Volume 10, No. 3, Fall 1999
ISEE Members. Please check to see if your address label bears an asterisk. If so, its time to renew your membership! Please send all dues to treasurer Max Oelschlaeger. See membership/renewal form at the end of the Newsletter.
ISEE Sessions at the APA Central Division
meeting, Chicago, April 20-23, 2000.
Session I. "Recent Work in Environmental Ethics." Chair: Laura Westra (Sarah Lawrence).
* Steven Weiss (Georgia Southern University). "People, Wildlife, and Wilderness in India: Towards a Biocentric Synthesis?"
* Philip Cafaro (Colorado State). "Rachel Carson on Animal Welfare and Environmental Ethics."
* Mark Michael (Austin Peay State University) "What's So Wrong About Interfering with Nature?"
Session II. "Environmental Racism." Chair: Bill Lawson (Michigan Eastern University).
* Robert Melchior Figueroa (Colgate University). "Illuminating Environmental Identity: Extending the Merits of the Environmental Racism Charge."
* Tommy Shelby (Ohio State). "Racism, Class, Exploitation, and Environmental Hazards."
* John Callawaert (University of Michigan). "Rawls' Theory of Justice and Environmental Justice."
Comments: Laura Westra (Sarah Lawrence College).
ISEE Session at the APA Western Division
April 5-8, 2000.
"Environmental Virtue Ethics." Chair: Philip Cafaro (Colorado State University).
* Geoffrey Frasz (Community College of Southern Nevada). "What is Environmental Virtue Ethics
That We Should Be Mindful Of It?"
* Philip Cafaro (Colorado State University). "Towards an Environmental Virtue Ethics."
Comments: Thomas Hill, Jr. (University of North Carolina).
* Lisa Gerber (Southwest State University). "The Art of Intimacy."
* John O'Neill (University of Lancaster). "Environmental Virtue and Public Policy."
Comments: James Sterba (Notre Dame University).
The conference "Humans in Nature: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Cultural Landscapes" was held at Lancaster University, England, September 30th-October 1st, 1999. The conference was part of a joint project (of the same title) between philosophers at Telemark College, Norway and Lancaster University, for the philosophical study of cultural landscapes, and the integration of humans with the natural environment. Speakers included: Sven Arntzen, Emily Brady, Isis Brook, Jane Howarth, John O'Neill, Kate Rawles and Floris Tomasini. There was lively discussion on a range of topics : an ecophilosophical approach to the concept of a cultural landscape; harmony and conflict between moral and aesthetic value; the concept of wildness in cultural landscapes; the modification of nature through earthworks and environmental art; gardening as conservation/conservation as gardening; the role of emotions in our relationship and treatment of non-human animals; and the idea of place in navigating the sea.
Robin Attfield (Cardiff University) and David Crocker (University of Maryland) were among the speakers at a conference on Global Citizenship held in June, 1999 at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. Attfield spoke on "Global Citizenship and the Global Environment."
A joint conference of ISEE and the Society for Applied Philosophy on "Moral and Practical Reasoning in Environmental Practice" was held at Mansfield College Oxford from 27th to 29th June, 1999. The organisers were Avner de-Shalit and Andrew Light. Rather than focusing on the traditional questions of the field (such as the issue of whether nature has intrinsic value) most of the papers at the conference dealt with applied issues which could either be addressed through anthropocentric considerations (such as obligations to future generations) or were simply agnostic on the anthropocentric-nonanthoprocentric split. Plans are in the works to produce a collection of papers from the conference.
Papers presented at the conference: Jonathan Aldred (Cambridge, UK), "Deliberative institutions for environmental policy: some worries"; Finn Arler (Aarhus U., Denmark), "Ecological utilisation space -operationalizing sustainability"; Robin Attfield (Cardiff UK), "Global warming, justice and future generations"; John Barry (Keele, UK), "Ecological stewardship and Green citizenship: virtue, sustainability and symbiosis"; Paula Casal (Keele, UK), "Equality, priority and sufficiency in intergenerational and international ethics"; Chun-Chieh Chi (National Dong-Hwa U., Taiwan), "Extended care for non-humans, deepened care for humans, and where these two cares meet"; Lori Gruen (Stanford, USA), "Refocusing environmental ethics: from intrinsic value to endorsable valuations"; Tim Hayward (Edinburgh, UK), "Constitutional environmentalism"; Alan Holland (Lancaster, UK), "Deliberative institutions do it differently?"; Robert Hood (Middle Tennessee State U., USA), "Casuistry and principalism in environmental ethics: a pragmatist perspective"; Matthew Humphrey (Nottingham U., UK). "Intuition, reason and environmental argument"; Eric Katz (NJ, USA), "The liberation of humanity and nature"; Niraja Gopal Jayal (Nehru U., New Delhi, India), "Ethics, politics and biodiversity: a view from the South"; Bill Lawson (Michigan, USA), "Environmental ethics in an urban setting"; Keekok Lee (Manchester, UK), "Political autonomy and green environmentalism"; John O'Neill (Lancaster, UK), "Time, Narrative and Care for the Future"; Clare Palmer (Stirling, UK) and Francis O'Gorman (Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education), "Animals, power and ethics: the case of fox hunting"; Rodney Peffer (San Diego, USA), "Social justice and saving the environment"; Sandra Rosenthal and Rogene Buchholz, (Loyola U., New Orleans, USA), "The Shintech Plant: A pragmatic perspective"; Ariel Salleh, (U of Western Sydney, Australia), "Ecofeminist reasoning: toward sustainability - with equity"; Paul Thompson (Purdue U, USA), "The environmental ethics case for crop biotechnology"; Jennifer Welchman (Alberta, Canada), "Is eco-sabotage civil disobedience? The case of the Pressmennan Wood protest"; Peter Wenz (Illinois at Springfield, USA), "Pragmatism in practice: The efficiency of sustainable agriculture"; Andrew Williams (Warwick, UK), "A puzzle for egalitarian environmentalists".
During July, 1999 Robin Attfield undertook a lecture tour of South Africa, organized by Johan Hattingh (University of Stellenbosch) and funded by the (South African) National Research Foundation, visiting the Universities of Stellenbosch, Cape Town and South Africa (Pretoria). Attfield lectured on 'Environmental Philosophy: Traditions, Values, Futures, Politics," "Intergenerational Equity and Environmental Ethics," and on "Environmental Sensitivity and Critiques of Stewardship."
During August, 1999 an international seminar on environmental ethics was organized at the University of Turku, Finland by Markku Oksanen and Juhani Pietarinen. Speakers included Finn Arler, Robin Attfield, Yrjo Haila, Keekok Lee, Greg Mikkelson, P.R. Hobson, Bryan Norton, Markku Oksanen, Juhani Pietarinen, Kate Rawles, and Michael Ruse (among others).
The Chinese Society of Environmental Ethics, jointly with the Guangzhou Teachers' College and the Environmental Protection Bureau of Guangzhou, held a Conference on Environmental Ethics and Environmental Education in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, August 13-16. It was attended by over 80 scholars from all over China, including Chen Min, vice director of the Environmental Protection Bureau of Guangdong Province; Zhou Shun-lin, Senior Teaching and Research Fellow of the Board of Education of Guangdong Province; Li Zi-shen, Vice Chairman of Committee of the Guangdong Society of Environmental Sciences; Ye Zhi-rong, President of the journal Environment; Zhang Guo-yang and Chen Yun-sen, President and Party Secretary, respectively, of Guangzhou Teachers' College; Yu Mou-chang, Chairman of the Committee of Chinese Society of Environmental Ethics. The Chinese Society of Environmental Ethics also met at this time for business matters and further planning.
The Southern African Wildlife College, located in the corporate sector of Kruger National Park, South Africa, is now fully operational, after five years of construction and start-up. The college is for black African students; 230 have taken courses there already, and twenty seven have earned a certificate. Students are from thirteen nations in Southern and East Africa. This is a World Wide Fund for Nature, South Africa project; the German government has given particular support. Southern African Wildlife College, Private Bag X 3015, 1380 Hoedspruit, South Africa. Phone and Fax: 27 15 7932621. E-mail: email@example.com.
In September 1999 the Centre for Technology and the Environment, De Montfort University, Leicester, England, held a conference with the theme "Educating Technologists for Environmental Awareness." Keynote speaker Robin Attfield spoke on "Environmental Ethics and Technological Education."
The Australian Association of Professional and Applied Ethics held their 6th Annual Conference 1-3 October, 1999, Old Parliament House, Canberra. Conference title: "The Moral Foundations of Civil Society." It was hosted by the Centre for Professional an Applied Ethics, Charles Sturt University. Presentations included papers on bioethics and environmental ethics.
J. Baird Callicott made a lecture tour of Taiwan November 1 - 7. At a conference in Hualein on Natural Conservation and Indigenous Cultures, Callicott gave two lectures titled "Third and Fourth World Critiques of Western Conservation Philosophies" and "A Twenty-first Century Philosophy of Conservation." At a conference in Taipei on Environmental Ethics, Callicott gave three lectures titled, "A Natural History of Environmental Ethics," "The Land Aesthetic," and "Judeo-Christian Environmental Ethics." At a conference in Taipei on Caring for the Earth, Callicott gave the keynote address, "Toward a Global Land Ethic."
ISEE member A. G. Rud, associate dean of education at Purdue University, chairs the Harmony Institute Community Advisory Board (HICAB). The Harmony Institute of St. Cloud, Florida (http://www.harmonyinstitute.org) was established "to showcase and study both individual and group contributions in the fields of the Interaction of Humans and Animals, Wildlife and Nature. The Institute will foster research and education in these areas and develop means through which these relationships can be extended for the benefit of individuals and the public health of our communities. The Institute is committed to the exploration of these relationships and to promoting representative programs that will serve mankind and also serve to increase the merit of animal companionship and wildlife and ecological protection."
Rud is joined on HICAB by leading scholars in the fields of veterinary studies, land use planning, psychology, education, and other areas. HICAB is advising the planning of a new community that will incorporate the principles of the Harmony Institute, focusing particularly on the educational and research opportunities. For further information contact A.G. Rud at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Philosophical Issues in Ethics Across the Curriculum. Rochester Institute of Technology, October 14-17, 1999. Included a paper by Frank Derringh (New York City Technical College), "Subverting the Dualism of Theory and Practice: Deep Ecology as a Cross-Cultural Model."
Society of American Foresters National Convention, Portland, Oregon, September 14-15, 1999. Included a session sponsored by SAF's "Philosophy Working Group" on "Forests and Religion: Perspectives, Influences, and Values." Speakers included: Susan Bratton, "Christianity, Wilderness, and Wildlife"; Mark Stoll, "A History of Religious Influence on Environment in America"; Nancy Lee Menning, "Faith, Community Values, and Environmental Management"; Earl Leatherberry, " African-American Historical/Religious/Spiritual Forest Relations";Bodie Shaw, "Native American Spirituality and Forest Management"; Chuck McKinney, "Forestry and Religion: A New Method for a New Millenium"; Julia Parker, " Environmental Ethics, Religion and Forestry in Southern U.S."; John Rennie, "Spirituality as a Forest Product an Educator's View"; Alan McQuillan,"Why We Should Not Seek to Reenchant Science"; Peter List, "Spiritual Values in Leopold's Land Ethic."
Also included were a session and field workshop on "Community History, Values, and Change," bringing together philosophers, other academics and USFS participants to "learn techniques to assess the historical and collective value systems of rural communities; and learn pros and cons from practitioners helping Northwest resource-based communities' transition their economies." The afternoon field trip took participants up the scenic Columbia River Gorge to Hood River, to learn about transitioning efforts from local community leaders.
The Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University,Australia, invites applications for a new course, "Ecophilosophy and Earth Education." This innovative course combines intensive academic learning with substantial expeditions in the Australian bush. The program will be full time over one semester, February to June, 2000. Completing students will be awarded a Graduate Certificate in Ecologically Sustainable Development. Open to graduates in any discipline, teachers for this semester are Patsy Hallen and Jim Cheney. For more information contact the ISTP, Murdoch University, Murdoch, West Australia 6150. Phone: +61 8 9360 2913. Website: www.istp.murdoch.edu.au.
