than has previously been used by EPA." But the question remains: If senior citizens, approaching the end life, are willing to pay less, should that set the standard for the rest of us. Maybe the question remains whether willingness to pay to stop polluters from shortening our lives (with also some consumer gain, cheaper products) is the right way to approach this issue.
--Kwiatkowska, Teresa, Issa, Jorge, and Pinon, Francisco, eds. Mundo antiguo y Naturaleza (Nature and the Classic World). Mexico: Conacyt and Plaza y Valdes, 2000. ISBN: 968-856-894-5. In Spanish. A contribution to the discussion on the impact that Greek and Roman philosophy have had on the values that have been guiding our activities and attitudes toward the natural world then and now.
--Levy, David L., Newell, Peter, "Oceans Apart? Business Responses to Global Environmental Issues in Europe and the United States," Environment 42(no. 9, Nov. 1, 2000):8- . How do companies on either side of the Atlantic adopt attitudes and policies toward the environment? Recent studies suggest that corporate strategies in Europe and the United States are not as polarized as they may first appear.
--Li, Jennifer, "The Wolves May Have Won the Battle, But Not the War: How the West Was Won Under the Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan," Environmental law 30(no. 3, 2000):677- . Current efforts toward recovery of gray wolves in the western United States through the experimental population provision of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The Ninth Circuit upheld the current recovery program in United States v. McKittrick; however, limitations within the experimental population provision and applicable agency regulations may be insufficient to bring about long-term recovery as mandated by the ESA.
--Lightfoot, Simon, Luckin, David, "The 1999 German Ecological Tax Law," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):163- .
--Linzey, Andrew, "Mind Your Language," The Animals' Agenda 20(no. 4, Jul. 1, 2000):29- . How the words we hear affect the world we see.
--Litfin, Karen, ed., The Greening of Sovereignty in World Politics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998. Global environmental politics and shifting sovereignty. The relationship between environmental practices and sovereignty is challenging and elucidates some of the core issues and challenges in world politics today. Some have assumed that transnational environmental organizations and institutions are ending sovereignty, but ecological integrity and state sovereignty are not necessarily in opposition. The norms of sovereignty are now shifting in the face of attempts to cope with ecological destruction, but this "greening" of sovereignty is an uneven, variegated, and highly contested process. Litfin is in political science, University of Washington.
--Locke, Catherine, Adger, W. Neil, and Kelly, P. Mick, "Changing Places: Migration's Social And Environmental Consequences," Environment 42(no. 7, Sep. 1, 2000):24- . Mobility, motivated by various factors, has long been a part of many cultures. A case study of Vietnam's migration trends highlights the social and environmental impacts of these demographic changes.
--Long, James N., Smith, Frederick W., "Restructuring the Forest: Goshawks and the Restoration of Southwestern Ponderosa Pine," Journal of Forestry 98(no. 8, Aug. 1, 2000):25- . A landscape-level mosaic of age and structural classes is intended to provide habitats and food chains for a broad spectrum of wildlife species, including goshawks and their prey.
--Long, Robert, MacKay, Paula, "Maine Wildlands Network: A Science-Informed Conservatism Vision for Maine," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):66- .
--Lorentzen, Lois Ann. 2000. "Paradise Paved: Christian Attitudes toward the Environment" Sojourners 299(no.6, 2000):28-32. Reviews environmental statements of major Christian denominations and describes Christian environmental organizations.
--Lorentzen, Lois Ann. La Etica y el Medio Ambiente (Ethics and the Environment). Puebla, Mexico: La Universidad Iberoamericana Press, 2000. Iberoamericana Press. Reviews major theoretical perspectives in environmental ethics. The theories are then placed in a Mexican context with case studies emerging from Mexico.
--Lynch, Dennis L., Romme, William H., and Floyd, M. Lisa, "Forest Restoration in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine," Journal of Forestry 98(no. 8, Aug. 1, 2000):17- . Even as the science of forest restoration evolves, managers must consider financial feasibility: Can restoration both achieve ecological objectives and pay for itself?
