Volume 10, No. 2, Summer 1999


General Announcements

ISEE Members. See announcement at the end of the Newsletter regarding conducting a second election of a treasurer, due to irregularities in the previous election. See also announcement regarding the election and appointment of members of the nominating committee.

"Questioning Natural Spaces and Their Aesthetic Appreciation." A session on this theme was co-sponsored by the Canadian Society for Aesthetics, the Canadian Society for the Study of European Ideas, and the Society for Philosophy and Geography and took place in conjunction with the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Canada at Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, June 4, 1999. The convener and chair: Thomas Heyd (Philosophy, University of Victoria). theyd@uvvm.uvic.ca.
Speakers:
--David Nemeth (Geography and Planning, University of Toledo) and Deborah Keirsey (Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University), "Elaboration on the Nature of Woody Debris: An Ethical Snag in the Aesthetic Justification for Organized River Cleanup"
--Ken Gatzke (Philosophy, Southern Connecticut State University), "The Natural Nature of Signs of Nature"
--Jeanne Schuler and Patrick Murray (Philosophy, Creighton University, Omaha NE), "The Bogaboo of Social Construction"
--Tomasz Kitlinski and Pawel Leszkowicz (Transregional Center for Democratic Studies, Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, New School University, New York), "Physis after Postmodernism: The Forces of Nature in the Recent Aesthetics of Julia Kristeva and of Installation Artists"

June 24 to July 1, 1999, NATO funded an Advanced Research Workshop in environmental issues, in Budapest, Hungary. The co-directors were Lech Ryczkowski (Poland) and Laura Westra (Canada). The organizer was Philippe Crebbe, University of Ottawa. Sixteen countries were represented by the 50 participants, including many countries that do not normally appear at environmental ethics or ecological meetings in North America. Wilderness preservation, restoration, and the protection and establishment of parks were discussed, as well as water issues. Countries represented included: Siberia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia, Israel, Poland, Belgium, The Netherlands, the UK, Italy, Romania, as well as North America. A NATO funded publication will be produced by Kluwer, and the co-editors will be Laura Westra, Philippe Crabbe, Alan Holland, and Lech Ryczkowski.

Animal Issues has now published three volumes. Sample articles:
--Brennan, Andrew, "Ethics, Conflict, and Animal Research," vol. 1, No. 2, 1997.
--Mathews, Freya, "Living with Animals," vol. 1, no. 1, 1997.
--Quain, Anne, "Is There a Problem in Attributing Beliefs and Intentionality to Animals," vol. 2, no. 2, 1998.
--Murphy, Elizabeth, "In What Respects, If Any, Should the Primates Be Equal?" vol. 3, no. 1, 1999.
The editor is Denise Russell, Department of General Philosophy, University of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia 2008. E-mail: Denise.Russell@philosophy.usyd.edu.au

A website for ecocentric literature operated by Ecospherics International is:
http://www.ecospherics.net
Contact: Ted Mosquin, Box 279, Lanark, Ontario K06 1K0. Phone 613/267-4899. Fax: 613/264-8469. E-mail: mosquin@superaje.com

New Appointments in Environmental Ethics

Laura Westra will assume the Barbara B. and Bertram J. Cohn Professorship in Environmental Studies at Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY, on August 1, 1999. In addition to teaching environmental ethics in the undergraduate program, she will also teach a course: Institutionalized Violence, War, Terrorism, and Environmental Racism. She will also teach in the Graduate Program a course based on her work with the World Health Organization and her work on global change supported by the Global Ecological Integrity Project. Since Westra continues as secretary of the ISEE, please note her change of address, at the end of this newsletter.

Theodore W. Nunez has accepted a position at Villanova University, Villanova, PA, in the Ethics Program, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, to teach environmental ethics in a "Science, Technology, and Environment" track in that program. Nunez recently completed his Ph.D. degree at The Catholic University of America, Washington, entitled Holmes Rolston, Bernard Lonergan and the Foundations of Environmental Ethics. A summary argument, with commentaries, appears as "Rolston, Lonergan, and the Intrinsic Value of Nature," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):105-128. See bibliographic entries.

