Volume 12, No. 1, Spring 2001


Call for ISEE Nominations. Two positions are opening on the ISEE Nominating Committee, as well as the position of Secretary of ISEE. The nominating committee proposes candidates for official ISEE positions. The Secretary of the ISEE has five main duties: to handle society correspondence and writings, excluding the web page; to convene a business meeting once a year at one of the three APAs; to arrange the ISEE program at the Central Division APA; to send the ISEE newsletter to the membership; and to exercise executive control over the membership list generated by the Treasurer. Please send nominations by e-mail to Victoria Davion at vdavion@arches.uga.edu and cc to Gary Varner at g-varner@tamu.edu. The deadline for nominations is May 1, 2001. Please verify that persons nominated will be willing to serve.

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is in danger. Millions of migratory birds, the Porcupine Caribou herd, polar bears, and a spectacular pristine wilderness are threatened, as pro-development forces make the strongest push ever to drill for oil in the refuge. There is scant evidence you can drill the Arctic in an environmentally sensitive manner: even under tight scrutiny, oil companies have continued to have accidents and spills in the nearby Naval Petroleum Reserve. A footprint in a wilderness area is still a footprint, and in the case of oil development, it is much more, including thousands of acres of roads and pipelines. Letters to Congress and Op-ed pieces defending ANWR are urgently needed. For the latest news and to find out what you can do to help, visit the Audubon Society's or the Wilderness Society's websites (www.audubon.org, www.wilderness.org, www.protectthearctic.org).

APA Pacific Division Meeting, March 28-April 1, San Francisco. A number of talks and sessions are scheduled on environmental ethics and related issues. In addition to two ISEE group sessions, these include:

* APA main program colloquium papers: "The Animal is World-Poor: A Heideggerian Contribution to the Animal Rights Debate," Gary Steiner (Bucknell University); "On the Borders of Language and Death: The Question of the Animal in Derrida's Aporias," Matthew Calarco (Binghamton University).

* "Symposium: Human Genome Diversity Project." A special meeting sponsored by the APA Committee on American Indians in Philosophy and the Society for Women in Philosophy. Speaker: "Biocolonialism and Biopiracy," Annette Jaimes-Guerrero (San # Francisco State University). Commentator: Nancy Tuana (University of Oregon). Chair: Joely DeLaTorre (San Francisco State University).

* Society for Philosophy and Technology Group Session I. "Technology and Nature: Responsibility and the Environment." Speakers: "Ethics and Observation: Thoreau and Harman," Andrew Ward (Georgia Tech), "Environmentalism and Technology: A Critical Theory Perspective," Tyler Veak (Virginia Tech), "Biotechnology, Human Potentials, and Animal Rights," Jason Kawall (University of Tennessee/Chattanooga). Chair: Noam Cook (San Jose State University).

* Society for Philosophy and Technology Group Session II. "Technology and Nature: The Distinction in Popular Culture." Speakers: "The Nature/Technology Relationshp in Pop Culture," Gloria Gannaway (UC/Berkeley), "The Appearing Waning of Appearing Appearances: Phenomenology and Smart Clothing," Cornelius Heesters (McMasters University). Chair: Noam Cook (San Jose State University).

* Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals Group Session. Papers: "Are Animals Moral Agents: Revising Our Views of Animals and of Morality," Grace Clement (Salisbury State University), "Vegetarianism and Virtue: Does Consequentialism Demand Too Little?" David Corner (CSU Sacramento). Chair: Ralph Acampora (Hofstra University).

* Society for Philosophy and Geography Group Session I. "Space and Place in Japanese Thought." "The Space of the Self," Erin McCarthy (St. Lawrence University), "Ritual and Zen Architecture," Takeyoshi Nishiuchi (Bowdoin College).

* Society for Philosophy and Geography Group Session II. "The Myth of the Uncontaminated Land: Plato's Treatment of Foreigners in the Laws," Farhang Erfani (Villanova University), "Why is the Earth Silent in the Face of this Destruction? Technology and Earth in Heidegger," Jennifer Jennings (Tulane University).

* Western Phenomenology Conference Group Session: "Physics, Nature, Environment." Speakers: "Meeting Place," Tom Davis (Whitman College), ""Xunos: Heraclitus' Ontology of 'Being With'," Irene Klaver (University of North Texas), "Of Earth and Its Time," Daniela Vallega-Neu (CSU/Stanislaus). Chair: Alejandro Vallega (CSU/Stanislaus).

* International Institute for Field Being Group Session. Paper: "Eco-Feminism and Eco-Being," Donna Giancola (Suffolk University).

APA Central Division Meeting, May 3-5, Minneapolis. Many talks and sessions are scheduled on environmental ethics and related issues. In addition to two ISEE group sessions, these include:

* APA main program colloquium papers: "On Sentience and Moral Status," Bart Gruzalski (Pacific Center for Sustainable Living); "The Impact of Moral Extensionism on Private Property Rights," Eric Reitan (Oklahoma State University); "The Incoherence of Indirect Duties Regarding Animals" in Kant's philosophy, James Skidmore (Idaho State University).

* "Environmental Racism," a special session sponsored by the APA Committee on Blacks in Philosophy. Paper: "Four Decades After Little Rock: Segregation and the Conservation of Race," Ronald Sundstrom (University of Memphis).

* "Cultural Differences and the Development of Science and Technology: Perspectives East and West," a special session sponsored by the APA Committee on Asians and Asian Philosophy. Papers: "Determinism and Cultural Construction: Western Appropriations of Science and Technology," Teresa Castelao-Lawless (Grand Valley State University); "Ad-Hocness, Conventions, Social Constructs and Artifacts, James Edwards (University of Redlands); "Unity of Man and Nature vs. Dichotomy of Subject and Object, Xinhe Hu (Chinese Academy of rSocial Science); "Chinese Science," Zhaolo Lu (Tiffin University).Chair: Terence Horgan (University of Memphis).

* North American Society for Social Philosophy Group Session. Author Meets Critics: James Sterba, Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism and Multiculturalism Commentators: Iris Young (University of Chicago), Karen Warren (Macalester College). Chair: Eve Cole (University of Minnesota/Duluth).

* Society for Philosophy and Technology Group Session I. "The Precautionary Principle." Speakers: Richard Sherlock (Utah State University), Carolyn Raffensperger (Science and Environmental Health Network). Commentator: Robert Hood (Middle Tennessee State University).

* Society for Philosophy and Technology Group Session II. "Don Ihde's Expanding Hermeneutics: Visualizing Science." Speakers: Michiel Korthals (Wageningen University), Don Ihde (SUNY/Stonybrook).

* Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals Group Session. Papers: "Vegetarianism and the Limits of Philosophy," Bill Martin (DePaul University), "Thought Without Talk?" Seetha Burtner (Purdue University). Chair: H. Peter Steeves (DePaul University).

* Society for Philosophy and Geography Group Session I. "Virtual Communities and Physical Geography," Andrew Ward (Georgia Tech), "Basically Proper Places, or, How to Offer a Philosophically Defensible Theory of Place," Kevin Zanelotti (University of Kentucky). Chair: Jonathan Maskit (Denison University).

* Society for Philosophy and Geography Group Session II. "Social and Cultural Space." "A Phenomenological Geography of Social Space," Christine Metzo (University of Kentucky), "Culture and Territory," Avery Kolers (University of Louisville). Chair: Jonathan Maskit (Denison University).

* American Indian Philosophy Association Group Session: "American Indian Identity and Environment." Talk: "The Hidden Path from Dream to Reality," Davie Martinez (University of Minnesota). Commentators: Shari Collins-Chobanian (Arizona State University West), Michael Brown (University of Minnesota). Chair: Anne Waters (Texas Woman's University).

The Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy held its annual meeting in Las Vegas, March 11-13. The final plenary session was titled "The City as Nature's Other: A Still Unresolved Dilemma." Participants were Josephine Corubia (Penn State), Vincent Colapietro (Penn State), Joseph Grange (University of Southern Maine) and J.J. McDermott (Texas &M).

India Forum Bulletin is an interesting quarterly newsletter on environmental and economic affairs in India. For further information or to subscribe, contact (IndiaForum@karansingh.com) or (monishv@rediffmail.com).

The Leopold Letter is the newsletter of the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University. It seeks to encourage increased interest n and use of sustainable farming practices and to stimulate public discussion of same. It is available on the web at (www.leopold.iastate.edu).

Second Nature is a Boston-based non-profit working to help colleges and universities bring environmental sustainability into the curriculum and into all areas of university life. They offer a range of programs, training sessions, one-on-one consulting and resources. Visit their website (www.secondnature.org) for information on courses, methods, bibliographic references, and more.

The Johns Hopkins Population Information Program announces a new web page on Population and the Environment. Go to (www.jhuccp.org/popenviro) for a new population-environment CD-ROM, special reports, updates on projects in Ecuador and Indonesia, photos, document searches, organizational links, and educational materials.


The Environmental Studies Program at Oberlin College invites applications for a one-year position to teach five courses, including introductory courses and upper level courses in environmental ethics and policy. The position may be renewable for second year. Requirements: Ph.D. degree in hand or expected by 8/15/01; strong background in humanities and social sciences. Send letters of application, c.v., graduate academic transcripts, and at least three letters of reference by 5/1/01, to David Orr, Chair, Environmental Studies, 122 Elm Street, Oberlin, Ohio 44074. Late applications may be accepted until position is filled. Salary commensurate with qualifications. AA/EOE.

McGill University Faculty of Religious Studies and the School of Environment have initiated a search for a shared position, specializing in religion, ethics and the environment. Deadline for applications was January 15, 2001. Further information at (www.mcgill.ca).

Markets and Morality is a semiannual journal which tackles tough issues regarding the interaction between economics and Christian social thought. In a recent article, Allan Firzsimmons writes on "Ecological Confusion among the Clergy," and other articles have dealt with issues in ecological stewardship. Subscribe for a year for $25, and receive five recent issues free. To subscribe, simply visit the Markets and Morality website at

EcoPrometheus is a new web page on environmental ethics­from Spain! It includes both Spanish translations of English language materials and interesting new contributions from scholars in Spain and Latin America. The address is: http://ctcs.fsf.ub.es/prometheus/index.htm.

The Murie Center will offer a graduate course in environmental ethics titled "Restoring Our Wild Roots: Women's Sense of Place in Nature," from July 18 - August 1, 2001 at the historic Murie ranch in Moose, Wyoming. The course will bring together ten women from diverse backgrounds to explore the importance of restoring a personal relationship with wild nature in conservation work. Conversation and reflection will set the stage for a deep inquiry regarding our interactions with the wild and each other. Throughout the course, the Center will host conversations with inspiring and influential women whose lives and conservation work have been shaped by their relationship with the land, giving participants an important link to the legacy of women in conservation. Combined with this inquiry, the group will work with historic preservation specialists to help restore the Wild Lone cabin. From these experts, participants will learn basic cabin restoration skills and will put these skills to work to help create a living space for the Murie Center_s future participants. For more information, contact: Matt Daly, The Murie Center, P.O. Box 399, Moose, WY 83012. Phone: 307-739-2246. Email: mattd@muriecenter.org. Website: www.muriecenter.org.

The Second Brazilian Congress on Conservation Areas (II Congresso Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservacao) met November 5-9, 2000 in Campo Grande, Brazil, a city just south of the Pantanal. About 850 professionals in environmental conservation attended, from governments and NGO's. There were hundreds of papers on all aspects of conservation in Brazil, published in two volumes of conference proceedings. The director of the congress was Miguel Milano (Federal University of Parana). Three plenary speakers from North America were: Michael Soulé (The Wildlands Project), John Terborgh (Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke University), and Holmes Rolston (Colorado State Univ.).

The federal government of Brazil, as well as the several state governments, have designated a number of parks, although landholding patterns and politics in Brazil make this problematic. Officially, there is little public land in Brazil, even in undeveloped areas; vast areas are privately held, often descending from large land grants from the Portuguese crown in the early days of European settlement. In this respect, Brazil is more like the state of Texas than other U.S. western states. National parks have been declared on such lands, with payments to landowners to be spread across several decades. Such payments are variously made and not made. On these lands also, indigenous peoples and more recent arrivals have continued to live, on lands they did not officially own and to which they make various claims of rights. On the positive side, private lands offer opportunities for conservation, especially on marginally productive lands which can be purchased.


ISEE Group Sessions. Proposals are invited for individual papers or group sessions for the APA Western, Central and Eastern Division meetings. For the Western, contact ISEE newsletter editor Phil Cafaro, acting for ISEE treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. For the Central, contact ISEE secretary Laura Westra. For the Eastern, contact ISEE Vice-President Dale Jamieson. Addresses at the end of the newsletter. The deadline for proposals is September 1 for the Western and Central, March 1 for the Eastern.

The Third International Conference of Art Culture Nature, an association for the study of the arts and the environment, will be held June 25-26 at Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. The conference theme is "Public Art." For further information see the ACN homepage (faculty.ssu.edu/~acn/ ­ do not use "www").
Society for Conservation Biology Conference. A session sponsored by the ISEE on "Aboriginal Peoples and Environmental Ethics" is planned for the SCB conference in Hilo, Hawaii, July 29th - Aug. 1, 2001. To submit a paper proposal for this session, follow the instructions enclosed at http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/~scb/scbAbstracts.htm. Sessions at the SCB conferences are brief (15 minute presentation time) and strictly enforced. The proposals should be sent directly to Bethany Woodworth and a copy of the proposal sent to session chair Michael Nelson at m2nelson@uwsp.edu.

Applying Deep Ecology. The Trumpeter is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, on-line quarterly dedicated to Deep Ecology. They invite articles from all relevant disciplines, including philosophy, social sciences, women's studies, psychology, politics, religion and aboriginal studies. Articles should promote critical thinking and discussion of the philosophy, ethics, spirituality, science and public policy regarding our relationship to the earth. They also accept poetry and narratives that are appropriate and add to the discussion and understanding of Deep Ecology. Please visit their web site http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca/ and go to the submissions page for author instructions. Papers should be sent to Dr. Bruce Morito, Centre for Global and Social Analysis, Athabasca University, 1 University Drive, Athabasca AB T9S 3A3 Canada. E-mail brucem@athabascau.ca.

The Trumpeter is also soliciting manuscripts for a special edition on "Applying Environmental Ethics." The proposed issue will cover a number of different aspects but might include: papers on how environmental ethics might apply to one or several issues or areas [e.g. resource management, law, activism and environmental policy], and papers on actual applications, successful or attempted. For more information about this special issue, please contact: Annie Booth, Environmental Studies Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9. E-mail: annie@unbc.ca.

Call to Earth, the official journal of the International Society for Environmental Ethics (IAEP), is in its second year of operation and sends out a special call for papers for upcoming issues. Please send (a) short essays of 2400 words or less, (b) book reviews of 700 words or less, briefer "critical comments" on new books, and annotated bibliographies of recent material, and (c) announcements about conferences, programs, and other items of interest. Please provide a disc with a hard copy, or send contributions via email to Kenneth Maly, Editor, Dept. of Philosophy, UW-LaCrosse, LaCrosse, WI 54601 (maly.kenn@uwlax.edu).