"Voices For Thoreau's Wild New England," a conference at Concord, Massachusetts, October 2-3,1999. Included discussions on the restoration and rewilding of the New England Landscape, as well as readings by well-known nature writers Bill McKibben, Sandra Alcosser, John Hanson Mitchell, Richard Nelson, Janisse Ray, Freeman House and John Elder.
is an email action alert system maintained by the Wilderness
Society to keep subscribers apprised of threats to U.S. wildlands.
WildAlert messages include updates along with clear, concise actions
to take to protect America's last wild places. To subscribe, send
the following message to <email@example.com>: "subscribe
wilderness-alert" (inserted in the
body of the message, without quotes).
Concerted Action on ENVIRONMENTAL VALUATION IN EUROPE (EVE), June 1998 - November 2000. The purpose of this concerted action is to analyze effective methods for expressing the values associated with environmental goods and services, ecosystem functions, and natural capital with a view to the achievement of the goals summarized in the concept of sustainability. In recognizing the importance of environmental valuation this concerted action addresses the input of information to policy decisions and the diversity of research currently being undertaken, from ecology to economics to philosophy.
The EVE program focuses on a series of nine workshops in which these issues will be debated and output of immediate policy relevance produced. EVE encourages the networking of active researchers in the field through these workshops and aims to stimulate debate on methodological issues and social processes for valuation. Workshops are: "Approaches to Issues of High Complexity," 8-10 January 1999 Barcelona, Spain. Host: Universitat Automa de Barcelona. "Natural Capital," 24-26 March 1999, Paris, France. Host: C3ED, Universite de Versailles. "Ethics, Economics and Environmental Policy." 23-25 April 1999, Ambleside, United Kingdom. Host: Department of Philosophy, University of Lancaster. "Sustainability: Valuation & Indicators." 17-19 June 1999, Zurich, Switzerland. Host: Ethik-Zentrum, Universitat Zurich. "Distribution Issues & Property Rights." 8-10 July 1999, Geneva, Switzerland. Host: European Centre of Human Ecology, Universite de Geneve. "Health & the Value of Life," 17-18 September 1999, Strasbourg, France. Host: Bureau d'Economie Theorique et Appliquee, Universite Louis Pasteur. "Benefit Transfer," 14-16 October 1999, Lillehammer, Norway. Host: Dept. of Economics & Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway. "Green National Accounts," 5-7 March 2000, Italy. Host: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM). "Participatory Decision Processes," 17-18 March 2000, Italy. Host: Istituto di Sociologia Internazionale di Gorizia (ISIG).
For more detailed information on the project and related publications
see the EVE website at http://www.landecon.cam.ac.uk/eve/. Or
contact the EVE Project Manager: Claudia Carter, Department of
Land Economy, Cambridge University, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge
CB3 9EP,UK. Telephone: +44 1223 330802. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
"Ethics and Genetics." The International Programme in Bioethics Education and Research held the third Advanced European Bioethics Course, November 18-20 at Nijmegen, Netherlands. Information on this and future courses: www.kun.nl./fmw/onderwys/ukgene.htm.
"Exotic Organisms in Greater Yellowstone." 5th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park, WY, October 11-13. Numerous papers on exotic threats to native wildlife and native plants, exotic species in terrestrial and aquatic environments, the history of human responses to exotics, and management of exotics. Keynote speakers included Holmes Rolston III, Daniel Botkin, and Linda Wallace.
"Animal Research: Where Does
the Buck Stop? Ethics, Economics, and Responsibility." This conference, jointly sponsored by
the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, and the
Center for Animal Welfare at the University of California/
Davis, was held October 2-5, at Lake Tahoe, California. It focused on the ethical responsibilities of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC's).
Terra Nova Lives! The award-winning quarterly environmental journal from MIT Press is changing from quarterly appearance to an annual book series. This fall comes "The New Earth Reader: The Best of Terra Nova" (MIT Press) with a selection of favorite pieces from the magazine's three-year run. In the fall of 2000 comes "The Music and Nature Book," (Wesleyan University Press), including two CDs, and a new volume on the theme of water: steam, vapor, rushing, frozen, necessary, cool.. By Spring 2001 comes a volume on "The World and the Wild," demonstrating how wilderness is being preserved all over the planet, especially in developing nations.
Editors David Rothenberg and Marta Ulvaeus have begun to plan a new volume on the theme of air. Submissions are due February. 1, 2000, with an expected release in Fall 2001, if the new world is still around. Plus, "Terra Nova's" three years of back issues are always available. For details and updates check their affiliated web magazine, www.terrain.org, and web-page: http://www-ec.njit.edu/~tn/.
A conference on "The Myth of
Sustainable Growth" was held October 8-10, 1999,
at the campus of the Aspen Institute / Aspen Meadows, Aspen, Colorado.
Among the participants: former governor of Colorado Richard Lamm,
Albert Bartlett, Jonette Christian, Roy Beck, Mayor Ray Borane
of Douglas Arizona, Yeh Ling Ling, David Durham, William Herron,
Virginia Abernathy. The conference focused on population growth,
mass immigration and
environmental degradation in the U.S. and Colorado. For more information, see:
Val Plumwood has taken a full time research position at the University of Sydney, Australia, which also enables her to work at her rainforest home, Plumwood. On a personal note, the wombat she befriended, named Birubi, has died and Val wrote an in memoriam recalling twelve years in which the wombat, though living in the wild, was a regular visitor. Ask her for an e-mail copy. Her new e-mail address is: email@example.com.
Keekok Lee has accepted a research affiliation with the University of Lancaster and is leaving the University of Manchester, though she will continue to live in Manchester, which is not far away from Lancaster. She will continue to use the e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
David Macauley recently accepted an appointment as Visiting Scholar/Professor at Emerson College in Boston, MA. He is teaching "Environmental Science and Philosophy" and a course in "Nonwestern Thought: Ethical and Political Perspectives." Macauley recently completed his Ph.D., entitled "Bewildering Order: Toward an Ecology of the Elements in Ancient Greek Philosophy," at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He is the editor of Minding Nature: The Philosophers of Ecology (New York: Guilford Press, 1996) and a number of articles in philosophy, political theory and environmental ethics.
Peter H. Kahn, Jr., formerly of Colby College, Waterville, ME, has accepted a position at the University of Washington in psychology with an emphasis on environmental psychology and an affiliation with the UW Program on the Environment. Kahn recently published The Human Relationship with Nature: Development and Culture (MIT Press) (see Newsletter, Summer 1999). For 1999-2000 he is co-director of the Mina Institute, Covelo, CA.
has received a Rockefeller Fellowship to spend the 1999-2000
academic year at the International Center
for Advanced Studies at New York University working
on a project applying work in environmental ethics to urban environments.
While on leave he will still be reachable through his e-mail address:
email@example.com. Address: I.C. A.S., New York University,
53 Washington Square South, Rm. 401, New York, NY 10012. Fax:
"Ecological Conversations: Gender, Science and the Sacred." A Rockefeller Foundation Humanities Fellowship Program at the Center for the Study of Women in Society, University of Oregon. This program invites scientists, scholars, theologians, writers, and grass-roots activists from different cultural and national contexts to share perspectives on the fundamental philosophical, evolutionary, political, and spiritual questions generated by the convergence of women's and environmental movements around the globe.
For 2000-2001, they welcome proposals addressing issues of
scientific practice. Themes of particular interest are: the history
and contemporary understanding of evolutionary theory and natural
history; how scientific concepts and research are translated into
discourse; ecofeminist visions of science and technology; new approaches to issues of reproduction and population; the history and practice of indigenous sciences; and studies of new scientific paradigms. During 2001-2002, the conversation will focus on questions
situated at the intersection of the ecological and the sacred.
Application deadlines: January 17, 2000 (2001). Contact: Lynne Fessenden, Center for the Study of Women in Society, 1201 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1201. Phone: (541) 346-5399. Fax: (541)346-5096. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web Site: www.ecocon.uoregon.edu.
Announcing two Iowa State University Model Bioethics Institutes in 2000. 1st: June 3-8, at North Carolina State University. 2nd: July 8-14, at FLAD in Lisbon, Portugal. These faculty development workshops are designed to assist life science faculty members who are integrating discussions of ethical issues into existing science courses. Institute sessions are devoted to ethical theory, pedagogy, and policy. Particular attention is paid to ethical issues in the agricultural sciences (at NC State) and the marine sciences (at Portugal) and to biotechnology, environmental ethics, duties to the hungry, rights to water and soil, and animal welfare and rights.
For the NC State Institute, each participant receives a stipend
of $500, plus books, case studies, classroom exercises, and bibliographies.
Participants not from NC State receive, in addition, a $700 travel
and living allowance. Applicants must be tenured or tenure-track
life science faculty members. Applicants from NABC-member institutions
are favored, as are teams of applicants from a single institution.
Funded in part by the National Agricultural Biotechnology Council,
Iowa State University Bioethics Program, and the ISU Office of
Biotechnology. Deadline for applications is March 1, 2000. For
more information, go to: www.cals.cornell.edu/
New Position at Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Tenure-track Asst. Prof.,
beginning fall 2000. 6 courses/year (2/term), undergraduate and
graduate. Customary non-teaching responsibilities. AOS: Comparative
Philosophy. AOC: World Views/Environment. Ph. Or ABD required;
promise of effective classroom teaching and scholarly research.
Salary competitive. EOE/AAE. Send letter of application, CV, contact
information, and letters of recommendation from three persons
in a position to evaluate your teaching and scholarship, and evidence
of potential in teaching and scholarship to: Dr. Courtney S. Campbell,
Department of Philosophy, Oregon State University, 208 Hovland
Hall, Corvallis OR 97331. Information available at http://osu.orst.edu/dept/philosophy.
Deadline for applications: December 31, 1999. Interviewing at
Eastern APA anticipated.
Conferences and Calls for Papers
American Philosophical Association, Eastern Division Meeting, ISEE Group Sessions. Submit proposals for papers and sessions to Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Department of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Phone: 219-631-5000. Fax: 219-631-8209. Submission deadline: February 1 2000.
"Connecting Environmental Ethics, Ecological Integrity and Health in the Millenium." June 24-29, 2000, San Jose, Costa Rica. Conference sponsored by the Organization for Tropical Studies (Duke University) and Sarah Lawrence College, and with the participation of several Societies (ISEE, Philosophy of Technology, Society for Value Inquiry, North American Society for Social Philosophy, and the Society for Business Ethics). The conference is convened to celebrate the tenth anniversary of ISEE (founded December 1989) and the ninth anniversary of the Global Ecological Integrity Project.
Plenary Sessions will be held on Ethics and Intrinsic Value, Ecological Integrity and Health, Social Justice, and Altering Consumptive Behavior to Protect the Many Dimensions of Health. Plenary speakers include ISEE's incoming and outgoing presidents, J. Baird Callicott and Kristin Shrader-Frechette, and first President, Holmes Rolston III. Mark Sagoff, James Sterba, Max Oelschlaeger, Eugene Hargrove, Ron Engel and Don Brown will also speak, as will many scientists from the US, Canada, Central America and Eastern Europe, including James Karr, William Rees, Robert Constanza, Anthony McMichael, David Rapport and Robert Bertollini.
Single submissions in all areas of environmental ethics or science are welcome. To submit a paper or for further information, please contact ISEE secretary Laura Westra: Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Meadway, Bates 100, Bronxville, NY 10708-5999 USA. Phone (914) 395-2487; fax (914) 395-2666; e-mail: email@example.com. Include your mailing address and telephone/fax. Societies or groups can participate through one organizer who can inform Westra of chosen title, number of participants, and details for one of the afternoon sessions. Submission deadline is January 31, 2000, but earlier inquiries and suggestions are welcome. Registration fees are $100 US and the hotel chosen by OTS will be $51 US single, or $62 US double in San Jose. Trips to view natural areas are being organized.