Lisa A. Gerber has accepted a tenure track position teaching environmental ethics and ethics at Southwest State College, Marshall, MN. She will also do interdisciplinary work with the environmental science department. This is the position previously occupied by Philip Cafaro, who has accepted a position at Colorado State University. Gerber recently completed a Ph.D. thesis, Environmental Virtues and Vices, at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

 

General Announcements, continued

Environmental philosophy news from the north. The Nordic Society for Aesthetics held a conference on environmental aesthetics with the theme: "Nature, Art, Aesthetics" in Turku, Finland, May 20-22, with contributors from Scandinavia, Hongkong, the UK, Germany and the US:
--Ronald W. Hepburn (University of Edinburgh, Scotland): "Values and the Cosmological Imagination"
--Stein Haugom Olsen (Lingnan College, Hong Kong): "Beauty in Art and Beauty in Nature"
--Oiva Kuisma (University of Helsinki, Finland): "Platonists on Ugliness"
--Markku Lehtinen (University of Helsinki): "Against Nature--The Problem of Mimesis in Heidegger's Philosophy of Art"
--Michael Astroh (University of Greifswald, Germany): "Strindberg's Naturalism"
--Arto Haapala (University of Helsinki): "Aesthetic Intimacy. Experiencing Art and Nature"
--Pauline von Bonsdorff (University of Helsinki): "`Nature' in Experience: Body and Environment"
--Susanne Jansson (Uppsala University, Sweden): "Metereologi og estetik" [Meteorology and Aesthetics]
--Kurt Nyberg (Uppsala University): "Perspektivets natur, konst og estetik" [The Nature of Perspective, Art and Aesthetics]
--Lars-Olof Ohlberg (Uppsala University): "Northern Darkness and Light in Painting and Music"
--Hilde Hein (Holy Cross College, MA): "From the Megalithic Yard to the Metric Ton, Art is a Natural Product"
--Denise Ziegler (artist, Helsinki): "Epigrammatic Notes for Public Places"
--YrjÖ Sepänmaa (University of Joensuu, Finland): "Environmental Stories--Speaking and Writing Nature"
--Emily Brady (Lancaster University, England): "The Aesthetic Character of Landscapes"
A seminar on related topics, with the theme "The Aesthetics of Cultural Landscapes", was held jointly by the Department of Aesthetics, University of Helsinki, and the Philosophy Department, Lancaster University, on May 24:
--Veikko Rantala (University of Tampere, Finland): "What Is a Cultural Landscape?"
--Emily Brady (Lancaster University, England): "The Aesthetic Character of Cultural Landscapes"
--John Benson (Lancaster University): "`Sweet Especial Rural Scene': Locating the Aesthetic"
--Pauline von Bonsdorff (University of Helsinki, Finland): "The Art of Farming: On the Aesthetics of Agricultural Landscapes"
--Pauli Tapani Karjalainen (University of Oulu, Finland): "Landscape Relations in a Foreign Country"
--Arto Haapala (University of Helsinki): "Aesthetic Intimacy and Cultural
Of interest to persons working in environmental aesthetics and related topics are the following books published in Finland as part of the International Institute of Applied Aesthetics Series:
--vol. 4: Arto Haapala (ed.), The City as a Cultural Metaphor. Studies in Urban Aesthetics, 1998 (ISBN 952-5069-05-2, ISSN 1239-193x). Contributions by Finnish, North American, UK, Danish, Russian and Italian philosophers.
--vol. 5: Pauline von Bonsdorff, The Human Habitat--Aesthetic and Axiological Perspectives, 1998 (ISBN 952-5069-06-0, ISSN 1239-193x). A phenomenological approach to the consideration of the built environment.
--vol. 6: Pauline von Bonsdorff and Arto Haapala (eds.), Aesthetics in the Human Environment, 1999 (ISBN 952-5069-07-09, ISSN 1239-193x) Contributions from North America, UK, Finland.
The above titles are available from: International Institute of Applied Aesthetics, Kannaksenkatu 22, 15140 Lahti, Finland. Tel. +358 3 782 7858.
Contingent upon funding, a conference on environmental philosophy, with the theme "Humans in the Land", will take place at Telemark College, in Telemark, Norway, in early June of 2000. Those who would like information as it becomes available should contact Sven Arntzen at sven.arntzen@hit.no.
Submitted by Sven Arntzen, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Telemark College, 3800 Telemark, Norway. Tel: +47 35 95 27 41. Fax: +47 35 95 26 01. E-mail: sven.arntzen@hit.no

