Volume 11, No. 1, Spring 2000

General Announcements

ISEE Members. Please check to see if your address label bears an asterisk. If so, it's time to renew your membership. Please send all dues and address changes to treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. See membership/renewal form at the end of the Newsletter.

ISEE Members. Don't forget to vote for Vice-President/President-Elect. See ballot at the end of the Newsletter. You must submit your ballot in the enclosed envelope and sign across the back, or your vote will not count!

"Ecological Restoration, Of What and Why." ISEE President Baird Callicott gave a well-received keynote address to the annual meeting of the Colorado chapter of the Wildlife Society of America (January 19-21). The title the conference was "Ethics, Politics, and Biology of the Reintroduction of Threatened and Endangered Species."

ISEE Nominating Committee. Alan Holland (University of Lancaster) and Ronnie Hawkins (University of Central Florida) have been elected to serve on the ISEE nominating committee. Their responsibilities include finding candidates to serve as ISEE officials and administering elections. Holland is editor of Environmental Values and is currently working on issues in biotechnology. Hawkins has degrees in philosophy and medicine; her work focuses on understanding our human place within the ecosphere and seeking environmental justice across species boundaries. The other nominating committee members are Gary Varner (Texas A&M) and committee chair Victoria Davion (University of Georgia).

Sand County Foundation Website. The Sand County Foundation carries forward the vision of Aldo Leopold. Their website is: www.sandcountyfoundation.com. P. O. Box 3037, 201 Waubesa Street, Madison, WI 53704.

Columbia River Report. On May 12, 1999, the Roman Catholic bishops of the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia released a 55-page "reflection" on the Columbia River watershed and how best to protect its resources, preparatory to release of a pastoral letter on the subject in 2000. The document, entitled The Columbia River Watershed: Realities and Possibilities, views salmon as a sign of the ecological health of the river and the "spiritual vitality" of the watershed. The full text can be obtained on the Web at: http://www.columbiariver.org/index1.html. A contact person is: John Hart, Theology, Carroll College, Helena, MT 59625.

The Trumpeter, volume 15, is an electronic journal, now on website: http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca. Bruce Morito is editor, Global and Social Analysis, Athabasca University, 1 University Drive, Athabasca, AB T9S 3A3, Canada. Phone: (780) 675-6143; fax: (780) 675-6186.

Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy, Annual Meeting, March 9-11, Indianapolis, IN. Will include a panel titled "Ecological Restoration and the Culture of Nature: A Pragmatic Perspective." Papers are: Andrew Light (SUNY/Binghamton), "Restoring the Culture of Nature," Danielle Poe (Fordham), "Human Integrity as Dependent on Natural Integrity," and Ben A. Minteer (Georgia Institute of Technology), "Intrinsic Value for Pragmatists? The Restoration Extension." Chair: Drew Christie (University of New Hampshire).

Customized Environmental Ethics Anthology, under construction. McGraw-Hill has developed an electronic database publication system, called Primis, that enables instructors to create customized anthologies for their courses. Instructors can construct their text and order a free sample copy over the Internet, using the Primis web page: http://mhhe.com/primis. The philosophy section is called "Discourses," currently with 127 readings. A further set is under construction on environmental ethics. See web page: http://mhhe.com/primis/philo. For further information also contact: Donald C. Abel, Philosophy Department, St. Norbert College, 100 Grant St., De Pere, WI 54115. E-mail: abeldc@mail.snc.edu. Phone: 920/403-3086. Fax: 403-4086.

Singer and His Critics, ed. Dale Jamieson, has been awarded Choice magazine's Outstanding Academic Title of 1999 Award. The list of these outstanding academic titles was published in the January 2000 issue. More detail on the relevant entries in animal welfare and environmental ethics in Newsletter vol. 10, no. 2, Summer, 1999.

Ethics Codes Online. The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at Illinois Institute of Technology has posted its comprehensive collections of codes of ethics online. This data base is an excellent resource for students and scholars. For information, contact Vivian Weil, Director, Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, IIT, 102 Stuart Building, Chicago, IL 60616. Phone: 312-567-3017. Email: weil@charlie.cns.iit.edu.

Russian Conservation News. Website: www.russianconservation.org This site is maintained by the Center for Russian Nature Conservation, also publishing Russian Conservation News.

Wild Duck Review will be publishing an interview with Keekok Lee about his upcoming book The Natural and the Artefactual. Look for it in the Spring issue 2000.


The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh seeks an Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies/Humanities to begin September 2000. Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Environmental Studies or in a discipline informed by the Humanities. The appointment will be in both Environmental Studies and a department in the College of Letters and Sciences. Broad training in Environmental Studies with a specialization in the value dimensions of human attitudes and behaviors toward nature and knowledge of environmental ethics is essential. College teaching experience and commitment to research are required. Willingness to participate in program development is expected. Teaching responsibilities include the collaboratively developed "Environment and Values" core course and several others listed on the web site. Opportunities exist to develop new courses. Candidates should send 1) a cover letter explaining their interdisciplinary range, experience, and vision for Environmental Studies, identifying core courses they are competent to teach and elective courses they would most like to offer; 2) a curriculum vita indicating teaching experience and a research record; 3) a writing sample; 4) official transcripts; 5) at least three letters of recommendation that refer to the candidate's interdisciplinary background in Environmental Studies. The deadline for applications is February 28, 2000. Send all materials to Dr. Bron Taylor, Environmental Studies Director, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Swart 230, Oshkosh, WI 54901. AA/EOE. More information about the program and University at:
www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/programs/environ_studies/ Additional questions may be addressed to Bron Taylor at 920-424-0644 or taylor@uwosh.edu.

University of Montana, Environmental Studies. The Environmental Studies Program at the University of Montana, Missoula, invites applications for a tenure-track assistant professor. The Program has recently initiated an undergraduate Bachelor of Arts major. The position requires a Ph.D. in environmental studies or related discipline, demonstrated ability to teach at the undergraduate and graduate levels, environmental activism, and ability to teach an introductory course in environmental science, history of the earth from an environmental perspective, and courses in environmental philosophy, environmental ethics, or social theory of the environment. Applicants must include a letter addressing the criteria, a vita, and three letters of reference, directed to the applicant's ability to fill this position. Consideration of applicants begins February 15, 2000 and continues until the position is filled. EO/AA. Contact: Tom Roy, Director, Environmental Studies, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812. E-mail: tomroy@selway.umt.edu. Website: http://www.umt.edu/hrs/recruit/vacancies/ffevst.html

Teaching the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of the Human Genome Project. A Summer Faculty Institute at Dartmouth College. This is an intensive two-week program on teaching the implications of the Human Genome Project. It will allow participants to collaborate with leading experts, examine social issues in human genetic research, and learn skills in multi-disciplinary teaching. Applications are being solicited from two-person interdisciplinary teams and individual faculty. For more information and questions on funding, contact Barbara Hillinger at: Phone: 603-646-1263. Fax: x2652. Email: barbara.hillinger@dartmouth.edu.


ISEE Group Session. If anyone is interested in giving a paper or being a commentator at the ISEE session, Eastern Division APA, in December 2000, please contact Kristin Shrader-Frechette, O'Neill Professor of Philosophy and Concurren Professor of Biological Sciences, 336 O'Shaughnessy Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (email:
Kristin.Shrader-Frechette.1@nd.edu). Please send a 10-page paper, plus abstract, plus snail mail and email addresses, plus phone and fax numbers, and a short resume. There will be one paper by a senior person in environmental ethics, and one paper by a junior person in environmental
ethics, and 2-3 commentators for each. If you would prefer to be a commentator or chair for the session, then you need not send any paper, and only a resume. Everyone is welcome.

UNESCO Encyclopedia Project--call for authors. UNESCO is sponsoring a large-scale encyclopedia that is to include articles in all areas of philosophy. An outgrowth of several United Nations earth summits, the Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems is directed at concerns
of sustainable development broadly conceived and ranging over issues of science, technology, economics, and social policy. Philosophy is being given a fundamental place in the encyclopedia for its role in the foundations of knowledge. Articles in all major areas of philosophy from epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics and values, and also the history of philosophy will be included, a few between 10-15,000 words, but most between 5-10,000 words. Authors will receive honoraria from the publisher at rates dependent on length. For further information and a list of topics to be included, please e-mail Thomas Magnell, the Honorary Theme Editor for Philosophy: tmagnell@drew.edu.

The British Society for Ethical Theory. Papers are invited for the 2001 conference, to be held 13-15 July 200l at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Papers may be on any aspect of ethical theory i.e. metaethics and normative ethics. Papers on topics in applied ethics or the history of ethics may also be considered provided they are also of wider theoretical interest. Please supply
your full name, address (electronic as well as postal if possible) and academic affiliation on a separate sheet. Papers, which should be unpublished at time of submission, should be in English, no longer than 6500 words, readable in at most 45 minutes and in a form suitable for blind review. Submissions should be received­not postmarked­by December 15 2000. Papers and accompanying particulars should be sent to: Mr Angus McKay, Department of Philosophy, University of Glasgow, GLASGOW G12 8QQ,U.K. Further particulars: a.mckay@philosophy.arts.gla.ac.uk.

New Deadlines. Deadlines have been extended for paper submissions for two upcoming conferences. "Connecting Environmental Ethics, Ecological Integrity and Health in the Millennium" will be held June 24-29, in San Jose, Costa Rica. The deadline for paper submissions has been moved from January 31 to February 29. "Thinking About the Environment: Our Debt to the Greek and Medieval Past" will be held August 17-20, in Firenze, Italy. The deadline for paper submissions has been moved from January 21 to February 29. See below and previous newsletter for further details on these conferences.

The 11th Global Warming International Conference & Expo: The Kyoto Compliance Review.
April 25-28, 2000, Cambridge, MA, USA. The GWXI Conference provides up-to-the-minute international review of progress towards Kyoto Protocol Targets by all nations in all relevant sectors, and presents the most current science and policy activities on global warming, sustainable environment and health on five continents. Request Registration Form from GWXI Registration (FAX +1-630-910-1561, gw11@globalwarming.net). For time schedule and sessions details, please see http://globalwarming.net. All registration must be completed by March 1.

Are Genes Us? May 19-21, 2000, Society for Applied Philosophy Annual Conference 2000,
Manchester, UK. Information: Stephen Burwood, phone + 44 1482 346311, e-mail: s.a.burwood@phil.hull.ac.uk.

Health and Risk II, 2nd Biannual International Conference. St Catherine's College, Oxford, 3rd-5th July 2000. A large conference bringing together a range of disciplines and practitioners, covering public health, statistical, economic, ethical, legal and political issues. Papers are welcome from economists and philosophers. Papers relevant to the decision, judgement and risk analysis themes of the journal Risk Decision and Policy, published by Cambridge University
Press, received one month prior to the conference, will be considered for publication in the journal. One copy of a final paper (not a draft) should be sent to arrive no later than a month before the conference and those selected for further consideration will be informed at the
conference. To submit a paper or poster proposal, please send a 300 word abstract and 50 biography to: P.Dolan@sheffield.ac.uk. Deadline for submission is 29 Feb 2000.

Philosophy and Geography. Beginning in January 200, the journal Philosophy and Geography moves to a new format--coming out twice a year as a journal with open submissions. The journal aims to publish the best and clearest philosophical work on the environment: human and natural, built and wild, as well as clear-headed meditations on the nature of space and place. The editor invites submissions on any topic of interest to the journal at any time. Send three copies to: Andrew Light, Department of Philosophy, SUNY Binghamton, P. O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000. Authors should aim for manuscripts of about 10,000 words.

Taking Nature Seriously: Citizens, Science, and Environment, February 25-27, 2001, University of Oregon. This conference is designed to bring together scientists, community
activists, and science studies scholars who are working on environmental issues in an effort to reveal and move beyond barriers that have inhibited interaction between scholars in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, and between academics and activists. Keynote Speakers:
Donna Haraway, Richard Lewontin, Andrew Pickering. Conference organizers are Nancy Tuana, William Rossi, and Lynne Fessenden. Suggested conference topics include but are not limited to: empirical analyses of specific environmental issues and proposed/implemented actions; environmental justice; the nature and potential of public-interest science; realism/social constructivism debates; and more.

Abstracts for proposed papers, research presentations, panels, and forums are encouraged. Please send three copies of a two-page abstract and one copy of an abbreviated curriculum vita for each participant. Prospective presenters should keep in mind a general rather than a specialist audience. Prospective presenters are welcome to submit a complete panel proposal or to advertise for panel participants on the conference Web site (send a title and a brief description of your proposed panel, along with contact information, to conference coordinator Lynne Fessenden, tns@darkwing.uoregon.edu). Proposals are due no later than May 1st, 2000. Send proposals to: Taking Nature Seriously, Environmental Studies Program, 10 Pacific Hall, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5223. Web site: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~tns. For further information call 541/346-5399, fax 541/346-5096, or e-mail: tns@darkwing.uoregon.edu.

Between Nature: Explorations in Ecology and Performance. 27-30 July 2000. Centre for the Study of Environmental Change & Department of Theatre Studies, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom "Between Nature" will be a major regional, national and international gathering for anyone concerned with ecology or performance. By bringing together these two domains the event aims to generate new understandings and modes of engagement at a time when rapid technological and cultural change is disrupting many received boundaries - between aesthetics and ethics, nature and artifice, private and public, knowledge and politics. Topics addressed may include: recasting technologies - democracy as theatre - art as social practice - staging science - landscape and embodied memory - the presentation of the ecological self.

They invite proposals for all types of presentation from academics in the social sciences, arts and humanities and natural sciences, arts practitioners and performers, political and cultural activists,
decision makers and citizens. If you would like to offer a proposal, or simply register to attend the
event, you can do so on our website - www.lancs.ac.uk/users/csec/betweennature. Deadline: February 15.

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature has secured a publisher (Continuum International) and established a web site. The editors, Bron Taylor and Jeffrey Kaplan, are actively soliciting suggestions for entries and contributors. A detailed overview of the project and templates for providing suggestions may be found on the world wide web at ReligionandNature.com/ The editors can be reached by email at:ern@religionandnature.com. Alternately, Bron Taylor may be contacted c/o the Environmental Studies Program, The University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, Oshkosh WI 54901. Phone: 920-424-0644; fax x0882.