IAEP's fourth annual program will be held October 7-8, 2001, at Goucher College in Baltimore. A special session will be held on "Nature and the Sacred." For further information visit their website at (www.environmentalphilosophy.org).


A special report submitted by Yang Tongjin, secretary-general of the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics (CSEE) and Associate Professor at the Center for Applied Ethics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).

1.Environmental News. In Spring 2000, many parts of north China were repeatedly hit by severe sandstorms. Realizing that the environmental conditions of northwestern China (including Inner Mongolia) were becoming worse and worse, the central government made a policy to turn large acreages of cultivated land back to forests and grasslands in the northwestern region, in order to protect the region's environment. According to this policy, more than 250,000 hectares of farmland, mainly in the upper reaches of the Yellow River and the Yangtse River, was to be planted with trees and grass in 2000, and more cultivated land will be turned back to forests and grasslands in ensuing years. Meanwhile, the China Youth Development Foundation initiated the Mother River Protection Operation (MRPO). The main purpose of MRPO is to plant 70,000 hectares of land with trees on the valleys of Yellow, Yangtse and other major rivers in China within five years through volunteer work.. The governments of some foreign countries have also taken part in China's environment protection projects. For example, the German government has by now donated 100 million US dollars to China for re forestation purposes. In the area of NGO activities, the Japanese Corporate Institute of Ethics (founded in 1945) celebrated its 55th anniversary by arranging for 600 of its members to plant 55,000 trees in the Kubuqi desert in Inner Mongolia. Many NGOs in China, especially Global Village and Friends of Nature, have also been doing their best to mobilize more common people to participate in caring for and protecting the environment around them. Due to all these efforts, environmental conditions in China improved remarkably in 2000.

2 Conferences. Although bioethics and economic ethics are the main focus of attention in the field of applied ethics in China, environmental ethics is attracting more and more attention. From May 13 - 16, the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics (CSEE), in close collaboration with the Harbin Institute of Technology, convened "The First National Conference on the Green University and Green Education" in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province. In view of the fact that many universities have already been offering environmental education courses, the main focus of this conference was on how to incorporate the insights of environmental ethics into these courses.
From June 9 - 11, the Center for Applied Ethics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, together with Wuxi University, convened "The First National Conference on Applied Ethics " in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Environmental ethics and the foundation of its worldview were one of the themes of the conference.

From August 16 - 19, the Heilongjiang Society of Ethics, together with Qiqihar University, convened a "Conference on Ecological Ethics" in Qiqihar. Scholars from Heilongjiang Province discussed current developments in environmental ethics in the West and in China, the theoretical foundations of environmental ethics, and environmental thinking in traditional China.
From October 25 - 26, a "Symposium on Environmental Politics" was held at Shandong University. The challenge of environmentalism and the new trends of green ideology were the main themes of this meeting. Per Gahrton, who is a member of the European Parliament (EP), the founder of the Swedish green party, the chair of the EP's China delegation and the former co-secretary of the Coordination of European Greens (1984 -- 1989), gave a special lecture at this meeting, titled "Green Parties in the 21st Century: Basic Ideas, Short History and Prospects for the Future".

3. Research. Chinese scholars have shown a strong interest in Western environmental ethics since the early 1990s. Many scholars got interested in environmental ethics first through a study of Western theories in this field. With more and more Western works in environmental ethics being made available in Chinese, Chinese scholars' understanding of and research in Western environmental ethics is becoming more comprehensive and deep. The Chinese version of Holmes Rolston, III's Philosophy Gone Wild (trans. by Liu Er and Ye Ping) and Environmental Ethics (trans. by Yang Tongjin) were both published in 2000 and are likely soon to have an impact on the development of Chinese environmental ethics. The year 2000 also saw the publication of Yang Tongjin's Toward A Deep Environmentalism: The Basic Ideas of Environmental Ethics. The first book-length treatment of Western environmental ethical thinking in China, this work introduces and analyzes systematically the basic ideas of anthropocentrism, animal liberation/rights theory, biocentrism and ecocentrism (including the land ethic, deep ecology and Rolston's theory of natural values). Several articles are also worth mentioning. Liu Er's "An Overview of Contemporary Western Environmental Philosophy" introduces the main ideas of major schools of contemporary Western environmental philosophy. Wang Zhengping's "Deep Ecology: A New Kind of Environmental Values" and Lei Yi's "The Ecological Movement Theory: From Shallow to Deep" discuss the ultimate norms, basic principles, contributions and limitations of deep ecology.

In the area of general theory, Chinese scholars have concentrated on two subjects. One is the controversy over anthropocentrism. Although criticized by many, nonanthropocentrism is dominant in the environmental ethics circle in China. Lei Yi's "Anthropocentrism and Its Critiques" and Xu Hongxin's "On the Illusion of Anthropocentrism" demonstrate the inadequacy of anthropocentrism. Ye Ping's "On the Ecological Rights of Nonhuman Beings" tries to defend the rights of nonhuman beings. Ren Chunxiao's "Some Philosophical Argumentation about Ecological Ethics" provides some convincing arguments for a nonanthropocentric environmental ethics. Ethical questions concerning sustainable development are another major subject of environmental ethics in China. Chen Cangshu's Sustainable Development From the Perspective of Philosophy, the first book revealing the theoretical and practical predicaments of sustainable development, and He Zhonghua's "Some Difficulties Faced by Sustainable Development" discuss and analyze the philosophical and ethical dilemmas in the idea of sustainable development. Fan Dongping's "The Value Goals of Sustainable Development" explores the ethical implications of sustainable development. In addition, Kuang Fuguang's A Text of Environmental Ethics is worth notice.

Harmony between Nature and human beings is in the basic spirit of traditional Chinese philosophy. Exploring the modern implications of this idea from the perspective of environmental ethics is a focus of study for many scholars in the field. He Huaihong's "A Summary of Ecological Ethical Thoughts in Confucianism" summarizes the environmental ethical ideas implied in metaphysics, ethics and life attitudes of Confucianism. Meng Peiyuan's "On the Ecological Philosophy Reflected in Yizhuan" explore the nonanthropocentric environmental ethical ideas of Yizhuan, a part of one of the Confucian classics which was written more than two thousands years ago. Li Huiqin and Guo Changhua's "A Preliminary Discussion on Ecological Ethical Thought of Confucianism Prior to the Qin Dynasty" delineates basic Confucian attitudes toward Nature from B.C.770 to B.C.221. Yang Tongjin's "Chinese and Western Animal Protection Ethics: An Outline for Comparative Studies" explores agreements and disagreements between western and traditional Chinese cultures.
Due to the convening of "The First National Conference on the Green University and Green Education", environmental education, or green education, became one of the important concerns of Chinese scholars in 2000. Many articles explore the contents and methods of environmental education. The professional journal Environment and Society, sponsored by CSEE and the Center for Environment and Society, Harbin Institute of Technology, devoted many pages to environmental education in 2000. Finally, it must be pointed out that aid from ISEE contributed a lot to the study of environmental ethics in China during the past year.


A personal reflection from the newsletter editor.

From December 28 to January 24, 2001, I traveled through India with a group of twenty university professors and high school teachers from Fort Collins, Colorado, part of a Colorado State University/Fulbright study group. The goal of this project was to introduce teachers who had never been to India to its tremendous cultural diversity, so that we could teach our students about it. As an amateur naturalist, I was also interested in exploring India's biodiversity, particularly its birdlife, and learning about efforts to conserve it. And as an environmental philosopher, I was anxious to learn more about Indians' environmental values. The group traveled to Delhi, Agra and Varanasi in the Gangetic plain, Cochi and the marshes (or "backwaters") of tropical Kerela state, Mahabalipuram, Kanchipuram and Chennai in Tamil Nadu, and Jodhpur and Jaisalmer in Rajasthan in the desert northwest.

Traveling through India was an exhilarating experience, above all because of the friendliness and hospitality of Indians. India is a country of tremendous diversity and contrasts, with a great richness of peoples, cultures, spiritual traditions, and landscapes. It was fascinating to trace out the mixture of continuity and change, as a 4,000 year-old civilization heads into the twenty-first century. Reading the papers and listening to the politicians, I sometimes wondered whether "I.T." (information technology) had replaced "OM" as the new Indian mantra. Then I would speak to visitors outside a temple, or hear a concert of Carnatic violin music, or listen to a new retelling of the Ramayana, and realize that Indians' deep connections to a rich past will not be easily severed.

I hope that this is true regarding biodiversity, and that future generations of Indians will be able to keep a thriving connection to the natural world. After hearing Ramachandra Guha and others say that preserving wild nature is a luxury for poorer nations, it was heartening to visit Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Rajasthan and see that Indians love to explore nature, just like Americans. At Bharatpur, a U.N. World Heritage Site, I saw a few American and European tourists, adding new bird species to their life lists. But I saw many more Indians along the paths: schoolchildren walking arm in arm, enjoying the day; old men with beat-up binoculars, trying for a closer look at the Siberian cranes. It was the same at other natural areas I visited. Whether at a small bird sanctuary in Kerela or a nature preserve overlooking the Taj Mahal, Indians seemed to enjoy being outdoors, seeing the flora and fauna, and showing these to a foreigner.

In India, it is clear that cultural diversity and biodiversity are intertwined. Wherever our group traveled, we saw and heard evidence of an ancient and rich appreciation of the natural world. At Mahabalipuram, I was dazzled by the 7th century granite carvings of elephants, lions and deer. Whatever the religious symbolism involved in these carvings, the artists and their patrons clearly knew and loved wild nature. The many styles of traditional dancing that we saw-including Oddisi, Kuchhupudi, and Bharatanatyam-all made reference to birds and beasts. Dancers reimagined the darting quickness of deer, the grace of cranes, and the proud fierceness of lions. 16th century Mughal paintings in Bombay's Prince of Wales Museum beautifully captured North India's biodiversity and the many human activities accompanying it, from hunting to lolling with a sweetheart. Traditional Tamil Nadu love poetry divided the landscape into five "ecotypes," we learned, and associated different emotions and activities, as well as different plants and animals, with each area. Can these traditional cultural activities and their appreciation continue, if the biodiversity to which they refer disappears?

India, I think, faces the same issues in conserving biodiversity that America does. We both have rapidly growing populations-in India due to high birthrates, in America due to high immigration rates. We both need to ask ourselves what part of a valuable landscape we will set aside for wild nature. Of course, India is more densely populated and has less money to buy and manage wild lands. Yet Americans' gluttonous appetites for raw materials also make it difficult for us to preserve wild lands, as shown in our current debate about whether to preserve or drill in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge.

Along with the visit to Bharatpur Preserve, two further highlights deserve mention. The first was a visit with Dr. Karan Singh, former Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir, in New Delhi. Singh was a minister in Indira Gandhi's cabinet for ten years and head of Project Tiger's steering committee during the 1970s. We discussed Project Tiger's ups and downs over the years. While he agreed that current efforts to involve locals in the program were valuable and necessary to its long-term success, he also thought that earlier efforts to secure tiger habitat were essential. "What about arguments that it was wrong to move villages and restrict local access to fuel and fodder?" I asked. "No habitat, no tigers," was his answer. He didn't think that anyone could call him or herself a conservationist, who could accept the extinction of India's tigers.

Currently, Dr. Singh is working on faith-based approaches to environmentalism, which he thinks are particularly important in the Indian context (this point was also made to me by several other Indian environmentalists, for example, by Raghuvanash Saxsena, head of Planning and Strategy for the World Wide Fund for Nature ­ India). He has written several books grounding environmental protection in a reformed Hinduism, and has also helped organize several ecumenical conferences on religion and the environment. Singh also emphasized the importance of population for India's environmental future. Indeed, everyone I spoke to in India, from environmentalists and government officials, to taxi drivers and schoolteachers, agreed that population growth needs to be halted, if India is to protect its environment and improve the quality of life for all its people.

Another highlight was a day-long visit with the President of the All-India Bioethics Association (AIBA), Dr. Jayapaul Azariah, in Chennai (formerly Madras). Jay, a marine zoologist, took several group members on a fascinating tour of the city, focused on water issues. He explained the efforts he and his graduate students have made, over the years, to get residents to see their rivers as resources and to convince government officials to clean them up. While Jay is personally sympathetic to "intrinsic value" arguments, he believes that in India, just getting people to a rationally self-interested "resourcism" would often represent progress. We learned more about India's urban environmental issues in those few hours with Jay, than we would have in a month of poring over scholarly articles and government reports. It was inspiring to hear about his persistent efforts to keep pressing for a better environmental future. Jay is a great resource for environmental ethicists interested in Indian issues; his email is (jazariah@yahoo.com ).

In the end, this was the most important message I took back from India: In the face of grave environmental problems, environmental scholars in India and America must work for practical change. We have no right to get discouraged and give up, there is real work to do and future generations are depending on us to do it!


High Plains Films is the premier environmental documentary film house in North America. Their films are excellent for stimulating discussion of environmental issues and environmental values. For a full list of films, prices and details for ordering, contact High Plains Films, P.O. Box 8796, Missoula, Montana 59807. Phone: (406) 543-6726. Fax: (406) 728-9432. Email: dhd@highplainsfilms.org. Website: www.highplainsfilms.org. Titles include:

* Varmints (1998, 91 or 57 minutes), on shooting and poisoning prairie dogs in the American West, a keystone species of the shortgrass prairie ecosystem.

* Killing Coyote (2000, 28, 57 or 83 minutes), on predator control efforts against America's most resourceful canid. Both these films are excellent for introducing animal rights issues.

* Southbound (1996, 48 minutes): logging issues in the great forests of the southern U.S.

* Green Rolling Hills (1995, 29 minutes): deforestation, grassroots environmental efforts, and government/corporate collusion in Appalachia.

* The Element of Doom (1993, 32 minutes): documents mining's impacts on the last wild areas of the Ozark Mountains.

* This Land is Your Land (1999, 15 minutes, finalist, 23rd International Wildlife Film Festival): documents a century of national forest management and discusses possible paths forward for USFS.

* Motor (1999, 38 minutes): an evocative story about ORV use on public lands and waterways.

* End of the Road (2000, 17 minutes): discusses the meaning and value of "roadless areas" on U.S. national forests.

* Wind River (1999, 34 minutes): discusses water rights issues in Wyoming's wind river country, with applications throughout the western U.S.

* Wildland (2000, 35 minutes): builds an ethical argument in favor of protecting wild lands, by looking at wildlands and their many uses throughout the U.S.

* The Paper Colony (1996, 27 minutes): a look at clearcutting in the Maine woods.

