Volume 11, No. 2, Summer 2000
ISEE Members. Please check to see if your address label bears an asterisk. If so, it's time to renew your membership. Please send all dues and address changes to treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. See membership / renewal form at the end of the Newsletter.
ISEE Members. Deadlines for submitting material for the next two newsletters are October 7 (Fall) and December 7 (Winter). Submit material (e-mail preferred) to Phil Cafaro (address at end of newsletter).
ISEE Group Sessions at the APA Eastern
Division meeting, December, New York.
* Session I "Values in Nature." Speaker: Dale Jamieson (Carleton College). Commentators: Lori Gruen (Wesleyan College, CT), Sandra Mitchell (University of Pittsburgh), David Schmidtz (University of Arizona). Chair: James Sheppard (SUNY Binghamton).
* Session II "Author Meets Critics." Speaker: Avner de Shalit (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), author of The Environment: Between Theory and Practice. Commentators: Chris Cuomo (University of Cincinnati), Beth Dixon (SUNY Plattsburgh), Jack Weir (Morehead State University). Chair: Dale Jamieson (Carleton College).
Congratulations and Thanks from the
Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics.
Dear Professor Kristin Shrader-Frechette: On behalf of CSEE, we take this opportunity to congratulate you on your election as president of ISEE. It is an honor and pleasure to have you as president. Having made tremendous contributions to the field of environmental ethics, you rightly deserve this position. We believe, under your able leadership, ISEE will achieve even greater successes. We hope CSEE can continue to receive interest and support from you and the ISEE.
Dear Professor J. Baird Callicott: On behalf of CSEE, we take
this opportunity to express our heartiest thanks to you for what
you have done for CSEE as president of ISEE. We very much admire
your scholarship and organizational skills. We believe, as a distinguished
scholar, you will continue to play a great role in the field of
environmental ethics. We wish you much health and success in
the future. Sincerely:
Yu Mouzhang, President of CSEE.,Yang Tongjin, Secretary-general of CSEE
New South American Park. ISEE regional contact Ricardo Rozzi reports the creation of the Botanical Park Omora on Navarino Island, below the Beagle Channel, in Chile. Omora means hummingbird in Yahgan, for whom this bird is a sacred being who contributes as much to the social as to the ecological order. This will be the southernmost botanical garden of the world and is being incorporated within a Latin American network of ethnobotanical gardens. The Botanical Park Omora currently hosts several education projects on human ecology and cultural and biological conservation. A major goal is to integrate the humanities and sciences and environmental ethics plays a major role in this process. Contact e-mail is: email@example.com, or Mr. Ezio Firmani, Fax: (56) -61-621026.
Teresa Kwiatkowska, ISEE regional representative for Mexico and Central America, recently completed a sabbatical leave at Colorado State University, funded by a grant from Mexico's National Council for Science and Technology. She worked there with Holmes Rolston and Phil Cafaro on a number of projects in environmental ethics. She recently published a new anthology which takes up some of the challenges of recent developments in biotechnology, titled Genetic and Environmental Engineering: Philosophical and Social Problems (see bibliography).
Natur und Kultur: Transdisziplinaere
Zeitschrift fuer oekologische Nachhaltigkeit (Nature and Culture:
Transdisciplinary Journal for Ecological Sustainability) is a
new scientific journal (in German) ISSN: 1605-6329. The biennial
journal is edited and published by Dr. Thomas Seiler and the Society
for Ecological Sustainability. Subscription rates per volume anywhere
in the world: US-$ 20, plus postage. Natur und Kultur has as
its goal the description, analysis and evaluation of the foundations
of ecologically sustainable forms of human cultures. Special emphasis
will be given to:
* Qualification of the term 'ecological sustainability.'
* Analysis of the conditions of ecologically sustainable forms of human cultures.
* Description of local and global human impacts on ecological systems.
* Evaluation of world-views and value-structures concerning the human relationship to nature.
* Description of the manifold interrelationships between nature and human societies.
Contact: Thomas Seiler, Society for Ecological Sustainability, Neuhofen 32, A - 8983 Bad Mitterndorf, Austria. Tel/Fax: (Austria) / 3623 / 3672. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: www.natur-kultur.at.
The Society for Conservation Biology
held its annual meeting June 9-12, at the University of Montana,
Missoula. Visit www.unt.edu/sch2000 for a full program.
AIBA Newslink, All India Bioethics Association. This newsletter covers bioethics, including environmental ethics in India. For a sample copy contact the editor, Dr. J. Azariah, No. 4, 8th Lane, 5th Cross Street, Indira Nagar, Chennai, 600 020, India. E-mail: email@example.com. Fax: 91-44-4910910. Azariah is chair of the Biology Department, University of Madras.
Environmental Values, a
conference, was held at the University of Ireland, Cork, June
23-25. Mark Rowlands, Philosophy, and Silvia Ross, Department
of Italian, were principal organizers. Papers given are listed
because of the international and interdisciplinary nature of the
conference, a first of its kind in Ireland, and their distinctive
concerns and scholarship, often novel to mainstream environmental
ethics. Web site: http://www.ucc.ie/italian/environmental_values.html.
* "Ecological policies and ecological values," Robin Attfield, University College Wales, Cardiff.
* "Enforcing environmental ethics: civic law and natural value," Holmes Rolston III, Colorado State University.
* "Ecofeminism and literature," Greta Gaard, Fairhaven College, Western Washington University.
* "The environmental turn," Mark Rowlands, University College Cork.
* "The crisis of science without civilisation," Nicholas Maxwell, University College London.
* "Ecology and economics," Helena Feder, University of California, Davis.
* "Beyond mothering earth: ecological citizenship and the gendered politics of care," Sherilyn MacGregor, York University.
* "Intergenerational Justice," Ed Page, Keele University.
* "Intergenerational responsibility: moral theory meets international environmental law," Mark Rigstad, California Institute of Technology.
* "Nature once removed: intimacy, alienation and the environment in South Indian nature writing," Cynthia Miller, Emerson College, Boston.
* "How can rain fall in this chaos: myth and metaphor in representations of north-west Namibian landscape," Sian Sullivan, SOAS, London.
* "Flann O"Brien's Twentieth Century Inferno: An ecofeminist reading of Third Policeman," Carol Cantrell, Colorado State University.
* "The greening of Noir: an ecocritical study of Florida crime fiction," Diane Waters, Edgehill College.
* "Animal Reason," Christopher Preston, University of South Carolina.
* "Animal rights or human rights: interest conflicts and animal experimentation," Elisa Aaltola, University of Turku, Finland.
* "Art and Nature," Arto Haapala, University of Helsinki.
* "The Intuition of Natural Values," Gavin Murray, University of Kent.
* "Blood not soil: Anna Bramwell and the myth of `Hitler's Green Party'," Piers H.G. Stephens, University of Liverpool.
* "The re-enchantment of the world: Romantic nationalism and "mythical landscapes"," Diarmuid 0'Giolláin, University College Cork.
* "Aesthetics, ethics and the natural environment: harmony and conflict," Emily Brady, Lancaster University.
* "A contribution to environmental aesthetics," Denis Dumas, University of Ottawa.
* "The autonomy of nature and the philosophy of art: a critique of environmental
aesthetics," Andrew Hamilton, Durham University.
* "From fear to censure: the dangers of science, biotechnology and postcolonial adventure," Stefanie Rixecker, Lincoln University, New Zealand.
* "Designer trees, exotic species and the ethics of nature manipulation," Christian Gamborg & Peter Sandoe, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College.
* "The Wind," Jeremy Weate, Razorfish (a software firm), London.
* "Biodiversity and environmental ethics: a personal reflection," James E. Coufal, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry.
* "The value of biodiversity: why does difference matter?," Uta Eser, University of California, Davis.
* "Environmental Values and the Commercialisation of Wild Native Fauna," Adrian Walsh, University of New England, Australia.
* "Values, decisions and deliberations," Thomas Dietz, George Mason University.
* "The wilderness in the garden," Alvin Kibel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
* "Is nature purposeful: the concept of nature in the ancient world and its relevance to environmental values of today," Helen Barnard, University College Wales, Cardiff.
* "Land as mother in Celtic religion: Christians and pagans today," Christina Harrington, The Queen's University of Belfast.
* "Leaf litter and other traces: rethinking the divine from the perspective of earth," Anne Elvey, Monash University.
* "Social Policy, citizenship and the environment," Fiona Dukelow, University College Cork.
* "`Tidying up the countryside': REPS as ecological modernisation in contemporary rural Ireland," Ethel Crowley, Trinity College Dublin.
* "Factory fanning - feeding the world or destroying the planet? The link between high standards of farm animal welfare and sustainable food production systems," Aoife Ní Fhearghail, Compassion in World Farming, Ireland.
* "The multi-layered discourses of animal concern," Linda Kalof, George Mason University.
* "Reconsidering the moral status of non-human animals," Greg Coulter, University of St. Thomas.
* "The role of the animal in the development of human world-views," Katherine Perlo, University of Dundee.
* "Region ecology: problems and solutions," Oksana Fesenko, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, Vinnitsa, Ukraine.
* "The importance of the Lough Hyne marine reserve as a marine diversity `hotspot' within Ireland," James Bell, University College Cork.
* "Minorities, cultural rights and the preservation of species: the case of bird hunting in Aland," Markku Oksanen, Lancaster University and Elisa Aaltola, University of Turku, Finland.