Recognizing the Autonomy of Nature. Call for papers for an edited book. In modern times anthropogenic changes in the natural environment have become so considerable that a rethinking of our relationship to nature has become imperative. One of the questions to be explored is whether knowing nature is really possible, or whether what appears to us as nature is merely the result of our preconceptions. Other questions include whether it makes sense to think of non-human nature as autonomous, and whether, if non-human nature indeed may be properly understood as autonomous, a respect analogous to the respect required by the autonomy of human beings is called for.

Papers should be philosophically informed as well as grounded in concrete practice, and intelligible to non-specialists. Send papers as soon as possible, and up until May 31, 2000; expressions of interest accompanied by abstracts of up to 100 words should be sent as soon as possible. Papers should be no more than 5000 words long (excluding notes), submitted in duplicate, type written, double-spaced, written according to the specifications of The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed.; they should be prepared for blind refereeing with the author(s) name, institutional affiliation (if available), mailing address and e-address appearing on a separate sheet. Essays should be accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Send to Thomas Heyd, Department of Philosophy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3P4, Canada. Phone: 250 ­ 381 2239. Facsimile: 250 ­ 721 7511. E-mail: heydt@uvic.ca. Web page: http://web.uvic.ca/~heydt.

Connecting Environmental Ethics, Ecological Integrity and Health in the New Millennium. June 24-29, 2000, San Jose, Costa Rica. Call for papers. Sponsored by the Organization for Tropical Studies, the Global Integrity Project, Sarah Lawrence College, and the International Society for Environmental Ethics. With two dozen well-known scholars and activists as principal speakers, from Maurice Strong to Dale Jamieson, and many others. Other societies participating include the Society for Value Inquiry and the Society for Philosophy of Technology. Contact Laura Westra, Professor of Environmental Studies, Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Mead Way, Bronxville, NY 10708-5999. Phone 914/395-2487 or 905/303-8181. Fax 905/303-8211. E-mail: lwestra@mail.slc.edu. N.B. The deadline for submitting papers or panel proposals has been extended to February 29.

The International Association for Environmental Philosophy will present its third annual program at Pennsylvania State University, immediately following the Annual Meeting of the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy. October 7-9, 2000. IAEP offers a forum for wide-ranging philosophical discussion of nature and the human relation to the natural environment. IAEP welcomes diverse approaches to these issues, including many schools of continental philosophy, studies in the history of philosophy, and the tradition of American philosophy. Call for papers, in 20 or 40 minute formats. Deadline: January 25. Abstracts to Robert Mugerauer, School of Architecture, University of Texas, Austin 78712-1160. IAEP Website: http://www.utc.edu/~iaep/.

Natural Law and Natural Environments. Vera Lex, the journal of the Natural Law Society, is accepting submissions on the place of natural law and rights in the current conversation on environmental philosophy and ethics. Issues in environmental justice, rights of nature, the "good" of nature, the value of place, technology and nature, are appropriate but not exhaustive. Manuscripts should have no written-in alterations and should be originals. Writing should be in plain English and technical words should be defined. Deadline: May 1. Submissions to: Robert Chapman, Editor, Vera Lex, Pace University, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, 41 Park Row, Schiff Hall, Room 310, New York, NY 10038.


February 25-29, 2000. Living Waters--Streams of Faith. St. Simon's Island, Georgia. Sponsored by Presbyterians for Restoring Creation. Ecologist Sandra Steinbraber (Living Downstream: An Ecologist Looks at Cancer and the Environment), Theologian Jay B. McDaniel (Of God and Pelicans: A Theology for the Reverence of Life), Environmental Advocate: Hans Neuhauser (Georgia Land Trust Service), Belden Lane (The Solace of Fierce Landscapes: Exploring Desert and Mountain Spirituality). Contact: Janet Adair Hansen, 108 So. Ave F, Portales, NM. 505/356-5533. E-mail: revjanet@pdrpip.com.

March 2-5, 2000. Six Billion Downstream, 18th Annual Public Interest Environmental Law Conference, at the University of Oregon Law School, Eugene, OR. A famous conference, continuing. Website: http://www.pielc.uoregon.edu/ E-mail: L-A-W@law.uoregon.edu.

April 7-9, 2000. Environmental Philosophy and the Earth Sciences. Sponsored by the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas, Denton. Featured speaker: Steve Bohlen, Associate Chief Geologist for Science, U. S. Geological Survey. Contact: Center for Environmental Philosophy, P. O. Box 310980, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76202-0980. E-mail: cep@unt.edu.

May 11-12, 2000. Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare, the UFAW symposium, Zoological Society of London's Meeting Rooms, London, UK. Information: Dr Stephen Wickens, UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathmapstead, Herts AL4 8AN, UK, phone + 44 1582 831818, fax + 44 1582 831414, e-mail: wickens@ufaw.org.uk.

June 17-24, 2000. Willa Cather's Environmental Imagination, a conference at Lied Conference Center at Arbor Day Farm, Nebraska City, Nebraska. "It fortified her to reflect upon the great operations of nature, and when she thought of the law that lay behind them, she felt a sense of personal security. That night she had a new consciousness of the country, felt almost a new relation to it ... under the long shaggy ridges, she felt the future stirring." -- O Pioneers! Contact Susan Rosowski, Department of English, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0333. Phone: 402/472-8777. www.unl.edu/cather_seminar.

September 21-24, 2000. Fifth World Congress of Bioethics: Ethics, Law and Policy. Imperial College, London, UK. Information: Anne Lavender, Centre for Ethics in Medicine, 73 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BH, UK, e-mail: anne.lavender@bristol.ac.uk, web-site:

October 26-28, 2000. Sustainable Regional Development: The Role of the University in a Globalizing Economy. Conference at Lowell, Massachusetts. The Committee on Industrial Theory and Assessment at the University of Lowell announces a call for paper abstracts. The purpose of the Conference is to create a forum for the sharing of experiences and analyses among people in both institutions of higher education engaged in regional development and regional development agencies that are linking their efforts with universities. A conference volume is planned. Further information: Judy_Blackburn@uml.edu.

Recent Articles and Books

The website bibliography will be given its annual update in February 2000, at which time all the entries from the four 1999 Newsletters will be incorporated into the database. Also, articles from the four main journals in the field, Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, Ethics and the Environment, and the Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not listed in the quarterly newsletters, but are included, with abstracts, in the annual update.

Thanks especially to Parrish W. Jones, Winber, PA, and to Greg Pritchard, Victoria, Australia, for help on the bibliography, doing the keyboarding to bring Uncover database references into usable form. Jones is teaching at the University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA, and is also a pastor in the area. Pritchard is doing his Ph.D. in environmental ethics and literature.

--Alexander, Stephanie. "Air Power." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):6- . Despite government inaction, more Canadians are turning to green energy from windmills.
--Aswani, Shankar, "Common Property Models of Sea Tenure: A Case Study from the Roviana and Vonavona Lagoons, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, " Human Ecology 27(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):417- .

--Ayensu, Edward, et al. (a couple dozen others!), "International Ecosystem Assessment," Science 286(22 October 1999):685-686. Ecosystem management on global scales. The authors argue that an international system of ecosystem modelling and monitoring, integrating the many differing factors--climate change, biodiversity loss, food supply and demand, forest loss, water availability and quality--is urgently needed. The magnitude of human impacts on ecosystems is escalating. One third of global land cover will be transformed in the next hundred years. In twenty years world demand for rice, wheat, and maize will rise by 40%. Demands for water, for wood will double over the next half century. At the turn of the millennium, we need to undertake the first global assessment of the condition and future prospects of global ecosystems.

--Azariah, Jayapaul, Azariah, Hilda, and Macer, Darryl R. J., eds., Bioethics in India. Christchurch, New Zealand: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1998. Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras (India): Bioethical Managment of Biogeoresources, 16-19 January 1997, University of Madras. ISBN 0-908897-10-3. Contains 115 papers, mostly short, on diverse bioethical topics. Biotechnology and the genome. Philosophy of life and death. Reverence for Life. Biodiversity. Medical ethics. Animal rights. Environmental ethics. Ethics of large-scale systems. Philosophy and environmental science. Costs and benefits in environmental ethics. Land ethics and ecoethical management. Excellent for an introduction to Indian concerns and perspectives in bioethics and environmental ethics. These seminars have been taking place for several years, at various location in India. A key figure is Jayapaul Azariah, who teaches zoology at the University of Madras. An e-mail contact is Darryl Macer: macer@sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp.

--Bader, Harry R. "Not So Helpless: Application of the U.S. Constitution Property Clause to Protect Federal Parklands from External Threats." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):193- .

--Baker, Beth, "Government Regulation of Wetlands Is Under Siege from All Sides" Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):869- .

--Baker, Beth. The Greening of Utilities. Bioscience 49(No.8, August 1999):612- . Biologists are making a difference at electric utilities across the United States.

--Baker, Nathan. "Water, Water, Everywhere, and at Last a Drop for Salmon? NRDC v. Houston Heralds New Prospects Under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act." Environmental Law 29(No. 3, 1999):607- . Mr. Baker discusses Natural Resources Defense Council v. Houston's potential to revolutionize federal water delivery programs in the Pacific Northwest. He concludes that this recent Ninth Circuit decision will lead to greater protection of imperiled salmon and other listed species in the Pacific Northwest, because the Bureau of Reclamation will be required to increase consultation with the fish and wildlife agencies on the effects of its various projects in the region.

--Baker, Susan and Jehlicka, Petr. "Dilemmas of Transition: The Environment, Democracy and Economic Reform in East Central Europe - An Introduction." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):1- .

--Baker, Susan and Baumbartl, Bernd. "Bulgaria: Managing the Environment in an Unstable Transition." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):183- .

--Barnhill, David Landis, ed., At Home on the Earth: Becoming Native to our Place. A Multicultural Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. $ 18.00

--Baulch, Helen, "Fish Fight, " Alternatives 25(no. 4, Fall 1999):4- . Alien salmon in Lake Huron keep anglers happy, but threaten native lake trout.

--Baulch, Helen. "Clear-cutting the Ocean Floor." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):7- . Trawling gear devastates the world's continental shelves.

--Baxter, G. S., M. Hockings, and Beeton, R. J. S. "Trends in Wildlife Management and the Appropriateness of Australian University Training." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):842- .

--Bekoff, Marc, "Social Cognition: Exchanging and Sharing Information on the Run," Erkenntnis 51(1999):113-128. This is a theme issue of Erkenntnis on "Animal Minds."

--Ben-Ari, Elia T. Better than a Thousand Words. Bioscience 49(No.8, August 1999):602- . Botanical artists blend science and aesthetics.

--Benedick, Richard E., ed., Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet, Enlarged Edition. 512 pages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

--Bengston, David N. and Fan, David P. l. "The Public Debate about Roads on the National Forests: An Analysis of the News Media, 1994-98." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):4- . The debate about forest roads as expressed in news stories reflects the changing social context in which the Forest Service must overhaul its policy. Some of the conflicting views are predictable, but the debate among recreational users is surprising.

--Berg, Scott and Cantrell, Rick, "Sustainable Forestry Initiative: Toward a Higher Standard" Journal of Forestry. 97(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):33- . The American Forest and Paper Association's Sustainable Forestry Initiative program offers building blocks to sustainable forestry in the United States and around the world.

--Berger, Antony R., Dark Nature in Classic Chinese Thought. Victoria, BC: Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria, 1999. 78 pages. ISBN 1-55058-205-4. Contact: CSRS, University of Victoria, Box 1700 Stn CSC, Victoria BC V8W 2Y2, Canada. E-mail: csrs@uvic.ca. How the founders of Daoism (Taoism) and Confucianism experienced and acknowledged natural catastrophes, river floods, channel switching, earthquakes, landslides, and sea-level rise. Many natural processes cause harm to humans and to ecosystems. Nature has two sides: nature supports life, but natural forces are not always benevolent to the well-being of either humans or ecosystems. This darker side of nature has been overlooked by environmental philosophers.
Some Chinese thinkers took the anthropocentric view that bad things in nature were the consequences of bad human actions. They saw the world as fundamentally harmonious, as long as people followed the correct rituals and codes of behavior (rather like some modern environmentalists). Other Chinese thinkers held that harm was part of nature's processes and is to be accepted as part of that pattern. On a human scale, these may cause pain and sorrow; on a cosmic scale, they are only the flow of the Dao (Tao). "There is a challenge, which in my view has not yet been fully met, to develop a way of living and thinking, naturalistic or not, that recognizes fully that nature has for all life forms both a benevolent and a harmful dimension" (p. 46). Berger is an earth scientist.

--Bevill, R.I. and Louda, S.M., "Comparisons of Related Rare and Common Species in the Study of Plant Rarity." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No.3, June 1999):493- .

--Blockstein, David E., "Integrated Science for Ecosystem Management: An Achievable Imperative." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 13, June 1999):682- .

--Boff, Leonardo, Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997. 242 pages. $ 22.00. Focuses on the Amazon, the economic and metaphysical ties that bind the fate of the rainforests with that of the indigenous peoples there. Boff is a Brazilian theologian.

--Bollig, Michael and Schulte, Anja, "Environmental Change and Pastoral Perceptions: Degradation and Indigenous Knowledge in Two African Pastoral Communities" Human Ecology 27(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):493- .

--Botchway, F. Nii, "Land Ownership and Responsibility for the Mining Environment in Ghana." Natural Resources Journal 38(No. 4, Fall, 1998):509- .

--Bradley, Nina Leopold, "Aldo Leopold: On the Path Toward Unity of Knowledge" Wild Earth 9(no. 3, Fall 1999):11- .

--Brittan, Jr., Gordon G., "The Secrets of Antelope," Erkenntnis 51(1999):59-77. Daniel Dennett claims, in Consciousness Explained: "Antelope, in their herds, have no secrets and no way of getting any. So an antelope is probably no more capable of hatching a secret plan than it is capable of counting to a hundred or enjoying the colors of a sunset." Brittan replies: "I am not at all sure what the qualification `in their herds' is supposed to entail. Otherwise, it is simply false that antelope (at least the American antelope or pronghorns) have no secrets, as I can attest on the basis of watching them very carefully over the past 25 years." A doe, for example, keeps it secret where her fawns is hidden. When he is not watching antelope, figuring out their secrets, Brittan is professor of philosophy at Montana State University. This is a theme issue of Erkenntnis on "Animal Minds."

--Caro, T.M. "Demography and Behaviour of African Mammals Subject to Exploitation. Biological Conservation 91(No. 1, 1999):91- .