Business, the economy and sustainability. The International Society for Ecological Economics (the other ISEE) will hold its next biennial conference in July 2000, Canberra, Australia. Preparatory to that conference is a 12 month, internet-based program on "Business, the economy and sustainability," with pre-conference networking and email-based preparatory workshops and seminars. The electronic program costs $40 (Australian) if you register for it alone or it comes free for those registered for the conference in Canberra, Australia in July 2000. Inquiries to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Editors seek submissions for a new textbook, Ethics for the Professions, to be published by Harcourt Brace. Appropriate for undergraduate courses in professional ethics, the textbook will include articles on issues that cut across various professions (in Part I) and on issues within specific professions (in Part II).
Chapters in Part I: Aspects of Professions (e.g., the proper function of a professional, the nature of expertise); The Role of Professional Organizations (profit, non-profit); Employee Rights and Responsibilities (privacy, safety, loyalty); Professional-Client relations (disclosure, autonomy, confidentiality); The Nature of Ethics Codes (company-level, industry-level, effectiveness). Chapters in Part II: Business (e.g., sales, advertising, environmental issues); Engineering (product safety, trade secrets); Medicine (patient competence, research, life and death issues); Counseling (the use of medications, insurance issues, child counseling); Law (advocacy, honesty); Journalism (privacy, political vs. nonpolitical news); Education (teaching, administration, the student as customer).
The editors seek articles that address these and related topics not mentioned above. Submission deadline: January 28, 2000. Earlier submissions will receive priority in the review process. Inquiries and submissions should be sent to one of the editors, John Rowan or Samuel Zinaich, Department of Philosophy, Purdue University Calumet, 2200 169th Street, Hammond, IN 46323-2-94. E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org. Phone: (219) 989-2654, (219) 989-2132. Fax: (219) 989-2160.
"The Ethical Challenges of Globalization." The Second World Congress of Business, Economics, and Ethics, will convene July 19-23 2000 in Sao Paolo, Brazil. Sponsored by the International Society of Business, Economics, and Ethics (ISBEE), the conference will be hosted by the Escola de Administracao de Empresas de Sao Paolo. Papers are invited from business, academia, government and NGO's, on the following themes: globalization; managing sustainable human development; religious resources for business ethics. Papers should be submitted by December 1, 1999. For information: www.nd.edu/~isbee/.
28th Conference on Value Inquiry, April 13-15, 2000. Lamar University,
Main theme: "Values in an Age of Globalization." Areas of investigation for the conference include, but are not limited to: Social, Moral, Political, Economic, Environmental, and Aesthetic Values, the Teaching of Values, and the Resolution of Conflict between Competing Values and between Theory and Practice. Of particular interest are papers that discuss issues and conflicts of values that have arisen as a result of the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological developments involved with globalization. Papers may be practically or theoretically oriented. Topics may be disciplinary and focus on questions within a single field of value inquiry, or range over issues relating to different fields of value inquiry.
Papers should be limited to approximately 20 minutes reading
time. You may submit your abstract by email or regular mail. To
send your abstract by email, send it to dodsonke@
hal.lamar.edu. If you are sending your abstract by regular mail, please send two copies of an abstract, not more than 450 words, to either Conference Coordinator Kevin Dodson or Executive Director Thomas Magnell. Dodson: PO Box 10023, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710. E-Mail: email@example.com. Web: www.valuenet.org/conferences/28thcvi.asp. Magnell: Department of Philosophy, Drew University, Madison, New Jersey 07940. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Deadline for submission: January 20, 2000.
"Thinking About the Environment: Our Debt to the Greek and Medieval Past" will be held in Firenze, Italy, Aug. 17-20, 2000, and will include Latin, Islamic, and Jewish thought of the Medieval period. The conference will be followed by the publication of a collection of papers. Proposals and suggestions, as well as single submissions, should be made as soon as possible, since Firenze is a Jubilee city. Deadline: January 21, 2000. Registration fees are $100. Contact Laura Westra, Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Mead Way, Bronxville, NY, 10708-5999; <email@example.com> or Tom Robinson, Philosophy Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A1; <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Essays in Philosophy: A Biannual Journal. Submissions are being requested for this new online journal. Each issue is devoted to a specific topic. An inaugural issue is titled "Ancient Natural Philosophy," edited by David Guetter, Saint Mary's University. Please send inquiries to Michael Goodman, general editor, at email@example.com.
Greenleaf Publishing invites contributions for a new book,
"Greener Manufacturing and Operations:
From Design to Delivery and Back,"
to be edited by Joseph Sarkis, Ph.D., CPIM.
This book will aim to aid managers, engineers, students, researchers, and consultants in understanding the various issues, principles, and tools for managing the operations and manufacturing function in an environmentally benign and sustainable manner. It aims to educate them in the state-of-the-art and future practice in environmentally conscious manufacturing and operations. The book is expected to incorporate a mixture of case studies, empirical, and applied theoretical works. Contributions are invited which address areas including, but not limited to: sustainability and the operations function; total quality environmental management; facility location; technology management; and sustainability indicators in manufacturing.
Papers should be between 4000-6000 words in length. Case studies should be 2500-4000 words in length. Abstracts of 300-400 words should be sent to the editor prior to December 15, 1999. These should ideally be sent as e-mail attachments. Contributors whose abstracts are felt appropriate for the project will be invited to submit full papers by May 31, 2000. For further information or to discuss ideas for contributions, please contact Joseph Sarkis, Clark University Graduate School of Management, 950 Main St., Worcester, MA 01610-1477 USA. Phone: +1 508 793 7659. Fax: +1 508 793 8822. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
"New Genetics, Environment, and Bioethics," conference at Madras Christian College, Chennai (Madras), India. January 3-5, 2000. Sponsored by the departments of philosophy and biology. For further information contact: M. Gabriel, Philosophy, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai, 600 059, India. Phone: 2377088. Fax: 2377352.
ASFS/AFHVS Meeting, June 1 to 4, 2000, at New York University.
This is an annual joint meeting of two societies--The Association
for the Study of Food and Society and The
Agriculture Food and Human Values Society. The theme for this year's meeting is "Millennial Stews: Food and Food Systems in the Global City." Paper submissions in all areas of environmental ethics will be welcome. For further information see: www.nyu.edu/education/
nutrition/foodconference. Or contact Dr. Paul B. Thompson, Department of Philosophy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1360. Phone: (765) 494-4295 FAX: (765) 496-1616.
Philosophical Explorations of Spatial Boundaries The Society for Philosophy and Geography will hold its Second Annual Conference at Towson University, Towson Maryland, on April 28 - 30, 2000. The goal of the Society is to create an interdisciplinary conversation, broadening perspectives on questions of space, place, and nature, including consideration of practical implications of the applications of theory to concrete questions of spatial planning, design, and management. Possible topics (other relevant topics are welcome) include: epistemology of boundaries; greening of space; bioregionalism; ecosystemic boundaries.
Papers or presentations should not exceed 30 minutes reading
time. As with all SPG sessions and publications, clarity of presentation
is highly valued to accommodate a diverse audience. Accepted papers
may be submitted for publication in the Society's journal, Philosophy
and Geography, edited by Andrew Light and Jonathan Smith. Send
abstracts of approximately 200 words by February 10, 2000 to:
John Murungi, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies,
Towson University, Towson, Maryland 21204. Tel. 410-830-2755.
Fax: 410-830-4398. E-mail: email@example.com.
Interdisciplinary Colloquium: "Thresholds of Identity in Human and Animal Relationships." Friday-Saturday, March 10-11, 2000. University of California, Santa Barbara.
You're invited to participate in a interdisciplinary colloquium on the broad topic of human
-animal relationships. Participants will be given 20 minutes to make a presentation. Discussion will be encouraged as the purpose of the colloquium is to bring people together to share their ideas and knowledge. The colloquium will provide a friendly forum for the presentation of research interests and works-in-progress from all relevant fields or disciplines. Presentations should be scholarly in approach, but accessible to a general audience. Topics are encouraged around the concept of thresholds of identity between humans and animals, but others will
also be considered.
Please send (email preferred) a 300 word abstract of your proposed
topic with title of presentation, and include your name, affiliation,
mailing address, telephone and email, to be received by **November
15, 1999** to: Jshelton@humanitas.UCSB.edu. Or mail/FAX to:
Professor Jo-Ann Shelton, Environmental Studies Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. FAX: 805.893.8686. Notification of acceptance will be (e)mailed in December 1999. For further information, please contact Dr. Shelton or see the Human-Animal Relationships RFG webpage: http://www.ihc.ucsb.edu/Human-AnimalRFG.html.
ERP Environment Conferences. International Sustainable Development Research Conference. University of Leeds, UK, 13-14 April 2000. Definition and implementation of strategies associated with sustainable development. Eco-management and Auditing Conference. University of Manchester, UK. 29-30 June 2000. Symposium on culture, organizations and the environment. European Environment Conference. London School of Economics, UK. 11-12 September 2000. Focused on policy-making and policy implementation. Business Strategy and the Environment Conference. London School of Economics, UK. 14-15 September 2000. Focus on what industry is doing and can do to improve environmental performance and move towards sustainability.
Each of these conferences is run in association with the ERP
journal of the same name. Selected conference papers will be published
in the journals. For more information contact Elaine White, Conference
Coordinator, ERP Environment, PO Box 75, Shipley, West Yorkshire
BD17 6EZ, UK. Phone +44 (0)1274 530409. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Recent Articles and Books
--Abbasi, S.A., Krishnakumari, P., Khan, F.I. Hot Topics: Everyday Environmental Concerns. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999. 224 pp. $14. Questions concerning the ozone hole at the Antarctic, radioactive waste treatment and transportation, and the basic components of a hazard control system.
--Adler, Jonathan H., "Banning `Biofoods': Precaution Can Be a Dangerous Tool," PERC Reports (Bozeman, MT) 17 (no. 4, September):8-9. Genetically engineered foods hold great promise, and it is more risky to ban them. In general the precautionary principle is being misused. "The idea behind the precautionary principle is that it is always better to be safe than sorry. In fact, however, adopting the precautionary principle is likely to make us more sorry than safe." Adler is a Senior Fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute in Washington, DC.
--Aiken, William, "The Goals of Agriculture and Weed Science," Weed Science 46(1998):640-641. Five goals for agriculture are: profitable production, sustainable production, environmentally safe production, satisfaction of human needs, and compatibility with a just social order. Four ways to view the origin of potentially conflicting value expressed in the five goals follow. In view of the five goals and differing value positions, the most pressing question for weed science is to what extent current methods of weed control are compatible with a more sustainable and environmentally sensitive agriculture. Aiken is in philosophy at Chatham College, Pittsburgh.
--Alexander, David E., and Fairbridge, Rhodes W., eds., Encyclopedia
of Environmental Science. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
1999. 768 pages. $ 480. Contains:
--Lemons, John, "Environmental Ethics." Lemons is in the Department of Life Sciences, University of New England.
--Perkins, Nathan H., and Brown, Robert D., "Environmental Aesthetics." Perkins and Brown are in Landscape Architecture, University of Guelph, Canada.
--Berry, Thomas, The Great Work: Our Way into the Future. New York: Bell Tower, 1999. 256 pages. $23. Technological civilization and the need for humans to move from being a disrupting force on Earth to a benign presence. Creation as a source of wonder and delight rather than a commodity for our personal use. Berry is a cultural historian and theologian, now living in North Carolina.
--Biggs, H. C., and Potgieter, A.L.F., "Overview of the Fire Management Policy of the Kruger National Park," Koedoe: Research Journal, South African Parks 42/1, 1999, pages 101-110. Fire management in Kruger has been controversial. Alternative proposed are: a lightning-driven system (the present policy), patch mosaic burning, and range condition burning. Tests of the latter two in parts of the Park will be tested for 20 years, and results evaluated. A recurrent problem is that decisions have to be made with insufficient evidence. Biggs and Potgieter are ecologists at Kruger.