ISEE member Bron Taylor is developing an Encyclopedia of Nature and Religion and is interested in suggestions and volunteers for entries and contributors. For more information on the project visit the project's web site:
http://www.uscolo.edu/enviro/ern
Taylor is Director of Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh and editor of Ecological Resistance Movements: the Global Emergence of Radical and Popular Environmentalism, SUNY Press.
E-mail: taylor@uwosh.edu

Colin L. Soskolne, an epidemiologist, spent a sabbatical leave with the European Centre for Environment and Health, World Health Organization, Rome Division. He wrote a jointly-authored 74-page document which can be accessed on the World Wide Web from the home page of the WHO Centre in Rome at:
http://www.who.it
Click on "What's New". The title is: Global Ecological Integrity and `Sustainable Development': Cornerstones of Public Health by Soskolne and Bertollini. The document can be accessed for downloading more directly by going to:
http://www.who.it/docs/Ecorep5.pdf
Colin L. Soskolne, Ph.D., F.A.C.E. Department of Public Health Sciences Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 13-103 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G3 ph: (780)492-6013; fax: (780)492-0364; e-mail: colin.soskolne@ualberta.ca

Call for Papers. American Philosophical Association, ISEE Group Sessions. The annual deadlines for paper submissions for the ISEE sessions regularly held at the three divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association are:
--Eastern Division: February 1st
--Central Division: September 1st
--Pacific Division: September 1st

--Submit Eastern Division proposals to Kristin Shrader-Frechette (ISEE Vice President-President Elect), Department of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556; Tel 219-631-5000 (Campus), 219-631-7579 (Philosophy Dept.); Fax 219-631-8209 (Dept. Fax).

--Submit Central Division proposals to Laura Westra (ISEE Secretary), ISEE Secretary, Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Mead Way, Bronxville, NY 10708-5999. Tel: 914-337-0700. Fax: 914-395-2666.

--Submit Pacific Division proposals to Ernest Partridge (ISEE Treasurer), P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: gadfly@igc.org

Call for Papers. Challenging Ecofeminism: Ecofeminism and Globalization. Lois Ann Lorentzen and Heather Eaton, editors Ecofeminism, considered by some to be the third wave of feminism, continues to expand its conceptual framework and praxis-based movement. Has ecofeminism lived up to its "power and promise?" Correctives are needed for the myopia that continues to plague the forms of ecofeminism that emerge from white affluent contexts, which is much of Northern ecofeminism. These limitations are exposed if we consider the consequences of the global economic system as an integral dimension of the analysis. Thus, we are looking for essays which bring ecofeminism into a discussion with the social, political and ecological consequences of globalization. This may involve a challenge to the theoretical approach within some ecofeminist approaches to move beyond a framework of the cultural, ideological, religious and conceptual connections between women and nature into acknowledging the centrality of the concrete and daily context of deforestation, drought, pollution, militarization and socio-economic impoverishment. Empirical case studies which engage ecofeminism's premises are also welcomed. Deadline: February 1, 2000. Send copies to BOTH Heather Eaton and Lois Ann Lorentzen, co-editors. Lois Ann Lorentzen, Department of Theology and Religious Studies, 2130 Fulton St., University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117-1080. Tel: 415-422-2431. Fax: 415 422 2346. Heather Eaton, Professor, St. Paul University, 223 Main St., Ottawa, Ont. K1S 1C4, Canada. Tel:(613) 236-1393. Fax:(613) 751-4016. Email: heaton@ustpaul.uottawa.ca

Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer (University of California, Riverside), will study "Implications of Disequilibrium Ecology for Environmental Ethics and Policy," under a grant from the Program in Societal Dimensions of Engineering, Science and Technology of the National Science Foundation.

Environmental ethics has new support from philosopher Kent Van Cleave, who argues that life has objective, intrinsic value -- as a defining physical property! Life, for more than 3 billion years, has been the process of "begetting begetters", which is the signal example of what Van Cleave calls "reflexive functionality": working to be the sort of thing that works to be the sort of thing that works to be.... To learn more, visit the Evolution and Philosophy website:
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/KVC/evolphi.htm
E-mail: KVC@compuserve.com

Jonathon DeLuca, Assistant to Secretary, ISEE, and his partner, Jennifer Johnson, are proud to announce the arrival of their first child, a son, Nicholas Michael DeLuca Johnson. He joined his new family on June 29, 1999. As assistant to Laura Westra, DeLuca sends out the ISEE Newsletter and has done so for many years.