* "Post-colonial and ecofeminist values in English nature poetry: Romantic, Victorian and Contemporary," Michael Moore, Wilfrid Laurier University.
* "From enlightenment to environment: political ecology in the work of Anna Mania Ortese," Sharon Wood, Strathclyde University.
* "Marcovaldo's white rabbit: animals and nature in Italo Calvino," Silvia Ross, University College Cork.
* "Constellations of camp: ecopolitics and anarchist aesthetics in the `postmodern' era," Regina Cochrane, University of Toronto.
* "Post-ecologist politics, ecological optimism, and positivist happiness," Ingolfur Blühdorn, University of Bath.
* "Multi-cultural natures: taking ecology through the `posts'," Adrian Ivakhiv, York University.
* "Godwin, Malthus, the population controversy and the origins of post-modernity," Graham Allen, University College Cork.
* "Academic values: why do environmentalists hate the media?," John Parham, University of East London.
* "Sustainable tourism: part of the problem or part of the solution?," Andrea Herrmann, University of Arkansas, Little Rock.
* "Twentieth century changes in environmental values and perception of environmental risks: the view from the landfill," Ian Reeve, University of New England, Australia.
"Marking disaster: waste, threat, and the slow-motion catastrophe of the nuclear," Peter Van Wyck, Queen's University, Ontario.
* "Building environmental values into the machine: changing the education of engineers," Richard Barke, Georgia Institute of Technology.
* "Oil of the information age: the political ecology of bioprospecting," Niall O'Shea, Cambridge University.
* "`He doubtless perished in the unknown forest': French colonists and fear of the forest in seventeenth century Canada," Lynn Berry, University of Toronto.
* "Stuart Udall and `The total environment concept'," Charles Coate, Eastern Oregon University.
* "Learning environmental values: how the potato `famine,' in Ireland and a man unlucky in love helped save a bird in New Zealand from extinction," Roy Montgomery, Lincoln University, New Zealand.
* "A critique of the Irish EPA," Derry Chambers, Cork Environmental Alliance.
* "Some perspectives on explaining differences in public environmental ethics: constructing personal nature in everyday life," Georg Tamm, Tallinn Pedagogical University, Estonia.
* "`Agazin' at the heavens': the view from Dystopia in Jean Toomer's Cane," Greg Miller, University of California, Davis.
* "Chaos and the city: Postmodern London in Jasmin Dizdar's Beautiful People and Michael Winterbottom's Wonderland," Laura Rascaroll, University College Cork.
* "Landscapes of desire in Bernardo Bertolucci: the ethics and aesthetics of third world locations," Aine 0' Healy, Loyola Marymount University at Los Angeles.
* "Ecological architecture: defining ecological patterns in the urban ecosystem," Brian Deal, University of Illinois.
* "You can always grow more people but you can"t grow new monuments," Peter Woodman, University College Cork.
* "Resolving environmental conflicts from major road proposals," Donncha 0'Cinnéide, University College Cork.
Environmental Ethics: a Directory is available at "The Online Gadfly," the website of Ernest Partridge(www.igc.org/gadfly). Environmental philosophers and policy-makers are urged to submit their names. Mindful of concerns for personal privacy, Dr. Partridge will only list those individuals who give explicit permission to be included. Qualifications are: (a) Publications in the fields of Environmental Ethics, Environmental Philosophy, or Environmental Policy, or (b) an assignment to teach any of the above subjects in an accredited College or University, or (c) professional experience in environmental policy-analysis or policy-making (governmental or non-governmental). For more information contact Dr. Partridge by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org, or at PO Box 9045, Cedarpines Park, CA 92322.
Master of Liberal Studies: Visions of Good and Sustainable Societies is an interdisciplinary graduate program for people seeking to create models of community for the twenty-first century. Offered by Northern Arizona University, Master of Liberal Studies Program, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 6031, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-6031. Phone (520) 523-9359, e-mail email@example.com.
Forest Loss and Paper Consumption. The Washington Post carried a front-page story on June 3, 2000, about the impact that woodchipping mills are having on forest habitats in the southeast. Growth in paper consumption is driving consumption of forests in many areas of the world. The Dogwood Alliance, a key group opposing the liquidation of southern forests, is interested in working with university faculty and staff to help schools institute sustainable paper consumption policies. Since universities are major consumers of paper, they can make a real difference. The Dogwood Alliance has a worksheet on sustainable paper use which is available by contacting them at P.O. Box 7654, Asheville, NC 28801 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Andrew Light has been appointed Assistant Professor of Environmental Philosophy and Director of the graduate program in Environmental Conservation Education at New York University. The program currently has a terminal MA in environmental studies, drawing students primarily from the major environmental NGOs and government organizations in the New York City area. Light will investigate the creation of a Ph.D. component for the program in environmental ethics or applied ethics. Beginning August 1, his new address will be: Environmental Conservation Program, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences in the Professions, New York University, 246 Greene Street, Suite 300, New York, NY 10003. Phone: 212-998-5636. Fax: 212-995-4832. E-mail: email@example.com. Philosophy & Geography phone: 212-998-5633.
Jason Kawall has secured a position as Assistant Professor of Philosophy (tenure track) at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, where he will specialize in environmental ethics. He will also teach environmental ethics in the masters program in biological and environmental sciences. Kawall's paper "Is (Merely) Stalking Sentient Animals?" is forthcoming in the Journal of Applied Philosophy.
The Society for Philosophy and the Contemporary World held their annual conference July 21-27, in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Papers treating environmental ethics included William B. Griffith, "Public Lands, Property Rights, and Intergenerational Justice" and Scott Friskics, "Reflections on a Life of Dialogue with Nature."
Cultural Collisions and Creative Interferences in the Global Village, an international conference on cultural attitudes towards technology and communication, was held 12-15 July, 2000, in Fremantle, Australia. This biennial conference series aims to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of cutting-edge research on how diverse cultural attitudes shape the implementation and use of information and communication technologies. The keynote speaker was Duane Varan, Director of the Multimedia Lab at Murdoch University, who spoke on "Cultural Conservation in the Global Village". For further information and a full program see >http://www.it.murdoch.edu.au/~sudweeks/catac00/ or > http://www.drury.edu/faculty/ess/catac00.
National Wolf Recovery Strategy. Copies of a new 36-page report entitled "Places for Wolves: A Blueprint for Restoration and Long-Term Recovery in the Lower 48 Sttaes" are now available. Send a $6 check payable to Defenders of Wildlife to Jessica Resnik, Defenders of Wildlife, 1101 14th Street, NW, Suite 1400, Washington, D.C. 20005.
Daniel Botkin gave the keynote address at the annual meeting of the Thoreau Society, July 15, in Concord, Massachusetts, titled "An Ecologist Looks at Thoreau: Thoreau as a Guide to a New Compatibility between Civilization and Nature." Botkin reinterprets "the hermit of Walden" as a man who loved wildness, but who found it in the woods and swamps on the outskirts of town as easily as in the remote forests of Maine, and who firmly believed in the value and importance of human beings and civilization.
The Wildlands Project seeks
to protect and restore the natural heritage of North America through
the establishment of a connected series of wildlands. It supports
the repatriation of top predators; the establishment of wild habitat
where native plants and animals thrive and where nature, not technology,
determines their evolutionary fate; the establishment of linkages
between large natural areas to ensure continued migrations and
the movement necessary to conserve healthy populations; and the
recovery of natural processes such as fire. The Wildlands Project
may be contacted at 1955 W. Grant Road, Suite 145, Tucson, AZ
85745. Phone (520) 884-0875, fax 884-0962, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org,
Georgetown University's McDonough
School of Business is pleased to announce a tenure-eligible
position, beginning Fall, 2001, for a scholar with expertise
in the field of Business Ethics. Scholars at any level may apply.
The successful candidate will be someone whose scholarship addresses
important problems in Business Ethics and other areas of the individual's
competency, and whose work will appear in leading scholarly outlets.
A completed Ph.D. is a prerequisite for consideration for the
position. They will begin to review applications by 15 September
2000, and hope to invite some candidates to campus during the
Fall term. The deadline for applications, however, is December
10, 2000. Send only an application letter, vita, and a brief
statement of teaching and scholarship interests to: George Brenkert,
Chair, Search Committee. McDonough School of Business, Georgetown
University, Washington, D.C. 20057.
National Science Foundation Grants are awarded for research, infrastructure, or education projects on ethics, values and the conduct and impacts of science and engineering. Single investigators or groups may apply. Projects may involve additional collaborators, advisors, postdoctoral researchers,or graduate or undergraduate students and assistants. Program Number: 20359. Title: SBE--SDEST--Research, Infrastructure & Education Projects (99-82). E-mail: email@example.com. Web Site: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf9982/nsf9982.htm. Deadline(s): 8/1/2000, 2/01/2001. Link to full program description: https://www.infoed.org/wConnect/ wc.dll?spinwww~program~20359~CU.
CONFERENCES AND CALLS FOR PAPERS
ISEE Group Sessions. Proposals are invited for individual papers or group sessions for the 2001 APA Western, Central and Eastern Division meetings. For the Western, contact ISEE treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. For the central, contact ISEE secretary Laura Westra. For the Eastern, contact ISEE President Kristin Shrader-Frechette. Addresses at the end of the newsletter. The deadline for proposals is September 1, 2000 for the Western and Central, March 1, 2001 for the Eastern.