--Brinkmann, Klaus, ed., Ethics: The Proceedings of the Twentieth
World Congress of Philosophy, vol. 1 (Bowling Green Ohio: Philosophy
Documentation Center, 1999). Note the extent to which environmental
ethics is quite well represented in this, the first of twelve
World Congress volumes. Contains:
--Attfield, Robin, "Depth, Trusteeship, and Redistribution," pages 159-168. I review some themes of Naess's "The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movements" article and Routley's "Is There a Need for a New, An Environmental Ethic" presentation at the 1973 World Congress. Naess's affiliation to the Deep Ecology Movement deserves acclaim, theoretic entanglements notwithstanding. Routley advocated a new ethic because no Judaeo-Christian ethical tradition could cope with widespread environmental intuitions. However, the ethical tradition of stewardship can satisfy such concerns. It is compatible with environmental values, need not be managerial, and can assume a secular form. But the related responsibilities vary with wealth and power, and structural change is necessary to empower people currently unable to uphold it. Attfield is in philosophy at the University of Wales, Cardiff.
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Nature and Culture in Environmental Ethics," Pages 151-158. The pivotal claim in environmental ethics is that humans in their cultures are out of sustainable relationships to the natural environments compromising the landscapes on which these cultures are superimposed. But bringing such culture into more intelligent relationships with the natural world requires not so much "naturalizing culture" as discriminating recognition of the radical differences between nature and culture, on the basis of which a dialectical ethic of complementarity may be possible. How far nature can and ought be managed and be transformed into humanized nature, resulting in "the end of nature," is a provocative question. Environmental ethics ought also to seek nature as an end in itself. Rolston is in philosophy at Colorado State University.
--Passmore, John, "Philosophy and Ecology," pages 141-150. There was a time when ecological problems were of no interest to philosophy. Now, these issues have raised philosophical problems in several areas. In moral philosophy, one question is what moral obligations, if any, we have to future generations, and another is how far we have moral obligations relating to the treatment and the preservation of plants, animals and atmospheres. In political philosophy, the issue is the range of such concepts as rights and justice, and whether or not they are limited to human relationships. As to the metaphysical question, we have to ask whether there is something about human beings which entitles us to consider them as being supernatural and whether we can think of Nature as an entity of which each human being constitutes a part. Passmore is in the Historical Studies Department, Australian National University, Canberra.
--Häyry, Matt and Takala, Tuija, "Biotechnology and the Environment: From Moral Objections to Ethical Analysis," pages 169-178. Rights can be founded in a variety of ethical systems--e.g. on natural law, on the duties postulated by deontological ethics, and on the consequences of our actions. The concept of risk we will outline supports a theory of rights which provides at least individual human beings with the entitlement not to be harmed by the environmental impacts of biotechnology. The analysis can, we believe, also be extended to the rights of animals as well as ecosystems, both of which can be harmed by human actions. We argue that further examination of these harms and rights would be the best way to proceed from emotional moral objections to truly ethical analyses in the context of biotechnology and the environment. Häyry and Takala are in philosophy, University of Helsinki.
--Skirbekk, Gunnar, "Discourse-Ethical Gradualism: Beyond Anthropocentrism and Biocentrism?," pages 95-106. My question is the following: to what extent is ethical anthropocentrism tenable? In a "discourse ethical" perspective I will consider some case-oriented arguments in favor of a paradigmatically unique ethical standing for humans and some arguments in favor of an ethical gradualism between humans and other mammals and between humans and nature, ending with a conclusion in favor of a fair treatment of all moral subjects, human and non-human. Skirbekk is in philosophy, University of Bergen, Norway.
--Brown, Kathyrn, S., "Bright Future--or Brief Flare--For Renewable Energy," Science 285(1999):678-680. Solar, wind, and other forms of renewable energy are making surprising gains as some U.S. states open their power markets to competition. But with fossil fuel prices near all-time lows, experts are split on whether alternative energy can maintain its momentum. In a series of articles on "Powering the Next Century" in this issue of Science. Also a number of articles and boxes on fuel-efficient and low CO2 automobiles.
--Buckley, Claire, compiler, Case Studies in Environmental
Management in Central and Eastern Europe, Casebook Series Volume
II, International Network for Environmental Management (INEM),
with the support of the German Federal Foundation for the Environment,
Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. October 1999. 144 pp., paper.
ISBN 1 874719 20 9. $ 30.00, As Central and Eastern European countries
queue up to become members of a widely expanded European Union
(EU), the question of how their environmental laws and performance
can become consistent with current standards has become of paramount
importance. Forecasts are largely gloomy, with some commentators
suggesting that it will take decades for full compliance to be
achieved. This casebook presents the experiences of fourteen companies
in integrating environmental considerations into these emerging
economies. Contact: Samantha Self, Greenleaf Publishing, Aizlewood
Business Centre, Aizlewood's Mill, Sheffield S3 8GG, UK. E-mail:
--Carey, John, "Where Have All the Animals Gone?" International Wildlife 29 (no. 6, Nov./Dec. 1999):12-20. Meat for the pot. In many tropical forests around the globe, virtually every animal has been killed, leaving an empty forest. Hunting for the pot is becoming a bigger conservation threat than habitat loss--Laos, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, the Brazilian Amazon, the Congo. In some areas biologists can best inventory what is in the forests by walking through the markets. Everything is eaten. Typically national regulation authority is weak, and where wildlife responsibility has been transferred to local peoples, the problem is worse. Sustainability is a myth before the pressures of exploding populations. George Schaller says, "Only people that sit in offices have the romantic notions that local people live in harmony with the environment" (p. 17). There are dozens of contributing factors. Perhaps the major one is logging, when logging roads open up once-remote areas. Carey covers science and technology for Business Week magazine.
--Carr, Ethan, Wilderness by Design: Landscape Architecture and the National Park Service. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 378 pages. $ 45 cloth. Even though the public still equates the national parks with primordial, untouched wilderness, Carr claims that the reality is considerably different. Not only is the conception of a park a cultural construct, but the very appearance and design of national parks is based on social conventions, for example, aesthetic and political ideologies, that allow "land" to become "landscape." "The designed landscapes in national and state parks, as works of art, directly express the value society invests in preserving and appreciating natural areas. Few other arts, with the exception of landscape painting, more fully explore this leitmotif of American culture. Neither pure wilderness nor mere artifact, the national park is the purest manifestation of the peculiar American genius which sought to reconcile a people obsessed with progress with the unmatched price paid for that advance: the near total loss of the North American wilderness" (p. 9).
--Casey, Edward S., "Smooth Spaces and Rough-Edged Places: The Hidden History of Place," Review of Metaphysics 51(1997):267-296. Casey is in philosophy at the State University of New York, Stony Brook.
--Chapman, Audrey R., "The Greening of Science, Theology, and Ethics." Pages 211-227 in Peters, Ted., ed., Science and Theology: The New Consonance (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998). "The constructive thesis of this article is that a greater integration of science into eco-theology and eco-ethics could contribute significantly to the development of ecological theology (eco-theology) and ecological ethics (eco-ethics). A multi-disciplinary perspective could provide greater conceptual rigor, concreteness, and relevance to these specializations. A scientific grounding is essential if eco-theology and eco-ethics are to understand and come to terms with what is happening to the planet as a basis for formulating an appropriate theological response. Humanity's spiritual life and future depend, not so much on an exhortation to lead a sustainable and develop a sustainable society, but on learning what makes for sustainability and wrestling with the difficult theological, moral, social, and environmental issues it raises" (pp. 212-213). Chapman is program director for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dialogue between Science and Religion, Washington, DC.
--Chicago Wilderness: Exploring Nature and Culture. This might seem an oxymoron, but in fact Chicago Wilderness is a magazine and movement with surprising success--so successful that other cities are imitating the program. There are over 220,000 acres of nature preserves in the Chicago area, and more in the region. Several dozen organizations cooperate in educating Chicago people to appreciate the nature and natural history in the region--bird migrants, wildflowers, wetlands, trails, Lake Michigan, the sand dunes. Contact Chicago Wilderness, P. O. Box 268, Downer's Grove, IL 60515-0268.
--Comstock, Gary L., "Is it Unnatural to Genetically Engineer Plants?" Weed Science 46(1998):647- 651. Eight arguments against genetic engineering of plants are considered. For example: To engage in plant engineering is to play God. But the argument fails because, if so, playing God is not always a bad thing. For example: To engage in plant engineering is illegitimately to cross species boundaries. But species are regularly transmogrifying themselves to produce new species. For example: To engage in plant engineering is unnatural because it disrupts the integrity, beauty, and balance of creation. This objection has much to commend it, but it is not an intrinsic objection. Plant engineering might have such consequences, but it need not. In sum, those opposed to genetic engineering of plants will have a hard time finding justification for their case in the unnaturalness objection, and they may best help to advance the conversation by focusing instead on consequences. Comstock is in philosophy and religious studies, Iowa State University, Ames.
--Comstock, Gary L., "Research with Transgenic Animals: Obligations and Issues," Journal of BioLaw and Business 2(Autumn 1998):51-54.
--Comstock, Gary L., "Agricultural Ethics." In Craig, Edward, ed., Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998.
--DeAlwis (De Alwis), Lyn, "Origins, Evolution, and Present Status of th Protected Areas of Sri Lanka," International Journal of Wilderness 5(no. 2, August 1999):37-40. A generally positive picture, with over a million acreas in about 150 protected areas, by an author who has spent four decades in wildlife conservation in Sri Lanka.
--Earley, Lawrence S., "Celebrating a Conservation Classic" (Leopold's Sand County Almanac)," Wildlife in North Carolina 63 (no. 9, September 1999):14-19. Fifty years of Leopold's land ethic, with interviews with Pete Bromley and Phil Doerr, both in zoology and forestry, North Carolina State University, about whether the land ethic is being practiced in North Carolina.
--Elder, John, ed., American Nature Writers, 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996. Essays about (not by) famous American nature writers. Includes Fritzell, Peter A., "Aldo Leopold." Also some general essays, including Robertson, David, "Bioregionalism in Nature Writing."
--Elliott, Lorraine, International Environmental Politics: Protecting the Antarctic. New York: St. Martins, 1994. London: Macmillan, 1994. 336 pages.
--Elliott, Lorraine, The Global Politics of the Environment. Washington Square, NY: New York University Press, 1998. What kinds of international institutions are best suited to dealing with global environmental problems? Mainstream strategies, which seek to build support for reforms through existing institutions, and the tensions with radical critiques, which argue that environmental degradation is a symptom of a dysfunction world that must itself be transformed. Stockholm to Rio. Transboundary agendas, protecting wildlife, pollution across borders. Global commons of atmosphere, climate, biodiversity, forests. The state and global institutions. Non-state actors. Voices from the margins: women and indigenous peoples. North and South. Strategies for sustainable development. Environmental security, the military. Elliott is in political science, Australian National University, Canberra.
--Elliott, Lorraine M., "Environmental Conflict: Reviewing the Arguments," Journal of Environment and Development 5 (no. 2, June, 1996):149-167.
--Fieser, James, ed., Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics: Contemporary and Historical Readings. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1999. 512 pages. Historically oriented. Includes section on Animal Ethics: Augustine: "Killing Plants and Animals." Aquinas, "Whether It is Unlawful to Kill Any Living Thing." Descartes: "The Automatism of Animals." Kant: "Duties Toward Animals." Regan: "The Case for Animal Rights." Machan: "Do Animals Have Rights?" Includes section on Environmental Ethics: Augustine: "Against the View that God Dwells in Plant Life." Thoreau: "Primeval Nature." Leopold: "The Land Ethic." Fieser: "An Argument Against Normative Ecocentrism." Fieser is at the University of Tennessee at Martin.
--Freyfogle, Eric T., "The Particulars of Owning," Ecology Law Quarterly 25 (no. 4, 1999);574-590. The U. S. Constitution expressly protects private property. But property rights themselves largely arise elsewhere, from independent sources, and only then gain protection from the Constitution's text. I. Property and the popular will. II. Levels of community. III. Private property and public policy. IV. Coda: Valuing the particulars. A new trend is to tailor property rights to the land, often misinterpreted as an attack on property rights, but in fact protecting the core values of property, which depend in part on land itself. Freyfogle teaches law at the University of Illinois.