 

Recent Articles and Books

Help!! The compiler of this bibliography, Holmes Rolston, receives quite a number of worthwhile entries to the bibliography through Uncover, a library research database. But time constraints prohibit re-formatting and listing all relevant entries. Is there anyone willing to contribute some time and modest word-processing skills to re-formatting these entries so that they can be listed in the Newsletter, and (in due course) in the ISEE Website Bibliography, the main bibliography in the field? This involves mostly cutting and pasting on a word-processing program, minor editorial skills. You might re-work fifty or a hundred entries, depending on your time available. This would be a considerable service to ISEE. Contact Holmes Rolston, address below.

Bibliographic entries below are alphabetized. Is that the way you want it? Or do you prefer new textbooks, systematic works, items of more immediate relevance, etc. up front (assuming the bibliographic editor can semi-competently and reluctantly make such judgments), with others to follow m ore or less randomly? Remember that the four main journals: Environmental Ethics, Environmental Values, Ethics and the Environment, and Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics are not listed in the quarterly newsletters, but are entered into the annual update of the website bibliography.

--Andrews, John, "Warren, Plumwood, a Rock and a Snake: Some Doubts About Critical Ecological Feminism," Journal of Applied Philosophy 13(No.2, 1996):141.

--Axline, Michael, "Federal Lands and Invisible Hands," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):611-.

--Bagachwa, M.S.D., and Limbu, Festus, Policy Reform and the Environment in Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: Dar-es-Salaam University press, 1995. ISBN 9976-60-276-6.

--Baker, Beth, "Washington Watch: New Federal Task Force Tackles Amphibian Troubles," Bioscience 49(No.5, 1999):366-.

--Baker, Katharine K., "Consorting with Forests: Rethinking Our Relationship to Natural Resources and How We Should Value Their Loss," Ecology Law Quarterly (Berkeley: School of Law of the University of California) 22 (no. 4, 1995):677-728. "The destruction of natural environments causes harm to people because it weakens their connections to the natural world. The quantification of nonuse value measures the extent of that harm. Contingent valuation (CV) is the only accessible vehicle thought capable of such quantification" (p. 714). Responses to four principal criticisms of contingent valuation. "To properly assess nonuse value, the law must reconceptualize the human loss associated with natural resource damage as an emotional injury to the person, not a deprivation of a property right. The loss associated with environmental degradation is the loss that humans experience when their subjective connection to the environment is damaged. The legitimacy of compensating for this loss requires recognizing that the injury does not involve the loss of any individual resource's intrinsic value, but is instead people's sense of loss associated with the destruction of ecosystems. When irreplaceable natural communities are destroyed, the human connection to nature has been injured. Contingent valuation, the current means of assessing the psychological injury associated with natural resource loss, is a crucial vehicle for measuring damages because it allows people to assess their own subjective sense of loss" (p. 728). Baker is professor of law, Chicago-Kent College of Law.

--Barr, James, "Was Everything that God Created Really Good? A Question in the First Verse of the Bible." Pages 55-65 in Linadelt, Tod and Beal, Timothy, eds., God in the Fray: A Tribute to Walter Bruggeman. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.

--Belowground Biodiversity, Six articles in Bioscience 49, no. 2, February, 1999. Rather largely unknown, rather largely microscopic, and may be greater biodiversity than that above the surface.

--Ben-Ari, Elia T., "A Throbbing in the Air," Bioscience 49(No.5, 1999):353-. The discovery of infrasonic communication among elephants has given researchers a whole new way of hearing things.

--Breckenridge, Lee P., "Nonprofit Environmental Organizations and the Restructuring of Institutions for Ecosystem Management," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):692-.

--Burton, Peter S., "Land Use Externalities: Mechanism Design for the Allocation of Environmental Resources," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 30(1996);174-185. The competing interests of "the forest industry" and of "environmentalists" for three possible land uses: "intensive forestry," "nonintensive forestry," and "wilderness." Constraints imposed by the finite amount of land available and the reluctance of the environmentalists to use monetary valuation techniques can be overcome by using a modified version of the Groves mechanism to determine the preferences of each group and thereby to determine the socially optimal allocation. A technical paper in economics. Burton is in economics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.