Population and the Environment. Phil Cafaro is organizing an ISEE session on this topic for the next Western Division APA Meeting, in San Francisco. Papers should run 10-15 pages (20-25 minutes) long. Abstracts and full papers are welcome, as are offers to comment on papers. Contact Phil Cafaro at firstname.lastname@example.org or 970-491-2061.
Society for Ecological Restoration International Meeting, September 4th-September 7th, 2000, Liverpool, England. Andrew Light has organized several sessions on the theme "New philosophies on the value of restoration." The sessions are rescheduled for September 4th, from 10:30-5:00pm. Presentations by: John O'Neill (Lancaster University), "Restitutive Ecology," William Throop (Green Mountain College), "The Moral Assessment of How We Restore Nature," Sven Arntzen (Telemark College), "Restoration, Ethics, and History," Steven Vogel (Denison University), "Does Restoration Ecology Need Nature?" Irene J. Klaver (University of North Texas), "Restoration as De-domestication of Land and Politics," Andrew Light (New York University), "Restoring Ecological Citizenship." More information about the SER conference can be found at <http://www.nwc.org.uk/sercon/>.
Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, Tenth Annual Meeting, March 1- 4, 2001, Cincinnati, Ohio. Papers are invited on ethical issues in various fields, including law, the environment, engineering, and research ethics, and on issues that cut across professions. Send three copies of paper (presentation time limited to 25 minutes) and three copies of a 250-page abstract for review, to Brian Schrag, Executive Secretary, APPE, Indiana University, 618 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405. Deadline for submissions is October 15, 2000. For further information, phone: (812) 855-6450, fax: (812) 855-3315, e-mail: appe@indiana, website: http://php.ucs.indiana.edu/~appe/home.html.
Ecospheres Conference on Sustaining Life and Populations in the Electronic Century. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, June 10-14, 2001. The Joslyn Castle Institute for Sustainable Communities solicits papers and proposals for panel discussions which focus on issues of water and land use, technology assessment, population policies, and other important environmental issues. Papers may include relevant research, innovative practices, case studies, models of best practices, or theories of new strategies and paradigms which pertain to these issues. Typed, double-spaced, 200-word abstracts are due by September 15, 2000, written manuscripts by January 15, 2001. Submit to Castle Institute/Ecospheres Conference, 125 N. 11th Street, Lincoln, NE 68508, or online at www.unl.edu/ecospheres. For additional information contact W. Cecil Steward or Amber Lisec at 402) 472-00876, fax 475-6675, e-mail email@example.com.
Janua Sophia, an undergraduate philosophy journal, announces a special issue devoted to environmental philosophy. Submissions should be the original work of the undergraduate author and may address any topic in environmental philosophy. Essays should be typed and double spaced, no more than 12 pages in length, and conform to MLA style. Send two copies and an IBM-compatible disk formatted for Word 95/97, and include an abstract 300 words or less. Submissions may be sent to Thaddeus Haas and Timothy Riley, University of North Texas, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, P.O. Box 13526, Denton, TX 76203-6526. Inquiries may also be made by phone (940) 565-2823, or by e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com. Deadline for submissions is January 1, 2001.
Local Environment is an international refereed journal written by and for academics and practitioners, which focuses on local environmental and sustainability policy, politics and action. The editors welcome papers on these topics, with a focus on 'local' as the driving force behind policy. Articles of 5,000 words or shorter "viewpoints and comments" pieces are solicited. Notes for manuscript submission may be found on the journal's webpage at www.carfax.co.uk. Send submissions to Julian Agyeman and Bob Evans, Editors, Centre for Local Environmental Policies and Strategies, School of Urban Development and Policy, South Bank University, London, SW8, 2JZ, UK. Phone +44 (0) 171-815-7330, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. North American submissions should be sent to Mark Roseland, North American Editor, Community Economic Development Center, Department of Georgraphy, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6, Canada. Phone +1(604) 291-4161, e-mail email@example.com.
Ethics, Place and Environment is a journal which provides a forum for the publication of research and scholarship on all aspects of geography and environmental ethics. Papers for the main section of the journal should normally be less than 8,000 words in length and should include an abstract of less than 100 words. Shorter notes and comments should be restricted to 2,000 words or less. Send four copies of your manuscript, along with a disk in Word format, to Tim Unwin, Editor, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 )EX, UK. Phone +44 (0) 1784-443643, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Authors in America may send manuscripts to James Proctor, Department of Geography, 3611 Ellison Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060. Phone +1 (805) 893-8741, e-mail email@example.com. Details of reference style are published in each journal and may be obtained from the editor.
Landscape Research is a
journal which combines original research papers with reflective
critiques of landscape practice. Topics include environmental
design, ecology and environmental conservation, human and physical
geography, and archaeology and history. Full details can be found
on the web at www.carfax.co.uk/lar-ad.htm.
August 6-10. Ecological Society of America annual meeting in Snowbird, Utah. Conference theme: "Advancing and Communicating Ecology." Agenda available at esa.sdsc.edu/snowbird2000.htm.
September 8-10. National Wilderness 2000 Conference, Denver, CO. Sponsored by the Sierra Club, the Wilderness Society, and the Colorado Environmental Coalition. For more information contact Sara Scott at firstname.lastname@example.org.
September 21-24. Fifth World Congress of Bioethics: Ethics, Law and Policy. Imperial College, London, UK. Information: Anne Lavender, Centre for Ethics in Medicine: email@example.com, web-site: http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/ethics/fifthcon.htm.
October 7-9. The International Association for Environmental Philosophy third annual program at Pennsylvania State University, immediately following the Annual Meeting of the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy. IAEP offers a forum for wide-ranging philosophical discussion of nature and the human relation to the natural environment. IAEP welcomes diverse approaches to these issues, including many schools of continental philosophy, studies in the history of philosophy, and the tradition of American philosophy.
October 23-25. Is Nature Ever Evil, Wrong or Ugly? Neutrality and engagement in the scientific study of reality. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. An academic seminar with participants from behavioral genetics, philosophy, theology, history of science, geophysics, astrophysics, and other areas. To register or for more information visit www.vu.nl/Bezinningscentrum/info.htm.
October 26-28. Sustainable Regional Development: The Role of
the University in a Globalizing Economy. Conference at Lowell,
Massachusetts. Further information: Judy_Blackburn@uml.edu.
Recent Articles and Books
Thanks to Greg R. Pritchard, graduate student at Deakin University, Victora Australia, for most of the editing work on the bibliography in this issue. Pritchard is doing a thesis in environmental ethics and literature. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
--Abbot, Ian, "Improving The Conservation Of Threatened And Rare Mammal Species Through Translocation To Islands: Case Study Western Australia," Biological Conservation 93 (No. 2, 2000): 195- .
--Adeola, Francis O., "Endangered Community, Enduring People: Toxic Contamination, Health, and Adaptive Responses in a Local Context," Environment and Behavior 32 (No. 2, 2000, March 01): 209- .
--Agnew, John, "From The Political Economy Of Regions To Regional Political Economy," Progress In Human Geography 24 (No. 1, 2000): 101- .
--Alexander, Donald, "Planning as Learning: Sustainability and the Education of Citizen Activists," Environments 27 (No. 2, 1999): 79- .
--Alston, Lee J., Libecap, Gary D. and Mueller, Bernardo, "Land Reform Policies, the Sources of Violent Conflict, and Implications for Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," Journal Of Environmental Economics And Management 39 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 162-.
--Antrop, M., "Changing Patterns In The Urbanized Countryside Of Western Europe," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 257- .
--Arler, Finn, "Aspects Of Landscape Or Nature Quality," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 291- .
--Ascher, William, "Understanding Why Governments in Developing Countries Waste Natural Resources," Environment 42 (No. 2, 2000): 8- . Although ignorance and corruption play some role in the waste of natural resources, the principle cause often lies elsewhere.
--Babu, Suresh Chandra and Reidhead, William, "Monitoring Natural Resources For Policy Interventions: A Conceptual Framework, Issues, and Challenges," Land Use Policy 17 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 1- .
--Ball, Jim. "Evangelicals, Population, and the Ecological Crises," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2. 1998):226-253. The focus of this article is a review and analysis of the population debate in the Evangelical Protestant literature on ecological crises. Six major writings are considered in depth. The conclusion reached is that the literature thus far has provided an excellent introduction, but the ethical consequences of intrinsic value and overconsumption are undeveloped.
--Balmford, A., Lyon, A.J.E. and Lang, R.M., "Testing The Higher-Taxon Approach To Conservation Planning In A Megadiverse Group: The Macrofungi," Biological Conservation 93 (No. 2, 2000): 209- .
--Baxter, Brian, Ecologism: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, and Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2000. Articulates and defends "ecologism"--an ideology that has grown from the developing interest in the moral, political, economic, and scientific issues centering on human relationships with the environment. Ecologism starts from the position that the non-human world is worthy of moral consideration and that this should be taken into account in the ordering of social, economic and political systems. Ecologism is a major development in environmental politics and, increasingly, a significant alternative to existing political philosophies. A comprehensive and systematic survey of the main components ecologism, examining elements which have been neglected in the existing literature.