--Carwald, Georgia O., "Hydroelectric Development and Road Paving in Brazil's Transamazon Area" The Journal Of Environment And Development 8(no. 4, Dec 01 1999):397- .

--Chavez, Deborah J., James A. Harding, and Tynon, Joanne F. "National Recreation Trails: A Forgotten Designation." Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):40- . Ever heard of a National Recreation Trail? The authors look at this forgotten designation and suggest ways to revitalize it.

--Chinn, Lily N. "Can the Market Be Fair and Efficient? An Environmental Justice Critique of Emissions Trading." Ecology Law Quarterly 26(No. 1, 1999):81- .

--Cho, Hong Sik. "An Overview of Korean Environmental Law." Environmental Law. 29(No. 3, 1999): 501- . Severe environmental harms have forced the Korean people to reevaluate the balance between industrialization and environmental protection in Korea. Korea has reached a point in its economic development where its people have begun to evaluate their surroundings and quality of life as affected by the environment. Hong Sik Cho recommends that other developing nations take a serious look at Korea's current challenge of balancing economic prosperity with environmental protection and that they learn from Korea's experience.

--Cho, Mildred K., Magnus, David, Caplan, Arthur L., McGee, Daniel, and the Ethics of Genomics Group, "Ethical Considerations in Synthesizing a Minimal Genome," Science 286(1999):2087-2090. Efforts to create a free-living organism with a minimal genome are underway, although the prospects of so doing are rather far off. Such an organism would have the minimal genome that allows for replication in an environment, estimated at 256 genes. The research may give insight into the origins of life and into more complex genomes, as well as have applications in genetic engineering. "The prospect of constructing minimal and new genomes does not violate any fundamental moral precepts or boundaries, but does raise questions that are essential to consider before this work advances further." "The dominant view is that, while there are reasons for caution, there is nothing in the research agenda for creating a minimal genome that is automatically prohibited by legitimate religious considerations."

--Clark, Jamie Rappaport, "The Ecosystem Approach from a Practical Point of View." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):679- .

--Cohn, Jeffrey P., "Saving the California Condor" Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):864- .

--Cole, D.C., R.E.G Upshur, and Gibson, B.L. "Detective Work." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):26- . Environmental contaminants are important contributors to ill health, but it is not easy to identify the culprits and measure their effects.

--Corbin, Greg D. "The United States Forest Service's Response to Biodiversity Science." Environmental Law 29(No. 2, 1999):377- . The National Forest Management Act and its implementing regulations require the United States Forest Service to manage the national forests' biodiversity based on a set of science-based management prescriptions. Mr. Corbin argues that while the Forest Service adopted a regulatory program designed to incorporate the new understanding of biodiversity science into the forest planning process, the agency's litigation posture and proposed regulatory changes in favor of ecosystem management ignore the science of biodiversity to preserve broad regulatory discretion and maximum on-the-ground management flexibility.

--Coward, Harold, ed., Population, Consumption, and the Environment: Religious and Secular Perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

--Coward, Harold, and Maguire, Daniel C., eds., Visions of a New Earth: Religious Perspectives on Population, Consumption, and Ecology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999. 248 pages. 13 contributors. Examples:
* Yu (Yü), Chün-fang, "Chinese Religions on Population, Consumption, and Ecology" (China)
* Olupona, Jacob K., "African Religions and the Global Issues of Population, Consumption, and Ecology" (Africa).

--Coward, Harold, ed., Traditional and Modern Approaches to the Environment on the Pacific Rim. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

--Cowlishaw, Guy. "Predicting the Pattern of Decline of African Primate Diversity: An Extinction Debt from Historical Deforestation." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1183- .

--Cox, George W., Alien Species in North America and Hawaii: Impacts on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999. 400pp. cloth $60. paper $30. Comprehensive overview of the invasive species phenomenon, examining the threats posed and the damage that has already been done to ecosystems across North America and Hawaii. Cox is emeritus professor of ecology at San Diego State University.

--Daly, Herman E. "The Lurking Inconsistency." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999): 693- .

--deLaplante, Kevin, Toward a General Philosophy of Ecology, Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario, 1998. Examines the role that ecological concepts and theories play in environmental philosophy and defends a conception of ecological science that is broad enough to address the philosophical and scientific concerns of environmental philosophers. These aims are consistent with the dominant tradition in contemporary environmental philosophy, but the argument is highly critical of the way the ecology-environmental philosophy relationship is conceived in contemporary environmental philosophy. Rather than view ecology as a conceptual and scientific resource that is relevant to environmental philosophy only insofar as it provides support for the ethical, social and political aims of environmentalism, deLaplante argues that the core problems of environmental philosophy are essentially problems for a general science and philosophy of ecology. The thesis defends the robustness of a conception of ecology that is sufficiently broad to encompass "ecological psychology", "ecological economics", and "ecological anthropology", as well as traditional ecological science.
Part One is a survey and critique of the role of ecology in environmental philosophy. Part Two develops a conceptual framework for a general philosophy of ecology based on developments in complex systems approaches in theoretical ecology and ecological psychology. Part Three explores in greater detail certain issues in the foundations of the relevant complex systems sciences. The supervisor was Kathleen Okruhlik. Kevin de Laplante is now teaching at Iowa State University, Ames.

--Depledge, Joanna. "Coming of Age at Buenos: Aires: The Climate Change Regime After Kyoto." Environment 41(No. 7, September 1999):15- . The international community's effort to forestall climate change entered a new phase of maturity at the fourth Conference of the Parties.

--Dickson, Barnabas. "The Precautionary Principle in CITES: A Critical Assessment." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 2, Spring 1999):211- .

--Dillingham, Terese, "Playing Reindeer Games: Native Alaskans and the Federal Trust Doctrine." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 26(No. 3, Spring 1999):649- . The Reindeer Industry Act of 1937 gave native Alaskans a monopoly over reindeer, helping native Alaskans to become self-sufficient. But a 1997 court decision has opened the reindeer industry to non-natives, and this threatens the U. S. federal governments obligation to the native Alaskans.

--Dimmick, Walter Wheaton, Michael J. Ghedotti, and Pennock, David S., "The Importance of Systematic Biology in Defining Units of Conservation." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):653- .
--Dragomirescu, Simina, Cristina Muica, and Turnock, David. "Environmental Action during Romania's Early Transition Years." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):162- .

--Dretske, Fred, "Machines, Plants and Animals: The Origins of Agency," Erkenntnis 51(1999):19-31. This is a theme issue of Erkenntnis on "Animal Minds."

--Dukas, Reuven, ed. Cognitive Ecology: The Evolutionary Ecology of Information Processing and Decision Making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. 420pp. cloth $95, paper $30. The intersection of cognitive psychology and behavioral ecology. Neural networks, recognition of bird song, spatial memory, and foraging decisions. Reviews of current research intended to produce a coherent view of a new field.

--Eckersley, Robyn, "The Discourse Ethic and the Problem of Representing Nature," Environmental Politics 8(no. 2, Summer 1999):24- .

--Egan, Andrew F., Kathy Waldron, and Bender, John. "Ecosystem Management in the Northeast: A Forestry Paradigm Shift?" Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):24- . A survey was conducted to determine if new forestry terms actually represent new ideas to practicing foresters, and whether these concepts shape their day-to-day forestry activity.

--Egan, Andrew F. "Forest Roads: Where Soil and Water Don't Mix." Journal of Forestry 97(No.8, August 1999):18- . A review of the forest science literature on forest road practices reveals some general concepts that foresters need to consider when planning, building, and maintaining forest access systems so as to avoid water quality problems.

--Ehrenfeld, David, "Earth Stories" Wild Earth 9(no. 3, Fall 1999):15- .

--Emerson, H arriet J. and Gillmor, Desmond A., "Rural Environment Protection Scheme of the Republic of Ireland," Land use policy 16(no. 4, Oct 01 1999):235- .

--Engel, Kirsten H. "The Dormant Commerce Clause Threat To Market-Based Environmental Regulation: The Case of Electricity Deregulation." Ecology Law Quarterly 26(no. 2, 1999):243- .

--Eriksson, Lena. "Graduate Conservation Education." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):955- .

--Ewel, John J., Dennis J. O'Dowd, and Daehler, Curtis C. "Deliberate Introductions of Species: Research Needs." Bioscience 49(No.8, August 1999):619- . Benefits can be reaped, but risks are high.

--Fagin, Adam and Jehlicka, Petr. "Sustainable Development in the Czech Republic: A Doomed Process?" Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):113- .

--Farber, Daniel A. Eco-pragmatism: Making Sensible Environmental Decisions in an Uncertain World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. 210pp. $23. Environmental policy, steering a middle course between those who advocate strict cost-benefit analysis and those who would protect the environment at any cost. Defends an emerging social consensus favoring environmental values, but at the same time, demonstrates how those values are consistent with a balanced weighing of costs and benefits, and shows how environmental policies can respond dynamically to changing needs and new information.

--Fieser, James, Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth, 1999. 512 pages. Includes sections on animal ethics: Augustine, Descartes, Kant, Regan, Machan; environmental ethics: Augustine, "Against the View that God Dwells in Plant Life"; Thoreau, "Primeval Nature"; Leopold, "The Land Ethic"; Fieser, "An Argument Against Normative Ecocentrism." Fieser is at the University of Tennessee at Martin, TN.

--Fitzsimmons, Allan K., Defending Illusions: Federal Protection of Illusions. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999. A synopsis is "The Illusion of Ecosystem Management," PERC Reports 17 (no. 5, December 1999):3-5. The main problem is that ecosystems are not real. "Ecosystems are only mental constructs, not real, discrete, or living things on the landscape. They do not breathe, emerge from wombs, or spring from seeds. They are not real, organized entities consciously seeking to perpetuate themselves against internal or external threats to their existence" (p. 4). The second problem is that, even if they were real, we have no idea of what their "health" or "integrity" might mean. There are some further problems, such as the "wooliness" of the ideas of "ecologist Bryan Norton" about ecosystem health and creativity. Fitzsimmons is a geographer and environmental analyst, president of Balanced Resource Solutions, a consulting firm in Woodbridge, Virginia (and no doubt also unreal, since consulting firms are mental constructs and do not breathe, emerge from wombs, or spring from seeds).

--Flannery, Maura C. "Education: The Conservation Aesthetic and the Microscopic Aesthetic. Bioscience 49(No.10, Oct. 1999):801- .

--Fleischner, Thomas. "Revitalizing Natural History." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):81- .

--Flores, Dan, Horizontal Yellow: Nature and History in the Near Southwest. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999. The complex relationships of humans with the natural environment in the U.S. Southwest.

--Ford, Peter, "Howl over Wolves' Return," Christian Science Monitor, November 1, 1999, pp. 12-13. While there are thousands of wolves in Italy and Spain, wolves have been extinct in France for over half a century--until 1992 when a pair was sighted in the French Alps, presumably having come from the Italian population. Many people have welcomed the idea of wolves in the French Alps, but to shepherds it is a catastrophe. Today there are about 50 wolves in the Alps and they have killed about 1,000 sheep. The best hope seems to lie in a guard dog, the pastou, the Great Pyrenean Mountain Dog.

--Garner, Robert, "Biodiversity since Rio," Environmental Politics 8(no. 2, Summer 1999):148- .

--Geist, Cathy and Galatowitsch, Susan M. "Reciprocal Model for Meeting Ecological and Human Needs in Restoration Projects." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):970- .

--Gerber, Leah R. and DeMaster, Douglas P. "A Quantitative Approach to Endangered Species Act Classification of Long-Lived Vertebrates: Application to the North Pacific Humpback Whale." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1203- .

--Gillingham, Sarah and Lee, Phyllis C., "The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania," Environmental Conservation 26(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):218- .

--Glushenkova, Helena I., "Environmental Administrative Change in Russia in the 1990s" Environmental Politics 8(no. 2, Summer 1999):157- .

--Gonick, Larry and Outwater, Alice, The Cartoon Guide to the Environment. New York: HarperCollins, 1996. Irreverent humor that at the same time educates into environmental fundamentals. Enviromental science, chemical cycles, life communities, food webs, agriculture, population growth, energy and raw materials, waste disposal, recycling, cities, pollution, deforestation, ozone depletion, and global warming. Gonick is a cartoonist; Outwater is an environmental engineer.

--Goodall, Jane, and Berman, Philip, Reason for Hope: A Spiritual Journey. Warner Books, 1999. Jane Goodall's return to religious faith, facing the realities of environmental destruction, animal abuse, and genocide, especially as she has known them in Africa. Her studies with the chimpanzees have enhanced, not ended her belief in God. She shares a spiritual epiphany during a visit to Auschwitz, and an experience before the rose window in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, hoping for spiritual power to overcome the evils in the world. She recalls bravery in the face of chimpanzee imprisonment in medical laboratories. There is a chapter on individuals, corporations, and countries that are doing the right thing. "Together we must reestablish our connections with the natural world and with the Spiritual Power that is around us. And then we can move, triumpantly, joyously, into the final stage of human evolution--spiritual evolution" (p. 267). Wendy Wasserstein, a Pulitzer prize-winning playwright, calls Goodall, "one of the ten most influential women ever."

--Gorman, Michael E., Mehalik, Matthew M., Werhane, Patricia H. Ethical And Environmental Challenges to Engineering: A Casebook in Engineering and Environmental Ethics. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000. 256 pp. The first casebook designed specifically for engineering and environmental ethics, this text features multi-faceted, real-life cases of design and managerial dilemmas in a variety of settings. Background readings that illustrate how one can integrate ethical and environmental challenges into engineering decisions are incorporated throughout. It includes various cases that can be adapted to a variety of classroom settings, including cases on engineering design, environmental ethics, cultural diversity, management, engineering dilemmas. It presents real-life events showing engineering students certain situations they will encounter on the job.

--Gorte, Ross W. "Multiple Use in the National Forests: Rise and Fall or Evolution?" Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):19- . Is multiple use dead? Or has it simply morphed into ecosystem management? A look at the management history of the national forests provides some clues.