--Carson, Richard, Flores, Nicholas E., and Hanemann, W. Michael, "Sequencing and Valuing Public Goods," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36(No.3, 1998):314.

--Charter, Martin, and Polonsky, Michael Jay, eds. Greener Marketing: A Global Perspective on Greening Marketing Practice. £35.00/$US65.00. 432 pages hardback. ISBN 1 874719 14 4. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing, 1999. A sequel to Greener Marketing: A Responsible Approach to Business, 1992. Best-practice examples and actionable recommendations on how to implement green marketing activities. Three sections: The first sets out the strategic issues and rationale for green marketing; the second addresses tactical issues in more detail; and the third provides detailed case studies from around the world. Sustainable product development. Green marketing alliances. Environmental communications. Green consumers. Eco-tourism. Environmental marketing in developing countries. Charter is at the Centre for Sustainable Design, UK, and Polonsky at the University of Newcastle, Australia. Greenleaf Publishing, Aizlewood Business Centre, Aizlewood's Mill, Nursery Street, Sheffield S3 8GG, UK. Tel: +44 (0)114 282 3475. Fax: +44 (0)114 282 3476. E-mail: greenleaf@worldscope.co.uk
http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com

--Clark, Ann Marie, Friedman, Elisabeth J., and Hochstetler, Kathryn, "The Sovereign Limits of Global Civil Society: A Comparison of NGO Participation in UN World Conferences on the Environment, Human Rights, and Women," World Politics 51(No.1, 1998):1-.

--Clifford, Mary, ed., Environmental Crime: Enforcement, Policy, and Social Responsibility. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, 1998. 532 pages. With instructor's manual. Ten contributors, the history of environmental protection efforts, case studies to illustrate controversial environmental issues.

--Cobb, John B., Jr., The Earthist Challenge to Economism: A Theological Critique of the World Bank. New York: St. Martins, 1999. 192 pages. $ 65.00. A penetrating critique of the World Bank in development and environmental conservation, because Cobb hopes that, troublesome though the Bank has been and is, it will "lead the world beyond economism to earthism." History has moved through a series of epochs, each ordered by a dominant social institution. Each such social institution has developed an ideology that functions as that society's "shared religion." The excesses of this ideology lead to the demise of the dominant institution and the rise of another.
In the medieval period the church governed, and came to dominate with an inordinately self-serving ideology. Social power and authority shifted to the state, and nationalism developed with its own self-aggrandizing tendencies, substituting for religion. Power has now shifted to economic institutions, notably the European Economic Community/Union, the International Monetary Fund, The World Bank, and the World Trade Organization. The assumption is that all people will be better off if market forces replace national policies--economism. But economism is destined increasingly to bring about its own ideological and institutional demise. What's next? Earthism. Earthists "see the health of the Earth, including its human inhabitants, as of supreme importance." Economism, ideologically degenerating, implies that the poor will get poorer and natural environments will continue to be degraded, and consumerism in developed nations will escalate. We ought all to become earthists, and so can, and ought, the World Bank. Cobb analyzes how. He even applauds the bank's current president, James Wolfensohn, for espousing the kinds of values and pushing the bank to embody the kinds of funding priorities that could demonstrate "an earthist paradigm for development." Cobb is emeritus, Claremont School of Theology.

--Coggins, George C., "Regulating Federal Natural Resources: A Summary Case Against Devolved Collaboration," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):602-.

--Coglianese, Cary, "The Limits of Consensus: The Environmental Protection in Transition: Toward a More Desirable Future," Environment 41 (no. 3, 1999):28-33. Efforts to develop consensus-based recommendations in environmental policy through a series of dialogues with leaders from industry, government, think tanks, and environmental groups are floundering. It will help to get clear on the limits of consensus in the development of environmental policy. Coglianese is in Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard.

--Cole, Luke, "The Theory and Reality of Community-Based Environmental Decisionmaking: The Failure of California's Tanner Act and Its Implications for Environmental Justice," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):733-.

--Corson, Walter H., "Priorities for a Sustainable Future: The Role of Education, the Media, and Tax Reform," Journal of Social Issues 51 (no. 4, 1995):37-61. Twelve priority actions to alleviate environmental degradation. Ecological and societal literacy may be necessary conditions for change; ecological tax reform may be an important intermediate step. Social marketing media campaigns could catalyze behavioral change and facilitate progress toward a sustainable future. Corson is in environmental politics, George Washington University.