--Manuel, John, "Purple Haze," Wildlife in North Carolina 65 (no. 3, March 2001):12-15. Famed for their natural bluish mists, the Great Smoky Mountains are now being colored by human-made chemicals that are plaguing the mountains with some of the worst air pollution in the country. The blue haze was natural, from the trees. But the new haze is unnatural, coming mostly from Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi River valleys with heavy industry, driven by prevailing westerly winds. Visibility was once, on average, 93 miles; now it is 25 miles. Typical summer visibility has been reduced from 70 to 15 miles. But the worst damage is to the ecosystem with over 90 plants affected. Most evident is the dead Fraser forests at the summits, also controversial. The immediate killing of the trees is by an insect, the balsam wool adelgid, introduced from Europe, reaching the Southern Appalachians in the 1950's. But many scientists also think the pollution stresses the firs, making them susceptible to the insect plague.
--McCarthy, James J., and McKenna, Malcolm C., "How Earth's Ice Is Changing," Environment 42(no. 10, Dec. 1, 2000):8- . A recent expedition to the North Pole revealed new evidence for rapid climate change. Is climate change in the Arctic accelerating, and can this be related to human-induced global warming?
--McClellan, Roz, "Nature as Amusement Park," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):12-.
--McComb, Karen, Moss, Cynthia, Durant, Sarah M., Baker, Lucy, Sayialel,, "Matriarchs as Repositories of Social Knowledge in African Elephants," Science 292(2001):491-494. Big mama knows best. African elephants live in matrilineal family groups that range over large areas and that frequently interact with other similar groups. The oldest female matriarch acts as a repository for the group's social knowledge. Multiple playback experiments were performed during a period of nine years to test vocal discriminatory ability. Families with older matriarchs were better than those with young matriarchs at distinguishing the contact calls of other groups well or poorly known to them. These superior abilities appear to correlate with greater reproductive success on families with older matriarchs and suggest that age and experience may influence reproductive success through its effects on the acquisition of social knowledge. However, older elephants have the larger tusks prized by hunters and poachers; thus, whole populations may be affected by the removal of a few key individuals. McComb is in experimental psychology, University of Sussex, UK and with the Amboseli Elephant Research Project, Nairobi, Kenya.
--Meilkejohn, Brad, "Conservationists Retire Cows from Great Basin National Park," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):82- .
--Morrisette, Peter, "Is There Room for Free-Roaming Bison in Greater Yellowstone?" Ecology Law Quarterly 27(no. 2, 2000):467- .
--Muir, John, "Anthropocentrism and Predation," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):16-.
--Mumme, Stephen P., "Minute 242 and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Managing Transboundary Groundwater on the Mexico--U.S. Border," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):341- .
--Naiman, Robert J., "Riparian Ecology and Management in the Pacific Coastal Rain Forest," Bioscience 50(no. 11, Nov. 1, 2000):996- .
--Narayanan, Vasudha, "`One Tree is Equal to Ten Sons': Hindu Responses to the Problems of Eclogy, Population and Consumption," Journal of the American Academy of Religion 65(1997):291-332. A reality check on India with overpopulation and dwindling reserves. Hindus of every stripe have participated in polluting the environment. An account of the resources and limitations within the many Hindu traditions to see how the interconnected problems of overpopulation, ecology, and consumption/consumerism can and have, to some extent, been addressed. The many Hindu theological texts and philosophical systems do contain engaging accounts of reality which, if understood and acted upon directly, could serve as fantastic resources for several social and moral problems. But, regretably, in the Hindu contexts, these have limited power over ethical behavior. Narayanan is in religion at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
--Nelson, Lance, ed., Purifying the Earthly Body of God: Religion
and Ecology in Hindu India. Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press, 1998. Includes:
-Nelson, Lance, "The Dualism of Nondualism: Advaita Vedanta and the Irrelevance of Nature" (pp. 61-88). "First, I will show the falsity of the suggestion that Advaita Vedanta finds spiritual value inherent in nature. I will then proceed to explain precisely how Shankara nd his tradition devalue the natural world and how ... the world is not revered but rather tolerated until it passes completely away. My conclusion will be that this is not the kind of nondualism that those searching for ecologically supportive modes of thought might wish it to be" (p. 68). Nelson is in religious studies at the University of San Diego.