--Gottlieb, Roger S., A Spirituality of Resistance: Finding a Peaceful Heart and Protecting the Earth. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1999. 195 pages. $ 25.00. Chapter 4: "A Sleepless Ethicist and Some of His Acquaintances, Including the Monoculturalist, the Poetic Naturalist, and the Very Famous Biologist." Chapter 5. "Finding a Peaceful Heart and Protecting the Earth. "What can we hope for? In his own lifetime the Ethicist has seen a worldwide movement improve the condition of women throughout the world. He knows that his individual actions are a minuscule part of a similarly vast effort to reorient society toward environmental sanity. He hopes that as this effort unfolds it will lead us to be more unassuming both in our self-assessment as a species and our desires for a `better life'--even though achieving this self-assessment might require a difficult and contentious social transformation. We may learn that a truly `higher standard of living' cannot be achieved until we curtail our current environmental aggression, and that no amount of toys will cure our loneliness for both natural and human community. We might learn that false expertise should not be trusted, and that a monocultured earth is very lonely; and that to love either people or the earth we need to love both" (pp. 134-135). Gottlieb is in philosophy at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA.

--Guruswamy, Lakshman D. "The Convention on Biological Diversity: Exposing the Flawed Foundations." Environmental Conservation 26(No. 2, June 1999):79- .

--Hackel, Jeffrey D. "Community Conservation and the Future of Africa's Wildlife." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):726- .

--Haenn, Nora, "The Power of Environmental Knowledge: Ethnoecology and Environmental Conflicts in Mexican Conservation," Human Ecology 27(no. 3, Sept 01 1999):477- .

--Harrinton, Winston, Richard D. Morgentern, and Nelson, Peter. "Predicting the Costs of Environmental Regulations." Environment 41(No. 7, September 1999):10- . Comparison of the estimates made before and after a regulation has been implemented help to quell the controversy over whether regulators routinely overestimate or underestimate costs.

--Hermy, M., O. Honnay, and Lawesson, J.E. "An Ecological Comparison between Ancient and Other Forest Plant Species of Europe, and the Implications for Forest Conservation." Biological Conservation 91(No. 1, 1999):9- .

--Hertsgaard, Mark, Earth Odyssey: Around the World in Search of our Environmental Future. Shelter Island, NY: Broadway Books. London: Abacus, 1999.

--Hessel, Dieter T., and Reuther, Rosemary Radford, eds., Christianity and Ecology: Seeing the Well-Being of Earth and Humans. Religions of the World and Ecology 3. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

--Hill, Brennan R., Christian Faith and the Environment: Making Vital Connections. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999. How twentieth century theologians such as Karl Rahner, Bernard Lonergan, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin have connected Christian faith, nature, and the creation. Examines sacrimental rites, Catholic church documents, and feminist theological insights on ecology. A Christian environmental spirituality, the ethical challenges posed by our new awareness of the environment.

--Hirsh, Richard F. and Serchuk, Adam H. "Power Switch: Will the Restructured Electric Utility System Help the Environment." Environment 41(No. 7, September 1999):4- . Under the right circumstances, the deregulation of electricity generation and transmission can lead to improvements in the environment.

--Hoare, Richard E. and Du Toit, Johan T., "Coexistence Between People and Elephants in African Savannas." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(no. 3, June 1999):633- .

--Holdsworth, Andrew, John Talberth, and Bird, Bryan. "State of the Ecosystem Reports: A Tool for Wildlands Advocacy." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):64- .

--Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. 280 pages. $ 29. The Earth's human population is expected to pass eight billion by the year 2025, while rapid growth in the global economy will spur ever increasing demands for natural resources. The world will consequently face growing scarcities of such vital renewable resources as cropland, fresh water, and forests. These environmental scarcities will have profound social consequences--contributing to insurrections, ethnic clashes, urban unrest, and other forms of civil violence, especially in the developing world. A sobering analysis. Homer-Dixon is in political science at the University of Toronto.

--Hovden, Eivind, "As if Nature Doesn't Matter: Ecology, Regime Theory and International Relations," Environmental Politics 8(no. 2, Summer 1999):50- .

--Hrdy, Sara Blaffer, Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection. New York: Pantheon, 1999. Babies are naturally selected to be adorable, and every trait--plumpness, cuteness--that increases adorability increases the infant's chances of survival, inducing the mother to give up bodily resources, subordinating her own aspirations to the interest of the infant. Mothers have a head start in this seduction by the infant, but fathers come soon after. Hrdy, known for her work on primate behavior, taught anthropology at the University of California, Davis.

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published by the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 4, December 1999. Special Topic: Greening Higher Education (continued). Contains (all in Chinese):
* Wang Dazhong, "Carrying Out the "Green University" Project and Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century"
* Hu Xianzhang & Wang Fengnian, "Environmental Education for Sustainable Development"
Zhou Shaoqi, "Emphasizing the Ecological Conscience in Greening Higher Education"
* Xu Qixian & Li Yin, "Ethical Considerations in Developing Scenic Sites for Tourism"
* Tang Kuiyu & Fu Qianqian, "Dietary Life-Styles and Ecological Ethics"
* Hong Rongxi, "Humanization of Science and Technology and the Establishment of Environmental Ethics"
* Li Changsheng, Han Jing & Ding Xi, "Trends in Ecological Economics in the 21st Century"
* Center for the Study of Environment and Society Investigation Team, "The General Report from an Investigation Tour to the Halahai Wetland"
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Lake Solitude: The Individual in Wildness" (translated by Liu Er)

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published by the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 3, September 1999. Special Topic: Greening Higher Education). Contains (all in Chinese):
* Preparatory Committee of the Chinese Society for Green Higher Education, "Comments on the `International Conference on Greening Higher Education,'" (1)
* A Summary of the "International Conference on Greening Higher Education"
* The Great Wall Declaration--An Agenda for the "Greening Higher Education
in China" Project
* Wu Minsheng, "Green Education at Qinghua University"
* Yang Tao, "Turn Engineering Universities `Green'"
* Jin Chaohui, "Make Green Education an Important Part of the College Experience"
* Jia Jinping & Wu Dan, "From Environmental Protection to Sustainable Development"
* Chen Jun & Bai Jie-hong, "Strengthen Green Education and Train High Quality Talents"
* Ma Guangyi, "Environmental Education: The Groundwork for Environmental Protection"
* Zhang Cong, "Envisioning the Greening of Agricultural Colleges and Universities"
* Ma Huidi & Cheng Sumei, "Free Time and Freedom"
* Turner, Frederick, "The Invented Landscape," (trans. by Xie Baojun)

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published by the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 2, June 1999. Contains (all in Chinese):
* Yang Tongjin, "Anthropocentrism and Non-anthropocentrism: Differences, Consensus, and a Synthesis"
* Liu Er, "The Theoretical Difficulties of Non-anthropocentric Ecological Ethics and Some Possible Solutions"
* Zhang Yunfei, "Ecologically Sound Directions for Technological Revolution"
* Ju Xi, "Some Reflections on Rolston's Axiology." Ju Xi is an independent Taoist scholar, a hermit, Luishihe, Fusong county, Jilin Province, China.
* Zhang Baiyan & Wang Youren, "The Theoretical Foundations of Policies and Laws for Forest Tourism"
* Yi Baoli, "Sadness and Joy for Halahai: A Report from the Songhua-Nen River Plain"
* Guo Zhenwei & Gou Chunlei, "Experts Call for the Establishment of a Nature Reserve at the Halahai Wetland"
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Environmental Protection and an Equitable International Order: Ethics after the Earth Summit" (trans. by Li Shili)
* Melle, Ullrich, "How Deep Is Deep Enough?: Ecological Modernization or Farewell to the World-City? (Part 2)" (trans. by Huang Yingna).

--Huanjing yu Shehui (Environment and Society), published by the Chinese Society for Environmental Ethics: Volume 2, no. 1, February, 1999. Contains (all in Chinese):
* Ye Ping, "A History of Environmental Theories"
* Yu Mouchang, "Environmental Morality in the Relation between Man and Nature"
* Dai Maotang, "The Blending of Idealism and Illusion: A Critique of Western Ecological Ethics"
* Liu Guocheng, "Ecological Ethical Views in Ancient China (Part 2)"
* Zhang Baiyan & Zhang Pengcheng, "U.S. Legislation in Forestry and Tourism: History and the Current Situation"
* Piao Xiwan & Wang Zhiguo, "On Policy Options of Heilongjiang Province in Developing Green Food Industry"
* Zhang Ye & Yi Baoli, "A Jewel of the City that Urgently Needs Our Protection: A Report on Northeast Forestry University's Forest for Experimental Use in the City of Harbin
* Melle, Ullrich, "How Deep Is Deep Enough?: Ecological Modernization or Farewell to the World-City? (Part 1)", (trans. by Huang Yingna)
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Are Values in Nature Subjective or Objective? (Part 2), (trans. by Ye Ping & Liu Er).

--Hume, Bill. "Big River, Big Issues." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):17- . The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo.

--Humphreys, David. "The Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):214- .

--Iannone, A. Pablo, Philosophical Ecologies: Essays in Philosophy, Ecology, and Human Life. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1999. 274 pages. $54.95 cloth. Contemporary social fragmentation, applying an ecological model to a wide range of philosophical problems.

--Ingalsbee, Timothy. "Learn from the Burn: Research Natural Areas for Habitat and Science." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):57- .

--James, Frances C., "Lessons Learned from a Study of Habitat Conservation Planning," Bioscience 49(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):871- .

--Jancar-Webster, Barbara. "Environmental Movement and Social Change in the Transition Countries." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):69- .

--Johnson, Elena. "Poor Environment, Poor Health." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):17-.

--Johnson, Todd R., "Community-Based Forest Management in the Philippines," Journal of Forestry. 97(no. 11, Nov 01 1999):26- . An initiative toward sustainable forest management in the Philippines shows some promise despite the dire condition of the islands' forest resource, primarily because the local residents are defining their own criteria and indicators.

--Kafin, Robert J., "Can You Canoe a Canoe? New York Rules on Navigability." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 6(No. 4, Spring, 1999):53- .

--Kaiser, Jocelyn, "Booby-Trapped Letters Sent to 87 Researchers," Science 286(5 November 1999):1059. Letters with razor blades, and a note: "You have until August 2000 to release all of your primate captives and get out of the vivisection industry," have been sent to 87 researchers in the U.S. The responsible group seems to be one called "The Justice Department," originating in the U.K.

--Kammen, David M., and Hassenzahl, Should We Risk It? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. $ 40. An attempt to organize and evaluate previously disparate theories and methodologies connected with risk analysis for health, environmental, and technological problems. Kammen is in energy and society at the University of California, Berkeley. Hassenzahl is in science, technology, and society at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University.

--Karliner, Joshua. "Co-opting the UN." The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):318- . The UNDP's new "GSDF" programme links the UN with some of the world's worst corporations, with the aim of "bringing 2 million more people to the market" early next century.

--Kerasote, Ted, "The Untouchable Wild," Audubon 101 (no. 5, Sept./Oct. 1999):82-86. Are today's eco-trips really better for Africa's habitat than the shooting parties of Hemingway's era? Hemingway had to shoot a lion and eat part of it raw; but that macho hunter era is gone. Kenya has banned hunting entirely since 1977. Other countries seek to combine hunting and ecotourism, hoping that both will contribute to sustainable development, typically where the annual per capita income is $ 500. Kerasote concedes that no good studies exist, but speculates that ecotourists in their fancy lodges may be more demanding on the environment than a few hunters in a temporary tent. He also thinks that neither hunters nor ecotourists get very close to the real wild. Kerasote, who lives in Wyoming, is the author of Bloodties: Nature, Culture, and the Hunt.

--Keulartz, Jozef, The Struggle for Nature: A Critique of Environmental Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1999. 208 pages. $ 23. Deep ecology, social and political ecology, ecofeminism and eco-anarchism, criticizing the dependence on science of these philosophies and the social problems they engender. Keulartz argues for a post-naturalistic turn in environmental philosophy.

--Khanbivardi, Reza M., "How Innovative, Cost-Effective Technologies Can Help Protect the World's Supply of Fresh Drinking Water." Journal of Environmental Law & Practice 6(No. 4, Spring, 1999):57- .

--Kheel, Marti, "License to Kill: An Ecofeminist Critique of Hunters' Discourse," pages 101-104 in Adams, Carol J., and Donovan, Josephine, eds., Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explanations.

--Kittredge Jr., David B., Mark G. Rickenbach,and Broderick, Stephen H. "Regulation and Stumpage Prices: A Tale of Two States." Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):12- . Contrary to conventional wisdom, a study finds that Massachusetts regulations do not seem to adversely affect stumpage prices and landowner profit from the sale of timber.

--Kjellberg, Seppo, Urban Ecotheology. Utrecht, Netherlands: International Books, 2000. The need for an ecological city. Ecotheology in an urban context. The Tampere, Finland, case. Nature as part of the urban environment. Kjelberg is senior lecturer at the Abo Akademi University in Turku, Finland.

--Kloor, Keith, "A Surprising Tale of Life in the City," Science 286(22 October, 1999):663. Ecologists are finding webs of life in the city more intricate than suspected. The U.S. National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research program, mostly studying wild sites, added two urban sites for comparison, Phoenix and Baltimore, and discovered more biodiversity in the nooks and crannies, the lawns, waste lots, and parks of the cities than anticipated: 75 species of bees, 200 species of birds, and hundreds of species of insects in Phoenix, along with 2.8 million people. But the larger wildlife, such as bighorn sheep, were absent. Also 95% of plant species and one in four kinds of birds were introduced exotics. Still, says John Wiens, the bottom line is that "cities are not the kind of sterile wastelands that some people think."

--Knopman, Debra S., Susman, Megan M. and Landy, Marc K., "Civic Environmentalism: Tackling Tough Land-Use Problems With Innovative Governance," Environment 41(no. 10, Dec 01 1999):24- . Citizen leaders who want to mobilize their deep concerns for a local place can make a significance difference in improving their environment.

--Koggel, Christine M., ed., Moral Issues in Global Perspective. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1999. 812 pages. $ 30.00 paper. Chapter 24 is "Animals and the Environment." Singer, "Animal Liberation"; Callicott, "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair"; Shrader-Frechette, "Environmental Ethics"; Guha, "Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique"; Patterson, "Maori Environmental Values."