--Beck, Roy, and Kolankiewicz, Leon, "The Environmental Movement: Retreat from Advocating U.S. Population Stabilization (1970-1998): A First Draft of History", Journal of Policy History 12, No 1, 2000. "The years surrounding 1970 marked the coming of age of the modern environmental movement. As that movement approaches its fourth decade, perhaps the most striking change is the virtual abandonment by national environmental groups of U.S. population stabilization as an actively-pursued goal. To begin to understand why that shift has occurred and the significance of that shift, it will be important to review the 1970-era movement and its population roots." The article then examines in detail the events leading to abandonment of domestic population stabilization efforts by major environmental organizations. ZPG and Sierra Club are used as case studies. Important for analyzing immigration policy. The published (short) version can be ordered from: NumbersUSA, 1601 N. Kent St., #1100, Arlington, VA 22209. (703) 816-8820. E-mail: email@example.com. In addition, the entire article is on the web at http://www.numbersusa.com/cgi/text.cgi?Jph.
--Bell, Ruth Greenspan, "Building Trust: Laying A Foundation For Environmental Regulation In The Former Soviet Bloc," Environment 42 (No. 2, 2000): 20- . Formulating effective environmental laws in the countries in transition from totalitarianism to democracy involves developing critical institutions and creating a climate of trust in the law-drafting process.
--Ben-Ari, Elia T., "Defender Of The Voiceless: Wallace Stegner's Conservation Legacy," Bioscience 50 (No. MAR 01 2000): 3- .
--Blackman, Allen and Harrington, Winston, "The Use of Economic Incentives in Developing Countries: Lessons From," The Journal Of Environment And Development 9 (No. 1, Mar 01 2000): 5- .
--Blomberg, Les, "Clearing the Air: Fourteen Ways to Quiet the Skies," Utne Reader, May-June 2000, pp. 78-79. Blomberg is executive director of Noise Pollution Clearinghouse, which maintains a library and network at www.nonoise.org. A jet plane at takeoff produces 100 decibels of sound, which is 10 million times louder than a normal conversation, and millions of Americans are affected. Seventy percent of Americans live within twenty miles of a major airport. And the skies could be much quieter.
--Boudreaux, Donald J., Meiners, Roger E. and Zywicki, Todd J., "Talk is Cheap: The Existence Value Fallacy," Environmental Law 29 (No. 4, 1999): 765- . Environmental law and policy has increasingly recognized the concept of "existence value" - the "nonuse value" that individuals derive solely from the knowledge that an environmental amenity exists and not from its use. Because of its nonuse nature, existence value cannot be calculated through market transactions, but can be ascertained only through contingent valuation studies that purport to provide hypothetical valuations. This article questions the conceptual importance of existence value and the validity of contingent valuation as a means for deriving existence value.
--Boulting, Noel E., "The Aesthetics of Nature," Philosophy in the Contemporary World 6(no. 3-4, Fall-Winter, 1999):21-34. Three paradigms for aesthetic experience of nature: (1) Specularism, seeing nature as a picture, (2) Scientific Exemplarism, grasping aesthetic experience through the categories of scientific enquiry, and (3) Perspectivalism, a more phenomenological relation between the experienced and the experience. After the historical development which fashioned Specularism's approach to aesthetics has been indicated and the ahistorical nature of Scientific Exemplarism has been explained, the relative strengths of these three paradigms are explored. The implication of the third are related to a possible spiritual view of nature. Boulting lives in Upchurch, Nr. Sittingbourne, Kent, UK.
--Braden, Kathleen. "On Saving the Wilderness: Why Christian Stewardship is Not Sufficient," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2. 1998):254-269. The relationship between humanity and the earth is considered through three phases: the wild earth, the tamed earth, and the tended earth, as grounded in arguments for an either biblically based dominion or a stewardship worldview. Braden suggests that stewardship alone is an insufficient ethic for preserving wilderness areas and wildlife because it calls for management of that which is inherently unmanageable by humans. Instead, a loving restraint of human action based on Matthew is demanded.
--Brandt, J., "The Landscape Of Landscape Ecologists," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 181- .
--Buchanan, Rob, "A Natural Death," Outside, vol, 25, no. 6, June 2000, pages 106- 114, 152-155. Guy Waterman and his wife authored four books on ethics and conservation of New England wilderness. On February 25, 2000, the coldest day of the year, Waterman, hiked to the top of his favorite peak, Mt. Lafayette (Vermont), and laid down to die by freezing. His body was recovered days later. Gripped by pessimism, Waterman became convinced that the "illusion of wildness is as crucial as wildness itself."
--Byrne, J. Peter, "Basic Themes For Regulatory Takings Litigation," Environmental Law 29 (No. 4, 1999): 811- . Professor Byrne presents arguments for a narrow reading - consistent with the original understanding - of the Fifth Amendment's Takings Clause. He explains how these arguments, called "litigation themes," can be used in regulatory takings cases to advance this position. He stresses that the use of litigation themes is particularly important in the regulatory takings context because of the ambiguities and contradictions in the case law on the subject.
--Cafaro, Philip, "Nature's Star Witness," Conservation Biology 14(2000):911-912. Review of L. Lear, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature (New York: Holt, 1997) and R. Carson, Lost Woods: The Discovered Writings of Rachel Carson (Boston: Beacon Press, 1998).
--Caldwell, Wayne, Bowers, Steve and Williams, Owen, "A Community Development Approach to Environmental Management," Environments 27 (No. 2, 1999): 63- .
--Carroll, Matthew S., Daniels, Steven E. and Kusel, Jonathan, "Policy Review: Employment and Displacement Among Northwestern Forest Products Workers.," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 151- .
--Carroll, Matthew S., Blatner, Keith A. and Findley, Angela J., "Adaptation Strategies of Displaced Idaho Woods Workers: Results of a Longitudinal Panel Study," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 95- .
--Chaitanya, Krishna, "Man, Nature and Cosmos in Vedic India," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 21- . The thrust of the Religion of ancient India was to follow R'ta - the natural and moral law - that which maintained the order of the Cosmos.
--Cohen, Jack D., "Preventing Disaster: Home Ignitability in the Wildland-Urban Interface," Journal Of Forestry 98 (No. 3, Mar 01 2000): 15- . Fires area major concern at the wildland-urban interface. New research has implications for hazard assessment, risk mapping, effective mitigation, and reducing residential losses.
--Cope, Andy, Doxford, David, and Probert, Christopher, "Monitoring Visitors To UK Countryside Resources. The Approaches Of Land and Recreation Resource Management Organisations To Visitor Monitoring," Land Use Policy 17 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 59- .
--Costanza, Robert, Daly, Herman, and Hawken, Paul, "Managing Our Environmental Portfolio," Bioscience. 50 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 149- .
--Coursen, David F., "The Takings Jurisprudence of the Court of Federal Claims and the Federal Circuit," Environmental Law 29 (No. 4, 1999): 821- . Mr. Coursen analyzes the recent takings jurisprudence of the Court of Federal Claims and the Federal Circuit. He finds little doctrinal coherence but distills several practical guidelines to the manner in which this forum approaches takings in the wake of Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council.
--Daniels, Steven E., Gobeli, Corrine L. and Findley, Angela J., "Reemployment Programs for Dislocated Timber Workers: Lessons from Oregon," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 135- .
--Daniels, Tom, "Integrated Working Landscape Protection: The Case of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 261- .
--DAntuono, Karen, "The National Park Service's Proposed Ban: A New Approach to Personal Watercraft Use in the National Parks," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 27 (No. 2, Wint 2000): 243- .
--Dasgupta, Susmita, Hettige, Hemamala and Wheeler, David, "What Improves Environmental Compliance? Evidence from Mexican Industry," Journal Of Environmental Economics And Management 39 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 39- .
--Dotto, Lydia, "Proof or Consequences," Alternatives 26 (No. 2, Sprg 2000): 8- . Skeptics say we should wait for proof before taking action on climate change. If they turn out to be right, we'll have saved a lot of bother. But if they're wrong...
--Echeverria, John, "Does a Regulation that Fails to Advance a Legitimate Governmental Interest Result in a Regulatory Takings of Private Property Far Outweigh the "Rule"," Environmental Law 29 (No. 4, 1999): 853- .
--Echlin, Edward, "An African Church sets the Example. (In Environmental Stewardship)," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 43- .
--Eden, Sally, "Environmental Issues: Sustainable Progress?," Progress in Human Geography 24 (No. 1, 2000): 111- .
--English, Donald B.K., Marcouiller, David W. and Cordell, H. Ken, "Tourism Dependence in Rural America: Estimates and Effects," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 185- .
--Fall, Juliet J., "Transboundary Biosphere Reserves: A New Framework For Cooperation," Environmental Conservation 26 (No. 4, Dec 01 1999): 252- .
--Fearnside, Philip M., "Biodiversity As An Environmental Service In Brazil's Amazonian Forest: Risks, Value And Conservation," Environmental Conservation 26 (No. 4, Dec 01 1999): 305- .
--Figueroa, Robert Melchior, Debating the Paradigms of Justice:
The Bivalence of Environmental Justice. Ph.D. dissertation in
philosophy, University of Colorado, Boulder, 2000. Environmental
justice addresses social justice related to human activities that
affect both human and natural environments, including human health
and values, living and working conditions, natural resources upon
which humans depend, and cultural values intimately tied with
the natural environment. The social problem may be the cause
of the environmental problem or vice versa.