--Freyfogle, Eric T., "Owning the Land: Four Contemporary Narratives," Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law 13(no. 2, Spring 1998):279-307. 1. The Libertarian ideal of autonomy. 2. The traditional understanding focused on economic opportunity. 3. A community-centered narrative that understands property as an evolving tool to meet community needs. 4. A biocentric narrative that looks to the land itself to prescribe the rules on how it can be used. A memorable expression of the last is Just v. Marinette County, a wetlands decision. The Court said: "An owner of land has no absolute and unlimited right to change the essential natural character of his land so as to use it for a purpose for which it was unsuited in its natural state and which injures the rights of others" (cited, p. 320).
--Frodeman, Robert, and Mitcham, Carl, "Geophilosophy: Philosophers and Geoscientists Thinking Together on the Future of the Earth Sciences," GSA Today (monthly newsletter of the Geological Society of America) 9(no. 7, July, 1999):18-19. Report on a workshop held in Boulder, CO, March 1999, funded by the National Science Foundation, of fifteen environmental philosophers meeting with geologists. Another report is in the Hastings Center Report, May-June, 1999, pp. 47-48.
--Gaskell, George, et al., "Worlds Apart? The Reception of Genetically Modified Foods in Europe and the U.S.," Science 285(1999):384-387. There are radical differences in public reception of genetically modified foods, generally rejected in Europe and the U.K., often on moral grounds, while people in the U.S. are generally untroubled by them. Why?
--Gobster, Paul H., "An Ecological Aesthetic for Forest Management," Landscape Journal 18 (no. 1, spring 1999):54-64. "Although aesthetics and ecological sustainability are two highly regarded values of forest landscapes, practices developed to manage forests for these values can sometimes conflict with one another. I argue that such conflicts are rooted in our conception of forest aesthetics as scenery, and propose that a normative "ecological aesthetic" based on the writings of Aldo Leopold and others could help resolve conflicts between aesthetic and sustainability values. I then offer suggestions on how we might advance an ecological aesthetic in policy and planning programs, on-the-ground management, and research and theory development in landscape aesthetics." Gobster is a research social scientists with tue USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station.
--Grove, Richard H., Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens, and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995, 1997. Grove is at the Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
--Harmon, William J., McKinney, Matthew J., and Burchfield, James A., "Public Involvement and Dispute Resolution Courses in Natural Resources Schools," Journal of Forestry 97(no.9, Sept. 1999):17- . In recent years employers have consistently identified leadership in working with the public and the ability to resolve conflict over natural resources as skills they seek in new employees. Have our universities been listening?
--Hogan, Tim, Review of J. Baird Callicott and Michael P. Nelson, The Great New Wilderness Debate. The Bloomsbury Review, July/August 1999, p. 19. "Read these essays, go for a long walk, and think deeply about what the presence of wild nature in these times might mean."
--Huttermann (Hüttermann), Aloys, The Ecological Message of the Torah: Knowledge, Concepts, and Laws which Made Survival in a Land of "Milk and Honey" Possible. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1999. 272 pages. The Hebrew Bible was written by authors who had a very modern idea of basic biology and a deep insight into the functioning of fragile ecosystems. To relate the Hebrews to their landscape, they did not rely on general feelings of benevolence but developed a cogent system of laws that precisely governing their handling of natural resources. The Israelites established a highly productive sustained agriculture under the rather adverse conditions of a "land of milk and honey." Hüttermann is Director of the Institut für Forstbotanik of the University of Göttingen.
--Jones, Charles, Global Justice: Defending Cosmopolitanism. New York: Oxford University Press. The fundamental question of international distributive justice is: What obligations do the world's wealthy people have to ensure that the world's poor achieve a quality of life that is recognizably human? The relative merits of the utilitarian, human rights, and neo-Kantian perspectives. Nationalist, patriotic, relativist, and constitutivist challenges to universalism. Jones defends a form of cosmopolitanism involving a commitment to basic human rights, which can guide disputes about global justice. The moral case for change in the international system. Jones is in political science, University of Western Ontario.
--Kloor, Keith, "Lynx and Biologists Try to Recover After Disastrous Start," Science 285(1999):320- 321. A Science story on the troubled effort to bring lynx back to Colorado, mired in controversy after five animals starved to death this year. Some think the risk justified; some think it bad science; some think it morally wrong, putting the lynx to unjustified risk and suffering.
--Knight, Richard L., Smith, Frederick W., Buskirk, Steven W., Romme, William H., and Baker, William L., eds., Forest Fragmentation in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1999. Human and natural factors that fragment forests, and the implications for conservation.
--Lafferty, William M., Meadowcroft, James, eds. Democracy
and the Environment: Problems and Prospects. Cheltenham, U.K.
& Brookfield, U.S.: Edward Elgar, 1996. 276 pp. Contains:
--Lafferty, William M. and Meadowcroft, James, "Democracy and the Environment: Congruence and Conflict--Preliminary Reflections," pages 1-17.
--Paehlke, Robert, "Environmental Challenges to Democratic Practice," pages 18-38.
--Witherspoon, Sharon, "Democracy, the Environment and Public Opinion in Western Europe," pages 39-70.
--Janicke, Martin, "Democracy as a Condition for Environmental Policy Success: The Importance of Non-Institutional Factors," pages 71-85.
--Taylor, Bob Pepperman, "Democracy and Environmental Ethics," pages 86-107.
--Dryzek, John S., "Strategies of Ecological Democratization," pages 108-123.
--Dobson, Andrew, "Representative Democracy and the Environment," pages 124-139.
--Oriordan (O'Riordan), Timothy, "Democracy and the Sustainability Transition," pages 140-156.
--Achterberg, Wouter, "Sustainability and Associative Democracy," pages 157-174.
--Glasbergen, Pieter, "Learning to Manage the Environment," pages 175-193.
--Fiorino, Daniel J., "Environmental Policy and the Participation Gap," pages 194-212.
--Baker, Susan, "Environmental Policy in the European Union: Institutional Dilemmas and Democratic Practice," pages 213-233.
--Bichsel, Anne, "NGOs as Agents of Public Accountability and Democratization in Intergovernmental Forums" pages 234-255.
--Lafferty, William M. and Meadowcroft, James, "Democracy and the Environment: Prospects for Greater Congruence," pages 256-272.
Lafferty is in political science, University of Oslo. Meadowcroft is at the Oxford Centre for Environment, Ethics and Society.
--Light, Andrew, "An Environmental Ethic for Ecological
Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 9(no. 3, September 1998):20-24. Introduction to a symposium on Steven Vogel's Against Nature: The Concept of Nature in Critical Theory (SUNY Press, 1998). Includes contributions by Lorenzo Simpson, Alan Rudy, David Maccauley and Vogel.
--Light, Andrew, ed., Ecosystem Health (Blackwell Science),
vol. 4, no. 3, September 1998, theme issue: "Environmental
Ethics and Environmental Risk Management." Includes:
--Light, Andrew, "Environmental Ethics and Environmental Risk: Expanding the Scope of Ecosystem Health" An argument for why environmental pragmatism
can be used as a bridge between environmental ethics and environmental risk
management. Includes a critique of the debate on the merits of pragmatism
in this journal between Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Baird Callicott, and
--Hood, Robert, "The Very Idea of Ecosystem Health"
--Tal, Alon, "Beyond the Rhetoric of Premeditated Murder: Towards A Rational and Compassionate Environmentalist Perspective About The Ethics of Risk Assessment"
--Boetzkes, Elisabeth, "Gender, Risk, and Scientific Proceduralism."
--Magnuson, Jon, "Great Lakes, Troubled Waters," Christian Century 116(no. 25, Sept. 22-29, 1999):902-905. The Great Lakes basin, populated by over 40 million people, is at the center of a collision of economic interests and environmental politics. Authorities are reluctantly acknowledging that the lakes have been polluted by economic interests, to the point of jeopardizing human health. "It's not the water of the Great Lakes we finally have to worry about. It is ourselves." Magnuson, a Lutheran pastor, is a member of the Lake Superior Binational Forum, of the International Joint Commission of Canada and the United States.
--McClelland, Linda Flint, Building the National Parks: Historic Landscape Design and Construction. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. 656 pages. $ 30, paper.
--McElroy, Susan Chernak, Animals as Guides for the Soul. New York: Ballantine Books (Random House), 1998.
--McElroy, Susan Chernak, Animals as Teachers and Healers. New York: Ballantine Books (Random House), 1996, 1997. A New York Times bestseller. McElroy lives on a farm in Wyoming.
--Metzner, Ralph, Green Psychology: Cultivating a Spiritual Connection with the Natural World. Inner Traditions International Ltd., 1999. Our ecocatastrophe results from the religions of Western civilization ceasing to be based on living harmoniously with the earth, and seeking dominion over nature instead of partnership. This created a pathology; we are disrespecting and destroying what sustains the human spirit. Deep ecology and ecofeminism are evidence of the human ability to return to the earth and bond spirit to nature. Metzner is a psychotherapist at the California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco.
--Mitcham, Carl, ed., Banchetti-Robino, Marina Paola, Marrietta,
Jr., Don E., and Embree, Lester, guest eds., Research in Philosophy
and Technology: Volume 18, Philosophies of the Environment and
Technology. Stamford, Connecticut: JAI Press, 1999. 376pp. $ 78,
hardbound only. Expensive, but there is a lot in it. Only Parts
I and II are relevant here.
Part I. Philosophies of the Environment and Technology
--Callicott, J. Baird, "After the Industrial Paradigm, What?", pp. 13-25. "A human economy shifting from industrial production and consumption of material objects to postindustrial production and consumption of information will be better adapted to the natural environment" (p. 25).
--Ihde, Don, "Phil-Tech Meets Eco-Phil: The Environment," pp. 27-38. The relationships between philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy, with the aim of redirecting concerns that should unite these two disciplines.
--Hickman, Larry, "Green Pragmatism: Reals Without Realism, Ideals Without Idealism," pp. 39-56. John Dewey's critique of technology sheds much light on some of the issues now debated within environmental philosophy. Dewey advanced a broad critique of technological culture, and was also an evolutionary naturalist who rejected the extremes of scientific realism on the one hand and romantic idealizations of nature on the other.
--Marietta, Don E., Jr., "Decisions Regarding Technology: The Human Factor," pp. 57-72. "We have good reasons for not using certain technologies, either because they are harmful to the natural environment for us to tolerate their use, or because they are harmful to humans, either individual humans or human groups" (p. 58).
--Casey, Timothy, "Architecture As Environmental Philosophy." "It is the built environment that establishes the cultural context within which utensils and tools are employed and nature is first uncovered." Using "architecture" in this broad sense, any kind of building by which humans open up places and situate themselves in their world, a people's architecture is "an ethos that establishes their place in the world. It is in such places that we first discover the environment and hence the `place' of nature in our lives" (p. 74).
--Robino, (Banchetti-Robino), Marina Paola, "Hermeneutic Technics: The Case of Nuclear Reactors," pp. 85-94. "The purpose of this paper ... is ... to examine phenomenologically the nature of the relation between the operator of a nuclear reactor and the instruments through which this operator gains information about the nuclear pile by focusing specifically on what went wrong" (pp. 85-86).
--Frodeman, Robert, "The Rebirth of Gaia and the Closure of Homo Technologicus," pp. 95-113. "A geological reading of the close of modernity and the advent of a postmodern era, ... by tracing the changing relationship between technology and nature. Since the industrial revolution, geology has been predominantly an economic discipline, supplying the raw materials for a technological way of life. In the future, the central role of the earth sciences will be political, helping to define the limits that individuals and communities must life within in order to flourish. ... On this reading the earth sciences become narrative sciences." (p. 95).
--Embree, Lester, "Personal Environmental Phenomenology, or the Examination of Electric Vehicle Technology," pp. 115-130. The environmental case for electric vehicles, and the phenomenological justification for driving an electric vehicle.