Global Capitalism and Moral Imperative. 30 minutes, color, VHS. Global laissez-faire is producing consequences similar to those of the 19th century, when gaps between rich and poor kept thousands in abject poverty for generations. In this new era of social Darwinism, moral leaders are asking who in the world community will care for the needs of the poor, and how it will be accomplished. Available from Films for the Humanities and Sciences, P. O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. 800/257-5126. www.films.com.

Globalization: Winners and Losers. 40 min. color video. Globalization has raised the standard of living in developing economies through high-tech opportunities, foreign investment, and debt relief. But the world market is being exploited through shortsightedness, including the aggressive deployment of genetically modified crops, environmental negligence, and the abuse of NAFTA. A discussion with experts, produced in the aftermath of the WTO protests in Seattle. Available from Films for the Humanities and Sciences, P. O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. 800/257-5126. www.films.com.

Awesome Sun. SolarMax is the latest IMAX film, a forty minute action documentary of the marvels of the # sun, and the almost apocalyptic journey of humans from the realization that the sun is the center of the solar system to models of a solar storm deforming the magnetosphere. On Earth, the film captures huge, richly colored landscapes from Alaska to the Andes. A 180o field-of-view camera captures the never- setting sun circling the Earth's North Pole. A big film, multi-scaled, multi-dimensional, dynamic, and its "stellar" feature is awesome. More at www.solarmovie.com.


Many thanks to Chris Drinkwater for editorial assistance in preparing the bibliography. Chris finished a Ph.D. at the University of Leeds, UK, on the subject of ecology and postmodernity, in 1995, and is now an independent researcher. He reports that he is going off to climb a mountain in India in April and May, possibly the first ascent of a 7035 meter peak called Tirsuil in the Garwhal region.