The thesis analyzes how environmental justice affects the debate between distributive justice and justice in the politics of recognition. Distributive justice theories focus on the fair distribution and redistribution of material goods in a society. Justice in the politics of recognition emerges from principles of self-determination, cultural identity, and political recognition. Cultural institutions and habits determine the conditions for social status which then guide the distribution of material goods. Contemporary justice theory seems gridlocked into this dichotomy. Using the work of Nancy Fraser, this thesis uses a bivalent conception of participatory parity as the bridging criterion. The main advisor was Claudia Mills. Figueroa is currently at Colgate University.
--Filippi, E. and Luiselli, L., "Status Of The Italian Snake Fauna And Assessment Of Conservation Threats," Biological Conservation 93 (No. 2, 2000): 219- .
--Foster, John Bellamy, Marx's Ecology: Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000. Contests conventional accounts of Marx and nature. Marx, it is often assumed, cared only about industrial growth and the development of economic forces. But this neglects Marx's writings on capitalist agriculture and soil ecology, philosophical naturalism, and evolutionary theory. Marx, a powerful critic of capitalist soceity, was also deeply concerned with the changing human relationship to nature. Foster is in sociology at the University of Oregon.
--Garrett, Aaron V., ed., Animal Rights and Souls in the Eighteenth Century. Bristol, England: Thoemmes Press, 2000. Six volumes. Explores early discussions of moral theories concerning animals, placing them in historical and social context. Issues such as vivisection, animal souls and vegetarianism were live philosophical subjects 200 years ago. Six volumes reprinted here include complete works and edited extracts from such key eighteenth-century thinkers as Oswald, Primatt, Smellie, Monboddo and Jenyns. Many of the materials are rare and never previously reprinted. Garrett teaches philosophy at Boston University. Full online introduction: http://www.thoemmes.com/18cphil/animal_intro.htm.
--Geisinger, Alex, "Sustainable Development and the Domination of Nature: Spreading the Seed of the Western Ideology of Nature," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 27 (No. 1, Fall 1999): 43- .
--Glover, James M., "Soul of the Wilderness Can We Stop Trying to Control Nature? International Journal of Wilderness 6 (no. 1, April 2000):4-8. "The Western dream of controlling nature is deeply ingrained. Even in wilderness areas, it seems, we can't stop trying to control. I believe we need to take a lesson from Lao Tsu and other Eastern sages and recognize that the world cannot be ruled by interfering." Glover is in outdoor recreation at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
--Gobster, Paul H., Haight, Robert G., and Shriner, Dave, "Landscape
Change in the Midwest: An Integrated Research and Development
Program," Journal Of Forestry 98 (No. 3, Mar 01 2000): 9-
. Changes in landownership and development can increase the fragmentation
of forest resources; a program in the North Central region examines
these changes and explores strategies to stem negative consequences.
--Goldsmith, Edward, "Religion at the Millennium.," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 4- . Mainstream religion in our atomised societies is but an interpersonal relationship between an individual and his God. We must revive the theological underpinnings of our original Religions in which the individual related to society, the natural world and the cosmos.
--Goldsmith, Edward, "Archaic Societies and Cosmic Order - A Summary," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 15- . Archaic Societies had a word for the path that must be taken to maintain the order of the all-encompassing Cosmos on which human welfare depends.
--Gorman, M. E., Mehalik, M. and Werhane, P. Ethical and Environmental Challenges to Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.
--Gorman, M.E., Transforming Nature: Ethics, Invention and Design. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
--Greenway, William, "Animals and the Love of God," Christian Century, June 21, 2000, vol. 117, no. 19, pp. 680-681. "The primary hierarchical division in Genesis is not between humans and the rest of creation; it is between God and creation." "To repress our sympathy for animals leads to an all the more destructive disrespect for them and for all creation." Greenway teaches at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin, TX.
--Griffin, Gary J., "Blight Control and Restoration of the American Chestnut," Journal Of Forestry 98 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 22- . Enhancing blight resistance, along with site selection and other forest management practices, is critical for restoring the American chestnut.
--Griffith, Bede, "Return to the Centre. (And Environmental Protection)," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 9- . There is much to learn from the wisdom inherent in primal religions.
--Haberl, Helmut, "Energetischer Stoffwechsel und nachhaltige Entwicklung" (in German: Societal energetic metabolism and sustainable development), Natur und Kultur 1 (No. 1, 2000): 32-47. Since the neolithic revolution the total energy input of mankind has risen by several orders of magnitude. Given current trends, societal energetic metabolism could reach over 50% of terrestrial NPP as early as 2050. This precludes the possibility to return to a biomass-based energy system in order to solve fossil-energy related sustainability problems. A combination of energy conservation and new renewable sources is a prerequisite for sustainable development.
--Hangeveld, Henry G., "The Science," Alternatives 26 (No. 2, Sprg 2000): 15- . Global temperatures is on the rise and the dangers are real and significant.
--Harcourt, A.H., "Coincidence And Mismatch Of Biodiversity
Hotspots: A Global Survey for the Order, Primates," Biological
Conservation 93 (No. 2, 2000): 163- .
--Heinen, Joel T., and Mehta, Jai N., "Emerging Issues in Legal and Procedural Aspects of Buffer Zone Management With Case Studies From Nepal," The Journal Of Environment And Development 9 (No. 1, Mar 01 2000): 45- .
--Held, Martin, "Geschichte der Nachhaltigkeit" (in German: History of sustainable development), Natur und Kultur 1 (No. 1, 2000): 17-31. Understanding of the history of sustainable development is a prerequisite to develop this concept adequately and acting accordingly. This general thesis is demonstrated with various examples from different times and regions in the history of humankind. Some preliminary theses are derived to generalize findings of these examples and perspectives are demonstrated which may be learned from an explicit study of the history of sustainable development.
--Hrdy, Sara Blaffer, Mother Nature: Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection. New York: Pantheon Books. Also Ballantine Books. Another subtitle is: Maternal Instincts and How They Shape the Human Species. What human mothering has in common with (other) primate mothering (and other animals). Women are biologically programmed for mothering. Critics, feminist among them, worry that the parallels, however important, fail to recognize the relevant moral differences, and that this may be another case of expecting too much from primates as models for human behavior. Hrdy is in anthropology at the University of Calfornia, Davis.
--Jones, Susan, "Becoming a Pest: Prairie Dog Ecology and the Human Economy in the Euroamerican West," Environmental History 4 (No. 4, Oct 01 1999): 531- .
--Kaelin, Albin and M. M. Mehalik, "The Development of Climatex Lifecycle, a Compostable, Environmentally SoundUpholstery Fabric." In Sustainable Solutions: Sustainable and Eco-product and Service Development, ed. Martin Charter. London: Greenleaf Publishing, 2000.
--Kasemir, Bernd, Schibli, Daniela, and Jaeger, Carlo C., "Involving The Public In Climate And Energy Decisions," Environment 42 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 32- . Public participation in decisions affecting environmental problems helps citizens own solutions and provides useful information, as recent European focus groups on climate change attest.
--Kates, Robert W., "Population And Consumption: What We Know, What We Need To Know," Environment 42 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 10- . Population is well understood and predictable. Consumption, however, is less studied and growing. Still, getting from more to enough is the key to a sustainable future.
--Katz, Eric, Light, Andrew, and Rothenberg, David, eds., Beneath
the Surface: Critical Essays in the Philosophy of Deep Ecology.
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000. Fourteen contributors.
Focuses on deep ecology as a philosophy, not as a political, social,
or environmental movement. Relations of deep ecology to social
ecology, ecofeminism, and moral pluralism, continental philosophy,
postmodernism, and non-Western philosophical traditions. The
first anthology on deep ecology that is not primarily the work
of the movements followers. Katz and Rothenberg are in philosophy
at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Light is in environmental
philosophy at New York University. Contents:
--Clark, John, "How Wide is Deep Ecology?
--Katz, Eric, "Against the Inevitability of Anthropocentrism"
--Grey, William, "A Critique of Deep Green Theory"
--Plumwood, Val, "Deep Ecology, Deep Pockets, and Deep Problems: A Feminist Ecosocialist Analysis"
--Humphrey, Mathew, "Ontological Determinism and Deep Ecology: Evading the Moral Questions?"
--Salleh, Ariel, "In Defense of Deep Ecology: An Ecofeminist Response to a Liberal Critique"
--Light, Andrew, "Callicott and Naess on Pluralism"
--Rothenberg, David, ""No World but in Things: The Poetry of Naess's Concrete Contents"
--Zimmerman, Michael, "Possible Political Problems of Earth-Based Religiosity"
--Gare, Arran, "The Postmodernism of Deep Ecology, the Deep Ecology of Postmodernism, and Grand Narratives"
--Maskit, Jonathan, "Deep Ecology and Desire: On Naess and the Problem of Consumption"
--Jacobsen, Knut A., "Bhagavadgita, Ecosophy T, and Deep Ecology"
--Curtin, Deane, "A State of Mind Like Water: Ecosophy T and the Buddhist Traditions"
--Taylor, Bron, "Deep Ecology and Its Social Philosophy: A Critique."
--List Peter, ed., "Environmental Advocacy by Environmental
Scientists," a theme issue of Reflections, Newsletter of
the Program for Ethics, Science, and Technology. Department of
Philosophy, Oregon State University. Special Issue 4, April 2000.
Fourteen short papers. Samples:
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Environmental Science and Environmental Advocacy."
--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin, "Justice and Environmental Advocacy."
--Westra, Laura, "Advocacy as a Moral Obligation."