--Ferré, Frederick, "On Matter and Machines: An Environmental Speculation," pp. 131-142. "`Materialism,' though avidly pursued, is yet widely subjected to scorn." Wherein lies the conflict? "The alienation between matter and spirit, matter and mind, matter and purpose, though a deep historical reality in our modern worldview, is not a theoretical necessity" (p. 113). "The matter with matter, as depicted in the dominant modern worldview and as incorporated in our culture's characteristic technologies, is that it leaves out too much that is important and true. It leaves out quality. It leaves out adventure. It leaves out society. It leaves out mind and purpose and value. But this need not be the case, and should not long continue" (p. 141).
--Rolston, Holmes III, "A Managed Earth and the End of Nature?", pp. 143-164. Humans increasingly see themselves as the planetary mangers, regionally if not globally. Perhaps nature is at an end? All culturally intended activity modifies spontaneous wild nature. Nature widely bears the marks of human transforming, although there remains also much relatively undisturbed nature. Some respond that evolutionary and ecosystemic natural history has been overtaken by human engineering. Others seek a revised account by which human activity is, or should be, natural. The idea(l) of nature, absent humans, ought to be replaced with an idea(l) in which the human presence is also natural. A postmodern claim is that humans have never known, and cannot know, nature as it is itself. Wild nature is ended, because we now know that nature always wears for us a human face. But nature neither is, or ought to be, ended. Although humans belong on Earth; we do not have and do not want an entirely managed, humanized nature. Nature ought also be an end in itself.
Part II. A Symposium on Michael Zimmerman's Contesting Earth's Future.
--Davion, Victoria, "Zimmerman on Feminism, Truth and Objectivity."
--Maskit, Jonathan, "`All in Post': On Michael Zimmermann's Contesting Earth's Future."
--Vogel, Steven, "On Michael Zimmerman's Contesting Earth's Future."
--Zimmerman, Michael E., "Recognizing the Limits of Contesting Earth's Future."
--Nadkarni, Nolini M, ed. Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 560 pp. $52, paper; $104, cloth A guide to one of the most beloved ecotourist destinations in the world. Prominent researchers present a broad introduction to the biology of Monteverde.
--Norton, Bryan G., "Change, Constancy, and Creativity:
The New Ecology and Some Old Problems," Duke Environmental
Law and Policy Forum 7(1996):49-70. "How are we to conceptualize
the rich mix of change and constancy that we encounter in the
world of experience?" "The New Ecology emphasizes change
and dynamism in ecological systems, claiming that ecology has
under-emphasized these features of natural systems. ... (T)he
readiness of ecologists to embrace equilibrium theories and to
find constancy in ecology events may have deep--perhaps even nonrational--sources.
Equilibrium theories may not be empirical theories at all, but
rather may represent pre-theoretical assumptions, which are perhaps
rooted in a deep, psychological need for stability in the face
of threatening changes. ... The intellectual question then becomes
one of how to characterize stability and how to reconcile it with
the empirically obvious change we experience everywhere. ...
Old Ecologists over-emphasized grand and speculative theory while New Ecologists pay less attention to general principles of ecosystem organization and study particular, local ecological interactions and their outcomes. ... (But) New Ecologists, actiing in reaction to the prior over-emphasis on the grand theory of stability in ecological systems, sometimes over-emphasize the importance of change in ecological systems. ... It is not a good idea to pose the question of change versus stability in nature as if there may be an all-or-nothing answer, as if it might turn out that the world is either entirely changing or entirely stable. ... The truth surely is somewhere in between" (pp. 49-55, passim). Norton is in philosophy and public policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
--Nunez, Theodore W., Holmes Rolston, Bernard Lonergan, and
the Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Ph.D. Thesis, 1999, Catholic
University of America, Washington. The ecophilosophy of Holmes
Rolston in dialogue with the thought of Canadian Jesuit philosopher
Bernard Lonergan in an attempt to clarify and develop the foundations
of a contemporary environmental ethic.
Part I. An interpretive analysis of Rolston's major writings. His meta-ethical positions in the areas of epistemology, metaphysics, axiology, and philosophical anthropology. Rolston's interpretive natural history and its relation to his theology of nature. Rolston defends a critical-realist epistemology as the meta-ethical basis for a science-based, ecocentric ethic. His most important epistemological claim is that human beings are capable of worldview-formation, moral oversight, and planetary altruism.
Part II. Aspects of Lonergan's philosophy relevant to environmental ethics: cognitional theory, transcendental method, and critical-realist epistemology. Cognitive and moral objectivity is the fruit of authentic subjectivity. Lonergan's theory of emergent probability and the related notions of development and finality. Lonergan's dialectic of progress, decline, and redemption in history and society. Lonergan's view of the humanity-nature relationship clarified and developed by drawing on Robert Doran's related notions of an ecological differentiation of consciousness, an integral dialectic of culture, and psychic conversion.
Part III. In a mutually critical dialogue between Rolston and Lonergan on foundational issues in environmental ethics, each thinker complements and corrects the other in several ways. (1) Critical realism offers the most adequate epistemological grounding for environmental ethics. (2) Meeting the eco-social crisis requires a new, nonanthropocentric ethic that is scientifically informed and religiously based (a theocentric ethic). (3) It is both necessary and possible for a new environmental ethic to integrate a nonanthropocentric theory of values in nature with a humanistic value theory. (4) A new ethic must include, as a central component, a character ethic informed by an evolutionary epic and a normative vision of sensitive earth residence. Nunez is now teaching ethics, including environmental ethics, at Villanova University.
--Pickett, S.T.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Shachak, M., and Likens,
G.E., eds., The Ecological Basis of Conservation. New York: Chapman
and Hall, 1997. Includes, for example:
--Fiedler, Peggy L., White, Peter S., and Leidy, Robert A., "The Paradigm Shift in Ecology and Its Implications for Ecology," pages 83-91. (1) New ecology does not find some species better adapted than others; it is more egalitarian about species. (2) Habitat fragmentation is more complex than ecologists had envisioned. (3) Ecology as a science is not methodologically equivalent to the sciences of chemistry, physics, mathematics; but this does not mean ecology is a soft science. (4) The profound complexity of the natural world and the possibility of studying one small piece of the puzzle does not guarantee that the results will be generalizable to a similar piece next door. (5) Just as the individual is the fundamental unit in evolution, the population is the fundamental unit in conservation.
--Leopold, A. Carl, "The Land Ethic of Aldo Leopold," pages 193-200.
--Zedler, Joy B., "Conservation Activism: A Proper Role for Academics?", pages 345-350.
--Wiens, John A., "The Emerging Role of Patchiness in Conservation Biology," pages 93-107. "The `patchiness paradigm' in ecology, if it exists at all, is a very nebulous one without a cohesive body of theory to guide research or management. Nevertheless, we know that the patchiness of environments cannot be ignored" (p. 106).
--Pojman, Louis P., ed., Life and Death: A Reader in Moral Problem, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2000. Section X is on "Animal Rights." Kant, Peter Singer, R. G. Frey, Tom Regan, Robert White, Carl Cohen, James Rachels. Pojman is at the West Point Military Academy.
--Portney, Paul R., and Weyant, John P., eds., Discounting and Intergenerational Equity. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1999. 224 pages. $ 33 hardback. The contributor economists generally embrace discounting for evaluating projects with timeframes of forty years or less, with the discount rate to reflect the opportunity costs of capital. But beyond the forty year mark, much discomfort sets in. Very large costs to the future are worth nothing today. In fact, using the 7 percent discount rate that the Office of Management and Budget recommends for such purposes, the present inhabitants of Earth should not spend more than $ 2 each today to prevent the loss of the entire gross domestic product (GDP) of the whole world two hundred years from now. Several contributors doubt that standard cost-benefit analysis is useful at all for problems with significant intergenerational consequences. A major problem is climate change; the usual discounting warrants spending rather little today to prevent great losses to future persons. Portney is president of Resources for the Future; Weyant is in engineering-economic systems at Stanford University.
--Quammen, David, "Planet of Weeds," Harper's 297(no. 1781, October 1998):57-69. Tallying the losses of Earth's animals and plants, inmixed with an interview with David Jablonski, paleontologist at the University of Chicago. Five major extinctions in evolutionary history. Efforts today to estimate probable extinctions. "The consensus among conscientious biologists is that we're headed into another mass extinction, a vale of biological impoverishment commensurate with the big five" (pp. 58-59). Mathematical models will prove partially wrong, but importantly onto huge losses of biodiversity. Escalating populations, escalating consumption, human relocation of species deliberately and accidentally, will leave us with a planet of weeds.
--Radosevich, Steven, "Weed Ecology and Ethics," Weed Science 46(1998):642-646. Environmental ethical issues have dominated discussions among weed scientists for years, for example the decade long debate over 2,4,4-T use in forestry. Because weeds are a conqsequence of how we grow food, the sutdy of both ecological and human components of agroecosystems should allow weed scientists to construct management strategies that more fully address the production, environmental, and social implications of weeds and weeding. Radosevich is in forestry, Oregon State University.
--Randolph, Richard O., "Environmental Ethics and Its Implications for a Hierarchy of Sciences," CTNS (Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences) Bulletin 18 (no. 4, Fall 1998):2-9. The next step in the development of environmental ethics, especially from a Christian perspective, is a richer, more complete integration of the natural and social sciences. Aldo Leopold is already prophetic here, arguing that in a genuine environmental ethic humans must see themselves as members and participants within the biological community, discovered by the natural sciences, as well as within the social community, in which the governing forces are politics, technology, engineering, economics. Randolph is a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley.
--Rollin, Bernard E., The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain, and Science. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1998. Expanded edition of a book first published by Oxford University Press, 1989.
--Rollin, Bernard E., An Introduction to Veterinary Medical Ethics. Ames, IA: Iowa State University press, 1999. 434 pages. Theory and method of making sound decisions about ethical matters commonly encountered by veterinarians and researchers. Includes 82 case studies, originally shared in the ethics columns of The Canadian Veterinary Journal. Questions and commentary. Rollin is in philosophy at Colorado State University, where he teaches veterinary medical ethics.
--Ross, Stephen David, The Gift of Kinds: An Ethic of the Earth. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999. Kinds in the natural world and their contribution to human life, also with its diversity in gender, race, class, and nationality. Natural and human kinds as requisite to any thought of heterogeneity and any resistance to neutrality, developed in relation to ecological and environmental issues. Kinds are interpreted as intermediary figures between histories of domination and celebrations of responsibility, between essentialism and identity politics. Ross is in philosophy and comparative literature, State University of New York, Binghamton.
--Rothenberg, David, "Soul of the Wilderness: Who Needs Philosophy?" International Journal of Wilderness 5(no. 2, August 1999):4-8. What philosophy can do strengthening arguments for wilderness. Against Cronon and Callicott, whose arguments against wilderness are confused, we ought to save wilderness and need the wilderness concept. "`Wilderness' is probably not the most important way humanity should look at nature, though it is one of many important ways we can relate to the world around us." 1. Wilderness is not an idea that all peoples in all cultures have needed, but we modern peoples need the idea. 2. Wilderness is not everything, its preservation has never been the only goal of the environmental movement, or even the most important goal." 3. "Wilderness does imply conflict between nature and people. ... Setting a place aside as wilderness does take it out of the marketplace, and whether we like it or not, this often sets it against the interests of people who live nearby and have had to earn their living from the land." Rothenberg is in philosophy at New Jersey Institute of Technology.
--Rothenberg, David, "Who Needs Wild Philosophy?" International Journal of Wilderness 5 (no. 2, August) 1999:4-8. www.ijw.org
--Samson, Fred B., and Knopf, Fritz L., eds., Prairie Conservation: Preserving North America's Most Endangered Landscape. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1996.
--Schroeder, Richard A., "Geographies of Environmental Intervention in Africa," Progress in Human Geography 23(no. 3, 1999):359- .