--Kohák, Erazim, The Green Halo: A Bird's Eye View of Ecological Ethics. Chicago: Open Court, 2000. Czech environmental ethics! -- now for everyone. Perhaps the most remarkable of the several introductions to environmental ethics in a growing literature--remarkable both for the unusual career of its author and the multi-dimensional nature of the work. First published in Czech. Kohák fled Czechoslovakia with the coming of the Soviet regime, had a distinguished career at Boston University, living in a one-room rural home, without electricity, then returned to his native country after the Soviet collapse, and is on the Philosophical Faculty of Charles University in Prague. This was originally written as an introduction for his students there.
Kohák's life in multiple worlds gives him resources lacking to other environmental philosophers. He knows the naturalists as well as the philosophers. He knows American philosophy with as much facility as European philosophy. In Europe he knows not only British and Western European sources, analytic and continental philosophy; he draws readily from scholars and original sources in Central and Eastern Europe, both those challenging as well as those within the former Soviet ideology.
Kohák joins conviction and strategy, although he refrains from prescribing straight forth what we ought to do. He claims only to describe ideas, challenges, problems, opportunities, and invites readers to think for themselves. Readers who accept this invitation will find that conviction and action are inescapable. "`Ecology'--the conscious search for long-term sustainable modes of cohabitation of humankind and the Earth--is no longer the hobby of nature lovers. It is the task of humankind and the meaning of our being" (p. 163).

--Kolk, Ans and van der Weij, Ewout. "Financing Environmental Policy in East Central Europe." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):53- .

--Kolstad, Charles D. and Guzman, Rolando M. "Information and the Divergence between Willingness to Accept and Willingness to Pay." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 38(No. 1, July 1999):66- .

--Krueger, Jonathan, "What's to Become of Trade in Hazardous Wastes?: The Basel Convention One Decade Later," Environment 41(no. 9, Nov 01 1999):10- . A controversial ban on the export of hazardous wastes to developing countries highlights the need for more environmentally sound management of such wastes and less hazardous waste generation overall.

--Laitos, Jan G. and Carr, Thomas A. "The Transformation on Public Lands." Ecology Law Quarterly 26(no. 2, 1999):140- .

--Lakoff, George, and Johnson, Mark, Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

--Landweber, Laura, and Dobson, Andrew P., eds., Genetics and the Extinction of Species: DNA and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. 192 pages. $ 20, paper. Contributors analyze why the burgeoning field of conservation biology must rely on the insights of population geneticists. New insights into how populations have evolved in response to past selection pressures provides a broad new understanding of the genetic structure of natural populations. Ways to measure biodiversity. Benefits and drawbacks of captive breeding. The editors are in biology at Princeton University.

--Lear, Linda, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. 1997. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997. 634 pp. $17.95, paper. $35.00, cloth. The first comprehensive biography of the great naturalist. Two themes recur repeatedly: (1) the hurdles she had to overcome as a woman in the masculine worlds of science, government and the professions. Carson pursued and ultimately abandoned work towards a Ph.D. in biology. (2) Her tenacity as a writer, culminating in Carson's struggle to write Silent Spring, and the political firestorm the book ignited. Despicable attempts by chemical and agribusiness interests to slander Carson and discredit her work. She pressed her cause in the face of family tragedy and failing health, one of the heroic stories in conservation history. See also:

--Carson, Rachel, Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson. Beacon Press, Boston, 1998. 267 pp. $ 24.00.

--Lekan, Thomas, "Regionalism and the Politics of Landscape Preservation in the Third Reich," Environmental History 4(no. 3, July 01 1999):384- .

--Leopold, Aldo, For the Health of the Land: Previously Unpublished Essays and Other Writings. Edited by J. Baird Callicott and Eric T. Freyfogle. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999. Several dozen, mostly short, pieces, excerpts, some never before published, some published in obscure places. Leopold, who died fighting a grasslands fire, left his work only partially in print. Here is Leopold, a prophet recalled from mid-century, with surprising relevance for environmental ethics at the turn of the millennium.

--Leopold, Aldo. The Essential Leopold: Quotations and Commentaries. Meine, Curt D., and Knight, Richard L., eds. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.

--Levidow, Les, "Regulating BT Maize in the United States and Europe: A Scientific-Cultural Comparison," Environment 41(no. 10, Dec 01 1999):10- . Cultural factors play a large role in determining how societies regulate genetically modified crops.

--Levin Simon, Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Reading, MA: Helix (Perseus), 1999. 264 pages. $ 27 paper. A tour though the current intellectual landscape of ecology and environmental science. Six fundamental questions (Chapter 3): (1) What patterns exist in nature? (2) What are the relative roles of historical accident versus environmental determinism? Answers: Depends on temporal and spatial scale. (3) How do ecosystems assemble themselves? Often no answers are available, but the answers that are indicate trouble ahead with invasive species. (4) How Does evolution Shape these ecological assemblages? (5) What is the relation between an ecosystem's structure and how it functions? (5) Does evolution favor resilient systems? Answers require a look at self-organized criticality, edge of chaos, fractal landscapes, and more. Other chapters: Chapter 4: Patterns in Nature. Chapter 5: Ecological Assembly. Chapter 9: Where do we go from here? Complexity and the commons. We can hold on to our best human qualities only through a scientifically-informed stewardship of the biosphere. Levin teaches biology at Princeton University and is a well known ecologist. Reviewed by Robert May, "How the Biosphere is Organized," Science 286(1999):2091.

--Lewandrowski, Jan and Ingram, Kevin. "Policy Considerations for Increasing Compatibilities between Agriculture and Wildlife." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 2, Spring 1999):229- .

--Li, W., Z. Wang, and Tang, H. Designing the Core Zone in a Biosphere Reserve Based on Suitable Habitats: Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and the Red Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis). Biological Conservation 90(No. 3, 1999):167- .

--Li, W., Z. Wang, and Tang, H. "Designing the Buffer Zone of a Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Yancheng Biosphere Reserve China. Biological Conservation 90(No. 3, 1999):159- .

--Liverman, Diana M. "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Drought in Mexico." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):99- .

--Lowi, Miriam R., "Water and Conflict in the Middle East and South Asia: Are Environmental Issues and Security Issues Linked?," The Journal Of Environment And Development 8(no. 4, Dec 01 1999):376- .

­Lyons, Michael. "Political Self-Interest and U.S. Environmental Policy." Natural Resources Journal 39 (No.2, Spring 1999): 271- .

--Maddox, Gregory. "Introduction: Africa and Environmental History." Environmental History 4(No. 2, April 1999):162- .

­Magoc, Chris J. Yellowstone: The Creation and Selling of an American Landscape, 1870- 1903. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999. Paper, $20. The American myths

and late-Victorian values behind the movement both to preserve the Yellowstone wilderness and to extract its natural resources, codifying the ultimate American landscape.

­Manson, Neil A. "The Precautionary Principle, The Catastrophe Argument, and Pascal's Wager," CPTS (Center for Philosophy, Technology and Society, University of Aberdeen, Scotland) Ends and Means, vol.4, no.1, Autumn 1999, pp.12-16. Argues that environmentalists should consider embracing cost-benefit analysis, and would be pleasantly surprised by how often it rules in their favor. Manson is Gifford Research Fellow at the University of Aberdeen.

­Markarian, Michael. "Tally-ho, Dude!" The Animals Agenda 19 (no.6, November 1 1999): 22-. Fox hunting isn't a British relic, it's an American reality, and Markarian tells its dirty little secrets.

­Martin, Peter and Ritchie, Helen. "Logics of Participation: Rural Environmental Governance under Neo-liberalism in Australia." Environmental Politics 8 (no.2, Summer 1999): 117­ .

McKinnel, Robert G. and DiBerardino, Marie A., "The Biology of Cloning: History and Rationale." BioScience 49 (no.11, Nov 01 1999): 875­ .

­Martinez, Eluid. "Coping with Scarcity on the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo." Natural Resources Journal 39 (No.1, Winter 1999): 134- .

Mason, Marianne D. "Saving the Chesapeake Bay, One Gazebo at a Time." Natural Resources and the Environment. 14 (No.2, Fall 1999): 134- .

McDuff, Mallory D. "Public Outreach and Conservation Scientists." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13 (No.4, August 1999): 695- .

McKibben, Bill. "Climate Change and the Unraveling of Creation. Christian Century 116 (no34, Dec. 8, 1999): 1196-1199. "In the past 30 years we have systematically and even more rapidly destroyed this planet's inventory of life . . .In the case of the struggle to save and preserve the environment­God's creation­the church's leadership is absolutely mandatory." McKibben is the author of The End of Nature and Maybe One, recently reissued by Penguin.

­McLean, Ian F.G. "The Role of Legislation in Conserving Europe's Threatened Species." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13 (No.5, Oct. 1999): 966- .

­Michael, Mark A., ed. Preserving Wildlife: An International Perspective. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1999. 275 pages. $21.95.

­Millard, Frances. "Environmental Policy in Poland." Environmental Politics 7 (no.1, Spring 1998): 145- .

­Milton, Kay. Environmentalism and Cultural Theory: Exploring the Role of Anthropology in Environmental Discourse. London: Routledge, 1996. "The position that human beings are unique in possessing culture has always seemed an absurd denial both of experience and of logic" (pp.63-64). "The myth of primitive ecological wisdom is not well founded" (p.133).

­Montesinos, Miriam. "It May Be Silly, But It's An Answer: The Need to Accept Contingent Valuation Methodology in Natural Resource Damage Assessments." Ecology Law Quarterly 26 (No.1, 1999): 48- .

­Montgomery, Claire A., Pollak, Robert A., and White, Denis. "Pricing Biodiversity." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 38 (No.1, July 1999): 1- .

­Moore, Bryan. "National Mining Association v. United States Army Corps of Engineers: The District of Columbia Circuit Drains Wetlands Protection from the Clean Water Act." Tulane Environmental Law Journal 12 (No.1, Winter 1998): 235- .

­Moore, Mary Elizabeth. Ministering with the Earth. St. Louis, MO: Chalice Press, 1998. 226 pages. Moore is fond of the metaphor, suitably pastoral and feminist, of ministering as "quilting a life in relation to God and God's creation." A collection of insightful stories, episodes, thoughts, sermonettes, pastoral ideas and opportunities. Moore is professor theology and Christian education at Claremont School of Theology.

­Muttit, Greg. "Degrees of Involvement." The Ecologist 29 (No.5, August 1999): 326- . UK universities, rather than using their expertise to find solutions to climate change, are instead acting to prop up the oil industry.

­Nabhan, Gary Paul and Holdsworth, Andrew. "State of the Sonoran Desert Biome." Wild Earth 9 (No.2, Summer 1999): 71- .

--Nash, Roderick Frazier, "Nature and Civilization: A Biocentric Solution," afterword in Jackson, William Henry and Fiedler, John, photographers, and Marston, Ed, text, Colorado 1870-2000. Englewood, CO: Westcliffe Publishers, 2000. A coffee table book with matching old and new photographs, showing environmental changes. Nash outlines "seven possible pillars that may help define a new wilderness philosophy." "Ours may be the last generation with the chance to make major course corrections in a mood of deliberation rather than desperation. Perhaps by tempering power with moral responsibility we can still be the capstone--not the cancer--of life on Earth" (p. 223).

--Native Plants Journal is a new journal, concerned with native plant conservation, restoration, reforesting, landscaping, highway corridors, and, generally, with the appreciation and understanding of native plants on landscapes. The first issue apprears Spring 2000. Contact: http://www.its.uidaho.edu/nativeplants/

--Nickler, Patrick A., "A Tragedy of the Commons in Coastal Fisheries: Contending Prescriptions for Conservation, and the Case of the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 26(No. 3, Spring 1999):549- . The Atlantic Ocean's population of bluefin tuna is under severe stress, and an international commission recommends no fishing for juvenile fish of this species for the indefinite future. But implementing this under the current management system is particularly ineffective.

--Noal, Fernando Oliveira, Reigota, Marcos, and Barcelos Valdo Hermes de Lima, compilers, Tendências da Educaçao Ambiental Brasileira (Trends in Brazilian Environmental Education). Santa Cruz do Sul (Brazil): EDUNISC, published by the University of Santa Cruz do Sul Press, 1998. In Portugese. Website contacts: info@unisc.br; www@unisc.br. Publisher's address: Avenida Indepêndencia, 2293, 96815-900 Santa Cruz do Sol - RS, Brazil. Fax: (051) 717-1855. 14 articles by different contributors, including articles on Amazonia.

--OMahony (O'Mahony), Patrick, ed., Nature, Risk and Responsibility. London: Routledge, 1999. 224 pages. $ 25.00. Ethical issues in biodiversity. Whether sufficient consensus exists or is emerging to enable biotechnology to occupy a significant role in the techno-economic,

social and cultural order. The implications of biotechnology for nature, life and social organization. O'Mahony is at University College, Cork, Ireland.

--Orr, David W. "The Not-So-Great Wilderness Debate." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):74-.

--Ostergren, David M. and Hollenhorst, Steven J., "Convergence in Protected Area Policy: A Comparison of the Russian Zapovednik and American Wilderness Systems," Society & Natural Resources 12(no. 4, 1999):293- .

--OToole (O'Toole) Jr., Laurence J. "Hungary: Political Transformation and Environmental Challenge." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):93- .

--Panalver, Eduardo M., "Acts of God or Toxic Torts? Applying Tort Principles to the Problem of Climate Change." Natural Resources Journal 38(No. 4, Fall 1998):563- .

--Parke, Rebecca and Vandermast, David. "The American Chestnut: Its Continuing Story." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):23- .

--Petersen, Shannon. "Congress and Charismatic Megafauna: A Legislative History of the Endangered Species Act." Environmental Law 29(No. 2, 1999):463- . When Congress overwhelmingly passed the Endangered Species Act in 1973, it failed to anticipate that the Act would become one of the strongest and most comprehensive of environmental laws. Instead, most in Congress believed the Act would apply modest restrictions primarily to protect charismatic megafauna representative of our national heritage, like bald eagles, bison, and grizzly bears.

--Phillips, Sarah T. "Lessons From the Dust Bowl: Dryland Agriculture and Soil Erosion in the United States and South Africa, 1900-1950." Environmental History 4(No. 2, April 1999):245- .

--Plumwood, Val, "Babe: The Tale of the Speaking Meat," Animal Issues 1(1997):1-20. "The problems in representing other species' communicative powers or subjectivities in terms of human speech are real, but they do not rule out such representation in any general way, and they pale before the difficulties of failing to represent them at all, or before the enormity of representing communicative and intentional beings as lacking all communicative and mental capacity ... (which is) a much greater inaccuracy and injustice than any anthropomorphism could be" (p. 1).

--Podoba, Juraj. "Rejecting Green Velvet: Transition, Environment and Nationalism in Slovakia." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):129- .