--Cronin, John, and Kennedy, Jr., Robert F., The Riverkeepers. New York: Scribner's, 1997. Critical initiative in action seeking to restore the Hudson River.

--Dardick, Samuel, "Land Use Planning, Communities, and Environmental Limits," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):659-. The changing politic of the Northern California Sierra.

--Desai, Uday, eds., Ecological Policy and Politics in Developing Countries: Economic Growth, Democracy, and Environment. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1998. 416 pages. $ 28.00.

--diNorcia (di Norcia), Vincent, "Environmental and Social Performance," Journal of Business Ethics 15(1996):773-784. If an organization cares for nature it will so act as not to harm the ecosystems it affects, or when it cannot so act at the moment it will commit itself to such action over time. Credible commitment requires an action plan with specified targets determining the best ecologically beneficent pollution abatement and ecosystem improvements. Four direct environmental performance measures are analyzed: pollutant loads, pollutant concentrations, ecosystem impacts, and ecosystem restoration. A model of ecologically beneficent performance that is microscopic in detail and regional in scope. Economics and ecology should be mutually reinforcing, just as sustainable development suggests. di Norcia is in environmental management, University of Sudbury, Sudbury, Ontario.

--Doremus, Holly, "Preserving Citizen Participation in the Era of Reinvention: The Endangered Species Act Example," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):707-.

--Fairfax, Sally K., "The Federal Forests Are Not What They Seem: Formal and Informal Claims to Federal Lands," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):630.

--Ferré, Frederick, "Cosmic Context, Earthling Ethics," Journal of the American Academy of Religion 67(1999):435-446. Review essay of Rasmussen, Larry J., Earth Ethics (Orbis, 1996); Grange, Joseph, Nature: An Environmental Cosmology (SUNY, 1997); and Murphy, Nancey and Ellis, George F. R., On the Moral Nature of the Universe: Theology, Cosmology, and Ethics (Fortress, 1996). "If the above three books are any portent, there may yet be grounds for hope. All are written out of the unsustainable precariousness of modernity, as a way of life and a way of thought. All are integrative. All are informed by science but wary of scientism. All recognize the power of faulty cosmological vision to distort human relations, both with other humans and with the earth on which we dwell." Ferré is philosophy emeritus, University of Georgia.

--Freyfogle, Eric T., "The Particulars of Owning," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):574-.

--Garber, Steven, and Hammitt, James K., "Risk Premiums for Environmental Liability: Does Superfund Increase the Cost of Capital," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36(No.3, 1998):267-.

--Huffman, James L., "Land Ownership and Environmental Regulation," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):591-.

--Hunziker, M., Kienast, F., "Potential Impacts of Changing Agricultural Activities on Scenic Beauty--A Prototypical Technique for Automated Rapid Assessment," Landscape Ecology 14(No.2,1999):161-.

--Hutanuwatr, Pracha, "Wilderness Experience for Personal Growth in Siam," International Journal of Wilderness 5(no. 1, 1999):34-37. Draws on the tradition of monks and nuns living in a forest monastery, with an art of searching for deeper meanings in nature and respect for life. Hutanuwatr is a former Buddhist monk.

--Jamieson, Dale, ed., Singer and His Critics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 368 pages. $ 64 hardcover. Responses to the work of Peter Singer. Contains of relevance here:
--Solomon, Robert C., "Peter Singer's Expanding Circle: Compassion and the Liberation of Ethics"
--McGinn, Colin, "Our Duties to Animals and the Poor"
--Holton, Richard and Langton, Rae, "Empathy and Animal Ethics"
--Hare, R.M., "Why I Am only a Demi-vegetarian"
--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Respect for Life: Counting what Singer Finds of no Account"
--Singer, Peter, "A Response."

--Kagan, Robert A., "Trying to Have It Both Ways: Local Discretion, Central Control, and Adversarial Legalism in American Environmental Regulation," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):718-.