--Aagesen, D., "Crisis and conservation at the end of the world: sheep ranching in Argentine Patagonia," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):208- .
--Agar, Nicholas, Life's Intrinsic Value: Science, Ethics, and Nature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. 192 pages. $ 25, paper. Anything living is intrinsically valuable, and Agar challenges the received ethical wisdom which uses the notion of intrinsic value to indicate the great and exclusive moral importance of human beings. Science can play a role in transforming moral common sense into a life centered, biocentric ethic. Agar is in philosophy, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
--Ahmed, Miyan and Rukunaddin Laarman, Jan G., "Gender Equity in Social Forestry Programs in Bangladesh," Human Ecology 28(no.3, SEP 01 2000):433- .
--Anderson, Brent C., "Valuation of Environmentally Impaired Properties," Natural Resources & Environment 15(no.2, Fall 2000):100- .
--Anastas, P. T., and Warner, J. C., Green Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
--Appleton, Arthur E., "The Labeling of GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) Products Pursuant to International Trade Rules," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):566- .
--Badalamenti, F., Ramos, A. A., and Riggio, S., "Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):110- .
--Baer, Paul, et al., "Equity and Greenhouse Gas Responsibility," Science 289(2000):2287. Developed countries have agreed to base emissions goals on 1990 levels, and the U.S. insists on "meaningful participation" by the developing countries. But this just grandfathers in existing disproportions. Global carbon emissions average one metric ton per year per person; developed nations emit three to five, the U.S. five. Developing nations emit about .6, though many of them only .2. When the global population reaches ten billion as currently estimated, per capita emissions must be stabilized at .3 per person per year. A more just principle would be to base emissions on a per capita basis. This is simple and it gives each person equal access to and responsibility for the atmosphere. The authors are (mostly) with the Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley. But, replies Arthur Westing, this proposal just grandfathers in existing population excesses, no better than grandfathering in existing development excesses. A more equitable proposal is to allocate a country's emissions total on the basis of the airspace over that country. See Arthur H. Westing, "Atmospheric Ethics," Science 291(2001):827.
--Barker, Barry, Envronmental Studies: Concepts, Connections, and Controversies. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 2001. Biodiversity, human populations, food supplies, environmental health, energy, urbanization, and globalization. Chapter 1 is "Environmental Ethics."
--Bates, Diane and Rudel, Thomas K., "The Political Ecology of Conserving Tropical Rain Forests: A Cross-National Analysis," Society & Natural Resources 13(no.7, OCT 01 2000):619- .
--Becher, Anne, ed., American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present, 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000. 921 pages in the two volumes. $ 175.00. Almost 350 American environmental leaders, typically with a two-page introductory and summary article. Many historical figures, although most of the leaders portrayed are alive today. Includes the most visible movers and shakers but also those who importantly collaborate on conservation efforts from behind the scenes. Scientists, activists, government personnel, business leaders, lawyers, poets, farmers, economists. Among the philosophers and theologians (and cousins): Wendell Berry, J. Baird Callicott, John B Cobb, Bill Devall, Wes Jackson, Bryan Norton, Holmes Rolston, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Theodore Roszak, George Sessions, Donald Worster. Each entry has a springboard bibliography. This is a good one to encourage your library to buy.
--Bell, Philip J.P., "Contesting rural recreation: the battle over access to Windermere," Land Use Policy 17(no.4, OCT 01 2000):295- .
--Benson, John, Environmental Ethics: An Introduction with Readings. New York: Routledge, 2001. $ 20. 304 pages. A blending of a systematic introduction and readings through which the student is led. Some chapters: Environmental goods and human well being. Environmental goods and the problem of co-operation. Environmental virtues. What entities have independent moral status? Relating to nature: Following Nature. Relating to nature: Being a part of nature. Techniques that have been used to value the environment and a critical evaluation of environmentalism, from "light" to "deep green."
Readings: Richard and Val Routley, "Environmental Ethics in Practice"; Bryan G. Norton, "The Cultural Approach to Conservation Biology"; E. O. Wilson, "The Environmental Ethic"; Jane Howarth, "Neither Use nor Ornament: A Consumers' Guide to Care"; David Pearce et al, "Economic Valuation of Environmental Goods"; Garrett Hardin, "A Tragedy of the Commons"; J. L. Mackie, "Game Theory Analysis"; R. W. Hepburn, "Wonder"; John O'Neill, "Science, Wonder and Lust of the Eyes"; Paul W. Taylor, "Respect for Nature"; J. S. Mill, "Nature"; Holmes Rolston, III, "Can and Ought We to Follow Nature?"; Arne Naess, "Identification, Oneness, Wholeness and Self-Realization"; Warwick Fox, "Transpersonal Ecology and the Varieties of Identification"; Val Plumwood, "Nature, Self and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy and the Critique of Rationalism"; Phil Larkin et al, "Environmental Verses." Benson is emeritus, Lancaster University, UK, also at the Open University, UK.
--Berger, Joel, Swenson, Jon E., and Persson, Inga-Lill, "Recolonizing Carnivores and Naive Prey: Conservation Lesson from Pleistocene Extinctions," Science 291(2001):1036- 1039. Prey species, such as moose in Yellowstone, who have never encountered a predator such as a wolf, are at first naive, but they learn quite quickly to be wary of such new predators. Data from the Yellowstone wolf restoration. Within one season they are quite alert to the new dangers and within one generation, Wyoming moose with no previous experience of wolves for over a century are as alert as their Alaska cousins. Also Scandinavian data. This allays worries about prey species when carnivores are restored. Furthermore, such quick learning casts the "blitzkrieg hypothesis" about humans entering North America and rapidly killing naive prey species in doubt. Berger is in biology, University of Nevada, Reno. Swenson is in biology, Agricultural University of Norway. Persson is in zoology, University of Oslo.
--Berry, R. J., ed., The Care of Creation. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000. 192 pages. Paper, $ 18. "Sam" Berry is professor Genetics at the University College, London, formerly president of the British Ecological Society, of the Linnean Society, and the Euyropean Ecological Federation.
--Bisong, Susan, "The WTO Panel Decision on the U.S. Shrimp Embargo: Another Ruling against U.S. Enforcement of Species Protection in Trade," Natural Resources Journal 40(no.3, Sumr 2000):699- .
--Bodansky, Daniel, "The Legitimacy of International Governance: A Coming Challenge for International Environmental Law," American Journal of International Law 93(1999):596-624. There is a perception that international environmental law is insufficiently democratic, also questions about public participation and expertise. Analysis and research is needed to understand how such factors as public participation, scientific expertise, and consent work in particular contexts to help legitimate international governance. Bodansky is professor of law, University of Washington.
--Bonahue, Brian, "History, Work, and the Nature of Beauty: A Massachusetts Community Forest," Journal of Forestry 98(no.11, NOV 01 2000):36- . The Weston Town Forest is the setting for lessons about biodiversity, sustainable forestry, and the beauty of being actively engaged with the history of the forest.
--Borstelmann, John, "Land Exchanges: Sound Management Tool or Invitation to Speculation?," Wild Earth 10(no.3, Fall 2000):63- .--Botteron, Cynthia Ann, What the Study of Tiger Preservation in India Reveals about Science, Advocacy, and Policy Change, Ph.D. thesis, in political science, University of Texas-Austin, 2000. Investigates the legitimacy of the claim that imperialism was the motive and mode of transferring from one cultural context to another the "wilderness" version of "national parks" as a means of saving species and habitat, specifically with reference to tigers in India. The vast and powerful role played by the coalition of conservation scientists and international environmental organizations in creating and promoting this "ethic" has largely been ignored by policy theorists. These activities are here analyzed as is the impact on the development of science by its close association with environmental advocacy organizations. This "constructed" science was used to delegitimize alternative interpretations of the problem of species decline, habitat degradation, and the role and function of humans in the environment. The advisor was David Braybrooke. Botteron can be contacted at the Department of Political Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. E-mail: cynn@lamar.colostate.edu.
--Bousé, Derek, Wildlife Films. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. 296 pages. $ 22.50 paper.
--Mitman, Gregg, Reel Nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. 303 pages. $ 29.95 paper.
Analyses of the portrayals of nature and wildlife in contemporary and historical cinema. Mitman features the period 1910 and the 1960's; Bousé covers 19th century origins to IMAX. Authors puzzle over the extent to which cinematographic art and technology enable an accurate portrayal versus their intrusion on nature. Both conclude that the artistic element present in the making of nature films inevitably reflects, to some extent, the values of contemporary society. But then they worry that showing nature absent human interaction encourages a sense that humans are apart from nature, resulting in less motivation of viewers toward human responsibilities for conservation. A sad thought is that, with rare species, future generations may be able to see such animals and their behaviors only on archived film. The Bousé book was a Ph.D dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication. Mitman teaches history of science at the University of Oklahoma. Reviewed by Thomas Lovejoy, "Cinemas of the Wild," Science 291(5 January 2001):50-51.
--Browder, Greg and Ortolano, Leonard, "The Evolution of an International Water Resources Management Regime in the Mekong River Basin," Natural Resources Journal 40(no.3, Sumr 2000):499- .
--Bunyard, Peter, "Climate debate heats up," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):48- . Science editor Peter Bunyard looks at an important new report on responses to climate change in the UK.
--Bunyard, Peter, "Crisis? What crisis?," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):56- . According to an ex-founder of Greenpeace, the Amazon rainforest has never been in better shape. Peter Bunyard exposes this dangerous greenwash for what it is.
--Burgess, Bonnie B., Fate of the Wild: The Endangered Species Act and the Future of Biodiversity. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2001. An analysis of the legislative stalemate surrounding the Endangered Species Act. Burgess is a public education at the National Zoo.
--Caddy, John F., "A fisheries management perspective on marine protected areas in the Mediterranean," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):98- .
--Carr, Mark H., "Marine protected areas: challenges and opportunities for understanding and conserving coastal marine ecosystems," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):106- .
--Centner, T. J., "Coordinating fence law with range management strategies in the USA," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):201- .
--Cervi, Gregg Anthony, "War Wrecks and the Environment: Who's Responsible for the Legacy of War? A Case Study: Solomon Islands and the United States," Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 14(no.2, 1999):351- .
--Charton, J. A., Garcia, Williams, I. D. and Riggio, S., "Evaluating the ecological effects of Mediterranean marine protected areas: habitat, scale and the natural variability of ecosystems," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):159- .
--Christoforou, Theofanis, "Settlement of Science-Based Trade Disputes in the WTO: A Critical Review of the Developing Case Law in the Face of Scientific Uncertainty," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):622- .
-Clatworthy, Jonathan, Good God, Green Theology, and the Value of Creation. Oxford, UK: Jon Carpenter, 1997. 234 pages. Committed to discovering the goodness of God and of creation. an "optimistic theology."
--Cohen, Carl, and Regan, Tom., The Animal Rights Debate. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001. 288 pages. Paper, $ 20. Argued by the two most articulate and influential philosophers representing opposing camps and meeting head on. A vexed and enduring controversy. Cohen is in philosophy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Regan is in philosophy, North Carolina State University.
--Collins, Terry, "Toward Sustainable Chemistry," Science 291(5 January 2001):48-49. "Chemistry has an important role to play in achieving a sustainable civilization on Earth ... which current chemistry education essentially ignores. It has become an imperative that chemists lead in developing the technological dimensions of a sustainable civilization." Technological chemistry tends to be simple, nondegradable, and toxic, biochemistry tends to be complex and recyclable. "To achieve such sustainable chemistry requires a sea change in the chemical community." Collins teaches "green chemistry" at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh.
--Comstock, Gary L., Vexing Nature? On the Ethical Case Against Agricultural Biotechnology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. Comstock earlier opposed transgenics in biotechnology more so than he does now. Now he takes a cautious approach, judging the balance of probable good over harm.
--Covington, W., Wallace Fule, Peter Z. Vance, and Regina K., "Learning by Doing: Education in Ecological Restoration at Northern Arizona University," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):30- . Northern Arizona University offers an integrated, interdisciplinary program that stresses both the ecological and the social skills that restorationists need.
--Craige, Betty Jean, Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2001. 264 pages. $ 35. The first biography of the father of ecosystem ecology. Craige is University Professor of Comparative Literature, University of Georgia.
--Croce, Pietro, Vivisection or Science? An Investigation into Testing Drugs and Safeguarding Health. London: Zed Books, 1999. New York: St. Martins Press, 1999. 209 pages. Published in association with Doctors and Lawyers for Responsible Medicine.
--Crowley, Eve L. and Carter, Simon E., "Agrarian Change and the Changing Relationships Between Toil and Soil in Maragoli, Western Kenya (1900-1994)," Human Ecology 28(no.3, SEP 01 2000):383- .
--Dean, Cornelia, Against the Tide: The Battle for America's Beaches. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. 295 pages. $ 25. Some 70 to 90 percent of the coastlines of the lower 48 states are eroding, and leaving nature to take its course is completely unacceptable to residents and developers. The fundamental problem is our collective desire to live on the beach or close to it. There is a bewildering morass of rules that apparently safeguard short-term economic and political coastal interests at the long-term expense of the general public. Dean is science editor of the New York Times.
--DeaneDrummond (Deane-Drummond), C., "Sophia: The Feminine Face of God as Metaphor for Ecotheology," Feminist Theology 16(1997):11-31.
--Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1997. Diamond examines the environmental factors that influenced the shift from hunter-gatherers to farming-based cultures, to provide a better understanding of how human societies came to be. Societies with the advantages of reliable food sources and domesticated animals tended to develop writing, technology, government, and organized religion as well as military weapons, resulting in their expansion at the expense of less sophisticated societies. Location and environment, not superior culture, are the deciding factor in the construction of dominant civilizations. So superiority is an illusion, it's all a matter of environmental good fortune. Diamond is a UCLA physiologist and cultural ecologist, who does research among New Guinea tribes.
--Dolan, Kevin, Ethics, Animals, Science. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1999. 287 pages.
--Duchesne, M., Cote, S.D. and Barrette, C., "Responses of woodland caribou to winter ecotourism in the Charlevoix Biosphere Reserve, Canada," Biological Conservation 96(no.3, 2000):311- .
--Edwards, Robert, "Bags of rubbish," The Ecologist 30(no.8, NOV 01 2000):52- . Plastic bags, says Robert Edwards, are choking the life out of India. And that's just how the plastics industry likes it.
--Eghenter, Cristina, "What Is Tana Ulen Good For? Considerations on Indigenous Forest Management, Conservation, and Research in the Interior of Indonesian Borneo," Human Ecology 28(no.3, SEP 01 2000):331- .
--Fischer, Kenneth S., Barton, John, Khush, Gurdev S., Leung, Hei, and Cantrell, Ronald, "Collaborations in Rice," Science 290(2000):279-280. Rice is the largest food source for the poor, the staple of Asia, and also provides employment and income for vast numbers of rural people. Genetic and genomic research in rice has formerly been mostly public, government sponsored research, but the trend is toward private, industry sponsored research. There is growing concern that the poor will not benefit from such research, since the results are often proprietary. These authors, from the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, propose a model by which patents are available on research discoveries, but rights to these must be made available at reasonably royalty in commercial markets in the developing world, and at zero royalty for subsistence farming.
--Foreman, Dave, The Lobo Outback Funeral Home. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2000. A novel about a burned-out Sierra Club lobbyist who leaves Washington, convinced that nothing can stop the human war on nature, and retreats to a cabin in southwestern New Mexico's Diablo National Forest. But he falls in love with a biologist, as pretty as she is tough, who tries to draw him into the defense of the Diablo Wilderness and a pack of lobos, Mexican wolves. He first refuses, then is soon caught up the bloody consequences of his cynicism, not taking a stand for what he loves. Foreman was a founder of Earth First! in 1980 and is the author of Confessions of an Eco-warrior.
--Gager, Dan, Hendee, John C., Kinziger, Mike, and Krumpe, Ed., "What Managers are Saying--and Doing--about Wilderness Experience Programs," Journal of Forestry 96(no. 8, 1998):33-37. A growing number of organizations take clients/members into the wilderness for personal growth, therapy, or education. Wilderness managers support these programs in principle, but they are concerned about the social and ecological impacts. One conclusion is that often the experience need not be on designated wilderness, as opposed to other forested or wild lands. Given the increasing crowds in wilderness areas, moving elsewhere may be more productive and less disruptive.
--Garrett, Laurie, "Nature and Homo sapiens," Wild Earth 10(no.3, Fall 2000):36-
--Gibson, Robert, "Diversity Over Solidarity," Alternatives 26(no.4, Fall 2000):14- . What we have learned and where we have come in 30 years of eco-activism.
--Goetzl, Alberto, "Consumption and Concerns: A Delicate Balance," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):19- . Americans need to make the connection between their demands as consumers and their conerns about natural resources.
--Goldsmith, Edward, "Hell on Earth," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):40- . We have changed the face of the planet almost unrecognisably over the last 200 years - and now we talk of re-engineering ourselves to adjust to it. Edward Goldsmith says we have missed the point again.
--Goni, Raquel, Polunin, Nicholas V.C., and Planes, Serge, "The Mediterranean: Marine protected areas and the recovery of a large marine ecosystem," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):95- .
--Grant, Lindsey. Too Many People: The Case for Reversing Growth. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000. "The recent growth of human populations has imperiled the pursuit of economic prosperity and social justice and has placed undue strain on the natural support systems that all creatures depend upon." In this short handbook (102 pages), Grant examines some of the major issues of our times and argues that uncontrolled population growth lies at their heart. "Food, water, land, air, climate, and energy resources are all threatened by ever increasing numbers of people inhabiting the Earth." A clear, straightforward text, ideal as a supplement for classes in environmental ethics that seek to treat population issues.
--Gray, Patricia M., Krause, Bernie, Atema, Jelle, Payne, Roger, Krumhansl, Carol, and Baptista, Luis, "The Music of Nature and the Nature of Music," Science 291(5 January 2000):52-54. "Rather than being the inventors of music, we are latecomers to the musical scene." The authors find music not only in humans but in whales, birds, even insects. Whale and bird songs, if genetically disposed, are also acquired. "Whales from different oceans sing completely different songs." Whales and birds seem to prefer patterned tones and rhythms rather similar to those humans prefer. "The similarities among human music, bird song, and whale song tempt one to speculate ... that there is a universal music awaiting discovery." This would be rather like Platonic mathematics. "Do musical sounds in nature reveal a profound bond between all living things?"
Such pervasive "music" is discovered partly by discoveries about animal sounds, but also by redefining the term "music," somewhat similarly to the way animal "culture" is often as much a redefinition of "culture" as new discoveries about animal behavior. Acquired bird songs are here part of their "culture" (p. 53) "Music has been defined as patterns of sound varying in pitch and time produced for emotional, social, cultural and cognitive purposes." Songs, seemingly synonymous with music, "can be defined as any rhythmic repeated utterance whether by a bird, a frog, an insect, a whale or a human being." There is no discussion here of the functional nature of such calls (territorial calls, mating, group location) and whether and how this relates to aesthetic capacities and experience. An accompanying article is:
--Tramo, Mark Jude, "Music of the Hemispheres," Science 291(5 January 2000):54-56. Music is universal in human cultures and this seems to indicate that the human brain is constructed so as to produce and enjoy music. Areas of the brain that may be involved in different aspects of music perception and performance.
--Hallman, David G., Spiritual Values for Earth Community. Geneva: World Council of Churches (WCC) Publications, 2000. $ 10. Seven spiritual values found in Christianity and other faith traditions--gratitude, humility, sufficiency, justice, peace, love, and faith and hope--could inspire greater justice, respect for the Earth's integrity and the building of sustainable communities.
--Harmelin, Jean-Georges, "Mediterranean marine protected areas: some prominent traits and promising trends," Environmental Conservation 27(no.2, JUN 01 2000):104- .
--Hayward, Tim, Political Theory and Ecological Values. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998. 196 pages. Hayward continues to press his case for ecological issues to be made more central to the enterprise of political theory. He now challenges the conventionally established opposition between a more radical ecologism (caring for nature for nature's sake) and a more reformist environmentalism (caring for nature for our sake); there is no clear distinction to be made between ecological values, on the one hand, and human interests, on the other. The more manageable inquiry is how far our existing values can be maintained in the face of ecological realities. What aspects of being human must be accommodated if a political theory is to avoid being unecological? There are essentially two such aspects: Human beings are a part of nature, and they are not generally motivated to do what is other than in their own interests. Eventually, this means that ecological values must be found consistent with the pursuit of human interests. The most fundamental interest of humans is in integrity, understood as wholeness, unity, and health in one's physical, mental, and spiritual being, and enlightened self-interest can and should include an interest that includes whole-hearted respect for the good of non-human beings. Hayward is in politics at the University of Edinburgh.
--Henderson, Caspar, "Burning desire," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):51- . Caspar Henderson explains why it's time to halt Britain's waste incineration scandal.
--Herbohn, K.F., Harrison, S.R. and Herbohn, J.L., "An Alternative Approach to Accounting for Natural Resources: The Case of Multipurpose Forestry in Australia," Society & Natural Resources 13(no.7, OCT 01 2000):663- .
--Hertsgaard, Mark, "Our Real China Problem," The Atlantic Monthly 280 (No. 5, November 1997):96-114. "The price of China's surging economy is a vast degradation of the environment, with planetary implications. Although the Chinese government knows the environment needs protecting, ... it fears that doing the right thing could be political suicide."
--Honneland, Geir and Nilssen, Frode, "Co-management in Northwest Russian Fisheries," Society & Natural Resources 13(no.7, OCT 01 2000):635- .
--IntVeld, R. J., ed., Willingly and Knowingly: The Roles of Knowledge about Nature and the Environment in the Policy Process. Utrecht, Netherlands: Lemma Publishers, 2000. 159 pages. ISBN 90 5189 868 1. This edition is in English. A Dutch group, the Advisory Council for Research on Nature and the Environment (RMNO), studied how knowledge about nature is put to use making environmental decisions, especially state policy, in the midst of debates about the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the alleged corruption of a number of environmental advice agencies. Four cases are featured: (1) The fifth airport runway at the Schipol (Amsterdam) airport. (2) The Betuwe railway track from Rotterdam to Germany. (3) The planning of new housing areas near the city of Utrecht. (4) The policy on the manure surplus.
--Joy, Bill, "Discomfort and Joy," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):35- . Leading technophile and computer guru Bill Joy is having second thoughts. He fears that we may be designing tools that will replace our species and render the planet uninhabitable. In an exclusive interview, he talks to Zac Goldsmith about our technological future.
--Kaebnick, Gregory E., "On the Sanctity of Nature," The Hastings Center Report 30(no.5, SEP 01 2000):16- . Concerns about the sacred--common in everyday moral thinking--have crept into bioethics in various forms. Further, given a certain view of the metaphysics of morals that is now widely endorsed in Western philosophy, there is in principle no reason that judgments about the sacred cannot be part of careful and reasoned moral deliberation.
--Kalabamu, Faustin T., "Land tenure and management reforms in East and Southern Africa - the case of Botswana," Land Use Policy 17(no.4, OCT 01 2000):305- .
--Khoshoo, T.N., "Gandhi and the Environment." Lead paper for the symposium "Gandhi and the Environment," held in New Delhi, 5 October 1996. Published as a stand alone paper by World Wide Fund for Nature-India. Khoshoo states that "Gandhi's environmentalism was based on the following ethical principles: non-violence; truth and persevering the truth; shunning the use of materials obtained by illegitimate means; celibacy as means of population control; neither coveting nor amassing materials and wealth beyond one's need; sanitation of body, mind and surroundings; contentment; austerity; introspection; and meditation and even fasting for self-purification and for any dereliction of duty towards nature including human beings." According to Gandhi: "the earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not for every man's greed."
--Kinderlerer, Julian, "Genetically Modified Organisms: A European Scientist's View," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):556- .
--Knight, Richard L., Smith, Frederick W., Buskirk, Steven W., Romme, William H., and Baker, William L., Forest Fragmentation in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2000.
--Krishnan, M. Edited by Guha, Ramachandra. Nature's Spokesman: M. Krishnan and Indian Wildlife. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000. This charming book, edited by Ramachandra Guha, collects selected newspaper articles and other occasional pieces by one of India's leading twentieth century naturalists. It evinces a deep love and knowledge of Indian nature, and a sense of the importance of wildlife to culture, throughout India's history. It includes accounts of wilderness treks and wildlife observed in city gardens, and discusses a wide variety of conservation issues, such as proper park design and management, population growth as a leading factor in the loss of wildlife habitat, and the problem of exotic species. Krishnan shows himself an elegant writer, a knowledgeable and experienced naturalist, and an "ecological patriot" (his term) always ready to speak up for India's endangered wildlife. (Contributed by Phil Cafaro)
--Langston, Nancy, "When Sound Science Is Not Enough: Regulating the Blues," Journal of Forestry 98(no.11, NOV 01 2000):31- . In the inland West, the Forest Service sought to turn old-growth ponderosa pine forests into efficient producers of timber--but proved only that science cannot be the sole basis of sustainable forest management.
--Lantz, Goran, "Applied Ethics: What Kind of Ethics and What Kind of Ethicist?," Journal of Applied Philosophy 17(no.1, 2000):21- .
--Laurance, William F., et al., "The Future of the Brazilian Amazon," Science 291(19 January 2001):438-439. Although there is considerable effort going into saving the Amazon, current efforts to promote conservation will be overwhelmed by prevailing destructive trends. The Brazilian government, in development schemes, is really doing much more to destroy it than to save it. "Conserving Amazonian forests will not be easy. If the world expects Brazil to follow a development path that differs from its current one--and from a path that most developed nations have followed in the past--then substantial costs will be involved. The investment, however, would surely be worth it. At stake is the fate of the greatest tropical rainforest on Earth."
--Ledoux, Laure, Crooks, Stephen and Turner, R. Karry, "Implementing EU biodiversity policy: UK experiences," Land Use Policy 17(no.4, OCT 01 2000):257-
--Lemons, John, "The Heavy Footprint--and Moral Burden--of Consumers," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):15- . A globally just distribution of resources and environmental risks implies changes in personal behavior as well as consumption patterns and production technology.
--Lockwood, Michael, "Integrated Value Theory for Natural Areas," Ecological Economics 20(1997):83-93. An integrated value theory for identifying, measuring, and aggregating human values for natural areas. Three rational modes of human value expression: weakly comparable, noncompensatory, and exchange. Exchange value expressions are consistent with neoclassical economic notions of value. The other two are not. The framework here, often quite technical, combines the specificity of benefit-cost analysis with the breadth of multicriteria analysis. Lockwood is with Parks and Recreation, Charles Sturt University, Albury, N.S.W., Australia.
--Logsdon, Jeanne M. and Husted, Bryan W., "Mexico's Environmental Performance Under NAFTA: The First 5 Years," The Journal of Environment and Development 9(no.4, DEC 01 2000):370- .
--Luzadis, Valeria A., "On Consumption and the Land Ethic: A Moral and Professional Imperative," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):16- . The moral foundation of a land ethic is not influenced by the presence or absence of a consumption ethic. It is our choice to acknowledge it by developing ethics to guide behavior.
--Lynas, Mark, "Too hot for Heidi," The Ecologist 30(no.8, NOV 01 2000):54- . The alps are melting, and the finger points at climate change. As Mark Lynas reports, there's much more at stake than just pretty landscapes.
--Lynch, Diahanna, "Closing the Deception Gap: Accession to the European Union and Environmental Standards in East Central Europe," The Journal of Environment and Development 9(no.4, DEC 01 2000):426- .
--MacCleary, Douglas W., "Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic: Is It Only Half a Loaf?," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):5- . If one accepts the extension of ethics to the management of land, it would seem to be a relatively minor leap of logic to accept the idea that one's consumption choices--which also affect land--have an ethical content as well.
--MacDonnell, Lawrence J., From Reclamation to Sustainability: Water, Agriculture, and the Environment in the American West. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1999.
--MacKenzie, Ruth and Francescon, Silvia, "The Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods in the European Union: An Overview," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):530- .
--Manus, Peter., "One Hundred Years of Green: A Legal Perspective on Three Twentieth Century Nature Philosophers," University of Pittsburgh Law Review 59(1998):558-674. (1) John Muir, and the contributions and limits of his efforts to bring environmental concerns to the law. (2) Rachel Carson, and how Silent Spring inspired some of the most prominent government leaders to reduce toxins in the environment. (3) Bill McKibben, whose End of Nature attacked the government environmental program, and who also explores how certain local cultures around the globe maintain a collective state of environmental consciousness. Manus is in law, New England School of Law.
--McDowell, Eleanor, and McCormick, James, eds., Environment Scotland: Prospects for Sustainability. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashtate, 2000. 232 pages.
--McDowell, Eleanor and McCormick, James, eds., Environment Scotland: Prospects for Sustainability. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 1999. 232 pages. Sustainable policy in a devolved Scotland. Sample chapters: Environmental beliefs and behaviors in Scotland. The Scottish Greens in a changing political climate. Sustainable Scotland: The energy dimension. Scotland, Europe, and beyond: Sustainable development in a small country. McDowell is at Glasgow Caledonian University. McCormick is with the Scottish Council Foundation.
--McIntosh, Robert P., "The Myth of Community as Organism," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41(no. 3, 1998):426-438. An analysis of the Clements' superorganism vs. Gleason's aggregation models in ecology as used rather variously by non-ecologists, including historians, such as Donald Worster, and philosophers, such as Holmes Rolston and Andrew Brennan, ecologically-oriented activists, such as Edward Goldsmith, or maverick scientists, such as J. E. Lovelock. "A metaphor is a powerful but sometimes dangerous way of indicating a relationship between different things. The metaphor of a group of species, a community, or of a group of species and their environment--an ecosystem--as an organism taken too literally is unsupportable on the evidence of recent ecology. .. . In fact, the integrated, inter-dependent nature of the ecological community in any Clementsian sense is what the debate is all about" (p. 436). McIntosh is in biology at Notre Dame University.
--Mendelson, Joseph, "Giant slaying," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):30- . The law of the land can be a potent weapon in any campaigners' armory. Yet few of us know how to use it to our advantage. Joseph Mendelson provides a rough guide to using the law to defend the environment and fight for your cause.
--Midgley, Mary, "Biotechnology and Monstrosity: Why We Should Pay Attention to the `Yuk Factor'," The Hastings Center Report 30(no.5, SEP 01 2000):7- . We find our way in the world partly by means of the discriminatory power of our emotions. The gut sense that something is repugnant or unsavory - the sort of feeling that many now have about various forms of biotechnology - sometimes turns out to be rooted in articulable and legitimate objections, which with time can be spelled out, weighed, and either endorsed or dismissed. But we ought not dismiss the emotional response at the outset as "mere feeling."
--Moffat, Anne Simon, "Can Genetically Modified Crops Go `Greener'?" Science 290(13 October 2000):253-254. The next generation of genetically engineered plants may not be by introducing trans-species genes as by restructuring the plant's own genes, to make it flower earlier or later, leaf more, seed more, the plant be larger, or smaller, and so on. This is what breeders have done for millennia, but these techniques can be 1,000 times more precise than former plant breeding.
--Moran, Dominic, Pearce, David, and Wendelaar, Anouk, "Investing in Biodoversity: An Economic Perspective on Global Priority Setting," Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1997):1219-1243. Biodiversity investment priorities are a major concern for funding agencies. Here is a cost-effectiveness index designed to rank global biodiversity investments, addressing weaknesses in several existing procedures. Biodiversity "cost" includes investments of various kinds; biodiversity "benefit" can be measured by representative biodiversity indicators. Successful investment will depend also on the probability of the likelihood of success and degree of threat present. The index is applied to the Asia-Pacific region. The authors are at the Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University College, London. Moran is also with the Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
--Mugwanya, George William, "Global Free Trade Vis-a-Vis Environmental Regulation and Sustainable Development: Reinvigorating Efforts Towards a More Integrated Approach," Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 14(no.2, 1999):401- .
--Najam, Adil, "Trade and Environment After Seattle: A Negotiation Agenda for the South," The Journal of Environment and Development 9(no.4, DEC 01 2000):405- .
--National Wildlife Federation, 2001 Conservation Directory. $ 70.00. National Wildlife Federation, The Lyons Press, 123 West 18th St., New York, NY 10011. 800/836-0510. Fax: 212/920-1836. Over 3,000 entries, U. S. federal and state agencies, conservation groups, university programs, federally protected areas, state environmental education coordinators, sources of environmentally-focused audio materials, periodicals. And more.
--Nelkin, Dorothy, Sands, Philippe and Stewart, Richard B., "The International Challenge of Genetically Modified Organism Regulation," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):523- .
--Nelson, Michael P., "Aldo Leopold, Environmental Ethics, and the Land Ethic," Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(no. 4, 1998):741-744. Leopold, though with no formal training in philosophy, made numerous contributions not only to environmental ethics but also to the concept of nature and the human relation to nature more broadly, the connection between a worldview and an ethics. Leopold is Darwinian, seeing humans as social animals in relation to their landscapes, biotic communities entwined with social communities. "Ecology represents nature as a biotic community; it reveals that humans are members of a nonanthropocentric, biotic community. For Leopold, the Land Ethic was the appropriate response to the recognition of biotic communities." Nelson is in philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point.
--Newhart, Dave, "China's Crane Experiment," International Wildlife 31 (no. 1, Jan./Feb. 2001):20-27. When wealth trickles up, people's lives improve, and so do prospects for a revered bird. Controversies that were intense a few years ago between rural farmers in China and managers of reserves to protect the black-necked crane have moderated, and farmers and conservationists are now partners rather than enemies. A big part of the solution has been grants to increase education, food production, health care, tourism, and appreciation for one of China's most widely honored birds.
--Northcott, Michael S., "Ecology and Christian Ethics," in Robin Gill, ed., Cambridge Companion to Christian Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
--Nunez, Theodore W., "Can a Christian Environmental Ethic Go Wild? Evaluating Ecotheological Responses in the Wilderness Debate," pages 329-349 in Kelsay, John and Twiss, Sumner B., eds., The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics 2000, vol. 20. (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000). Postmodern ecophilosophers argue that the wilderness idea, specifically the Euro-American conception of pristine nature derived from Muir and inscribed in the 1964 Wilderness Act, is ethnocentric, elitist, androcentric, and unjust. Although the value of existing wilderness areas is not questioned, the background assumptions and policy implications of the received wilderness concept are. This essay first reviews several postmodern critiques of and alternatives to the wilderness idea, and then examines the responses of two leading ecotheologians, Larry Rasmussen and Sallie McFague, to postmodern themes in contemporary ecophilosophy. It concludes by outlining what it might mean for a Christian environmental ethic to go wild. Nunez teaches ethics at Villanova University.
--Ortner, Sherry B., Life and Death on Mt. Everest: Sherpas and Himalayan Mountaineering. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999, paper 2001. $ 18. 392 pages. An anthropologist assesses the evolving relationship between the mountaineers and the Sherpas, a relationship of mutual dependence and cultural conflict played out in an environment of mortal risk. Ortner is in anthropology at Columbia University.
--Overdevest, Christine, "Participatory Democracy, Representative Democracy, and the Nature of Diffuse and Concentrated Interests: A Case Study of Public Involvement on a National Forest District," Society & Natural Resources 13(no.7, OCT 01 2000):685- .
--Page, Robin and Shoard, Marion, "Should we have a legal right to roam unhindered across the British countryside?," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):20- . Leading conservationists Robin Page and Marion Shoard defend their corners.
--Palmer, Joy A., ed., Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment. London: Routledge, 2001. The fifty thinkers, and the authors who evaluate them, are:
Buddha, fifth century BCE, by Purushottama Bilimoria.
-Chuang Tzu, fourth century BCE, by David E Cooper.
-Aristotle, 384-322 BCE, by David E Cooper.
-Virgil, 70-19 BCE, by Philip R. Hardie
-Saint Francis of Assisi, 1181/2-1226, by Andrew Linzey and Ara Barsam.
-Wang Yang-ming, 1472-1528, by T. Yamauchi.
-Michel de Montaigne, 1533-92, by Ann Moss.
-Francis Bacon, 1561-1626, by Paul S. MacDonald.
-Benedict Spinoza, 1632-77, by Paul S. MacDonald.
-Basho 1644-94, by David J Mossley.
-Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-78, by Paul S. MacDonald.
-Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832, by Colin Riordan.
-Thomas Robert Malthus, 1766-1834, by John I. Clarke.
-William Wordsworth, 1770-1850, by W. John Coletta.
-John Clare, 1793-1864, by W. John Coletta.
-Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803-82, by Holmes Rolston III.
-Charles Darwin, 1809-82, by Janet Browne.
-Henry David Thoreau, 1817-62, by Laura Dassow Walls.
-Karl Marx, 1818-83, by Richard Smith.
-John Ruskin, 1819-1900, by Richard Smith.
-Frederick Law Olmsted, 1822-1903, by R. Terry Schnadelbach.
-John Muir, 1838-1914, by Peter Blaze Corcoran.
-Anna Botsford Comstock, 1854-1930, by Peter Blaze Corcoran.
-Rabindranath Tagore, 1861-1941, by Kalyan Sen Gupta.
-Black Elk, 1862-1950, by J. Baird Callicott.
-Frank Lloyd Wright, 1867-1959, by Robert McCarter.
-Mahatma Gandhi, 1869-1948, by Purushottama Bilimoria.
-Albert Schweitzer, 1875-1965, by Ara Barsam and Andrew Linzey.
-Aldo Leopold, 1887-1948, by J. Baird Callicott.
-Robinson Jeffers, 1887-1962, by Michael McDowell.
-Martin Heidegger, 1889-1976, by Simon P James.
-Rachel Carson, 1907-64, by Peter Blaze Corcoran.
-Lynn White, Jr, 1907-87, by Michael P. Nelson.
-E. F. Schumacher, 1911-77, by Satish Kumar.
-Arne Naess, 1912-, by David E. Cooper.
-John Passmore, 1914-, by David E. Cooper.
-James Lovelock, 1919- , by Michael A Allaby.
-Ian McHarg, 1920- , by Terry Schnadelbach.
-Murray Bookchin, 1921- , by John Barry.
-Edward Osborne Wilson, 1929- , by Phillip J. Gates.
-Paul Ehrlich, 1932- , by G. Simmons.
-Holmes Rolston III, 1932- . by Jack Weir.
-Rudolf Bahro, 1935-97, by John Barry.
-Gro Harlem Brundtland, 1939- , by Joy A. Palmer.
-Val Plumwood, 1939- , by Nicholas Griffin.
-J. Baird Callicott, 1941- , by Michael P Nelson.
-Susan Griffin, 1943- , by Cheryll Glotfelty.
-Chico Mendes, 1944-88, by Joy A. Palmer.
-Peter Singer, 1946- , by Paula Casal.
-Vandana Shiva, 1952- , by Lynette J Dumble.
Palmer is in education and a chancellor at the University of Durham, UK. She also directs the Centre for Research on Environmental Awareness at the University of Durham.