--Hollander, Rechelle E., "Toward a Model of Professional Responsibility." Quite usable with students, if you wish a unit on this issue in an environmental ethics or policy class.
--Kerr, Andy, "Big Wild: A Legislative Vehicle for Conserving and Restoring Wildlands in the United States," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 77- .
--Kaye, Roger, "The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: An Exploration of the Meanings Embodied in America's Last Great Wilderness," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 92-.
--Kelch, Thomas G., "The Role of the Rational and the Emotive in a Theory of Animal Rights," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 27 (No. 1, Fall 1999): 1- .
--Kersten, Michael T., "Exactions, Severability, and Takings: When Courts Should Sever Unconstitutional Conditions From Development Permits," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 27 (No. 2, Wint 2000): 279- .
--Krafston-Hogue, Michael. "Toward a Christian Ecological Ethic: The Lesson of Old Testament Israel's Dialogic Relations with Land, History, and God," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2. 1998):270-282. By drawing from Walter Brueggemann's land theology and Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, the purpose of this essay is to enrich the project of developing a comprehensive Christian ecological ethic.
--Kusel, Jonathan, Kocher, Susan, and Schuster, Ervin, "Effects of Displacement and Outsourcing on Woods Workers and their Families.," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 115- .
--Kwiatkowska, Teresa, and Wilchis, Ricardo López, eds.
Ingeniería Genética y Ambiental (Genetic and Environmental
Engineering: Philosophical and Social Problems of Biotechnology)
Plaza y Valdez, Mexico 2000. This is a collection that takes
up some of the challanges of recent biotechnology development
regarding human being and the environment. Kwiatkowska teaches
philosophy at the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa,
Mexico. Articles include:
Francisco Pinon, "Las incognitas del hombre y los suenos y recreaciones del espiritu cientifico."
Daryl Koehn, "Etica de los bionegocios, de la tecnologia y de la ingenieria genetica."
Camilo Jose Cela Conde, "Patente de genes: ?de que hablamos cuando hablamos de patentar algo?"
Francisco Pedroche, "Biodiversidad: !Divino tesoro!"
Teresa Kwiatkowska y Ricardo Wilchis, "Crear or recrear: algunas reflexiones en torno a la restauracion ecologica."
Ricardo Rossi y Francisca Massardo, "Implicaciones ecologicas y sociales de la bioingenieria: un analisis desde el sur de Latinoamerica."
--Laarman, Jan, "2050: A Scenario for People and Forests," Journal Of Forestry 98 (No. 2, 2000, Feb 01): 4- . Two retired foresters in the year 2050 recall how events and trends during the preceding 50 years transformed forestry and its practitioners.
--LaDuke, Winona, "The Seventh Generation: Rethinking the Constitution," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 21-
--Leggett, Christopher G., and Bockstael, Nancy E., "Evidence of the Effects of Water Quality on Residential Land Prices," Journal Of Environmental Economics And Management 39 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 121- .
--Lighthall, David R., and Kopecky, Steven, "Confronting the Problem of Backyard Burning: The Case for a National Ban," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 157- .
--Linge, George, "Ensuring the Full Freedom of Religion on Public Lands: Devils Tower and the Protection of Indian Sacred Sites," Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 27 (No. 2, Wint 2000): 307- .
--Linville, Mark D. "A Little Lower Than the Angels: Christian Humanism and Environmental Ethics," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2. 1998):283-297. In contrast to Lynn White, Jr., who argues that Christianity is the most anthropocentric of the world's religions and that the West's acceptance of this humanistic approach is responsible for our ecologic crisis, Linville offers an account of human flourishing that includes environmental values and argues that a properly circumspect account of humanism provides an adequate grounding for an environmental ethic.
--Mackey, Brendan G., "Environmental Scientists, Advocacy, And The Future Of Earth," Environmental Conservation 26 (No. 4, Dec 01 1999): 245- .
--MacMilan, Douglas C., "An Economic Case For Land Reform," Land Use Policy 17 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 49- .
--McNeely, Jeffrey A., "The Convention On Biological Diversity: A Solid Foundation For Effective Action," Environmental Conservation 26 (No. 4, Dec 01 1999): 250- .
--Meadows, Donella, "Chicken Little, Cassandra, and the Real Wolf: So Many Ways to Think about the Future," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 24- .
--Mehalik, M. M., "Technical and Design Tools: The Integration of ISO 14001, Life Cycle Development, Environmental Design and Cost Accounting." In ISO 14001 Case Studies and Practical Experience, ed. Ruth Hillary. London: Greenleaf Publishing, 2000.
--Mehalik, Matthew Marc, "Sustainable Network Design: A Commercial Fabric Case Study." Interfaces: Special Edition on Ecologically Sustainable Business Practices, 2000. Mehalik is in Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia.
--Moss, M.R., "Interdisciplinarity, Landscape Ecology And The `Transformation Of Agricultural Landscapes'," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 303- .
--Murray, Robert, "The Cosmic Covenant," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 25-. Robert Murray reveals the ecological or cosmic origins of the Judeo-Christian tradition.
--Nabhan, Gary Paul, "The Killing Fields: Monarchs and Transgenic Corn," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 49- .
--Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, "The Spiritual and Religious Background of the Environmental Crisis," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 18- . The present environmental crisis is above all a conceptual and spiritual crisis. By adopting a worldview that separates humanity from Nature we have come to see what was previously a sacred Earth as a resource to be exploited for economic ends.
--Norris, Scott, "A Year for Biodiversity," Bioscience 50 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 103- .
--OMalley, Robin, and Wing, Kate, "Forging A New Tool For Ecosystem Reporting," Environment 42 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 20- . Investigating the state of U.S. ecosystems involves a continuing commitment to developing national indicators and presenting coherent data. Only then can a reasoned debate about natural resources ensue.
--Onate, J.J., Andersen, E., and Primdahl, J., "Agri-Environmental Schemes And The European Agricultural Landscapes: The Role Of Indicators As Valuing Tools For Evaluation," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 271- .
--ONeill, J., and Walsh, M., "Landscape Conflicts: Preferences, Identities And Rights," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 281- .
--Paul, Ellen, "Science Could Play Starring Role in New Forest Management Plans," Bioscience 50 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 108- .
--Poiani, Karen A., Richter, Brian D., and Richter, Holly E., "Biodiversity Conservation at Multiple Scales: Functional Sites, Landscapes, and Networks," Bioscience 50 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 133- .
--Polunin, N., "Humility And The Environment," Environmental Conservation 26 (No. 4, Dec 01 1999): 243- .
--Popper, Deborah and Popper, Frank, "The Buffalo Commons: Using Regional Metaphor to Envision the Future," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 30- .
--Price, Jane, "Barriers to the Development of Sustainable Waste Management in New York City," Environments 27 (No. 2, 1999): 15- .
--Prieditis, Normunds, "Status Of Wetland Forests And Their Structural Richness In Latvia," Environmental Conservation 26 (No. 4, Dec 01 1999): 332- .
--Ricciardi, Anthony, Steiner, William , W.M, and Simberloff, Daniel, "Computers in Biology: Toward a Global Information System of Invasive Species," Bioscience 50 (No. 3, Mar 01 2000): 239- .
--Robinson, John and Herbert, Deborah, "Back From the Future," Alternatives 26 (No. 2, Sprg 2000): 32- . Future scenarios can help us foresee where climate change is leading and how we can choose a more sustainable path.
--Robinson, Michael, "Jaguar and Wolf Recovery in the American Southwest: Politics and Problems," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 62- .
--Rossi, Vincent, "Sacred Cosmology in the Christian Tradition," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 35- . Vincent Rossi shows how the fathers of the Christian Church still saw their Religion as a relationship between man and the cosmos.
--Roth, Stephanie, "The Cosmic Vision of Hildegard of Bingen," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 40- . The medieval German mystic Hildegard of Bingen saw nature as central to God's creation - and humanity's duty to protect it.
--Sack, R.D., "Human territoriality: its theory and history. Commentary 1: John Agnew, Commentary 2: Anssi Paasi, Author's response: R.D. Sack.," Progress In Human Geography 24 (No. 1, 2000): 91- .
--Schindler, Joerg, Zittel, Werner: "Der Pardigmawechsel vom Oel zur Sonne" (in German: Paradigm change from fossil-fuels to solar), Natur und Kultur 1 (No. 1, 2000): 48-69. In this contribution we point out and illustrate with many examples that oil production in non-OPEC countries will soon peak and steadily decrease thereafter. This will give the OPEC countries a great chance to increase prices. But even their oil production will maybe peak within the next ten years. Together with the increasing challange of climate change and the improvement of renewable energy technologies this will imply a big change of the energy supply structure with influence on the whole economy.
--Schoijet, Mauricio, "Limits to Growth and the Rise of Catastrophism," Environmental History 4 (No. 4, Oct 01 1999): 515- .
--Sellers, Christopher, "Thoreau's Body: Towards and Embodied Environmental History," Environmental History 4 (No. 4, Oct 01 1999): 486- .