-Mumme, Patricia Y., "Models and Images for a Vaisnava Environmental Theology: The Potential Contribution of Srivaisnavism" (pp. 133-161). There are rich resources present in the Shri Vaishnava tradition of Ramanuja that emphasize panentheism, the transcendence and immanence of God, but appeal to them may be little more than rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic.
--Nettle, Daniel and Romaine, Suzanne, Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. The last 500 years have seen the extinction of half the world's languages, and one of the remaining 6,000 disappears every week. How language becomes endangered and why the loss of linguistic diversity matters.
--Oddie, Richard James, "The Living Tissue: Environmental Phenomenology and Acoustic Ecology," Call to Earth, vol. 2, no. 1, 2001, pp. 8-12. A slower pace of life and the development of one's capacity to listen sensitively rather than speak forcefully. Stop and listen to the world around us and respond to the imperative for change that can be heard beneath the surface noise of our present existence.
--Ott, Konrad, "Eine Theorie 'starker' Nachhaltigkeit. (A theory of 'strong' sustainability)" In German. Natur und Kultur 2(no. 1, 2001):55-75. Abstract: This article outlines a theoretical approach towards sustainability. Such approach should be ethically reflective, normatively sound and conceptually clear-cut. Any theory of sustainability must encompass a reasonable choice between the two competing concepts of `weak' and `strong' sustainability. It will be argued that strong sustainability should be favored. Some policy implications of this choice will be outlined.
--Partridge, Ernest, "Gefaehrlicher Optimismus (Perilous optimism)". In German. Natur und Kultur 2(no. 1,2001):3-32. Abstract: Despite the warnings by the environmentalists of impending disasters due to the destruction of the natural environment and the exhaustion of natural resources, there is no shortage of reassurances. The optimists find support in the economic principle that all problems of scarcity and growth limitation can be solved through human ingenuity and economic incentives. This optimism is indefensible because `market forces' are systematically `myopic,' e.g., oriented toward short-term projections and returns on investment. Furthermore, the optimists disregard well-established facts of biological and natural sciences; in particular the complexity of ecosystems and the natural entropic progression of systems toward disorder and dispersion.
--Pearson, Gina, Conner, Charles W., "The Quitobaquito Desert Pupfish, An Endangered Species within Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument: Historical Significance and Management Challenges," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):379- .
--Pease, Craig M. and Matson, David J., "Demography of the Yellowstone Grizzly Bears," Ecology 80(3, 1999):957-975. Using a new model of population dynamics based on Yellowstone field studies, the authors claim that Yellowstone grizzly bears have increased only about 1% per year 1975-1995, a much lower estimate than the 5% annual rise over the last decade claimed by the Park Service. Scientists disagree over whether Yellowstone grizzlies remain imperiled. Another story: Kaiser, Jocelyn, "Study Sounds Alarm on Yellowstone Grizzlies," Science 284(1999):568.
--Penney, Jennifer, "Work in Progress," Alternatives 27(no. 1, Winter 2001):18- . Major unions in Canada are pushing for a win-win scenario: jobs and environment.
--Pennisi, Elizabeth, "ShakeUp to Proceed, but Conservation Center Stays Open," Science 292(2001):1034-1035. Grossman, Lev, "Mr. Small at the Smithsonian: Cutbacks in Conservation," Time, May 8, 2001, p. 57. Lawrence Small, the new Secretary of the Smithsonian, tried hard to close the Conservation Research Center (budget 5.2 million annually) to save money, at the same time that he contined renting for the Zoo two pandas from the Chinese (rental $ 10 million annually). He claimed the pandas are good publicity and help to raise money for Smithsonian. Small is a banker appointed to revise Smithsonian finances; previous secretaries have been scientists. His proposal provoked enormous protests from conservation biologists, and he has relented, for the time being.