--Partridge, Ernest, "Future Generations," in Jamieson, Dale, ed., A Companion to Environmental Philosophy, London: Blackwells, 2001. Survey of recent philosophical responses to the problem of the responsibility to future generations. Among them: Libertarianism, Utilitarianism, Communitarianism (de-Shalit), Contractarianism (Rawls). The problem of motivating the living generation to make provision to the remote future. Some policy guidelines are offered for just provision for remote posterity.
--Partridge, Ernest, "How Much is Too Much?" in Environmental Challenges to Business, The Ruffin Series No. 2, Society for Business Ethics, 2000. Criticizes Mark Sagoff's contention that "technology can deliver greater and greater abundance [and that] the endless expansion of the global economy is physically possible." In response: (a) prices are false indicators of sustainability, (b) close inspection reveals limitations in all basic resource categories--food, forests, water and energy. (c) Sagoff and other technological optimists ignore the fundamental physical principle of entropy.
--Partridge, Ernest, "The Tonic of Wildness," in Sharpe, Virginia A., Norton, Bryan G, and Donnelley, Strachan, eds., Wolves and Human Communities. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001. Experiences of natural and artistic beauty are contrasted: Natural beauty is uncomposed and unframed, and includes the subject in the natural context. Concludes that the experience of wildness teaches us "of our origins, our sustenance, our limitation, and our planetary home. From such lessons ... we ... gain the perspective, appreciation and motivation to preserve our natural estate, and with it our sustainable place within it."
--Partridge, Ernest, "Reconstructing Ecology," in Pimentel, David, Westra, Laura, and Noss, Reed F., eds. Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment, Conservation, and Health (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000). Answers recent attacks on such cherished ecological concepts as "stability," "equilibrium," "integrity" and "community," by such biologists as Michael Soulé and Daniel Botkin, and by the philosopher Mark Sagoff. Granted, many "classical ecologists" have overstated these concepts. However, the opposing account of nature as a chaotic "hodgepodge" of coexisting species is indefensible. Evolution presupposes order, stability, and symbiosis among species, albeit within a condition of constant change. Ecological theory is falsifiable and predictive, and employs valid classification schemes. Finally, normative terms such as "ecosystemic health" and "integrity" are meaningful.
--Pepperberg, Irene Maxine, The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Alex is an African grey parrot, bought in a pet shop. Taught some language, he can classify objects according to color and substance, count up to six, understand the concepts of identity and difference, absence, and relative size. He can recognize that objects continue to exist even when hidden. He has four verbs: "want" (with variations), "go," "come here," and "tickle me." He can say "want corn" or "want grape," and "wanna go chair." It is difficult to test whether Alex can do this only after and because he has been taught language by social interaction with trainers (25 years of training), although Pepperberg maintains that language training affects only the ease with which animals can learn and not whether learning occurs. She takes considerable care not to overinterpret data, and questions remain about how and how much learning takes place in the wild. Meanwhile, bird-brained Alex is quite a talented bird!
--Pimentel, David, Westra, Laura, and Noss, Reed F., eds. Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment, Conservation, and Health. $ 35.00 paper, $ 70.00 hardbound. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000. A result of the Global Integrity Project. The integrity concept. Historical and philosophical perspectives. Sustainability and the integrity of natural resource systems. Human and societal health. The economics and ethics of achieving global integrity. 21 contributions. In addition to the editors, contributors include James Karr, Robert Goodland, Orie Loucks, Mark Sagoff, Peter Miller, Ernest Partridge, Robert Ulanowicz, Donald A. Brown, Alan Holland, and others. Partridge's "Reconstructing Ecology" is a sustained critique of Mark Sagoff's deconstructing of ecology; see separate entry. Also of particular interest: Ted Schrecker, "The Cost of the Wild: International Equity and the Losses from Environmental Conservation."
--Povinelli, Daniel J., Folk Physics for Apes: The Chimpanzee's Theory of How the World Works. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Chimpanzees think about the physical world in a way radically different from our own. Whereas humans can reason about imperceptible physical forces such as gravity, mass, and inertia, chimpanzees can only reason about perceptible things such as the learned association between dropping a rock onto a palm nut and then eating the fleshy meat inside. Research to support these conclusions. Our human cognitive departure from nonhuman primates is more dramatic than previously believed. Povinelli is at the Laboratory of Comparative Behaviorial Biology, University of Southwestern Louisiana. For a generally negative review, see Hauser, Marc D., "Elementary, My Dear Chimpanzee," Science 291(19 January 20001):440-441. Povinelli, he claims, worked with young and inexperienced chimpanzees (under 10 years old), and his experimental methodology was not careful enough.
--Preece, Rod, Animals and Nature: Cultural Myths, Cultural Realities. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1999. 305 pages.
--Raeburn, Paul, "Clamor Over Genetically Modified Foods Comes to the United States," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):610- .
--Redford, Kent, "Natural Areas, Hunting, and Nature Conservation in the Neotropics," Wild Earth 10(no.3, Fall 2000):41- .
--Revkin, Andrew C., "Eavesdropping on Secrets of Elephant Society," New York Times, January 9, 2001, pp. D1, D4. Reporting the work of Katharine Payne, Bioacoustics Research Program, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, on low frequency elephant communication. She concludes: "Our hope is to get out of our own minds a little bit and into the minds of these amazing animals. ... They are at least as emotional and as attached to family members as human beings are. They are very much aware of the experience of others."
--Robinson, Marilynne, "Surrendering Wilderness," Wilson Quarterly 22(no. 4, 1998):60-64. Robinson is resigned to her conclusion: "We must surrender the idea of wilderness, accept the fact that the consequences of human presence in the world are universal and ineluctable, and invest our care and hope in civilization" (p. 64).
--Roleff, Tamara and Hurley, Jennifer A., eds., The Rights of Animals. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1999. 223 pages.
--Royal Robert, The Virgin and the Dynamo: The Use and Abuse of Religion in Environmental Debates. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999. 247 pages. Royal wishes to correct overly romantic approaches to the natural world, including common images of the world as sacred. He has many doubts about the use of religion ("the virgin"), deep ecology, ecofeminist theology, creation spirituality, and others; better hard science ("the dynamo") brings more sober truth about the dark side of nature. Nor does he want biologisms of any sort. Humanity is the crown of creation and humans enjoy considerable creativity in coping with nature.
--Russell, Colin A., The Earth, Humanity and God. The Templeton Lectures, Cambridge, 1993. London: UCL Press, 1994. The Earth in space. The Earth in time. Fragile planet. "Hurt not the Earth" (Science and environmental problems, the chemical industry, nuclear technology). Foes of the Earth (Human ignorance, greed, aggression, arrogance). "Mother Earth?" Gaia (Self-regulating systems). Surveying the prospects. Hope for the Earth (intrinsic value, creation and restoration, human stewardship, divine destiny, a new creation). Russell dislikes materialist science, but equally a postmodernist pantheism with an organismic view of nature, a kind of "return to myth," neither good science nor good theology. Stewardship, combining biblical and scientific outlooks, is the most adequate model. Russell is at the Open University, UK.
--Saberwal, Vasant, Rangarajan, Mahesh, and Kothari, Ashish. People, Parks and Wildlife: Towards Coexistence. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman Limited, 2001 (Tracts for the Times #14). 143 pages. "There are two opposing ways of thinking about conservation. One is an exclusionist policy that seeks to exclude resident people from within protected
areas, restrict local human access to them, and prohibit customary use rights; a policy that considers the interests of local residents as irreconcilably opposed to the logic of conservation. There is a contrary way of looking at the question, one that opposes total exclusion, argues for the rights of resident people within the forests, and sees no ineluctable hostility between humans and animals. It is a mode of thinking that considers the politics of total exclusion to be ecologically unsound, practically unviable, and socially unjust. This tract develops the second argument against the first." Focusing on wildlands management in India, the authors saddle "exclusionists" with outmoded or extreme positions (natural systems are always in equilibrium, local interests are necessarily opposed to conservation) and fail to discuss the actual effects of subsistence use on biodiversity in a detailed or objective manner. (Contributed by Phil Cafaro).
--Sagoff, Mark, "Do We Consume Too Much?" The Atlantic Monthly 279 (No. 6, June, 1997):80-96. With vigorous reply: Ehrlich, Paul R., Daly, Gretchen C., Daly, Scott C., Myers, Norman, and Salzman, James, "No Middle Way on the Environment," 280 (No. 6. December, 1997):98-104. Also see Partridge, Ernest, "How Much is too Much?" listed separately. Sagoff: "It is simply wrong to believe that nature sets physical limits to economic growth. ... The idea that increasing consumption will inevitably lead to depletion and scarcity, as plausible as it may seem, is mistaken both in principle and in fact" (p. 83). Such beliefs come from mistaken beliefs that mineral resources are finite, that we are running out of food and timber, we are running out of energy, and that resource consumption by the wealthy north exploits the poorer nations of south. Although our present consumption patterns cannot be sustained, better technology will help us surmount natural limits without requiring substantial changes beyond what we are willing to adopt. Shades of Julian Simon!
But Sagoff does not advocate high levels of consumption. The more significant limits to resource use and consumption are inherent in our spiritual needs for affiliation with nature and not in nature itself. "An intimacy with nature ends our isolation in the world. We know where we belong, and we can find the way home" "The question before us is not whether we are going to run out of resources. It is whether economics is the appropriate context for thinking about environmental policy" (p. 96). Sagoff thinks not. He not only has great faith in technology, he has even more faith that a people who discover themselves to be unlimited by nature will voluntarily limit themselves for spiritual communion with nature. "We consume too much when consumption becomes an end in itself and makes us lose affection and reverence for the natural world" (p. 96).
Ehrlich, the Dailys, Myers, and Salzman respond that Sagoff "has done a disservice to the public by promoting once again the dangerous idea that technological fixes will solve the human predicament" (p. 98). Sagoff misperceives his own misperceptions. Resources are finite, nature's services are threatened by consumption, prices are not reliable signals of resource scarcity, technology is no magic solution, and wealthy nations do exploit poorer nations. Sagoff's claims run counter to a statement signed by 1,500 leading scientists, including more than half of all living Nobel laureates in the sciences, as well as another statement issued by fifty-eight scientific academies, representing the global scientific community and including the U.S. National Academy, the British Royal Society, the French, German, Swedish, Russian, and Indian Academies. "Thus the very people who would produce the technological fixes in which Sagoff places such faith do not share his complacency" (p. 99). Middle-ground statements are muddled and encourage the present trajectory. "The temptation to look for the truth `somewhere in the middle' may be dangerous folly."
--Schwarze, Reimund and Niles, John O., "The Long-Term Requirement for Clean Development Mechanism Forestry and Economic Liability," The Journal of Environment and Development 9(no.4, DEC 01 2000):384- .
--Shermer, Steven D., "The Efficiency of Private Participation in Regulating and Enforcing the Federal Pollution Control Laws: A Model for Citizen Involvement," Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 14(no.2, 1999):461- .
--Simberloff, Daniel, and Stiling, Peter, "Risks of Species Introduced for Biological Control," Biological Conservation 78(1996):185-192. Also: "How Risky is Biological Control?" Ecology 77(1996):1965-1974. Numerous biological control introductions have adversely affected non-target native species. Cost-benefit analysis for conservation are difficult because it it difficult to assign values to the various tradeoffs. Risk assessment is difficult because it is difficult to predict outcomes. Better consideration is needed to myriad factors that now often receive cursory attention. Simberloff is in biology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. Stiling is in biology, University of South Florida, Tampa.
--Skog, Kenneth E. and Ince, Peter J., "Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Forestry," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):20- . Tracing the flow of materials through production and consumption is a useful but limited approach to determine the most effective ways to conserve forests and their benefits.
--Sneddon, Christopher, "`Sustainability' in ecological economics, ecology and livelihoods: a review," Progress in human geography 24(no.4, 2000):521- .
--Songorwa, Alexander N., Buhrs, Tom and Hughey, Ken F.D., "Community-Based Wildlife Management in Africa: A Critical Assessment of the Literature," Natural Resources Journal 40(no.3, Sumr 2000):603- .
--Staebler, Rebecca N., "Forestry and Foresters: Looking Back 100 Years," Journal of Forestry 98(no.11, NOV 01 2000):4- . In 1903 Theodore Roosevelt told a gathering of the Society of American Foresters that there were no greater body "who have in their power to do greater service to the country". This commemorative issue shows how well foresters and SAF have lived up to Roosevelt's charge during our first 100 years.
--Stone, Joshua M., "Restraints on Competition Through the Alteration of the Environment at the Genetic Level," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):704-.
--Teel, Julie, "Regulating Genetically Modified Products and Processes: An Overview of Approaches," New York University Environmental Law Journal 8(no.3, 2000):649- .
--Tilzey, Mark, "Natural Areas, the whole countryside approach and sustainable agriculture," Land Use Policy 17(no.4, OCT 01 2000):279- .
--Umezaki, Masahiro, Kuchikura, Yukio and Ohtsuka, Ryutaro, "Impact of Population Pressure on Food Production: An Analysis of Land Use Change and Subsistence pattern in the Tari Basin in Papua New Guinea Highlands," Human Ecology 28(no.3, SEP 01 2000):359- .
--Voss, Michael, "Resource Conservation: The Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study: Restoring the Everglades," Ecology Law Quarterly 27(no.3, 2000):751- .
--Wagner, Michael R., Block, William M. and Wenger, Karl F., "Restoration Ecology: A New Forest Management Paradigm, or Another Merit Badge for Foresters," Journal of Forestry 98(no.10, OCT 01 2000):22- . If ecological restoration means finding the best outcome for a specific site based on ecological knowledge and the diverse perspectives of interested stakeholders, then foresters have earned a new merit badge as "ecological restorationist"--with 100 years of experience.
--Warwick, Hugh, "Guilty as charged," The Ecologist 30(no.7, OCT 01 2000):52- . Hugh Warwick reports from India on a unique `citizens' jury' project, set up to decide the fate of GM crops.
--Weil, Robert, "Doomed Harvest: How PNTR and the WTO Threaten to Drive Chinese Farmers off the Land," Multinational Monitor, May 2000, pages 16-18. Much of Chinese agriculture is in small and scattered fields, not efficient by industrialized standards. But China is largely self-sufficient in grain and other foods. China's rural population has often moved to the cities, stressing agriculture, but the Chinese government has worked out means of price support, protective tariffs, and a responsibility system emphasizing local initiative. Permanent normal trade relations and entry into the WTO will undermine all this, and U.S. and other foreign grain companies are poised to exploit the weaknesses in Chinese agriculture. Even Chinese government sources estimate that increased imports will displace ten million peasants from their land.
--Wenz, Peter S., Environmental Ethics Today. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Wide-ranging, front-line, readable. Part I. Anthropocentrism. 1. Overpopulation, Markets, and Human Rights (free markets, tragedy of the commons, lifeboat ethics). 2. Energy, Economics, and Future Generations (global warming, fair contracts, cost-benefit analysis). 3. Competing Human-Centered Values (environmental hazards in Third World, aesthetic values, moral pluralism, relativism).
Part II. Nonanthropocentrism. 4. Animal Liberation and Utilitarianism. 5. Animal Rights and Medical Research. 6. Species Diversity and Gaia (extinction, endangered species, mechanical and organic metaphors for nature). 7. The Land Ethic (hunting to preserve ecosystems, tigers and elephants vs. humans in the Third World).
Part III. Environmental Synergism. "Environmental synergists believe that synergy exists between respect for people and respect for nature. Overall and in the long run, simultaneous respect for people and nature improves outcomes for both. ... Respect for nature promotes respect for people, so the best way to serve people as a group is to care about nature for itself" (p. 169). (This seems to be something like Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis.) 8. Human Rights, Agriculture, and Biodiversity (sustainability, high-tech agriculture, fouling our own nest, anthropocentrism or synergism). 9. Ecofeminism and Environmental Justice. 10. Religion and Nature (playing God, hermeneutics, narratives, grand narratives, deep ecology, stewardship, Native American religion).
Part IV. Applications. 11. Personal Choices, Consumerism, and Human Nature. 12. Public Policies, Efficiency, and Globalization. Final Reflections: Is Optimism Justified?
In the course of the book Wenz considers the views of Thomas Berry, Wendell Berry, J. Baird Callicott, Jane Goodall, Garrett Hardin, David Korten, Aldo Leopold, Arne Naess, Val Plumwood, Daniel Quinn, Tom Regan, Holmes Rolston, III, Vandana Shiva, Julian Simon, Peter Singer, and Karen Warren. Wenz is in philosophy at the University of Illinois/ Springfield; earlier works include Nature's Keeper (1988) and Environmental Justice (1988).
--Westing, Arthur H., "Core Values for Sustainable Development," Environmental Conservation 23(no. 3, 1996):218-225. Widely shared core social values became strikingly articulated following World War II in such documents as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Widely shared core environmental values began to emerge later in such documents as the World Charter for Nature and the Rio Declaration. The social values at first ignored environmental values, but the environmental values were generally couched in social terms. Key ethical issues are how to strike a balance between anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric concerns, a proper apportionment of the biosphere between humankind and other life on Earth. Stumbling blocks include the imbalance between human numbers and available natural resources, the prevalence of totalitarian and corrupt regimes, and the ineffective system of peaceful world governance. Nevertheless a trend toward environmental values is evident. Westing is with the Westing Associates in Environment, Security and Education, Putney, VT.
--Whilhite, Christopher, "A Wilder Vision for the Texas Hill Country," Wild Earth 10(no.3, Fall 2000):74- .
--Willers, Bill, "The Trouble with Cronon," Wild Earth 6(no. 4, Winter, 1996/97):59-61. Response to William Cronon, "The Trouble with Wilderness, or Getting Back to the Wrong Nature," in Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995).
--Williams, Cindy Deacon, "Sustainable Fisheries: Economics, Ecology, and Ethics," Fisheries 22(no. 2, 1997):6-11. "We have an ethical responsibility as professionals who should know and understand to truly be in communion with nature, not verbally caught up in our description of its parts. We need to be a part of it, be aware, feel that we belong. We must be able to bring our love and passion to efforts to reach a sustainable relationship with the waters of the world and the species that inhabit them" (p. 11). Williams is an aquatic ecologist, Pacific Rivers Council. This was her plenary address to the American Fisheries Society, 1996.
--Winter, Brian D., and Hughes, Robert M., "Biodiversity: American Fisheries Society Position Statement," Fisheries 22 (no. 3, March):16-23. A position statement resulting from several years of preparation and review within the American Fisheries Society. Among other reasons: "Biodiversity must be sustained simply because humans have a moral obligation to ensure the natural evolutionary existence of species and ecosystems whose values do not depend on their human usefulness" (pp. 16-17). Winter is with the National Park Service, Olympic National Park. Hughes is an aquatic biologist with Dynamic, Corvallis, OR.
--World Wide Fund for Nature-India, National Consultation on Religion and Conservation, 21 April 1999: Proceedings. New Delhi: World Wide Fund for Nature-India, 1999. Proceedings of a conference held "to harness the crucial support of the major religions of [India] for nature conservation and environmental protection." Includes interesting interfaith discussions by religious leaders, and "pledges to mother earth" by representatives of the following religions: Bahai, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism, and Zoroastrianism. Also a final "Declaration of Principles."
--World Wide Fund for Nature-India, Religion and Conservation. New Delhi: Full Circle Press, 1999. 120 pages, paperback. ISBN 81-7621-047-1. A follow-up publication to the Assisi Conference of 1986 and the Windsor Conference of 1995, on religion and nature. Includes Declarations on Nature by leaders of nine faiths: Bahai, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism, and Taoism. Also includes the U.N. World Charter for Nature of 1982 and supplementary material.