--Poe, Gregory L. "Maximizing the Environmental Benefits per Dollar Expended : An Economic Interpretation and Review of Agricultural Environmental Benefits and Costs." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):571- .

--Potter, Christopher S. "Terrestrial Biomass and the Effects of Deforestation on the Global Carbon Cycle." Bioscience 49(No.10, Oct. 1999):769- . Results from a model of primary production using satellite observations.

--Pratt, Vernon, with Howarth, Jane, and Brady, Emily, Environment and Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge, 2000. 275 pages. £ 14.00 An introduction to environmental ethics, concentrating on the philosophical presuppositions, and making these accessible those outside philosophy, especially to those in environmental science. Two great structures of modern Western civilization are particularly questioned: individualism and science. Chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Objective nature. Science. 3. We are all one life. Romanticism, reaction to science, ending in deep ecology. 4. The exploitation of nature and women. Ecofeminism. 5. Phenomenology and the environment (by Jane Howarth). 6. Coping with individualism. 7. Lines into the future. The biological conception of life, biocentrism. Evolutionary origins and kinship of life. 8. Ecology and communities. Leopold's land ethic. 9. The importance of being an individual. Identity issues. 10. The aesthetics of the natural environment (by Emily Brady). The authors are all in philosophy at Lancaster University, U.K.

--Pray, Leslie. "Habitat Lost: Inbreeding Depression and Extinction." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):12- .

--Prendergast, John R., Rachel M. Quinn, and Lawton, John H., "The Gaps Between Theory and Practice in Selecting Nature Reserves." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):484- .

--Pritchard, James, Preserving Natural Conditions: Science and the Perception of Nature in Yellowstone National Park. Ph.D. thesis, University of Kansas, 1996. 510 pages.

--Pyne, Stephen J., Andrews, Patricia, and Laven, Richard D., Introduction to Wildland Fire. New York: John Wiley, 1996. With sections on aboriginal fires.

--Ray, Justina C. and Ginsberg, Joshua R. "Endangered Species Legislation beyond the Borders of the United States." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):956- .

--Ricciardi, Anthony and Rasmussen, Joseph B. "Extinction Rates of North American Freshwater Fauna." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1220- .

--Robinson, John, and Bennett, Elizabeth, eds., Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Tropical forests can sustain no more than one person per square kilometer harvesting wildlife, if wildlife is to be conserved and sustainably harvested. Traditional peoples often existed in much lower numbers than that. When game was depleted traditional peoples could move on to other areas. Such patterns have now been broken, when these peoples turn to agriculture and still hunt in nearby forests, with guns, flashlights, radios, and motorized vehicles. Early success produces more children, and more hunters, who need food and want modern goods.
As food sources, rainforests are surprisingly low in productivity, compared to grasslands with their ungulates and other grazers. Grasslands produce ten times as much edible meat. Even relatively small harvests for forest wildlife can deplete the populations. Robinson is at the University of Florida. Bennett is with the Wildlife Conservation Society.

--Roblan, Aaron and Sage, Samuel H., "Steel Company v. Citizens for a Better Environment: The Evisceration of Citizen Suits Under the Veil of Article II." Tulane Environmental Law Journal 12 (No.1, Winter,1998):59- .

--Roozen, Tyler, "A Case of Need: The Struggle to Protect Bigleaf Mahogany." Natural Resources Journal 38(No. 4, Fall 1998):603- .

--Rosa, Eugene A., "The Quest to Understand Society and Nature: Looking Back, but Mostly Forward," Society & Natural Resources 12(no.4, 1999):371- .

--Ross, John, and Ross, Beth. Prairie Time: The Leopold Reserve Revisited. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

--Rowe, Garry M. "Shortage and Tension on the Upper Rio Grande: Protecting Endangered Species during Times of Drought--The Role of the Bureau of Reclamation, A Brief Overview of Relationships in the Upper Rio Grande Basin." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):141- .

--Rozzi, Ricardo, "The Reciprocal Links between Evolutionary-Ecological Sciences and Environmental Ethics," BioScience 49(1999):911-921. Darwinian evolution and its implications for ecologists and ethicists. This is an important case because (1) the social influences and historical circumstances that led Darwin to formulate his theory have been well examined. (2) Darwinian theory is a foundational basis for both ecology and environmental ethics. (3) Darwinian theory cuts both ways. It can encourage respect for the natural environment by weakening anthropocentrism. But it can also favor patterns of overconsumption and exploitation of the environment by strengthening individualism with ideas of the struggle for existence and natural selection. This paper was first presented at an International Society for Environmental Ethics session at the World Congress of Philosophy in Boston, August 1998. Rozzi is at the Institute of Ecological Research Chiloé, Chile, though currently at the Departments of Philosophy and of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs.

--Sale, Kirkpatrick. "Lessons From The Luddites." The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):314- . Kirkpatrick Sale recounts the history of the original Luddites, and explains what the modern environmental movement can learn from their stand against destructive "progress".

--Schofield, Timothy, "The Environment as an Ideological Weapon: A Proposal to Criminalize Environmental Terrorism." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 26(No. 3, Spring 1999):619- . Global ecosystems are emerging as both targets and conduits of terrorist activity. But available law is quite ineffective here. A new criminal law of ecocide would be more effective.

--Schwartz, Sandra, Chance, Graham W. "Children First." Alternatives 25(No.3, Summer 1999):20- . Environmental contaminant protection policy needs to be rewritten to reflect the needs of our most vulnerable citizens.

--Scudder, G. G. E. "Endangered Species Protection in Canada." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):963- .

--Sellars, Richard West, Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. 380 pages. The clash between traditional scenery-and-tourism management and emerging ecological concepts in the national parks. There has been "a persistent tension between national park management for aesthetic purposes and management for ecological purposes" (p. 5). Focusing on the decades after the U. S. National Park Service was established in 1916, Sellars reveals the dynamics of policy formulation and change, a Service tangled in conflicting visions, as landscape architects, foresters, wildlife biologists, and other Park Service professionals contended for dominance and shaped the attitudes and culture of the Service, and the attitudes and culture of Americans who visit the parks to see wild nature. Sellars is a historian with the U.S. National Park Service, Santa Fe, NM.
--Sharma, Subrat, Hem C. Rikhari, and Palni, Lok Man S. "Conservation of Natural Resources Through Religion: A Case Study from Central Himalaya." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):599- .

--Shea, Nancy Huffman, The Status of Ecophilosophy and the Ideology of Nature. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, 1991. Ecophilosophy is an attempt to render a new philosophy of nature, generated by the need to liberate nature from the inherently domineering disposition of humankind. Although I am sympathetic to this effort, I believe that the current ambiguity of its content (who or what is to survive) carries with it the potentiality for new forms of oppression. I argue that ecophilosophy suffers from a kind of Habermasian self-deception, taking on a vague concept of nature that deceptively appears to do the philosophical work of healing the epistemological gap between nature and humans. My reconstruction unifies this loosely-defined vision along the lines of an equivocal use of two key concepts, the domination of nature and nature itself, revealing the potentially subversive character of its implicitly universalist philosophy of nature.
Ecophilosophers, rather than distinguishing themselves, fail to improve upon Francis Bacon's suggestion that attention to nature will liberate us. Their satisfaction with ecological solutions indicates that they miss the essential ideological consequence of the modern project: the domination by some humans over others has been covered over by a self-deceptive belief in the liberating character of scientific methodology. By arguing for the emancipatory capacity of ecology, they get themselves into a Marcusian-like bind, advocating this new science while at the same time rejecting scientific rationality as a pivotal component of their notion of the domination of nature. Because of this they are forced to argue that ecology is qualitatively different, offering a new kind of rationality that contains the necessary ingredients for radically changing society.
Ecophilosophers must reconsider the epistemologically naive and ideologically negative repercussions of this position as I demonstrate with an analysis of the potentially repressive relationships that exist between fourth world cultures and the environmental community. I conclude by subjecting the Habermasian universalist framework to revision as indicated by the possibilities of a new eco-vision, emerging from the contextual episteme of a reworked ecofeminist perspective. The advisor was Robert Paul Wolff. Shea is now director of the Murie Center in Grand Teton National Park.

--Shiva, Vandana. "Now Monsanto Is After Our Water." The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):297- .

--Shrader-Frechette, Kristin and McCoy, Earl D. "Molecular Systematics, Ethics, and Biological Decision Making under Uncertainty." Conservation Biology : The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):1008- .

--Smith, J. Brian. "Western Wetlands: The Backwater of Wetlands Regulation." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 2, Spring 1999):357- .

--Smith, Mick. "Terra Nova: Nature and Culture." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):237-240. A review essay of the contents of the journal Terra Nova, edited by David Rothenberg. Terra Nova claims to be the journal to dissolve the "polarity" between nature and culture. "Terra Nova could be seen as expression of the need for a green poetics, a psycho-social alchemy, which might escape the all too narrow confines of normal academic journals. It tries to be `extra' rather than `inter' disciplinary and for that reason often seems extra-ordinary. ... Not long ago a journal like Environmental Ethics was regarded by serious (that is to say `staid') philosophers as a wacky irrelevance. Today not least due to the efforts of the editors of Environmental Ethics, environmental issues have begun to enter the philosophical mainstream and the journal's primogeniture carries with it a certain academic cachet." The mantle of the marginal has passed to Terra Nova, the only journal that can put Wordsworth together with Wittgenstein. Smith is at the University of Abertay, Dundee, Scotland.

--Smith, Patrick D., Maureen H. McDonough, and Mang, Michael T. "Ecosystem Management and Public Participation: Lessons from the Field." Journal of Forestry 97(No. 10, Oct. 1999):32- . Although ecosystem management has opened the door for greater public participation, a study of professional and public perceptions highlights remaining barriers.

--Soltis, Pamela S. and Gitzendanner, Matthew A., "Molecular Systemics and the Conservation of Rare Species." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):471- .

--Soulé, Michael E. and Terborgh, John. "Roundtable: Conserving Nature at Regional and Continental Scales--A Scientific Program for North America. Bioscience 49(No.10, Oct. 1999):809- .

--Spretnak, Charlene, The Resurgence of the Real: Body, Nature and Place in a Hypermodern World. London: Routledge, 1999. An ecological postmodern ethics, replacing the modern, mechanistic worldview with Homo economicus at its center. The ideologies of modernity have devalued "the knowing body, the creative cosmos, and the complex sense of place." The modern crisis is being challenged by an impressive network of corrective efforts.

--Stanford, Craig B., The Hunting Apes: Meat Eating and the Origins of Human Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999. 262 pages. $ 25. What made humans unique was meat, the desire for meat, the eating of meat, the hunting of meat, the sharing of meat. Being a "clever, strategic, and mindful sharer of meat is the essential recipe that led to the expansion of the human brain." From analyses of the behavior of chimps and other great apes, and existing human hunting and gathering societies, Stanford claims that meat eating has been central to human evolution. Meat provides a highly concentrated source of protein, essential for the development and health of the brain, and is craved by many primates, including humans. This craving has given meat genuine power--the power to cause males to form hunting parties and organize entire cultures around hunting. And it has given men the power to manipulate and control women in these cultures. Steven N. Austad comments in Natural History: "I justify my meat eating by tradition. As Craig Stanford's book makes abundantly clear, my ancestors have been killing and eating meat for more than five million years. What kind of egotist would it take to break a tradition like that?" (Perhaps Austad continues to dominate his women too!) Although Stanford portrays "the roots of human behavior as manipulation and cunning that arise from the use of meat by our ancestors," he, at least, concludes that we are not biologically driven to do any of these things and that we are not innately aggressive demons. Stanford is in anthropology at the University of Southern California.

--Steins, Nathalie A. and Edwards, Victoria M. "Collective Action in Common-Pool Resource Management: The Contribution of a Social Constructivist Perspective to Existing Theory." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):539- .

--Stepien, Kathy Ann, Does an Ecological Self Need an Environmental Ethics? An Analysis and Critique of Warwick Fox's Deep Ecology. M.A. thesis, Colorado State University, Fall 1999. Warwick Fox's interpretation of the deep ecological position takes Self-realization as the fundamental norm, a self essentially interconnected with all other entities, and contrasted with a tripartite conception of the self in traditional accounts. Fox rejects the need for environmental ethics, as a result of his expanded sense of self. The self's behavior is internally motivated, not externally regulated. But this is a mistake; rather a deep ecological ethics is in fact needed, offering much-needed moral reasoning to the expanded self, making difficult decisions in the real world. Rejected environmental ethics is reaffirmed, enabling the moral development of the expanded self, seeking to care in a complex world. The advisor was Holmes Rolston. Stepien, who is also a physical therapist, now lives in Alaska in a cabin outside Juneau (where she drinks the water that runs off her roof into a cistern) and assists in some teaching at the University of Alaska--Southeast in Juneau.

--Stewart Wayne, Metaphysics by Default. A website book publication. Juxtaposes metaphysicians and naturalists, often thought to be at odds with one another, to create a dialogue between them, and even a peaceful co-existence. Nineteen chapters. Website address: http://mbdefault.org/

--Stivers, Robert L., "Integrity: One Way of Understanding God's Presence in All Creation," Earth Letter, January 2000, pp. 4-6. Published by Earth Ministry, 1305 NE 47th St., Seattle, WA 98105. Website: www.earthministry.org "At first glance, it does not seem to make much sense to speak of the integrity of nature. ... Plants and animals react instinctively and possess only rudimentary intentionality. With no substantial freedom, they do not sin. There is no justice in a wilderness. Impersonal predation is central to the evolutionary process and a precondition of healthy ecosystems. Nature, it would seem, is without integrity. Nevertheless, we can still speak of integrity in nature. ... We can recognize as a form of integrity in nature the dynamic integration of individuals, species, and ecosystems. The integrity of nature in this sense is the intact quality of this integration. We can further recognize that the preservation of nature's integrity is now a matter of human responsibility." Stivers teaches religion at Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma.

--Stokstad, Erik, "Humane Science Finds Sharper and Kinder Tools," Science 286(5 November 1999):1068-1071. New technology is helping researchers reduce their reliance on animal experiments, while at the same time improving their results. "Humane science is better science," was a frequent conclusion at the Third World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. Use of animals in the U.K. has declined nearly 50% (from over 5 million a year in the seventies to about 2.5 million a year), although use of transgenic animals is up sharply in this decade from 50,000 to 450,000. A major feature is implantable chips. But government regulatory agencies are slow to accept these results.