--Perkins, Matthew, "The Federal Indian Trust Doctrine and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act: Could Application of the Doctrine Alter the Outcome in U.S. v. Hugs?" Environmental law 30(no. 3, 2000):701- . The Ninth Circuit's recent affirmation of the criminal convictions of Frank and William Hugs, members of the Crow Indian Tribe, for violating the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act even though the tribe members claimed their actions were protected by the First Amendment's free exercise of religion. Outlines the history of Native American religious rights and suggests that the federal Indian Trust Doctrine is a viable basis upon which Native American religious freedom arguments may be asserted.
--Peterson, Anna L., Being Human: Ethics, Environment, and Our Place in the World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001. Some chapters: Not of this world: Human exceptionalism in Western traditions. The social construction of nature and human nature. The relational self: Asian views of nature and human nature. Persons and nature in Native American worldviews. Relationships, stories, and feminist ethics. Evolution, ecology and ethics. In and of the world: Toward a chastened constructivist anthropology. Different natures. Peterson is in religion at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
--Peterson, Richard B. Conversations in the Rainforest: Culture, Values, and the Environment in Central Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Perseus Books Group 2000.
--Pinchot, Gifford, "What It All Means," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):14- .
--Platt, Rutherford, et al., Disasters and Democracy: The Politics of Extreme Natural Events. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999. To what extent does the likelihood of general federal assistance (in the U.S.) serve to diminish the natural caution that individuals, communities, and businesses might otherwise exercise in adjusting to natural hazards. Platt and colleagues find "a legal edifice of byzantine complexity" that is deeply flawed and amounts to "driving with the brakes on." The answers lie in reducing the federal aid and increasing local and individual responsibility and control. Platt is in geography and planning law at the University of Massachusetts.
--Powell, Chris, "A Chance at History," Wildlife in North Carolina 65 (no. 3, March 2001):6- 10. Restoration of elk to the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina, hunted to extinction in the 1700's. Twenty-five elk are being released each year.
--Querling, Jonathan, "Resistance takes root," The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):57- . The anti-GM movement in the US is catching up with its counterpart in Europe, as evidenced by the growth of crop-pulling actions.
--Quinby, Peter, Trombulak, Steve, and Henry, Michael, "Opportunities for Wildlife Habitat Connectivity between Algonquin Provincial Park and the Adirondack Park," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):75- .
--Rangarajan, Mahesh, ed., The Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife. Vol. II: Watching and Conserving. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Remarkable changes in attitudes toward wildlife in India in the last century, from conquest and slaughter to conservation. Many of the accounts are from former hunters who point out a different relationship between humans and animals as they record observations of wildlife for the joy of it. Contemporary accounts include a new class of naturalists who give equal attention to smaller animals and trees.
--Rankin, Richard, ed., North Carolina Nature Writing: Four Centuries of Personal Narratives and Descriptions. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, Publisher, 1996. 26 selections. From the preface: "It was impossible for the earliest colonial explorers and settlers to imagine progress apart from the subjugation of nature. As we approach the twenty-first century, many North Carolinians recognize the need to balance the productive potential of the earth and environmental health and wholeness. Nature writing represents a literature of inspiration and hope for those who would conserve our natural heritage" (p. xv). Rankin, a historian, is in administration, Queens College, Charlotte, NC.
--Redford, Kent and Richter, Brian, "Conservation of Biodiversity in a World of Use," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):9- .
--Resources for Green Work, Alternatives 27(no. 1, Winter 2001):33- . Alternatives provides a sample of some of the many green work resources.
--Robinson, John G., Redford, Kent H., and Bennett, Elizabeth L., "Wildlife Harvest in Logged Tropical Forests," Science 284(1999):595-596. Logging opens up roads and the trucks that travel them become conduits for a vast commercial trade in wild meat. Government is often unable to enforce regulations in remote areas; the social institutions with the most power are the logging companies themselves. Some, though not enough, prohibit their vehicles from carrying wild meat. Also, reforestation in tropical forests, where seeds are often large, depends on mammals.
--Rodick, David, "Poetic Dwelling and deep Ecology: Bill McKibben and Martin Heidegger on the End of Nature," Call to Earth, vol. 2, no. 1, 2001, p. 2-7. Each has things to say that complements the other.