Environmental Ethics in China--Recent Bibliography

Thanks to Yang Tongjin, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Secretary, Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics, for this bibliography.
--Chen Cangshu, Sustainable Development From the Perspective of Philosophy. Chinese Social Science Press, 2000. 253 pages. Main chapters: The Vagueness of the Concept of Sustainable Development; Is Industrial Civilization Sustainable? Is Sustainability Compatible with Development? The Causes of Unsustainable Development; Dualism of Subject and Object; To Harmonize Man and Nature; The Predicaments of Equality; The Mechanism of Sustainable Development; The Role of Science and Technology; On Sustainable Development of China.
--Chen Shaofeng, "On the Relations between Environmental Ethics and Economic Sustainable Development", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization) 1(2000): 21-23.
--Fan Dongping, "The Value Goals of Sustainable Development", Ziran Bianzhengfa Tongxun (Journal of Dialectics of Nature) 6(2000): 18-24.
--Han Yuehong, "Can Sustainable Ethics Replace Environmental Ethics", Ziran Bianzhefa Yanjiu (Studies in Dialectics of Nature) 10(2000): 58-62.
--He Huaihong, "A Summary of Confucianism's Ecological Ethical Thoughts", Zhongguo Renmingdaxue Xuebao (Journal of People's University of China) 2 (2000): 32-39.
--He Zhonghua, "Some Difficulties faced by Sustainable Development", Tianjing Shehuikexue (Tianjing Social Sciences) 1(2000): 4-11.
--Kuang Fuguang, A Text of Environmental Ethics, Chinese Environmental Sciences Press, 2000. 198 pages. Main chapters: The objects, nature, goal and methods of environmental ethics; The origin and development of environmental ethics; The essence, frame and function of environmental ethics; The principles of environmental ethics; The norms of environmental ethics; Environment education and environmental ethics education; Environmental ethics and sustainable development.
--Lei Yi, "Environmental Ethics and International Justice", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization), 1(2000): 24-27.
--Lei Yi, "Anthropocentrism and Its Critiques", Huanjing Yu Shehui (Environment and Society) 3 (2000): 6-11.
--Lei Yi, "Theory in the Ecological Movement: From Shallow to Deep", Guowai Shehuikexue (Foreign Social Sciences) 6 (1999).
--Li Huiqin and Guo Changhua, "An Elementary Discussion on the Ecological Ethical Thought of Confucianism Prior to the Qin Dynasty", Luoyang Gongxueyuan Xuebao (Journal of Luoyang Institute of Technology) 2(2000): 7-11.
--Li ji and Li Peichao, "Environmental Ethics Studies in China in Last 20 Years", Hunan Xikedaxue Xuebao (Journal of Hunan Medical University) 1(2000): 65-68.
--Li Peichao, "On the Modern Value Ideas of Environmental Ethics", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethic and Civilization) 1(2000): 16-20.
--Li Shoude, "The Development of Environmental Ethics Studies in China", Ziran Bianzhefa Yanjiu (Studies in Dialectics of Nature) 4(2000): 33-36.
--Liu Er, "An Overview of Contemporary Western Environmental Philosophy", Ziran Bianzhengfa Yuanjiu (Studies in Dialectics of Nature) 12 (2000): 11-14.
--Liu Fang, "An Review of Contemporary Environmental Ethics Studies", Shanghai Shifandaxue Xuebao (Journal of Shanghai Normal University) 4(2000): 15-21.
--Liu Xiangrong and Zeng Jianping, "The Common Interests of Human Beings: The Foundation of Environmental Ethics", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization) 6 (2000): 41-46.
--Lu Feng, "Social Ethics and Ecological Ethic", Hrbei Xuekan (Hebei Forum) 5(2000): 12- 17.
--Luo Yaling and Tang Jianbo, "Reflections on Nonanthropocentric Environmental Ethics", Nanjing Shehuikexue (Nanjing Social Sciences) 5(2000): 10-14.
--Meng Peiyuan, "On the Philosophy of Ecology Reflected in Yizhuan", Zhouyi Yuanjiu (Studies in Zhouyi) 1 (2000): 9-17.
--Qian Jianxing, "Environment Ethics: Foundation, Mechanism and Efficacy", Lingxia Shehuikexue (Lingxia Social Sciences) 3(2000)45-50.
--Ren Chunxiao, "Some Philosophical Argumentation about Ecological Ethics", Fudan Xuebao (Fudan Journal) 2(2000): 44-49.
--Wang Zhengping, "Deep Ecology: A New Kind of Environmental Values", Shanghai Shifandaxue Xuebao (Journal of Shanghai Normal University) 4(2000): 1-4.
--Xiao Wei, "How Can Eco-ethics Be Possible", Fudan Xuebao (Fudan Journal) 2(2000): 37-43.
--Xu Hongxin, "On the Illusion of Anthropocentrism", Shehuikexue Luntan (Forum of Social Sciences) 6(2000):23-25.
--Wang Guoping, "Protecting the Vitality and Diversity of Planet Earth", Huanjing Yu Shehui (Environment and Society) 1(2000): 1-7.
--Wu Guiqing and Xun Shuseng, "The Construction of Environmental Ethical Values", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization) 1(2000): 28-29.
--Wang Guoping, "The Historical Turn of Philosophy from Culture to Nature", Kexuejishu Yu Bianzhengfa (Science, Technology and the Dialectics of Nature) 5(2000): 1-5.
--Yang Tongjin, Toward A Deep Environmentalism: the Basic Ideas of Environmental Ethics. Chengdu, Sichuan People's Publishing House, 2000, 223 pages. I trace briefly the history of western environmental ethics, and analyze respectively the main four schools of western environmental ethical thoughts: anthropocentrism, animal liberation/rights theory, biocentrism and ecocentrism. I suggest that an authentic environmental ethics must be an open, pluralist environmental ethics, which not only incorporates the wisdom of the four schools, but also tries to transcends their limits. A virtue ethics, especially Confucian ethics and Taoist ethics, can provide a ground for such an environmental ethics. Only such an environmental ethics can provide the most solid ethical foundation for environmentalist movements.
This book, the first that studies western environmental ethical thoughts systematically in China, consists of six chapters: 1. Environmental Ethics: The Spiritual Foundation of Environmentalism. 2. Considering Others: Enlightened Anthropocentrism. 3. Sympathizing With Animals: Animal Liberation/Rights Theory. 4. Valuing Life: Bioegalitarianism. 5. Respecting for Nature: Ecocentrism. 6. Praying for Green: Toward A Deep Environmentalism. Each chapter begins with two cases.
--Yang Tongjin, "Environmental Ethics and the Green Civilization", Shengtai Jingji (Ecological Economy) 1(2000): 44-47.
--Yang Tongjin, "The Basic Ideas of Environmental Ethics", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization), 1(2000): 6-10.
--Yang Tongjin, "Analysis of Pluralist Environmental Ethics", Zhexue Dongtai (Philosophical Trends) 2 (2000): 22-24.
--Yang Tongjin, "Chinese and Western Animal Protection Ethics: An Outline for Comparative Studies", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization), 4(2000): 30-33.
--Ye Ping, "On the Ecological Rights of Nonhuman Beings", Daode Yu Wenming (Ethics and Civilization) 1(2000): 11-15.
--Ye Ping, "Prospects for the Ecological Environment and the Human Future", Huanjing Yu Shehui (Environment and Society) 1(2000): 8-12.
Thanks to Liu Er, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, for the following annual contents of the journal associated with the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics, Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol.3, no.1 (March 30, 2000). Contains (in Chinese):
--Wang Guopin, "Protect the Vitality and Diversity of Planet Earth."
--Ye Ping, "Prospect of the Environment and Man's Future."
--Zhong Xiaobing, Yang Zunliang & Han Jing, "Economic Leverages for Environmental Protection."
--Wang Xiuzhu & Liu Yi, "The Environmental Effects of Free Trade."
Special Topic: Greening Higher Education:
--Lu Zhimao & Ye Ping, eds.,"Environmental Education: History and Current Developments."
--Li Yanbing, "An Exploration of Ways for Organizing Student Environmental Protection Groups on University Campuses."
--Wu Qingyan, ed., "The Bhopal (India) Incident."
--Midgley, Mary, "The End of Anthropocentrism?" (trans. by Zhao Yuqin).
--Singer, Peter, "Equality for Animals?" (trans. by Yu Jing).
Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol.3, no. 2 (June 30, 2000)
--Ye Ping & Liu Yunhua, "Open Up a New Prospect for Green Higher Education in China."
--Zhou Yu, "Construction of Green University at Harbin Institute of Technology in the 21st Century."
Wu Gaohui, "A Plan for the Green Higher Education Project at Harbin Institute of Technology."
--Yang Tao, "Green Quality Education at Harbin Institute of Technology."
--Tang Kuiyu & Ye Ping, "Progress in Green Education Practice and Research in China."
--Zhou Ding, "Three Main Views on Green Education."
--Ren Yongtang, "The Main Approach to Green Higher Education."
--Zhou Shaoqi, "A Brief Discussion on Ecological Civilization and Green Higher Education."
--Cheng Lixian, "Ethical Premises for Developing a Good Green Education."
Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol.3, no. 3 (September 30, 2000). Contains:
--Yu Mouchang, "The Development of Genetic Engineering Calls for an Ethic Concerning Gene Transfer."
--Lei Yi, "Anthropocentrism and Its Critiques."
--Ma Wenying & Tang Zhenyu, "A Preliminary Analysis of a Bibliography of Important Papers in Environmental Theories."
--Feng Xianghong & Yang Guoshu, "Notes at the `Conference on Ecological Ethics'" (sponsored by Heilongjiang Association of Ethics).
--Mei Hongguang, "Ecological Ethics in the Development of China's Western Region."
--Li Jundeng & Dong Linmo, translators and compilers, "Beyond Science: Global Imperatives for Environmental Education in the 21st Century."
--Yi Baoli & Li Changsheng, "Bears Encaged in a Remote Mountain Valley," an investigation.
--Eric Katz & Lauren Oechsli, "Moving Beyond Anthropocentrism: Ecology, Ethics, Development and the Amazon," (trans. by Liu Pigang).
--Robert Costanza & Bryan G. Norton, eds., "Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management," (trans. by Zeng Huan).
Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol. 3, no. 4 (December 30, 2000). Contains:
--Ye Ping, "The Concept of `Green University' and Its Position in Education" Abstract: The Green university is the university for a new age that is adapted to the needs for environmental protection and the strategy for sustainable development. It is characterized by an effort to incorporate indices and contents of environmental science knowledge, ecophilosophical wisdom, and ecological ethical education into educational models, design of curricula, and the development of community bases for internships, so as to train high-level scientists and engineers for a new era who can both remake nature and rebuild nature.
Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol. 3, no. 4 (December 30, 2000). Contains:
--Liu Er, "The American Indians' Conception of Nature as Shown in Chief Seattle's Letter" Abstract: This paper explores the American Indians' conception of nature as shown in Chief Seattle's letter, and suggests that there are many similarities between the conception of nature among primitive peoples and contemporary environmental philosophy, and that primitive cultures can be drawn upon by modern societies for their own intellectual and spiritual nourishment.
--Yang Tongjin, "An Outline of Ecofeminism" Abstract: This paper gives an introduction and criticism of ecofeminism, with an emphasis on the basic features of ecofeminism and its classification. It suggests that ecofeminism is likely to give much splendor to future environmental movements. Key Words: Ecofeminism, Cultural ecofeminism, Socialist ecofeminism, Women's liberation.
Huanjing yu Shehui, a Quarterly, (Environment and Society), vol. 3, no. 4 (December 30, 2000). Contains:

--Bao Qingde, "Replacement and Transformation: Sustainable Development and the Evolution of the Conception of Development." Abstract: The idea of sustainable development represents a major shift in people's conception of development. Its essence is a thorough replacement and innovative transformation of peoples' values regarding social development. The focus of this paper is to clarify the origins of the idea of sustainable development and its connotation, and to give an overview of such issues as the evolution of people's conception of development.
--Cai Ya'na, Miu Shenyu & Huang Xiaobing, "On Latent Environmental Problems: The Risk Involved in Gene Transfer Organisms." Abstract: This paper describes the historical origins and basic ideas regarding the issue of the risk involved in gene transfer organisms as one of the latent environmental problems.
--Marti Kheel, "From Healing Herbs to Deadly Drugs: Western Medicine's War Against the Natural World (trans. by Wu Pei).

-- "Ecology for the 21st Century: Deep Ecology," trans. by Cai Ya'na, Miu Shenyu & Huang Xiaobing.


George Marshall died in 2000. He was a brother to Bob Marshall, for whom the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex, one of the largest in the United States, was named. The two brothers were founders of the Wilderness Society and George was on the Governing Council from 1937-1991, at times editor of its magazine, then The Living Wilderness. He was as much civil libertarian as conservationist, and once served three months in prison for refusing to turn over records to the House Un-American Activities Committee.

2000 was the best year for land conservation in two decades or longer, according to a membership letter from William Meadows, president of the Wilderness Society. In 2000 President Clinton created 19 new national monuments, Congress designated 8 new wilderness areas protecting more than 1 million acres, and the US Forest Service finalized a roadless area moratorium protecting nearly 60 million acres. According to Meadows, conservationists will be playing defense for the next year at least, working to preserve these victories.

Bush's choice for interior. Newly-elected U.S. President George Bush has appointed Gale Norton, private property rights advocate and protegee of the infamous former Interior Secretary James Watt, as head of the Interior Department. Environmental groups are unanimous in their opposition to Gale Norton, claiming her views are fundamentally incompatible with her job as head of Interior, where she is the steward of most U.S. public lands. Norton has publically criticized many of the environmental regulations she is now charged with enforcing, including the Endangered Species Act. Environmental group opposed Norton's support for "free market environmentalism" (i.e., the free market is the best mechanism for environmental protection), "takings" (government land use regulations amount to takings of private property that require compensation), and drilling for oil in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. See Michael Grunwald and Eric Pianin, "A Mixed Environmental Bag," Washington Post (12/23/00): A1 and Douglas Jehl, "Environmental Groups Join in Opposing Choice for Interior Secretary," New York Times (1/12/01): A15.