--Sunderlin, William D. "Between Danger and Opportunity: Indonesia and Forests in an Era of Economic Crisis and Political Change." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):559- .

--Swift Jr., Lloyd W. and Burns, Richard G. "The Three Rs of Roads: Redesign, Reconstruction, and Restoration." Journal of Forestry 97(No.8, August 1999):40- . Old unpaved access roads located near streams and rivers often contribute sediment to the watershed. For landowners who cannot reconstruct and relocate such roads to protect water quality, low-cost mitigation alternatives are available.

--Talberth, John. "State of the Southern Rockies: San Juan-Sangre de Christo Bioregion." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):68- .

--Terborgh, John, James Estes, and Noss, Reed. "The Role of Top Carnivores in Regulating Terrestrial Ecosystems." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):42- .

--Terra Nova, vol. 2, no. 3, summer 1997 is a theme issue: Music from Nature. The many ways that music can reach and define nature. Among many contributions:
* Krause, Bernie, "What Does Western Music Have to Do with Nature?", pp. 109-114. Western music in general has very few ties to the natural world, whatever other excellences it has, and this is a shortcoming. Krause is an audio artist, does sound design for Hollywood films, and records natural soundscapes for their preservation.
* Takemitsu, Toru, "Nature and Music," pp. 4-13. Takemitsu was a contemporary Japanese composer, died 1996.

--Thorbjarnarson, John, "Crocodile Tears and Skins: International Trade, Economic Constraints, and Limits to the Sustainable Use of Crocodilians." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 3, June 1999):465- .

--Thoreau, Henry David, Wild Fruits. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000. $ 30. Previously unpublished and little known Thoreau materials, recovered and edited by Bradley Dean. Dean is with the Thoreau Institute, Lincoln, Massachusetts.

--Tobias, Michael, Fitzgerald, J. Patrick, and Rothenberg, David, eds., A Parliament of Minds: Philosophy for a New Millennium. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000. 309 pages. $ 22. Contains, among others:
* Grene, Marjorie, "The Trials and Tribulations of Philosophy and Farming"
* Rothenberg, David, "Wild Thinking: Philosophy, Ecology, and Technology"

--Turner, Andrew M., Joel C. Trexler, and Loftus, William F. "Targeting Ecosystem Features for Conservation: Standing Crops in the Florida Everglades." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):898- .

--Utton, Albert E. "Coping with Drought on an International River under Stress: The Case of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 1, Winter 1999):27- .

--VanWensveen (van Wensveen), Louke. Dirty Virtues: The Emergence of Ecological Virtue Ethics. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1997. 200 pages. $49.95. An overview of current "green" virtue language and the basic elements of a matching ecological virtue theory.

--Vaske, Jerry J. and Donnelly, Maureen P. "A Value-Attitude-Behavior Model Predicting Wildland Preservation Voting Intentions." Society & Natural Resources 12(No. 6, Sept. 1999):523- .

--Vogel, Gretchen, "FDA Report Scores Chimp Research Lab," Science 286(12 November 1999):1269-1271. The Coulston Foundation, a private chimp breeding and research facility in Alamogordo, New Mexico, has been severely criticized by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration report for violating many procedures, resulting in sloppy science, and in some cases leading to chimpanzee deaths.

--Vogt, Kristiina A., et al., Forest Certification: Roots, Issues, Challenges, and Benefits. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 1999. 384 pages. $ 90. Forest certification is widely accepted as a tool for identifying environmentally acceptable management of forests, both industrial and non-industrial. Five issues are typically missing: the scientific basis for certification standards; incorporation of social and natural system sustainability; the rationale for differing standards currently used to certify governmental, industrial, and non-industrial uses; the success of certification; the difficulty of certifying small landowners. All authors are at the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.
--Walker, Ken, and Crowley, Kate, ed., Australian Environmental Policy 2: Studies in Decline and Devolution. Sydney: UNSW PRESS University of New South Wales, 1999. 320 pp. ISBN 0 86840 673 2. Australian $ 35.00 Twelve contributors: Examples: Crowley, Kate, "Explaining Environmental Policy: Challenges, Constraints and Capacity"; Adams, G., and Hine, M., "Local Environmental Policy Making in Australia"; Dovers, S., "Institutionalizing Ecological Sustainable Development: Promises, Problems, and Prospects." Walker is an analyst of environmental policy in Australia, author of The Political Ecology of Environmental Policy: An Australian Introduction. Crowley teaches environmental policy at the University of Tasmania.

--Walker, Kenneth, The Political Ecology of Environmental Policy: An Australian Introduction. Kensington, NSW: UNSW PRESS University of New South Wales, 1994. 349 pages.

--Walker, Martin J. "The Unquiet Voice of Silent Spring." The Ecologist 29(No. 5, August 1999):322- . Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring helped give birth to the modern environmental movement. But what was her real legacy?

--Waller, Michael. "Gepolitics and the Environment in Eastern Europe." Environmental Politics 7(no.1, Spring 1998):29- .

--Walters, Kerry S., and Portmess, Lisa, eds., Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.

--Watson, Lyall, Dark Nature--A Natural History of Evil. New York: HarperCollins, 1995. A study of the dark side of nature, made in biological terms--not from the top down, but from the bottom up. The usual (top-down) accounts of evil events and behavior that are given in religion, philosophy, and ethics fail, not because they underestimate evil, but because they misunderstand its nature. Evil is commonplace and widespread, perhaps not even confined to the human species, although it is all to easy to leap to unwarranted conclusions, particularly where other species are concerned. In evolutionary history, organisms make themselves, always a creative advance into novelty, and evil is a part of this scheme of things. It is part of the ecology of life, casting its shadow on everything that we do. As we humans choose our future, we have to understand a dark side to our own nature; but just this capacity to choose makes us special, giving us the ability to select a course for nature, instead of just submitting to the course of natural selection.

--Weiss, Edith Brown and Jacobson, Harold K. "Getting Countries to Comply with International Agreements." Environment 41(No. 6, July 1999):16- . A study of eight countries and five international agreements shows that compliance with environmental accords is a multilayered and volatile process.

--White, Allen L. "Sustainability and the Accountable Corporation: Society's Rising Expectations of Business." Environment 41(No. 8, Oct. 1999):30- . Thorough and consistent reporting is the key to increasing corporations' accountability in the environmental, social, and economic realms.

--Whiten, A., Goodall, J., et al., "Cultures in Chimpanzees," Nature 399(1999):682-685.

--Wilkinson, Todd. "Yellowstone Grizzlies Delisting Dilemma." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):27- .

--Willers, Bill. "Ecosystems and Evolution in Light of Systems Analysis. Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):10- .
--Wilson, Patrick Impero. "Wolves, Politics, and the Nez Perce: Wolf Recovery in Central Idaho and the Role of Native Tribes." Natural Resources Journal 39(No. 3, Summer 1999):543- .

--Woinarski, J. C. Z. and Fisher, Alaric. "The Australian Endangered Species Protection Act 1992." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society of Conservation Biology 13(No. 5, Oct. 1999):959- .

--Wood, Paul M., Biodiversity and Democracy: Rethinking Society and Nature. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1999. The negative, potentially catastrophic, consequences of biodiversity loss are largely irreversible and the greatest loss will be suffered by future generations. The issue is one of intergenerational justice. Democracies are designed to implement the wishes of the current population. Wood examines a number of contemporary theories of justice and concludes that biodiversity conservation is a legitimate constraint on current collective preference. Biodiversity should be preserved, even if it is not in the current public's best interested to do so. This carries strong implications for constitutional and statutory reform in liberal democracies. Wood is in Forest Resources Management at the University of British Columbia.

--Wu, JunJie and Babcock, Bruce A. "The Relative Efficiency of Voluntary vs Mandatory Environmental Regulations." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 38(No. 2, Sept. 1999):158- .

--Wuethner, George. "Wolves for Oregon: Myths and Reality." Wild Earth 9(No. 2, Summer 1999):32- .

--Yaffee, Steven L. "Three Faces of Ecosystem Management." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 13(No. 4, August 1999):713- .

--Yaukey, John, "Studies Suggest Animals Capable of Higher Thought: Recent Research Ignites Debate on Ethics, Cruelty," Gannett News Service story appearing in Gannett Newspapers, e.g. Fort Collins Coloradoan, October 4, 1999, A6. New research suggests that animals have much higher levels of cognition and social development than previously thought. But this has to be tested for by ferreting out the kinds of problem-solving tactics animals need to hunt, hide, and survive, by seeing what the animals do naturally and cognitively--rather than with the old-style tests for language or maze-running. One result is that lines blur between those animals that have intelligence and those that do not. Another result is that animal rights/welfare law is tightening up. Harvard and Georgetown law schools have announced they will teach animal rights law.

--Ye Ping, ed., Huanjing yu kechixu fazhan yanjiu (For Environment and Sustainable Development). Harbin, Heilongjiang, China: Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press, 1998. ISBN 7-5388-3508-3. Proceedings of the First National (All-China) Conference on Ecological Philosophy, Environment and Sustainable Development, held in Harbin, China, October 20-24, 1998. Contains, among others (all in Chinese):
* Yu Mouchang, "Ecological Philosophy and Sustainable Development"
* Rolston, Holmes, III, "Ziran de jiazhi yu jiazhi de benzhi (Value in Nature and the Nature of Value)", pp. 5-12, originally in Robin Attfield and Andrew Belsey, eds., Philosophy and the Environment (Cambridge University Press, 1994). Liu Er, translator.
* Yang Tongjin, "Value and Human Nature: Rolston's Methods in Environmental Ethics"
* Ye Ping, "Knowledge-Based Economy and Sustainable Development"
* Chen Minhao, "Ecological Culture and Sustainable Development"
* Liu Er, "The Ecological Conscience and Our Choice of Life-Styles"
* Zhao Xuehai, "Problems in the Sustainability of Forests and the Management of Forestry Enterprises"
* Li Xin & Xu Dejun, "On the Protection of Grasslands after the Flood" (Floods in northern China on the Neng River and the Songhua River in August 1998).

--Young, Oran R. "Hitting the Mark: Why Are Some International Environmental Agreements More Successful Than Others." Environment 41(No. 8, Oct. 1999):20- . Is it possible to increase the probability that a regime created to solve an environmental problem will hit its target?

--Yu Mouchang, Xinshiji Xinshijiao (Eco-Ethics--from Theory to Practice). Beijing: Shengtai Lunlixue, 1999. 362 pages. ISBN 7-81039-950-0. (in Chinese). The Ecological Ethic in Chinese History. Modern Western Environmental Ethics: Schweitzer, Leopold, Singer, Ran Shan Zhu Qui, Rolston. Basic Ecological Ethics on Value in the Natural World. Basic Ecological Ethics on Rights in the Natural World. Ecological Ethics for Politics. Ecological Ethics for the Environment, for Forests, for Land, for Resources, for Consumers, for Business, for Population Growth, for Science, for War and the Military. Yu Mouchang is in the Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing.

--Zhexue Yicong (Philosophy Digest of Translation), (Journal of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Beijing), 1999, Issue No. 2, contains several articles on environmental ethics, in Chinese translation:
* Rolston, Holmes, III, and Coufal, James, "A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management," Journal of Forestry 89(no. 4, 1991):35-40.
* Murdy, W. H., "Anthropocentrism: A Modern Version," Science 187(1975):1168-1172.
* Callicott, J. Baird, "Rolston on Intrinsic Value: A Deconstruction," Environmental Ethics 14(1992):129-143.


Do ranchers have private property rights to graze on public lands? Nevada rancher Wayne Hage, a symbol of western defiance of the federal government and husband to Representative Helen Chenoweth of Idaho (one of Congress' arch anti-environmentalists), is suing the federal government for revoking his permit to graze cattle on 240,000 acres of the Toiyabe National Forest. The lawsuit claims a Fifth Amendment "taking"of his state-authorized water rights. In a preliminary ruling, a count found it "a matter of common sense that implicit in a vested water right based on putting water to beneficial use for livestock purposes was the appurtenant right for those livestock to graze alongside the water." See Tom Kenworthy, "Is Property Crusader's Claim All
Wet?" Washington Post (10/6/99): A31.

Political ramifications of the definition of wilderness. About 100 million acres of the United States (4 percent) is protected as wilderness and another 100 million acres are suitable for such designation. In an attempt to prevent the expansion of designated wilderness areas, wilderness foes are driving off-road vehicles through Utah's red rock country in hopes of scarring the land with visible tracks. In Alaska, timber interests are trying to build a primitive road through the biggest wetland in North America so that the Copper River Delta would be ineligible for wilderness designation. Participants of new outdoor thrill sports such as jet skiing, paragliding, mountain biking, and helicopter skiing want to be able to pursue their sports in wilderness areas, places that generally legally prohibit mechanical vehicles, roads, commercial exploitation, or human habitation. The reporter chronicling this dispute claims that "implicit in this debate is the concept that wilderness and humans should have nothing to do with each other ­ that people have no place in wild country, except as occasional visitors." Some conservationists believe a greater tolerance for human presence in the wild could actually open up more land for protection. Death Valley National Park is considering allowing the 300-member Timbisha Shoshone tribe, which has lived in the desert for centuries, to resume traditional hunting, gathering, and cultural activities
as long as they are pursued in the old-fashioned way. See Timothy Egan, "Searching for Eden: The Definition of Wilderness Is Increasingly Elusive," NY Times (9/12/99).

Virtual Old Faithful. Live images (updated every 30 seconds) of Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park are now available on the web at http://www.nps.gov/yell/oldfaithfulcam.htm. Yellowstone Park's web coordinator isn't worried that vicarious online viewing will undermine people's desire to see the real thing and thinks it may even enhance people's visitation of the Park. See Mindy Sink, "The Same Old Old Faithful, With a Newfangled Twist," NY Times (11/18/99).

Unsafe pesticides in U.S. produce. A study by Consumers Union (publisher of Consumer Reports magazine) found that U.S. domestic produce had, in most cases, higher levels of toxic pesticides than did imported produce. Although almost all the produce tested was within legal limits, pesticide residue was frequently well above the levels that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) says are safe for young children. Peaches, winter squash, apples,
green beans, pears, spinach, and grapes had toxicity hundreds of times the levels of other foods analyzed. Foods with the lowest toxicity were apple juice, bananas, broccoli, canned peaches, milk, orange juice and canned or frozen peas and corn. See Marian Burros, "High Pesticide Levels Seen in U.S. Food," NY Times (2/19/99).