--Rolston, III, Holmes, "Das berücksichtigen, was Singer als belanglos ansieht." In German. Natur und Kultur: Transdisziplinaere Zeitschrift fuer oekologische Nachhaltigkeit. 2(no. 1, 2001):97-116. A translation of "Respect for Life: Counting what Singer Finds of no Account, in Jamieson, Dale, ed., Singer and His Critics (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 247-268. Abstract: Singer's ethics is inadequate as an environmental ethic. Beyond the higher animals Singer insists that `there is nothing to be taken into account'. But most of the biological world has yet to be taken into account: myriad other animals, plants, species, ecosystems, and the global biosphere. Singer can count everything else only instrumentally with reference to higher animals. From a biological point of view, this is little better than humans valuing everything else, higher animals included, as their own resources. A deeper respect for life must value life more directly.
--Rothenberg, David, "Quiet Preservation: Don't Make It a National Park," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):57- .
--Rothenberg, David, and Ulvaeus, Marta, eds., The Book of Music and Nature: An Anthology of Sounds, Words, Thoughts Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2001. A Terra Nova Book. This innovative book and CD, assembled by the editors of the periodical Terra Nova, is the first anthology published on the subject of music and nature. Yoking together the simplicities and complexities of the world of natural sound and the music inspired by it, this collection includes essays, illustrations, and plenty of sounds and music. Celebrates our relationship with natural soundscapes while posing stimulating questions about that relationship. The compact disc includes fifteen tracks of music made out of, or reflective of, natural sounds, ranging from Babenzele Pygmy music to Australian butcherbirds.
--Rothenberg, David, and Ulvaeus, Marta, eds., Writing on Water. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2001. A Terra Nova Book. Water links all aspects of our existence. From the politics of watersheds to the romance of turtles climbing up from the sea, from Leonardo da Vinci to Octavio Paz, from murder at a hot spring to the cool facts on liquidation, the writings in this collection flow through all the ways humans encounter this most refreshing of elements. There is a bit of science, some management plans for the protection of water, and plenty of stories, poems, essays, and photography. Here is a fresh way of looking at one of the oldest subjects there is. Rothenberg is in philosophy at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and the founder of Terra Nova, the journal from which these articles are taken. Marta Ulvaeus was an editor of TDR (The Drama Review) becoming the Associate Editor of Terra Nova.
--Russon, A. E., Erman, A., and Dennis, R., "The population and distribution of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in and around the Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West Kallmantan, Indonesia," Biological Conservation 97(no. 1, 2001):21- .
--Ruttan, Vernon W., "The Continuing Challenge of Food Production," Environment 42(no. 10, Dec. 1, 2000):25- . Have efforts to create a global system of agricultural research been successful in responding to the food security, resource management, and poverty reduction challenges of the 21st century?
--Schennach, Susanne M., "The Economics of Pollution Permit Banking in the Context of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 40(no. 3, Nov. 1, 2000):189- .
--Sellars, Richard West, "Creating Tradition: The Roots of National Park Management," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):26- .
--Shaver, Gaius R., Canadell, Josep, and Rustad, Lindsey, "Global
Warming and Terrestial Ecosystems: A Conceptual Framework for
Analysis," Bioscience 50(no. 10, Oct. 1, 2000):871- .
--Tischendorf, L., Fahrig, L., "How Should We Measure Landscape Connectivity?" Landscape ecology 15(no. 7, Oct. 1, 2000):633- .
--Singleton, Sara, "Co-operation or Capture? The Paradox of Co-management and Community Participation in Natural Resource Management and Environmental Policy-Making," Environmental Politics 9(no. 2, Summer 2000):1- .
--Smith, Mick, An Ethics of Place: Radical Ecology, Postmodernity, and Social Theory. Albany, SUNY, State University of New York Press, 2001. The ecological self and an environmental ethos--an ethics of place--as a way to re-engage the moral concerns of radical ecological theories. Current debates about the status of moral values and theories, the social construction of nature, deep ecology. Smith is in sociology at the University of Albertay, Dundee, Scotland.