--Sitter-Liver, Beat: "Tiefen-Oekologie: Kontrapunkt im aktuellen Kulturgeschehen" (in German: Deep Ecology. A Counterpoint in Today's Mainstream Culture), Natur und Kultur 1 (No. 1, 2000): 70-88. Deep ecology aims at a change of our self- consciousness, beyond technical environmentalism. We gain our self from interrelations with other beings. Therefore, the ruling exploitation of nature should give way to a moderate and fair dwelling in the world. The practical priciple of dignity of all creatures asks for a cultural change that places market and profit ideas on a subordinate level. Knowing that we cannot exist without harming and consuming other beings, we still accept the challenge of promoting life, wherever possible. Culture stands for the constructive coping with this existential tension.
--Smith, David M., "American Chestnut: Ill-fated Monarch of the Eastern Hardwood Forest," Journal Of Forestry 98 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 12- . Among the most prolific and important of eastern hardwood species at the dawn of the 20th century, the blighted American chestnut now persists mostly as understory saplings and poles.
--Smith, David M., "Moral progress in human geography: transcending the place of good fortune," Progress In Human Geography 24 (No. 1, 2000): 1- .
--Smith, Eric R.A.N. and Marquez, Marisela, "The Other Side of the NIMBY Syndrome," Society & Natural Resources 13 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 273- .
--Smith, Rob Roy, "Standing on Their Own Four Legs: The Future of Animal Welfare Litigation After Animal Legal Defense Fund, Inc. v. Glickman," Environmental Law 29 (No. 4, 1999): 989- . Government action regulating the lives of animals and determining the experience of people who view them was unchallengeable for decades. With sweeping legal and political ramifications, Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Glickman revolutionized standing doctrine to allow animal welfare plaintiffs their first access to the courts. Mr. Smith argues that this case is no aberration; rather, it represents the culmination of years of struggle to achieve standing on behalf of animals and fashions a precedent to allow just that.
--Sonneborn, Carrie, "Generating Jobs," Alternatives 26 (No. 2, Sprg 2000): 30- .Sustainable energy initiatives deliver more jobs and lower greenhouse gas emissions.
--Soule, Michael, "An Unflinching Vision: Networks of People for Networks of Wildlands," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 38- .
--Steg, Linda and Sievers, Inge, "Cultural Theory and Individual Perceptions of Environmental Risks," Environment And Behavior 32 (No. 2, 2000, Mar 01): 250- .
--Sugameli, Glenn P., "Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council: The Categorical and Other "Exceptions" to Liability for Fifth Amendment Takings of Private Property Far Outweigh the "Rule," Environmental Law 29 (No. 4, 1999): 939- . The Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that private property cannot be taken for public use without just compensation. Mr. Sugameli discusses the takings rule outlined by the Supreme Court's 1992 decision in Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council and cases that have interpreted and applied the Lucas rule and concludes that the exceptions described in Lucas outweigh the liability rule.
--Sutter, Paul, "A Retreat from Profit": Colonization, the Appalachian Trail, and the Social Roots of Benton MacKaye's Wilderness Advocacy," Environmental History 4 (No. 4, Oct 01 1999): 553- .
--Teisl, Mario F. and Roe, Brian, "Environmental Certification: Informing Consumers about Forest Products," Journal Of Forestry 98 (No. 2, Feb 01 2000): 36- . Consumer research highlights the communications issues surrounding the environmental certification and labeling of forest products.
--Thrower, Alex W. and Martinez, J. Michael, "Reconciling Anthropocentrism and Biocentrism Through Adaptive Management: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Public Risk Perception," Journal Of Environment And Development 9 (No. 1, Mar 01 2000): 68- .
--Time, Earth Day 2000. Special issue, April-May 2000, vol. 155, no. 17. How to save the Earth, and the heroes for the planet who are making it happen.
--Tyrvainen, Liisa and Miettinen, Antti, "Property Prices
and Urban Forest Amenities," Journal of Environmental Economics
And Management 39 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 205-.
Van Langevelde, F., Schotman, A., and Sparenburg, G., "Competing land use in the reserve site selection problem," Landscape Ecology 15 (No. 3, Apr 01 2000): 243- .
--Van Wensveen, Louke, Dirty Virtues: The Emergence of Ecological Virtue Ethics. Prometheus Books, 2000. Careful attempt to marry environmental ethics and virtue ethics. Van Wensveen argues that there already exists a flourishing "virtue language" among environmental writers and activists. Her book attempts to describe this discourse and clarify its logic of justification. Particularly interesting is the way such an ecological virtue ethics ("EVE") both builds on and challenges traditional notions of virtue. Separate chapters focus on Murray Bookchin and Thomas Berry, representing two very different attempts to develop an EVE. Aristotelian, Thomistic and feminist perspectives on virtue are thoroughly canvassed. Van Wensveen insists that any viable ecological virtue ethics must be non-anthropocentric: human flourishing and non-human flourishing must both be taken into account in our actions. Indeed, these cannot be separated, since flourishing ecosystems provide the physical,intellectual and spiritual resources for true human flourishing.
--Verbeek, Bernhard: "Kultur: Die Fortsetzung der Evolution mit anderen Mitteln (in German: Culture: The Continuation of Evolution with different means), Natur und Kultur 1 (No. 1, 2000):3-16. Genetic programmes generate human brains; these induce psyches which interact and produce a new type of evolutionary phenomenon: culture. It is true that the existence of culture depends on genetic programmes, which are hostile to alteration, but changes in culture neither depend strictly on new generations nor on changes in genes. A result of this is the breathtaking alteration of planet earth. The tree of those parts of culture which are the same all over the world still blossoms, but it will saw itself off its roots, if the accelerated culture continues processing in blind haste as the organismic evolution.
--Werhane, P. and L. Westra, eds. (1998). The Business of Consumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy. Boston: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.
--Wilson, Darryl, "Grandfather's Story," The Ecologist 30 (No. 1, Jan 01 2000): 12- . Darryl Wilson, a member of the indigenous Ajuma and Astuge peoples of California reveals the deep ecological message of the stories in terms of which the worldview of tribal people is formulated.
--Wilson, Jonathan R. "Evangelicals and the Environment:
A Theological Concern," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2.
1998):298-307. Evangelicals differ in their evaluations of and
responses to suggestions that we are in the midst of a world-wide
ecological crisis. Wilson uses a dialectic of creation and redemption
to provide a theological basis for discussing our differences
and correcting our concepts and practices.
--Wuerthner, George, "Selfish Genes, Local Control, and Conservation," Wild Earth 9 (No. 4, Wint 1999): 87- .
--Youngs, Robert L., ""A Right Smart Little Jolt": Loss of the Chestnut and a Way of Life," Journal of Forestry 98 (No. 2, 2000, Feb 01): 17- . The decimation of the American chestnut, versatile and diverse in its products and uses, had a profound and lasting impact on Appalachian people and communities.
--Zivin, Joshua, Hueth, Brent M., and Zilberman, David, "Managing
a Multiple-Use Resource: The Case of Feral Pig Management in California
Rangeland," Journal Of Environmental Economics and Management
39 (No. 2, Mar 01 2000): 189- .
Cats in Australia. The Australian government in June released a "Threat Abatement Plan" regarding cats and wildlife. Plans considered include a poison specific to cats, neutering domestic cats, and making it illegal to own cats in rural areas. Many pet shops will not sell cats. The image of the domestic cat as a harmless pet could not be further from the truth in Australia. Domestic and especially feral cats have caused the extinction of twelve species and threaten more. Each feral cat takes as many as 3,600 native animals or birds a year, from the size of baby koalas down to the smaller marsupials. Even domestic cats take an average of 16 mammals, eight birds, and eight reptiles per year. Australian native animals are particularly vulnerable because they evolved without any natural defenses to combat such predators, and (partly in result of reduced predation pressures) they have lower reproduction rates than mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. Efforts to re-establish the rufus hare wallaby, the numbat, golden bandicoot, burrowing bettong, mala, and bilby have all been thwarted by feral cats.
Chris Dickman, University of Sydney, School of Biological Sciences, says: "If more animals become extinct we will lose something unique that we cannot replace. We have animals here found nowhere else in the world. And endangered animals might perform important functions in the environment that we don't know about. They might play a vital part in spreading the seeds of an endangered plant or aerating the soil with their burrows. Forget these arguments for a moment though. I would say it's our moral duty to protect native wildlife. Australia would be a much poorer place without it."
Aesthetic sense of birds and humans are similar. Luis Baptista, curator of ornithology for the California Academy of Sciences, claims that "we can actually show that birds have an aesthetic sense similar to ours. If you take female great reed warblers, stick them with female hormones, put them in a soundproof box and play for them recordings of male songs some beautiful and some yuckie you will see that they solicit copulation more from the beautiful songs than the yuckie ones. That means that the females actually prefer beautiful songs, even what humans consider beautiful." Woodpeckers are "instrumentalists": They peck for bugs but also to "make music because they don't have vocal songs like song birds." They find a log that makes the correct sound and then pound on it with a specific rhythm. Hermit thrushes sing in the pentatonic scale used in Far Eastern music and the canyon wren sings in the chromatic scale. Baptista also suggests that birds sometimes sing for pleasure, if they are well fed and relaxed. Birds communicate messages with sound as well. Chickens, if shown a picture of a racoon, will make a clucking sound quite different from the sound that they make when shown a picture of a falcon, and other chickens will look around or up depending on the sound. Bird dialects, Baptista argues, are determined by what sound will carry best in the bird's home environment: Oak forest bird songs carry farther in oak forests than in coniferous forests (and vice versa for songs produced by birds that live in coniferous forests). See Claudia Dreifus, "A Conversation with Luis F. Baptista: A Birdman Ponders the Songs of Sparrows," New York Times (5/16/00).