--Seddon, George, Landprints: Reflections on Place and Landscape.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Essays. Examples:
"The nature of Nature," "Sense of place,"
"The genius loci and the Australian landscape," "The
rhetoric and ethics of the environmental protest movement,"
and "The perfectibility of nature (A review of John Passmore,
Man's Responsibility for Nature)." His conclusion about "the
nature of Nature": "Whether or not there is a world
out there independent of our perceptions of it, we cannot escape
the variability of those perceptions. The ways in which we perceive,
imagine, conceptualise, image, verbalise, relate to, behave towards
the natural world are the product of cultural conditioning and
individual variation" (p. 13). A further conclusion: "Our
ethical and our aesthetic pronouncements are probably the most
suspect from our present point of view."
One wonders if this statement is self-referential when he also concludes, about environmental ethics: "The despoliation of land is wrong ... But why is it wrong? Surely because it is an infringement of the rights of later generations, and not because the land has some mystical rights of its own. We must take the custodial view. ... It is my feelings that matter, and if they are mean, it is I or my grandchildren who suffer" (p. 197). Seddon is an Australian academic and environmentalist who has variously worked in English, Philosophy, Geology, History, and Philosophy of Science.
--Soule (Soulé), Michael E., and Terborgh, John, eds., Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999. 227 pages. Reflects efforts of The Wildlands Project to think big about conservation. "The goal is to restore, over large portions of the continent, the abiotic and biotic processes that sustain biodiversity. Essential processes include fire and flooding that shape the physical environment, predation, [and] movements such as migration and dispersal. ... Beyond science, what we need most is the political will to succeed in an exciting venture that will ensure a better future for all." Reviewed by Bill McKibben, New York Review of Books 46 (no. 13, Aug. 12, 1999):44-45.
--Specter, Michael, "The Dangerous Philosopher (Peter
Singer)" The New Yorker, Sept. 6, 1999, pp. 46-55. Peter
Singer has become director of the Princeton University Center
for Human Values, but not without controversy. He couldn't be
located in the philosophy department, and the biology department
had reservations. Perhaps not without some warrant, since he is
said to be "the most controversial philosopher alive."
But this is not so much for his ethical views on animals as his
views on people, which critics complain is a reckless utilitarianism.
Singer argues that the two-thousand year old system of ethics
protecting the sanctity of life has collapsed and that "it
is ridiculous to pretend that the old ethics still make sense
when plainly they do not." He argues that a human life is
not necessarily more sacred than a dog's, and that it might be
more compassionate to carry out experiments on seriously disabled,
unconscious orphans than on rats. He argues that parents should
kill a disabled infant if they can replace it with one who will
"Singer's philosophy condemns people for caring more about their families than about strangers." "Singer believes we are obliged to give money away until our sacrifice is of comparable moral importance to the agony of people starving to death. ... One should reduce oneself to very nearly the material circumstances of a Bengali refugee." He also holds "that heroin should be legal since its prohibition has done more harm than good."
Critics also argue that no one can live by Singer's ethics, including Singer himself, since, although he lives modestly and is charitable, has daughters who live comfortably as beneficiaries of a trust fund. Singer's mother, tragically, is in the advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease, and he has employed, with compassion, a team of health care aides to look after her. Critics say that he is doing the right thing, but that this cannot be justified with Singer's professed ethics.
One Princeton alumnus wrote that, although Singer complains that moral degeneration in the U.S. is worse than anywhere else, in fact Singer's appointment at Princeton is a symptom of, not a cure for, this moral degeneration! On the first day of classes at Princton, 250 protesters rallied at Princeton's main administration building. Some disabled persons handcuffed their wheelchairs together to block two doors of Nassau Hall, keeping administrators out of their offices until early afternoon. Campus police officers removed the handcuffs and arrested 14 protesters, who were charged with trespassing and disorderly conduct. Steve Forbes, a Republican Presidential candidate who is on Princeton's Board of Trustees, announced that he would not give money to the university until it rescinded Mr. Singer's appointment.
See also Will, George F., "Life and Death at Princeton," Newsweek, September 13, 1999, pp. 80, 82. Will comments that Singer will stimulate serious reflection, and be largely unpersuasive. "Singer does not deny that killing a fetus involves killing life. But he says some infanticide is not even as important as, say, killing a happy cat." George Will himself has a child with Down's syndrome, a child that, in the early stages of its life, Singer might have recommended replacing with another, normal child.
Meanwhile Singer's Practical Ethics has sold 120,000 copies, the best selling book ever published by Cambridge University Press.
--Stearns, Beverly Peterson, and Stearns, Stephen C., Watching, from the Edge of Extinction. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999. A sampling of a dozen endangered species and the almost incredible complexity of efforts to save them. Key issues: competing views as to the rationale for endangered species protection, financial constraints, politics that engender unwanted results, and the politics of conservation biology.
--Steeves, H. Peter, ed., Animal Others: On Ethics, Ontology, and Animal Life. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999. 294 pages. Paper, $ 18.00. Eleven contributors, exploring the status of animals from the continental philosophy perspective. The moral status of animals, animal minds, understanding what it is to be an animal, and what it is to be with an animal. The role animals play in the work of philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty, and Derrida. Steeves is in philosophy at DePaul University.
--Styles, John, The Animal Creation: Its Claims on Our Humanity Stated and Enforced. Originally published: London: T. Ward, 1849. Reprint edition: Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellon Press, 1997. With an introduction by Comstock, Gary L.
--Tammemagi, Hans. The Waste Crisis: Landfills, Incinerators, and the Search for a Sustainable Future. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 288 pp. $24. The magnitude and complexity of the waste management in North America, focusing on municipal wastes and placing them in the perspective of other wastes such as hazardous, biochemical, and radioactive debris. Also the components of an integrated waste management program, including recycling, composting, landfills, and waste incinerators, and the scientific and engineering principles underlying these technologies.
--Terborgh, John, Requiem for Nature. Washington, DC: Island
Press, 1999. 234 pages. Some chapter titles: Paradise Fading;
The Danger Within; Protecting Biodiversity; Preserving Biodiversity
for Posterity; From Wildlands to Wasteland: Land Use and the Mirage
of Sustainable Development; Why Conservation in the Tropics is
Failing; Hard Choices in the Twenty-First Century; Nature, a Global
Commons. Ecoprospecting and ecotourism are unlikely to help much,
nor are "extractive reserves" where natives harvest
nuts and resins. Nor is sustainable development, given the pressures
of overpopulation and aggressive capitalism.
We should focus on "functional government that is capable of making things happen on the ground." The U.S. example of federal lands, abused though these often are, is as promising model as any for third-world nations--if and only if there is government with integrity. Further, parks and reserves will often need to be uninhabited, even areas that were long inhabited by indigenous peoples, since the modern ones have chainsaws and guns, and escalating numbers. "Nature can be saved, but only through a thoughtful combining of good science and strong institutions. Right now, much of the world benefits from neither. We have a long way to go before anyone can feel comfortable about the future of nature. And there is no time to lose in getting on with the journey." Terborgh is a tropical biologist and ornithologist at the Duke University Center for Tropical Conservation.
Reviewed by Bill McKibben, New York Review of Books 46 (no. 13, Aug. 12, 1999):44-45, who quarrels with Terborgh's exclusion of people from reserves, citing the Adirondack mountain park in New York, where he lives, as a better model.
--Thiele, Leslie Paul. Environmentalism for a New Millennium: The Challenge of Coevolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 336 pp. $28. Coevolutionary thought and action grounded in the interdependence of humans and nature in a global context. With the goal of sustainable development in mind, contemporary environmentalists argue that human livelihoods must be integrated into complex and evolving ecological systems. This affirmation of coevolutionary interdependence has brought coherence to an inherently diverse social movement.
--Torrance, Robert M., ed., Encompassing Nature: A Sourcebook. Nature and Culture from Ancient Times to the Modern World. Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1998. Paper, 1999. $ 25.00. A huge anthology, 1,224 pages. Children's stories; tribal ritual and myth, aboriginal peoples, the Hebrew Bible, Mesopotamia, India, China, Japan, Classical Greece, the Hellenistic World and Rome, Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, 17th and 18th century British thought. Ends at the turn of the 19th century. Three thousand years of "nature writing." Torrance teaches comparative literature at the University of California, Davis, and is a founding member of the Nature and Culture Program there.
--Turner, John A., "A Realizable Renewable Energy Future," Science 285(1999):687-689. A choice in energy policy is whether to continue to burn fossil fuels and find technologies to sequestrate the CO2, or to find alternative, renewable energy sources. The former is rather like discovering that smoking is bad for you, and taking up running for exercise, while continuing smoking. A more intelligent choice is available renewable energy. Taylor is with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. In a series of articles on "Powering the Next Century" in this issue of Science.
--Turpin, Jennifer, and Lorentzen, Lois Ann, eds., The Gendered
New World Order: Militarism, Development and the Environment.
New York: Routledge, 1996. Includes:
--Elliott, Lorraine M., "Women, Gender, Feminism and the Environment"
--Vasilenko, L. I., "Ecological Ethics, from Naturalism to Philosophical Personalism" (in Russian), Voprosy Filsofii (Questions of Philosophy), Issue 3, 1995, pages 37-42.
--Weaver, David B. Ecotourism in the Less Developed World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 288 pp. $56. Weaver begins with three introductory chapters which provide an economic and geographic context for ecotourism in the developing world. These are followed by studies of ecotourism in Costa Rica, Kenya, Nepal, Thailand, and the Caribbean and South Pacific. The final chapter discusses common themes and patterns in the studies and relates these to strategies for the future. Weaver is at Griffiths University, Queensland, Australia.
--West, N. E., "Biodiversity of Rangelands," Journal of Range Management 46(1993):2-13.
--White, James E., ed., Contemporary Moral Problems, 6th ed.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2000. Chapter 8 is on animals:
Kant, Singer, Regan, Machan, Mary Anne Warren, Rachels. Chapter
9 is on the environment: Leopold, Callicott, Taylor, Rolston,
Vandana Shiva. The previous edition, 5th ed., 1997, had only one
section, combining animals and the environment.
White is in philosophy at St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN.
--Whyte, I. J. et al., "A New Policy for the Management of the Kruger National Park's Elephant Population," Koedoe: Research Journal, South African Parks 42/1, 1999, pages 111-132. In the midst of controversies about culling elephants, free-ranging elephants, elephant effects on vegetation, and other issues, the new policy proposes that the Kruger National Park be divided into six zones--two botanical reserves, two high-elephant-impact zones (no population reduction), and two low-elephant-impact zones (where numbers will be actively reduced). Whyte is a biologist at Kruger.
--Wiens, John, "The Emerging Role of Patchiness in Conservation Biology," Pages 93-107 in Pickett, S.T.A., et al., eds., The Ecological Basis of Conservation. New York: Chapman, 1997.
--Wiens, John A., "Toward a Unified Landscape Ecology."
Pages 148-151 (the conclusion) in Wiens, John A., and Moss, Michael
R., eds., Issues in Landscape Ecology. Guelph, Ont.: The International
Association for Landscape Ecology, 1999. A sourcebook for the
International Association for Landscape Ecology Fifth World Congress,
Snowmass Village, CO, 1999. Landscapes and culture are inseparable
in two ways. The first is that culture affects the way humans
can perceive landscapes; there is a "challenge of overcoming
our culturally conditioned perceptions of landscapes to deal with
landscapes at other scales."
"The second way that the culture-landscape linkage affects landscape ecology has to do with ethics. There is in most human cultures a deep-seated ethic about landscapes, reflecting the sense of a stewardship over the land. ... Ethics are one of the pillars of human culture, and land ethics affect both the ways in which we perceive landscapes and how we use landscapes. ... Landscapes have properties that go beyond science. ... Our science at some level reflects these ethical underpinnings." Wiens is in ecology at Colorado State University and currently president of the International Association for Landscape Ecology.
--Wilcove, David S., The Condor's Shadow: The Loss and Recovery of Wildlife in America. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1999. 339 pages. One third of the U.S. species are either endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. America's landscapes have been silently eroding for a century. A host of exotic blights and pests are wrecking landscapes and forests. Most forestry on public lands is still destructive. Nevertheless conservationists have won some victories: the national parks (usually too small to be functioning ecosystems), wilderness areas designated, the Endangered Species Act, wolves restored to Yellowstone Reviewed by Bill McKibben, New York Review of Books 46 (no. 13, Aug. 12, 1999):44-45.