--Stanturf, John A., Gardiner, Emile S., and Warren Jr., Melvin E., "Restoring Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystems in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley," Journal of Forestry 98(no. 8, Aug. 1, 2000):10- . Because of concerns for wildlife habitat and water quality protection, the valley is now the site of the most extensive forest restoration effort in the United States.
--Stein, Bruce A., Kutner, Lynn S., and Adams, Jonathan S., eds., Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Paper, $ 20.00. Draws together information developed from natural heritage programs from across the U.S. over a quarter of a century. Produced by the Nature Conservancy and the Association for Biodiversity Information. Richly illustrated.
--Szathmary, Eörs, Jordán, Ferenc, and Pál, Csaba, "Can Genes Explain Biological Complexity," Science 292(2001):1315-1316. The number of genes correlates poorly with complexity in plants and animals. An important further factor is the number of networks that can be established by transcription factors and the genes they regulate. Immune systems and brains are more complex than the genes that generate them. There may be a significant analogy to ecosystems, where the number of species is not the main consideration in complexity of ecosystems, but the number of connections between species. We need to distinguish between two forms of complexity: one measured by the number of genes and the other by the connectivity of gene regulation networks. The authors are in the Collegium Budapest (Institute for Advanced Study).
--Tait, Malcolm, "Bessie and the Gaur," The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):46-47. A cow named Bessie was used in an attempt to clone a gaur, an endangered ox-like animal from Asia. Attempt failed. Cloning extinct or endangered animals is not the future of conservation--it is merely an excuse to carry on our destructive ways.
--Thompson, Paul B., Food and Agricultural Biotechnology: Incorporating Ethical Considerations. Ottowa: Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee, 2000. 40 pp. Also available in French: Intthique biotechnologie alimentaire et agricole. Ottowa: 2000.
--Thompson, Paul B., and Hilde, T., eds. The Agrarian Roots of Pragmatism. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2000. Papers on Jefferson, Thoreau, Emerson, Dewey and Steinbeck, among others.
--Topfer, Klaus, "Whither After The Hague," Science 292(2001):2095-2096. Although the Hague conference on climate change failed about what action to take, the talks did succeed in building an almost unanimous conviction among governments that potential climate change is a serious problem. Taking no action at all will be more expensive than taking preventative action now. Töpfer is Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
--Turner, James Morton, "Charting American Environmentalism's Early (Intellectual) Geography, 1890-1920," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):18- .
--Varady, Robert G., Moote, Margaret Ann, and Merideth, Robert, "Water Management Options for the Upper San Pedro Basin: Assessing the Social and Institutional Landscape," Natural Resources Journal 40(no. 2, Spring 2000):223- .
--vonMoltke (von Moltke), Konrad, "Taking Stock in Europe," Environment 43(no. 1, Jan. 1, 2001):36- . State of the environment reports in the United States have been extremely useful in assessing environmental pressures. Now the European Union is facing the complications and challenges of assembling similarly effective reports.
--Wackernagel, Mathis, and Giljum, Stefan, "Der Import von oekologischer Kapazitaet: globaler Handel und die Akkumulation von oekologischen Schulden (The import of ecological capacity: global trade and the accumulation of ecological debts)." In German. Natur und Kultur 2 (no. 1, 2001):33-54. Abstract: In a sustainable world, we should live on the interests of the planet's natural capital. However, increasing evidence suggests that humanity's ecological demand is exceeding the regenerative capacity of the biosphere. The expanding global economic activities exacerbate this trend, particularly since they allow the rich countries to overcome the constraints imposed by the limited productivity of their national ecosystems. This path of ecologically unbalanced globalization, however, will lead humanity into an impasse, since not all nations can be net-importers of ecological capacity.
--Walters, Kerry S., and Portmess, Lisa, eds., Religious Vegetarianism: From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001. Both editors are in philosophy at Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA.
--Wildlife Travelling Companions:
--Sterry, Paul, Wildlife Travelling Companion: East Africa. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, The Crowood Press, 1992.
--Measures, John, Wildlife Travelling Companion: Spain. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, The Crowood Press, 1992.
--Gibbons, Bob, Wildlife Travelling Companion: France. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, The Crowood Press, 1992.