Frankenfish. A Canadian company has genetically altered Atlantic salmon to produce a growth hormone so they grow twice as fast as normal salmon. The transgenic salmon (with genes from a chinook salmon and an ocean pout) awaits Canadian and U.S. governmental approval before it is grown and marketed commercially. Although concerns about food safety with the fish are low, it is the Food and Drug Administration that will make the decision in the U.S. Critics worry that this agency is ill-equipped to analyze the significant environmental risks associated with widespread growth and marketing of the fish. One worry is that the fast-growing salmon might escape from commercial growing pens and mate with wild fish resulting in "genetic pollution." Furthermore, because females often preferentially mate with larger males, females of wild fish populations might prefer the transgenic males. If such mating produced offspring that did not survive well, the escape of these altered salmon could lead to the extinction of wild fish populations. One possible solution is to sterilize the salmon to be grown in the net pens. Another is to require that the fish only be grown in tanks on land. Anti-biotechnology and consumer groups have affected the public's perception of the health and environmental safety of genetically-altered plants and animals. In Scotland and New Zealand, efforts to develop faster growing salmon were abandoned amid cries of "Frankenfish." The International Salmon Farmers Association, representing the vast majority of salmon farmers worldwide, has taken a strong stand against the new fish. Relatedly, Frito-Lay has decided it would no longer buy biotech corn (a possible threat to monarch butterflies and organic farmers). See Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "Coping With Supersalmon," New York Times (5/1/00): A1.
Herbicide-resistant soybeans, patents, and saving seeds. Monsanto's "Roundup Ready" soybean seeds allow farmers to use greater amounts of the herbicide Roundup without damaging their soybean crop. Farmers who use the genetically-altered soybeans allegedly save on chemicals and labor because they can apply a single herbicide without harming the soy plants. One study suggests they can cut costs by 4 percent. But in the U.S. and Canada, farmers must also pay a special technology fee for each bag of seed they use and they must agree not to save seed for the following year (a longstanding practice of farmers). They must also allow Monsanto investigators to inspect their fields if they ever stop using the seed. Monsanto's informers' hot line has taken thousands of calls and Monsanto has brought charges against farmers for violating its patent rights. (One Canadian farmer brought to court by Monsanto claims the Roundup Ready plants in his field came from seed blow off passing grain trucks.) Although Monsanto claims its patents on such seeds are essential to its business, it has allowed Roundup Ready seeds to be sold in Argentina even though the country rejected its patent application. Farmers there routinely save the seed and don't have to pay the technology fee. 90 percent of that country's soy crop is now genetically-altered and U.S. farmers feel threatened by the cheaper costs of Argentinian soy producers. Brazil is trying to decide whether to allow transgenic soybeans into the country or to tap the European market for non-transgenic soybeans (European countries prohibit the use of modified seeds). Because U.S., Brazil, and Argentina together account for 80 percent of the world's soybean production and because soybean extracts are added to countless foods, Brazil's decision could have a significant affect on the availability of food free of genetically-modified material. See Anthony DePalma with Simon Romero, "Super Seeds Sweeping Major Markets, and Brazil May Be Next," New York Times (5/16/00).
Neanderthals were hunters not scavengers. New chemical tests on 28,000-year-old Neanderthal bones reveal a diet consisting almost entirely of animal protein. According to several scientists, this strongly suggests that they were accomplished hunters rather than scavengers and foragers. Neanderthals are extinct members of the genus Homo who lived in Europe and were eventually replaced by modern Homo sapiens who arrived there about 40,000 years ago. See John Noble Wilford, "Tests Suggest Neanderthals Were Hunters, Not Scavengers," New York Times (6/13/00).
Greenpeace Has Unveiled a Global Campaign Challenging Olympic
Sponsor Coca-cola, for undermining the environmental guidelines
of the Sydney 2000 Games and for its worldwide use of global warming
HFC gases. The campaign features polar bears, the icon Coca-Cola
uses to sell billions of drinks. Ironically, scientific studies
show Arctic polar bears are under threat of starvation due to
climate change. At the Olympic site, Coca-Cola will have 1700
refrigerators that run on global warming HFC gases and only 100
Greenfreeze coolers that comply with Sydney's Environmental Guidelines.
HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) are one of the most potent greenhouse
gases ever invented. On average over 20 years, one ton of HFCs
causes 3300 times more climate change destruction than one ton
of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas. In 1997 the United
Nations Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change was extended to include
HFCs. A wide range of commercially available, cost-effective
natural refrigeration systems are commercially available and can
be used instead of HFCs. Www.cokespotlight.org, done in conjunction
with the group Adbusters, provides a comprehensive campaign kit
including downloadable stickers, posters, postcards and email
images to lobby Coca-Cola directly. The Greenpeace report is
available at www.greenpeace.org.au.
Red Hot Chile Cyclists. Officials in Santiago, Chile, are struggling to deal with the city's dirty air, so severe that it rivals the notorious pollution in Mexico City and Sao Paulo. The problem, caused mainly by auto exhaust and industrial emissions, has grown along with the nation's economy, which has expanded 7 percent per year in the last decade. On bad air days, schools in the city are banned from holding physical education classes outside, hospital visits increase markedly, and drug stores do a booming business in surgical face masks. Bicyclists in Santiago have formed the "Furious Cyclists Movement," which stages monthly street invasions to urge the government to build bike paths. Chilean President Ricardo Lagos is considering the unpopular move of banning private cars from city streets when pollution levels are high. See Chris Aspin, http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=7046, 6/9/00.
Mandrills threatened by logging and commercial hunting. A type of monkey called Mandrills form huge societies sometimes numbering over 1000 individuals. These groupings are extremely cohesive and persistent and they consist almost exclusively of females and their young. Males, who are three times larger than females (three feet tall and weighing about 90 pounds versus 25 pounds for females), live alone and only interact with the group when the females are in estrus. The recent rise in the "bush meat trade" the hunting of wild animals in general and primates in particular -- is a threat to Mandrills because they travel long distances in huge numbers making them especially vulnerable to commercial hunters who use the expanding network of logging roads to penetrate once inaccessible forests. "Some conservation organizations now rank the bush meat trade as the single greatest threat to primates and other wildlife, outstripping in severity even the familiar ecovillain, habitat loss." Conservationists are trying to add "sensitivity to wildlife" to the criteria logging companies must meet to have their wood certified as sustainable, thus forcing timber companies to keep commercial hunters off their logging roads and away from threatened species. Home Depot, a chain of home-improvement stores, has announced it will buy sustainable wood "whenever possible." See a beautifully written account by Natalie Angier, "In Mandrill Society, Life Is a Girl Thing," New York Times (5/23/00).
Chance survivors, not orderly succession, the key to recovery on Mt. Saint Helens. Biologists studying the return of life to the slopes of Mt. Saint Helens 20 years after it erupted say that rather than a predictable parade of pioneering species coming in from the edges and altering the environment for the arrival of mid and then late successional species, chance events, including the lucky survival of "biological legacies," is what is shaping the new biota. For example, moles, gophers and ants survived the blast because they were hidden beneath the ground, as did some saplings and shrubs buried in the snow. Roots and bulbs of some wild flowers rode the top of the avalanche and established themselves immediately. These species are playing the crucial role in the recovery of life on Mt. Saint Helens. The findings have implications for forestry where leaving a significant number of trees and deadwood after a harvest will speed the rebirth of a new forest. See Carol Kaesuk Yoon, "As Mt. St. Helens Recovers, Old Wisdom Crumbles," New York Times, (5/16/00).
Yellowstone wolves being trained to avoid cattle. Members
of the Sheep Mountain wolf pack, one of about a dozen packs of
restored wolves in Yellowstone area, are being captured, placed
in a pen, and fitted with shock collars that will activate whenever
they get within two meters of a calf placed in the pen with them.
The pack has been killing cattle for several years and past attempts
to modify their behavior (by killing members known to have eaten
cattle) have failed. The plan is to train the wolves for several
months so they realize "that livestock aren't prey items"
and then release them back into their home territory. The hope
is that these wolves will learn to avoid livestock and will teach
their offspring to do the same. Ed Bangs, the leader of the wolf-restoration
effort in the region, thinks "the only alternative is to
shoot them all." But then a new pack would probably take
over the territory that includes both private and public grazing
land bordering the Park and they too would probably begin to prey
on cattle. See Scott McMillion, "Cattle-killing Wolf Pack
in for Shock," Bozeman Daily Chronicle (5/18/00): A1.
Yellowstone park to ban electronic wildlife-tracking gear. In order to protect radio-collared animals from wildlife photographers and tourists, Yellowstone will outlaw the possession of radio telemetry equipment by private individuals in the Park. Radio collars have been placed on wolves, grizzlies, bison, and elk for research and Park management purposes and anyone knowing the right frequencies can now track the movement of these animals. Says a Park spokeswoman, "People could follow an animal and interfere with its natural behavior . . . We also want to maintain the experience of viewing wildlife under natural conditions. It loses some of its magic when at the snap of a finger or the flip of a switch you can find exactly what you want when you want it." See AP, "Park Wants Ban on Amateur Telemetry Gear," Bozeman Daily Chronicle (6/4/00): 9.
Thanks to Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston) and Holmes Rolston III (Colorado State University) for this issue's news clips.
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