--Williams, Terry Tempest, Smart, William B., and Smith, Gibbs M., New Genesis: A Mormon Reader on Land and Community. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith Publishing Co., 1998. 280 pages. The Mormon tradition and experience on the Utah landscape has more resources for a better environmental ethic than the church has usually recognized.
--Wirzba, Norman, "Caring and Working: An Agrarian Perspective," Christian Century 116(no. 25, Sept. 22-29, 1999):898-901. We need concrete practices that teach us how to accept the limits of being creatures. Agrarianism has not been adequately considered by philosophers, theologians, or scientists. The land grant universities quickly left farmers behind, in pursuit of technology. "Whereas techne is about making and controlling a world in our own image, agrarianism is about tending to or taking care of a world already given" (p. 899). Wirzba teaches philosophy at Georgetown College, Georgetown, Kentucky.
--Zimdahl, Robert L., "Ethics in Weed Science," Weed
Science 46(1998):636-639. Neither basic nor applied weed science
is value free; they are value laden. Most of these values rest
on an ethical foundation known as utilitarism. Weed scientists
believe that their work should be useful to humans and promote
the greatest good for the greatest number. They ought to enter
into public discussion about values at stake in their work. Without
embarassment, weed scientists have to learn to ask about the ethical
foundations of their science. Zimdhal is in weed science at Colorado
Yellowstone National Park considering removing "exotic" mountain goats. The National Park Service has a policy of controlling or eradicating exotic species that threaten to alter natural ecosystems in the parks. It defines an exotic as a species that was not historically present and has moved into a park due to direct or indirect human assistance. There is no credible historical evidence that mountain goats were ever present in Yellowstone Park. In the mid 1960s, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks introduced mountain goats into the Absaroka mountains just north of the Park. Descendants of these goats have migrated into the Park so that about 80 goats are now in or near the park. Although no harm has yet been observed, goats often wallow and disturb vegetation significantly. For the last twenty years Olympic National Park has been trying to remove mountain goats who pose a potential threat to endemic plant species. But nonlethal means of removal have failed and killing the goats has proven politically very hard to do.
The Yellowstone case raises interesting questions about how we should think about exotics. It is arguable that the goats' arrival should be seen as native restoration, rather than exotic introduction. There are native populations of goats in mountain ranges about 150 miles away. Could it be that these native goats would have migrated on their own into the Park by now, if human roads, fences, and so on hadn't blocked them? On the other hand, human eradication of wolves and other goat predators may have facilitated goats' success at traveling across valleys between mountain ranges. Does the fact that a native population is so close to a human introduced population count against the assumption that the introduced population is exotic? Although the Park is somewhat drier than the best mountain goat habitat, if goats thrive there does it even make sense to see them as foreign to the Park? See AP, "Yellowstone's mountain goats: Here to stay," Bozeman Daily Chronicle (10/15/99): 3.
Protecting oneself against nature by investing in weather futures. Investors can now buy weather futures on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. "Businesses are gambling on the weather anyway and this allows them to hedge their positions," says one fan of the new futures. An electric company might seek to insulate itself from a milder than normal winter or a peach grower might want to protect against a frost. Weather affects 20 percent of the $9 trillion U.S. economy. See AP, "Exchange unveils weather futures," Bozeman Daily Chronicle (9/23/99):A1.
Human population reaches 6 billion. The United Nations projected that October 12th was the day that the human population reached 6 billion. Half of these people are under age 25 and 60% live in Asia. The U.N. predicts that population will increase to somewhere between 7 and 11 billion by 2050. Currently the population is growing at a rate of 78 million a year. Almost all of this growth is in the developing world. The United States is the only industrial country where population increases are still projected, mainly as a result of immigration. To date, discussions of optimal human population size have largely ignored ethical issues regarding the justice of human appropriation of natural habitats and resources needed by other species. This appropriation is nearly total in many regions and countries.
Fertility rates worldwide have dropped from six births per woman in the 1960s to three per woman today. During the same period, the percentage of married couples in developing countries using contraception has increased from 10% to 55%. Still, 100 million married women of reproductive age in the developing world want to avoid or postpone having children and yet are not using contraception. Although the world community has pledged 17 billion a year to address problems resulting from continued rapid population growth, few countries have lived up to their pledge. In particular, the U.S. is providing less than one half of its $1 billion share for population assistance programs. The U.N. Population Fund estimates that failure to provide the agreed upon funding has resulted in 42 million unintended pregnancies, 17 million abortions, and 99,000 maternal deaths per year. See Judy Mann, "A Dire Need for Family Planning Funds," Washington Post (10/13/99): C15 and AP, "World population will reach 6 billion on 12th of October," Bozeman Daily Chronicle (9/23/99): 30.
Clinton administration attempts major forest protection. In the last year, the Clinton Administration has substantially greened the Federal government's approach to forest management. In March, the Forest Service announced an 18 month moratorium on road building in 33 million acres of the national forests. This prevents road building in most of the large roadless areas of national forests that are not already officially designated as wilderness. (34 million acres18%of the 192 million acre National Forest System has been officially designated as wilderness by Congress. Total wilderness on all federal lands is about 100 million acres.) In October, the Administration proposed new rules for managing the national forests that would place emphasis on the ecological health of the forests rather than on extraction of timber and other commercial uses. Dombeck's boss, Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman, said the new rules would return the Forest Service "to its conservationist roots" by emphasizing sustainable use of the forests. Scientific advisory boards would advise the Forest Service and forest management plans would be reviewed by outside scientists to insure that the ecological goals for the forests are met.
Timber executives fear that these proposed rules would lock in or even lower recent timber harvests which are down from a high of 12 billion board feet per year during the Reagan years to 3 billion during the Clinton administration. In response to the proposed rules, Jim Geisinger, president of the Northwest Forestry Association said: "I think where they're headed is turning the national forests into a system of biological reserves. If those regulations do become final, there's no reason not to turn over the forests to the National Park Service."
Later in October, Clinton himself announced a plan that would make the road-building moratorium in roadless areas permanent and give 40 million acres of national forest de-facto wilderness protection without going to Congress for official designation. In announcing his plan, Clinton said, "Today, we launch one of the largest land preservation efforts in America's history to protect these priceless, backcountry lands. . . . They offer unparalleled opportunities for hikers, hunters and anglers and they're absolutely critical to the survival of many endangered species. . . . It is very important to point out that we are not trying to turn the national forests into museums. . . . This initiative should have almost no effect on timber supply. Only 5 percent of our country's timber comes from the national forests. Less than 5 percent of the national forests' timber is now being cut in roadless areas. We can easily adjust our federal timber program to replace 5 percent of 5 percent, but we can never replace what we might destroy if we don't protect these 40 million acres."
Although environmentalists see these policies as a significant improvement, it remains unclear how effective they will be, since future administrations will be able to reverse the policies. For this reason, they would have been worth more in 1993 than they are in 1999. See Tom Kenworthy, "Major Change Sought In Forest Regulations," Washington Post (10/1/99): A31, Tom Kenworthy, "Clinton Readies Forest Protection Initiative, Directive Would Shield 40 Million Acres" Washington Post (10/8/99): A1, and David Sanger and Sam Howe Verhovek, "Clinton Plans Permanent Forest Protection," New York Times (10/14/99).
Environmental group endorses Bradley for U.S. President. The political action committee of Friends of the Earth endorsed Bill Bradley for President, claiming his environmental record was "far superior" to that of Al Gore. Gore, they said, failed to take the lead on environmental issues as Vice President and actually paved the way for "draconian erosions of existing environmental protection." The group gave the Clinton administration an average grade of "D" for its environmental record. See AP, "Enviro group endorses Bradley," Bozeman Daily Chronicle (9/15/99): 12.
$ 1 Billion for Environmental Science? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has a recommendation from its governing board to increase support of environmental science, following years of criticism that it pays environmental research short shrift. The recommendation increases spending from $ 600 million to $ 1.6 billion in five years. NSF Director Rita Colwell is herself an ecologist. Chair of the NSF panel that produced the report is Jane Lubchenco, Oregon State University. See Kaiser, Jocelyn, "Science Board Floats $ 1 Billion Trial Balloon," Science 285(1999):816-817.
Hawaii's Threatened Biodiversity. Legacy 2000 is a five year $ 200 million initiative to save Hawaii's biodiversity, the most threatened in the U.S. Advocates note that the U.S. is spending billions to save the Everglades, and neglecting Hawaii. See Stone, Richard, "A Plan to Save Hawaii's Threatened Biodiversity," Science 285(1999):817-818.
India and Experiments on Monkeys. Armed with a government order and escorted by police, animal activists took 50 rhesus monkeys from India's National Center for Laboratory Animal Sciences in Hyderabad and released them into the wild. The monkeys were to have been used in testing a potential drug against immune disorders. India has new regulations on the care of animals used in research, and the laboratory was not meeting those standards. Researchers protest that half of India's research of this kind could be shut down. See brief story, Bagla, Pallava, "50 Monkeys Taken from Indian Lab," Science 285(1999):997.
Sharp drop in soil erosion rates? A detailed study, including data across 140 years, shows much erosion earlier, but a sharp decline in recent years. From the 1970's to the 1990's sedimentation rates dropped to just 6% of their earlier peak, owing to better farming practices. But others say the study area is not typical of the United States as a whole, especially not of the western U. S. See Trimble, Stanley W., "Decreased Rates of Alluvial Sediment Storage in the Coon Creek Basin, Wisconsin, 1975-1993," Science 285(1999):1244-1246; Glanz, James, "Sharp Drop Seen in Soil Erosion Rates," Science 285(1999):1187-1188.
"End Welfare Ranching," reads one of a series of full page ads coordinated by the Turning Point Project, on the extinction crisis, New York Times, October 4, 1999, p. A13. "U.S. taxpayers are subsidizing a small group of `welfare ranchers,' to raise cattle on PUBLIC LANDS. Because you pay, these ranchers can feed 600 pound cows for less than it costs to feed your parakeet. Worse, these lands are utterly unsuited for livestock grazing, the environmental damage is extreme."
Thanks to Ned Hettinger (College of Charleston) and Holmes Rolston III (Colorado State University) for this issue's news clips.
Africa: Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Phone: 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: email@example.com.
Australia and New Zealand: William Grey, Department of Philosophy, University of Queensland, 4067, Queensland AUSTRALIA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
China (Mainland): Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.
Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taichung,
Taiwan 40704. Email: email@example.com. Phones: 886-4-3595622
office; 886-4-3590991 home.
Eastern Europe: Jan Wawrzyniak. Department of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Phone: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8430309. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: http://appliedphilosophy.mtsu.edu/ISEE/JanWaw/index.html.
Western Europe and the Mediterranean: Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS. Office phone: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751. Fax: 31-24-3615564. E-mail:email@example.com. Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html. Home address: vt Santstraat 122, 6523 BJ Nijmegen. Home phone: +31 (country) - 24 (city) - 3238397.
Mexico and Central America: Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana- Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacan y Purissima s/n, 09340 Mexico D.F., MEXICO. Phone: (5) 637 14 24 (home), (5) 724 47 77 (office). Fax: (5) 724 47 78. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pakistan and South Asia: Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Phone: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: email@example.com.
South America: Ricardo Rozzi, Institute of Ecological Research Chiloe, Chile, and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile.
United Kingdom: KeeKok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Phone and Fax: +44 (0)161 275 3196. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
United States: Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424 USA. Phone: 843-953-5786; 843-883-9201 (home). Fax: 843-953-6388. E-mail: HettingerN@CofC.edu). Address July 1999 to August 2000: 416 W. College, Bozeman, MT 59715. Phone: 406-522-9676.
Holmes Rolston, III, Dept. of Philosophy, Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Phone: 970-491-6315 (Office).
Fax: 970-491-4900. Email: email@example.com.
ISEE Newsletter Submissions
Starting with the Fall 1999 issue, the new ISEE newsletter
editor is Philip Cafaro. Address: Department of Philosophy, Colorado
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