--Walters, Martin, Wildlife Travelling Companion: Great Britain and Ireland. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, The Crowood Press, 1992.
--Wilson, James, "The Savage State," The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):50. The press regularly uses words like "primitive" and "Stone Age" to describe tribal societies. The media's representation of tribal groups is doing them a disservice.
--Wright, Danaya C., Hester, Jeffrey M., "Pipes, Wires, and Bicycles: Rails-to-Trails, Utility Licenses, and the Shifting Scope of Railroad Easements from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Centuries," Ecology Law Quarterly 27(no. 2, 2000):351- .
--Yaffe, Martin D., ed., Judaism and Environmental Ethics: A Reader. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Lexington Books, 2001. 416 pages. Sample contributions: E. L. Allen, "The Hebrew View of Nature"; Jeanne Kay, "Concepts of Nature in the Hebrew Bible"; Aldo Leopold, "The Forestry of the Prophets"; Steven S. Schwarzchild, "The Unnatural Jew"; Eilon Schwartz, "Judaism and Nature"; Eric Katz, "Nature's Healing Power, the Holocaust, and the Environmental Crisis"; J. David Bleich, "Vegetarianism and Judaism" and many others. Yaffe is in philosophy and religious studies at the University of North Texas, Denton.
--Zahniser, Ed, "Walk Softly and Carry a Big Map: Historical Roots of Wildlands Network Planning," Wild Earth 10(no. 2, Summer 2000):33- .
--Zarb, John, "Small holding up," The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):40- . With farming in crisis, we desperately need to find a sustainable alternative form of agriculture. But could it ever work? Yes; in many places around the world, it already is.
President Bush's energy policy. The Bush administration has released an energy plan that identifies an "energy crisis" caused by overly-strict environmental regulations and proposes to solve it by weakening these regulations and encouraging greater energy production. The plan calls for a government-supported push to exploit new domestic sources of oil and gas and coal on federal lands, including on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska. To avoid all Americans suffering what Californians are now suffering, the administration says there is a need for one new electricity-generating plant a week for 20 years and 38,000 miles of new natural gas pipelines (ten times the distance from California to Maine). The administration also supports nuclear power as the most environmentally friendly way to increase energy supply. Concern about this U.S. "energy crisis" was a major reason the Bush administration abandoned its campaign pledge to control CO2 emissions from power plants and opposes the global warming treaty. Although the administration plan discusses numerous conservation measures, they are left unfunded (or with reduced funding) or postponed pending further research. Vice President Cheney well expresses the administration's attitude toward energy conservation, dismissing as 1970's era thinking the idea that "we could simply conserve or ration our way out" of the energy crisis. The administration opposes any energy conservation measures based on the idea that Americans now "live too well" or that people should "do more with less." On Cheney's view, "Conservation may be a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis for a sound, comprehensive energy policy." In 1999, the U.S. consumed 20,000 barrels of oil a day, over 1/4 of the world's total daily consumption of 75,000 barrels (Japan came in a distant 2nd, at 5,500 barrels a day). See Joseph Kahn, "Cheney Promotes Increasing Supply as Energy Policy," New York Times (5/1/01): Al.
New oil-drilling techniques that are environmentally less harmful. With the ongoing debate over whether to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, it may be useful to understand some of the new oil discovery and extraction technologies touted by industry as environmentally friendly. Instead of peppering the surface with wells over a broad area, new supercomputer simulations of the deep earth and new drilling equipment allow wells to be constructed on small gravel pads with drills branching out underground for four or five miles following thin layers containing oil. Instead of waste pits that overflow with drilling mud, contaminated water, spilled oil, and discarded chemicals, waste, garbage, and rock cuttings can now be ground into a slurry and pumped into the ground 2000 feet beneath the 2000 foot-thick permafrost. Roads that were once built of gravel mined from river beds and that spread far and wide on the fragile tundra can now be built from ice (either from water pumped from tundra ponds or from ice scraped from ponds and laid down like gravel). Ice roads melt away in the spring thaw and leave few traces. Even the maze of pipelines which are an unavoidable means of collecting the oil can be raised to allow animals to duck underneath and are punctuated with elevated elbows so that less oil is spilled if one section is punctured. Both sides agree that the new surveying techniques are a mixed blessing environmentally. Although no longer using dynamite, the new three-dimensional seismic technology that performs ultrasound on the earth involves the use of vibrating 10-ton vehicles that do not travel on ice roads but crisscross the open tundra in a much more intensive way than with the old surveying techniques. Scars are left on the tundra and there is a greatly increased chance of encountering and disrupting wildlife. The new surveying techniques have raised the success rate from 1 producing well for each 10 exploratory wells to 5 in 10. One environmental critic responding to the elaboration of these new technologies says that once the work shifts from exploration to extraction of oil, the result is always a sprawl of pipelines, roads, crew quarters, and fuel depots: "In the end, even with all this technology, you've got a massive industrial complex." See Andrew Revkin, "Hunting for Oil: New Precision, Less Pollution" New York Times (01/30/01): D1.