Bush breaks campaign pledge on global warming. In Washington, President George W. Bush broke his campaign promise to curb carbon dioxide pollution, the primary gas causing global warming. On the campaign trail in September, then-Gov. Bush promised "mandatory reduction targets for emissions of four main pollutants" including carbon dioxide. In recent weeks, his Environmental Protection Agency administrator, Christie Whitman, spoke out in support of Bush's campaign position, igniting the ire of business lobbyists. Bush reversed his position in a letter to Senator Chuck Hagel (R-NE), promising to reduce only three air pollutants. Sierra Club News Bulletin, 13 Mar 2001.

Multinationals take aim at protesters. In response to a growing anti-globalization movement, multinational companies are beginning to take aim at the protesters. According to a document obtained by the newsletter Inside EPA, the Sony Corporation has been preparing an "action plan for counteracting the efforts of several domestic and international environmental groups--including Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition"--that are involved in a campaign to hold electronics manufacturers responsible for their toxic waste. Last summer in Brussels, Belgium, Sony representatives presented a paper called "NGO Strategy" to the European Information and Communications Technology Industry Association's conference on environmental policy. Sony's strategic suggestions included "pre-funding intervention" to reduce the financial support that liberal foundations give to environmental organizations; a recommendation that companies ratchet up their capability to quickly respond to environmental critics and pre-empt future legislation; and the development of a "detailed monitoring and contact network" to keep tabs on these organizations. Sony executives have acknowledged that the company is monitoring environmental groups. "We are obviously concerned about our image," Mark Small, Sony's vice president of environmental and health and safety issues, told the InterPress news service. "If Greenpeace is pushing something, we want to be on top if it." In These Times, December 25, 2000.

Loggers said to wipe out butterflies. To regain protected forest land, loggers may have deliberately wiped out some 22 million Monarch butterflies which migrate annually from Canada to Mexico for the winter, a top environmentalist said on Tuesday. Homero Aridjis, head of the environmental lobby Group of 100, told Reuters loggers were believed to have sprayed pesticide on the orange and black butterflies in order to regain some 216 square miles of forest declared protected by the government. Millions of monarch butterflies migrate some 3,000 miles annually to flee the icy winter in Canada and the United States for the warmer fir forests in Mexico's central Michoacan state, some 70 miles west of Mexico City. In November last year, the government of former President Ernesto Zedillo extended the land devoted to five sanctuaries. The move was in response to a study showing that farming and illegal logging had destroyed 44 percent of the original forest since 1971. Without drastic action, the study predicted the original forest would disappear in under 50 years. "The new decree could have prompted this," Aridjis said. "If there are no butterflies they can claim the trees without problem." Reuters News Service, Mar 6 2001.

India counts to a billion. Preliminary reports from India's ongoing census indicate the country topped one billion people sometime in the past year. India's most recent census, conducted in 1991, gave a striking picture of both the problems and the possibilities of the world's largest democratic nation:

* The population of India grew by some 24 percent per decade for the past 30 years. In 1991, it had reached 846 million, and is expected to jump well past 1 billion this year.
*Literacy rates, too, have steadily risen over the past 50 years, from about 18 percent in 1951 to about 52.2 percent in '91. Yet the reading ability of women, at 39 percent, lagged far behind men at 64 percent.
*The population growth of urban areas, once at a rampant 46 percent growth rate in 1971, calmed down to about 26 percent in '91. But a closer look showed that larger cities like Bombay and New Delhi grew at a faster rate than medium and small cities. The population of New Delhi, for instance, grew from 6.2 million to 9.4 million between 1981
and '91, a 51.5 percent growth rate.
*With 18 official languages, and hundreds of local dialects that are as different from each other as Hungarian is from French, there was still no single language in 1991 that Indians shared. The most common language remains Hindi, but in 1991 only 39 percent of the population felt comfortable enough in that language to consider it a "mother tongue."
The Christian Science Monitor, 2001.

National parks in developing world successful in protecting biodiversity. A study of 93 parks in tropical countries found that despite being under intense land-use pressure from local people, the parks were effective in protecting the ecosystems and species within them. Almost of the parks were in better shape than the land immediately surrounding them; they had less logging, burning, and grazing and more wild animals. 85% were successful against encroaching agriculture. The presence of guards and penalties were effective deterrents (though less so against hunting). The study is represented as a response to critics who claim that such parks will fail if they are aimed solely at protecting nature without accommodating the needs of local people. See Henry Fountain, "Defending the Park," New York Times (1/9/01): D5.

First primate genetically engineered. Scientists have placed a gene from a jellyfish into an unfertilized monkey egg and succeeded in producing a baby monkey with the added gene in its cells. They don't know yet if the gene will be in the monkey's sperm cells and thus a permanent addition to that monkey's descendants. The ultimate goal is to create colonies of monkeys genetically modified to develop human diseases and use them as research subjects. Although it is believed to be the first instance of # genetically engineering a primate, the result shows the rudimentary character of current genetic engineering. The inserted gene, although present in the monkey's cells, was not producing the protein it did in the jellyfish. The gene was added using a technique known to silence genes in this way. Furthermore, the scientists started with 224 monkey eggs to which they added a virus containing the gene. Out of 126 embryos they selected 40 that looked most promising and got 5 pregnancies with three live births, only one of which had the added gene. See Gina Kolata, "Scientists Produce Monkey Altered by Added Gene," New York Times (1/11/01).

Big bad wolves in Norway, but not Sweden. Norwegian officials plan to shoot most of Norway's two dozen wolves, although the wolves, which also range in Sweden, are welcome there. Wolves kill about 800 sheep each year, although other carnivores, such as lynx and wolverine, kill many more (30,000). There are now about 70-80 wolves in Scandinavia, although nearby Russia has 30,000. See Gibbs, Walter, "Sweden's Welcome Pal Is Oslo's Big Bad Wolf," The New York Times, International, January 21, 2001, p. 6.

Animal researchers pained by effort to define animal stress. The Animal Welfare Act requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture "to minimize pain and distress" in animals used in research, and USDA officials, wondering whether they have focused too much on pain and not enough on distress, have a study in progress. Their working definition of "distress" is "a state in which an animal cannot escape from or adapt to the internal or external stressors it experiences, resulting in negative effects on its well-being." Animal welfare advocates favor further regulation concerning stress. Some scientists oppose it, others favor it. But deciding between stress and distress is difficult. See Constance Holden, "Researchers Pained by Effort to Define Distress Precisely," Science 290 (24 November 2000):1474-1475.

Snowmobiles out of Yellowstone Park. Yes. No, not yet. Yellowstone National Park is proposing to ban snowmobiles in Yellowstone, phasing them out by the end of winter 2003. The use of snowcoaches will continue and expand. The three-year phase out is to allow time for local businesses to readjust. Snowmobile use, though limited to the main roads and mostly to the Old Faithful area, had been escalating with many thousands of snowmobiles, noisy and polluting 2-cycle engines, each carrying one or two persons. A single snowmobile can emit as many hydrocarbons and as much nitrous oxide as 1,000 cars. The coaches, with 4-cycle engines, carry a dozen persons, and will be required to meet environmental standards. Various conservation and animal welfare groups had filed suit against the Park Service that snowmobile use was having a negative impact on wildlife.

The issue became a political football with the change of U.S. presidential administrations. In one of its last acts, the Clinton administration moved to endorse the ban, but in its first days the Bush administration moved to slow down the ban, maybe try to figure out a way to undo it.

Vatican official calls for more just relationship with animals. Human dominion over the natural world must not be taken as an unqualified license to kill or inflict suffering on animals, a Vatican official has said. The cramped and cruel methods used in the modern food industry, for example, may cross the line of morally acceptable treatment of animals, the official said in an article December 7 in the Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano. The article, titled "For a More Just Relationship With Animals,'' was written by Marie Hendrickx, a longtime official of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. She said that in view of the growing popularity of animal rights movements, the church needs to ask itself to what extent Christ's dictum, "Do to others whatever you would have them do to you" can be applied to the animal world.

Immortal bacterium? Well, anyway, the oldest living organisms known. Researchers claim to have isolated bacteria 250-million-years old from tiny water inclusions in salt crystals in what was an inland sea, now New Mexico. The bacterium, in the genus Bacillus, was revived and cultured, even DNA sequenced. It is related to present day bacteria in the Dead Sea. Earlier reports have been of bacteria in bees in amber, 25-40 million years ago; other, older claims had been doubted, due to contamination. Mechanisms by which the biopolymers within it were kept from degeneration are unknown, nor, with discovery, whether bacteria need to die at all. Vreeland, Russell H., Rosenzweig, William D., and Powers, Dennis, W., "Isolation of a 250 Million-year-old Halotolerant Bacterium from a Primary Salt Crystal," Nature 407(19 October, 2000):897-900; and commentary, Parkes, R. John, "A Case of Bacterial Immortality?" Nature 407(19 October 2000):844-845.

A roaring debate over ocean noise. Scientists and conservationists suspect that human- made noises pose threats to whales and other sea life. Some think pinging noises produced by some soars can deafen and daze some kinds of whales, leaving them vulnerable to stranding and shark attack. Soars have gotten louder as submarines have gotten quieter. The U.S. Navy has been generous in providing funds and facilities to research the issue, but the results of tests are inconclusive. Effects seem to be short-lived; longer-range effects are difficult to assess. The Navy moves or postpones potentially damaging operations when wildlife are in the area. The debate has been rekindled by finding unusual standings of beaked whales, bleeding at the ears, near Navy facilities in the Bahamas. David Malakoff, "A Roaring Debate Over Ocean Noise," Science 291(26 January 2001):576-578.

Super-deadly virus, genetically engineered. Australian scientists inserted a virus into a pest mouse to sterilize the mouse. Then, in further attempts to increase its effectiveness sterilizing the mice, scientists found they had made a virus with deadly virulence, wiping out all the animals. They reported these results, with a warning that the results might or might not be transferrable to humans, cautioning that it might be dangerously easy to engineer such a human virus. The media release triggered sensational warnings in the Australian press, and elsewhere. Elizabeth Finkel, "Engineered Mouse Virus Spurs Bioweapon Fears," Science 291(26 January 2001):585.

Cloned Gaur a short-lived success. A baby gaur, a wild ox native to and endangered in Southeast Asia, cloned and given birth by an ordinary cow at a genetics center in Iowa, died a day after birth. But the death may be unrelated to the cloning process. See Gretchen Vogel, "Cloned Gaur a Short-Lived Success," Science 291(19 January 2001):409.

Arctic life on thin ice. Field observations in the Arctic suggest that many species are floundering in a warming environment. Sea ice in the Arctic now covers 15% less area than it did in 1978; everything is affected from algae and phytoplankton to bears. See Krajick, Kevin, "Arctic Life on Thin Ice," Science 291 (19 January 2001):424-425.

Thanks to Ned Hettinger, Holmes Rolston, III and Lee Speer for this issues issues.


President: Kristin Shrader-Frechette. 336 O'Shaughnessy Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: Kristin.Shrader-Frechette.1@nd.edu.

Vice-President: Dale Jamieson, The University Center for Human Values, 305 Marx Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1006. Phone: 609-258-2660. Fax: 609-258-2729. E-mail: djamieso@princeton.edu.

Secretary: Laura Westra. Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3. Phone: 905-303-8181. Fax: 905-303-8211 E-mail: lwestra@interlog.com.

Treasurer: Max Oelschlaeger. Department of Humanities, Arts, and Religion, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5634, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5634 USA. E-mail: max.oelschlaeger@nau.edu.


Africa: Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@akad.sun.ac.za.

Australia and New Zealand: William Grey, Department of Philosophy, University of Queensland, 4067, Queensland AUSTRALIA. Email: wgrey@cltr.uq.edu.au.

China: Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100732, China. Yang Tongjin, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijin,100732, China. E-mail: yangtong12@sina.com.

Taiwan: Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan 40704. Email: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net. Phones: 886-4-3595622 office; 886-4-3590991 home. Fax: 886-4-3595953.

Eastern Europe: Jan Wawrzyniak. Department of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Phone: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8430309. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl. Website: http://appliedphilosophy.mtsu.edu/ISEE/JanWaw/index.html.

Western Europe and the Mediterranean: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS. Office phone: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751. Fax: 31-24-3615564. E- mail:mdrenthen@hetnet.nl. Home: Van't Santstraat 122, 6523 BJ Nijmegen. Home Phone: (31) - (24) - 3238397.

Mexico and Central America: Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacan y Purissima s/n, 09340 Mexico D.F., MEXICO. Phones: (5) 637 14 24 (home), (5) 724 47 77 (office). Fax: (5) 724 47 78. E-mail: kwiat@xanum.uam.mx .

Canada: Laura Westra. Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3. Phone: 905-303-8181. Fax: 905-303-8211 E-mail: lwestra@interlog.com.

Pakistan and South Asia: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Education Manager, WWF--Pakistan, T-28 Sahibzada House, Zeryab Colony, Peshawar City (NWFP), PAKISTAN. Phone: (92) (91) (841593). Fax: (92) (91) (841594). Email: lapis@brain.net.pk or naasir1@email.com.

South America: Ricardo Rozzi, Instituto de Investigaciones Ecologicas Chiloe, Chile. E-mail: rrozzi@eudoramail.com.

United Kingdom: KeeKok Lee, Institute for Environment, Philosophy & Policy, Furness College, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YG, UK. E-mail: keekok.lee@lancaster.ac.uk.

United States: Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424 USA. Phone: 843-953-5786; 843-883-9201 (home). Fax: 843-953-6388. E-mail: HettingerN@CofC.edu). Address July 1999 to August 2000: 416 W. College, Bozeman, MT 59715. Phone: 406-522-9676.

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Phone: 970-491-6315 (Office). Fax: 970-491-4900. Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu.

Jack Weir, Department of Philosophy, Morehead State University,UPO 662, Morehead, Kentucky 40351-1689 USA. Phone: 606-784-0046 (Home Office), 606-783-2785 (Campus Office). Fax: 606-783-5346 (include Weir's name on Fax). Email: j.weir@morehead-st.edu.


Please send any announcements, calls for papers or news items via e-mail (preferred), snail mail or fax to newsletter editor Philip Cafaro. Address: Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA. E-mail: cafaro@lamar.colostate.edu. Phone: 970/491-2061. Fax: 970/491-4900. Please continue to send bibliographic items to Holmes Rolston III, at the address above. Correspondents, especially international ones, should realize that diacritical marks do not come through on U.S. e-mail. The next deadline for submissions is June 7.


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