Fisheries conservation. While about 70 percent of the world's important species are being fished to their limit or beyond, 60 billion pounds worth of sea life is destroyed as bycatch each year, more than the annual catch of the entire U.S. fishing fleet. This includes 40,000 young swordfish that are thrown away by U.S. fishers each year because they are legally too small to keep. Shrimp boats which skim the bottom with huge trawl nets are notoriously inefficient, in one study throwing away 10 pounds of fish and shellfish for each pound of shrimp that goes to market. A noted marine ecologist, Elliott Norse, says, "It's like killing the pig for the squeal. We're not driving species to extinction, but we're harming our own fishing prospects." The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service is using a number tactics to respond to these problems. Shrimpers have been required to pull TEDs (turtle excluder devices) for a number of years and turtle populations have been coming back. More recently, shrimpers have had to use BRDs (bycatch reduction devices) in addition to TEDs. Some environmental and recreational fisher groups are pushing for limits on fishing with "longlines," 20 to 70 mile long metal cables with hundreds of bated hooks. They also oppose the ongoing use of drift nets which are still legally deployed in U.S. waters at lengths of up to 1 _ miles. Several summers ago, a small fleet of swordfish boats inadvertently killed 253 dolphins, 22 whales and 34 rare sea turtles in two weeks of drift-net fishing. For several years, environmental groups have sponsor a boycott of Atlantic swordfish. A new idea with broad support is to establish permanent no-fishing zones. Analogous to national parks and wilderness areas, these ocean sanctuaries allow fish populations to rebuild and preserve ecosystems in a near-natural state. Currently less than 1 percent of the sea is in such a preserve. Joby Warrick, "At Sea, the Catchword Is Conservation," Washington Post 1/7/99: A1.

American songbirds aren't in decline. Despite widespread opinion to the contrary, the best evidence is that most songbird populations have remained relatively stable across North America. Although there have been catastrophic local and regional declines, 30 years of data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey suggest that continent-wide numbers of birds have remained generally stable. With some exceptions, forest songbirds are doing well because large chunks of North American forests still provide sufficient habitat and serve as reservoirs that export birds to other areas. Grassland birds, on the other hand, are in serious decline, including a 90 percent reduction of bobolink in the Midwest. Although destruction of tropical forests is often cited as a threat to neotropical migrants, scientific opinion on the question is divided. See W.K. Stevens, "Something to Sing About: Songbirds Aren't in Decline," NY Times (6/10/97).

President Clinton designates three new National Monuments and expands a fourth, in a
ceremony--appropriately--on the rim of the Grand Canyon. All of the new/expanded monuments are designated from existing federal public lands:
* Grand Canyon-Parashant Nat'l Monument: more than 1 million acres in Arizona northwest of Grand Canyon National Park.
* Agua Fria Nat'l Monument: 71,000 acres north of Phoenix, where hundreds of archaeological sites are threatened by urban sprawl and pothunters.
* California Coastal Rocks & Islands Nat'l Monument: a string of small, uninhabited islands and rock outcroppings along the entire California Coast, providing critical habitat for marine wildlife.
* Expansion of Pinnacles National Monument: nearly 8000 acres added to the existing Monument south of San Jose, California, an area threatened by urban sprawl.

Lynx reintroduction in southwestern Colorado. Forty-one lynx were reintroduced last winter, under considerable criticism. Fifteen are known dead, eight unaccounted for, the others alive and well. Six of the fifteen starved, prompting a revised release protocol, later in the year, with more prey available. One lynx wandered as far as Nebraska, seven hundred miles, apparently generally wandering north towards Canada, where it was earlier captured. It was eating pheasants, got into a chicken coop, where the farmer might have shot it, but saw the collar and spared it. Unfortunately, it was shot in a later incident. Another lynx has wandered as far as Rocky Mountain National Park, five hundred miles away. Colorado Division of Wildlife plans to release fifty-two more this spring. For earlier comment, see ISEE Newsletter, vol. 10, no. 1, spring 1999, especially Bekoff, Marc, "Jinxed Lynx? Some Very Difficult Questions with Few Simple Answers," Boulder (Colorado) Daily Camera, January 24, 1999, though Bekoff now approves of the new protocols. See also Lloyd, Jillian, "When Saving a Species Proves To Be Hard on the Animals," Christian Science Monitor, Mar 11, '99.

The dozen most significant land protection actions of the 20th century U.S., in chronological order, according to the Wilderness Society:
(1) Creation of the first national wildlife refuge in 1903.
(2) Passage of the Antiquities Act in 1906
(3) Passage of the Weeks Act in 1911 (creating the first National Forests east of the Mississippi)
(4) Creation of the National Park Service in 1916
(5) Defeat of Echo Park Dam in 1956
(6) Passage of the Wilderness Act in 1964
(7) Passage of the Land and Water Conservation Act in 1964
(8) The first Earth Day in 1970
(9) Passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970
(10) Passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973
(11) Passage of the National Forest Management Act in 1976
(12) Passage of the Alaska Lands Act in 1980.

"A New Way of Living With Nature." December 19, 1999. NY Times Editorial on "what can loosely be called the environmental ethic": "A century that will be remembered for material and scientific progress may also be remembered for something more modest--as a moment when mankind, realizing that the earth's resources were not finite and perhaps seeking expiation for years of predatory behavior, struck a truce with nature. For the first time since the dawn of the industrial age there was, at least in the West and certainly in America, a rough armistice between the forces of economic growth and the forces of preservation. ... Having discovered that we can actually change the way nature operates, we have also discovered that with this power comes a sacred obligation to restore what we once nearly ruined."

Hopi eaglet ceremony versus wildlife conservation in national parks and monuments. Members of the Hopi tribe, native Americans in Arizona, wish to revive a ceremony that requires the killing of golden eagle chicks taken from their sacred lands, now often in national parks and monuments. They received permission from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife to take up to 40 eaglets, but have been refused by Park Service officials, on grounds of wildlife conservation. In particular, they were refused admission to Wupatki National Monument, outside Flagstaff, Arizona, for this purpose; collecting chicks from Grand Canyon National Park is another possibility. Those who engage in the ceremony apparently believe that the eaglet can travel in the spirit world to inform their Hopi ancestors of what the Hopis need in today's world. The Hopis say that they treat the eaglet with respect, caring for it for some months, before its sacrifice. The name of the ceremony, literally translated from the Hopi, is "baby eagle suffocation ceremony." The tribe has protested at various levels, including an appeal to U.S. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt. For an appreciative account of Native Americans in the Southwest, by a lawyer defending their rights (and some mention of the eagle ceremony, p. 297), see Wilkinson, Charles, Fire on the Plateau: Conflict and Endurance in the American Southwest (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999).
In another native American story, to the dismay of many anthropologists, the bones of a teen-age girl who died in Minnesota 7,900 years ago were returned to the Sioux tribe and reburied. Found in 1931, she was one of the oldest skeletons even found in North America, and anthropologists said she bore little resemblance to living native American tribes, for example 2 cm. canines, outside the modern range. A number of such skeletons have been reburied, just when new techniques for their study are becoming available, such as genetic analysis, and scientists complain that opportunities to study the presence of early native Americans on the North American landscape are being lost. Story: "Ancient Bones Returned to Sod," Science 286(1999):1285.

The Lancet scolded over transgenic food paper. Britain's most prestigious medical journal, The Lancet, published a paper by Stanley Ewen and Arpad Pusztai claiming that rats fed transgenic potatoes had abnormalities in their intestines. The authors, especially Pusztai, have also claimed that transgenic potatoes can stunt rats' growth and impair their immune systems. Critics say the paper is deeply flawed. The Lancet editors admit the paper is controversial but reply that five of six referees (twice the usual number) recommended publication, if only to get the claims evaluated. There is currently a heated debate over transgenic foods in the U. K. See Ewen, Stanley W. B., and Pusztai, Arpad, "Effects of Diets Containing Genetically Modified Potatoes Espressing Galanthus nivalis Lectin on Rat Small Intestine," The Lancet 354 (October 16, 1999):1353-1354. The authors are pathologists at the University of Aberdeen. Story: Martin Enserink, "The Lancet Scolded Over Pusztai Paper," Science 286(22 October, 1999):565.

Przewalski's horse is wild again. Przewalski's horse was common in Siberia at the end of the last Ice Age, but its numbers steadily declined, then declined even more rapidly with increased human population pressures in the 18th and 19th centuries, although the species was not known by Western scientists to be yet alive, until it was discovered by a Polish explorer Colonel Przewalski in 1878. It was extinct in the wild by the 1960's. From a handful in zoos, it has now been re-established in Mongolia, apparently a successful reintroduction. This is the world's oldest and only truly wild horse (other "wild" horses are feral), and it has never been domesticated. See Peck, Robert McCracken, "Home Again!" International Wildlife 29 (no. 5, September/October, 1999):36-41.

Dam Indecision. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers pleads for more time to decide whether to remove four dams on the Snake River to save endangered salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The Corps finds that there would be great benefits to wildlife, but heavy economic and social impacts. Critics say that ample data is already in and that the Corps is stalling. Mann, Charles C., and Plummer, Mark L., "Army Corps Siezed by Dam Indecison," Science 287 (7 January 2000):27.

Thanks to Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston), Holmes Rolston III (Colorado State University) and WildAlert! for this issue's news clips.


Regional Representatives

Africa: Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za.

Australia and New Zealand: William Grey, Department of Philosophy, University of Queensland, 4067, Queensland AUSTRALIA. Email: wgrey@cltr.uq.edu.au.

China: Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

Taiwan: Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan 40704. Email: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net. Phones: 886-4-3595622 office; 886-4-3590991 home. Fax: 886-4- 3595953.

Eastern Europe: Jan Wawrzyniak. Department of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Phone: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8430309. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl. Website: http://appliedphilosophy.mtsu.edu/ISEE/JanWaw/index.html.

Western Europe and the Mediterranean: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS. Office phone: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751. Fax: 31-24-3615564. E-mail:mdrenthen@hetnet.nl. Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html. Home address: Van't Santstraat 122, 6523 BJ Nijmegen. Home phone: +31 (country) - 24 (city) - 3238397.

Mexico and Central America: Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana- Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacan y Purissima s/n, 09340 Mexico D.F., MEXICO. Phone: (5) 637 14 24 (home), (5) 724 47 77 (office). Fax: (5) 724 47 78. Email: kwiat@xanum.uam.mx.

Canada: Laura Westra, 222 Barrhill Rd., Maple,Ont.L6A lL2, Canada. Phone:914-395-2487. E-mail: lwestra@mail.slc.

Pakistan and South Asia: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Phone: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk.

South America: Ricardo Rozzi, Institute of Ecological Research Chiloe, Chile, and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile.

United Kingdom: KeeKok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Phone and Fax: +44 (0)161 275 3196. Email: keekok.lee@man.ac.uk.

United States: Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424 USA. Phone: 843-953-5786; 843-883-9201 (home). Fax: 843-953-6388. E-mail: HettingerN@CofC.edu). Address July 1999 to August 2000: 416 W. College, Bozeman, MT 59715. Phone: 406-522-9676.

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Phone: 970-491-6315 (Office). Fax: 970-491-4900. Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu.

ISEE Newsletter Submissions

Please send any announcements, calls for papers or news items via e-mail (preferred) or fax to newsletter editor Philip Cafaro. Address: Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA. E-mail: cafaro@lamar.colostate.edu. Phone: 970/491-2061. Fax: 970/491-4900. Brief reports of research and accounts of issues of philosophical importance are also welcome. Submissions will be edited and publication cannot be guaranteed. Please continue to send bibliographic items to Holmes Rolston III, at the address above. Correspondents, especially international ones, should realize that diacritical marks do not come through on U.S. e-mail. The next deadline for newsletter submissions is April 7.


Membership/Renewal Form

Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.
Enclosed are dues: ______________________.

Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15 Regular, $10 Students; Outside U.S., $20 Regular, $15 Students. (Due to additional postage). Members outside the United States should send the equivalent of U.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates, to the ISEE Treasurer (address below). Sorry, we cannot accept credit card payments.

Name: ____________________________________________ Tel: (______)___________

Position or Affiliation:___________________________________________________________

Address (Include Postal Code):___________________________________________________



Send with payment to Dr. Max Oelschlaeger, Department of Humanities, Arts, and Religion, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5634, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5634 USA.



One position is open for election to the post of Vice-President/President-Elect of ISEE. Two individuals have been nominated for this position; members are asked to vote for ONE. Please mark your ballot, place and seal it in the enclosed envelope, print and sign your name on the outside back of the envelope, and send it to:

Dr. Victoria Davion, Philosophy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 USA

Please mark and mail ballots by March 30, 2000.

_____ Dale Jamieson _____ Laura Westra


DALE JAMIESON is Luce Professor in Human Dimensions of Global Change at Carleton College, Adjunct Scientist in the Environmental and Societal Impacts Group at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and Adjunct Professor at Sunshine Coast University College in Maroochydore, Australia. He has been a visiting professor at Cornell University and Monash University in Australia, and a visiting fellow of New College, Magdalen College, and St. Anne's College at Oxford University. Dr. Jamieson has edited or co-edited six books, most recently Singer and his Critics (Blackwell, 1999), named by Choice as one of the outstanding academic books of 1999, and Readings on Animal Cognition (MIT, 1996). He has published more than sixty articles and book chapters in such journals as Analysis, Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, Ethics, Journal of Value Inquiry, and Global Environmental Change. His research has been funded by NSF, US EPA, and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

LAURA WESTRA is the Barbara B. and Bertram J. Cohn Professor in Environmental Studies at Sarah Lawrence College. She has taught at U.S. and Canadian Universities and has been funded since 1992 by SSHRC (Canada) and NATO (1999). She has been an ethics consultant for scientific associations including the World Health Organization, and she is a co-founder of ISEE. She has organized ISEE meetings at scientific and philosophical associations for ten years (APA, AAAS, AIBS, ESA). Dr. Westra has nine published books, including An Environmental Proposal for Ethics:The Principle of Integrity (l994) and Living in Integrity (l998),and has co-edited books on environmental/scientific issues, environmental racism and environmental and business ethics. Three co-edited books are in press (Island Press, Kluwer and Rowman Littlefield,2000), and she has over 65 articles and chapters published and has been invited to speak in most European countries, Australia, Central and South America.