U.S. Supreme Court decisions weakens wetland's protection. A 15 year-old protection for isolated wetlands used by migratory birds was struck down by the court as unjustified federal intrusion into states' traditional rights to manage land and water. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers was given the right to regulate "navigable waters" and those that abut them by the Clean Water Act of 1972. It later adopted the "migratory bird rule" that regulated the dredging and filling of ponds and wetlands separate from navigable rivers or their tributaries, in part because migratory birds that cross state lines used these wetlands. The Court held that the rule extended beyond the intention of Congress when it adopted the Clean Water Act. Because few states protect such isolated wetlands, the ruling could end protection for as much as 20 percent of the country's wetlands. Over 50 percent of the nation's wetlands have already been lost. See Linda Greenhouse, "Justices Bar Wide U.S. Role Under the Clean Water Act," New York Times (01/10/01): A13.
Chinese farmers reduce disease and double crop yields by abandoning monoculture. In one of the largest agricultural experiments ever, thousands of rice farmers in China have abandoned chemical fungicides and controlled rice blast (the most serous disease affecting this crop) by planting a mixture of two different rices instead of a single type of rice as they have typically done. By planting a variety of rice that is resistant to the fungus in rows next to the preferred rice variety (which is susceptible), they blocked the spread of this wind born fungus. As more and more farmers nearby did the same, these positive effects began to multiply across the region. The experiment shows that ecologically based approaches to agriculture can be effective even on a very large scale. It also reinforces the idea that diversity in wild ecosystems is conducive to health as well. See Carol Yoon, "Simple Method Found to Increase Crop Yields Vastly," New York Times (8/22/00): D1.
John Muir's birthplace and childhood home in Dunbar, Scotland, has been purchased, on the 150th anniversary of Muir's departure to the United States, by the John Muir Trust and will be turned into an interpretive center, telling the story of John Muir. Already as a child and still in Scotland, Muir was gaining his great love of wild places and creatures. John Muir Trust, 41 Commercial Street, Leith EH6 6JD, Scotland. Webpage: www.jmt.org.
From death strip to lifeline. For three decades after World War III, Germany was divided by a 1,400 long no-man's land that ran down the country, a "death strip" guarded by mines, attack dogs, and machine guns. Today, chunks of the once verboten zone still harbor rare animals and plant species, and German officials are stepping up efforts to turn these Cold War refugia into a string of nature preserves. Brief story in Science 292(2001):1055.
Captive-bred California condors too tame for the wild? A recent article in Conservation Biology worries that overly tame birds resulting from captive breeding and lead-poisoning deaths due to condors feasting on animal carcasses riddled with lead buckshot could doom the twenty year restoration effort. Condor reproduction has been enhanced by removing eggs from the captive females so they lay more eggs. The pilfered eggs are hatched in incubators and the chicks are raised by humans wearing hand puppets thatresemble adult condors. Far more puppet-raised birds now exist than those raised by condor parents. Many of the released puppet-raised condors approach humans to beg for food and invade campsites (one bird even tore its way into a tent). Critics of the study claim that there is no evidence that the puppet-raised condors fare worse in the wild than do parent-reared condors. See AP, "Despite Success, Condor's Fate Remains Unclear," New York Times (8/22/00): D3.
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