--Kahn, Peter H., Jr., The Human Relationship with Nature: Development and Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. 281 pages. Research and theory on how humans develop a relationship with nature, using a developmental psychology framework. An analysis of eight years of study of children, young adults, and parents in diverse geographical locations, ranging from an economically impoverished black community in Houston, Texas, to a remote village in the Brazilian Amazon. Features children, with the question how far environmental sensitivity is already present in children and how far it develops in later life. Analyzes whether there are universal features in the human relationship with nature, and discovers some tendencies toward biophilia transculturally, with cultural modifications. Challenges the postmodern claim that nature is a only a cultural construction. An excellent combination of philosophical analysis and empirical research. Kahn is in psychology at Colby College, Waterville, Maine.

--Keekok Lee, The Natural and the Artefactual: The Implications of Deep Science and Deep Technology for Environmental Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield), 1999. Pages 288. ISBN 0-7391-0061-0. $35.00 cloth. Released in June. Keekok Lee challenges one of the central assumptions of contemporary environmentalism: that if we could reduce or eliminate pollution, we could "save" the planet without unduly disrupting our modern, industrialized societies. Lee argues instead that the process of modernization, with its attendant emphasis on technological innovation, has fundamentally transformed "nature" into just another man-made "artefact." Ultimately, what needs to be determined is if nature has value above and beyond human considerations, whether aesthetic, spiritual, or biological. Provocative, a revolutionary attempt to reconfigure environmental ethics, positing the existence of two separate ontological categories - the "natural" and the "artefactual." Natural entities, be they organisms or inert mater, are "morally considerable" because they possess the ontological value of independence, whereas artefacts are created by humans expressly to serve their interest and ends.
Contents:
--Chapter: 1. Worldviews: Modern and Pre-modern Modernity; The Old Philosophy and the Old Science; The New Science and Its Method, includes Modern Science and the History of Technology: Transforming the Natural to Become the Artefactual.
2. Modern Technology, the Philosophy of Technology, and the Philosophy of Science.
Chapter 3: Independence, Human Design and Artefacticity, including the Natural: Different Senses of `Nature' and the End of Nature?
Chapter 4: Technology: Threats to the Natural, Extant Technology and the Less Radical Threat to the Natural, including the Humanization of Nature, and the Naturalization of Humanity.
Chapter 5: Ontology and Axiology, Abiotic Nature and Intrinsic Value.
Appendix 2: Is Nature a Mere Social Construct? Lee teaches philosophy at the University of Manchester, UK.

--Knight, Richard L. "Private Lands: The Neglected Geography," Conservation Biology 13(No .2, 1999):223-.

--Krebs, Angelika, Ethics of Nature. New York, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1999. With a foreword by Bernard Williams. 162 pages. Paper. In English. The ethics of nature is an inquiry into the value of nature. Is nature's only value instrumental for humans, or does nature also have intrinsic value? Can anthropocentrism be defended or must we move to a physiocentric moral position?
Contents:
Part I. Basic Concepts. Nature. Ethics. Anthropocentrism and Physiocentrism. Pathocentrism: All sentient beings have moral status. Biocentrism: All living beings have moral status. Radical physiocentrism: All of nature has moral status.
Part II. Seven anthropocentric arguments for the value of nature. 1. The basic needs argument. 2. The aisthesis argument: nature is the source of many pleasant sensations and feelings. 3. The aesthetic contemplation argument. 4. The natural design argument. 5. The heimat argument: sense of native inhabited place. 6. The pedagogic argument: human virtues encountering nature. 7. The meaning of life and true joy of living argument.
Part III. A hermaphroditic argument for the value of nature: holistic thinking opposing dualism.
Part IV. Five physiocentric arguments for the value of nature. 1. The pathocentric argument. 2. The teleological argument. 3. The reverence for life argument. 4. The following nature argument. 5. The theological argument.
Between anthropocentrism as instrumental value for nature and physiocentrism as absolute value for nature lie enlightened anthropocentrism
and extensionist physiocentrism. Enlightened anthropocentrism accords nature various kinds of eudaemonic intrinsic value, aesthetic intrinsic value, heimat value and sacredness. Extensionalist physiocentrism extends elements of human moral nature, notably respect for the well-being of others, to nature.
The ethics of nature should not be anthropocentric in the instrumentally-truncated sense but neither should it be anthropocentric in the extensional sense. Rather, it should be moderately physiocentric, more precisely, pathocentric. The ethics of nature must, however, remain anthropocentric in the epistemic sense. Those who press for a radical change, a paradigm shift, in our moral attitude toward nature, and brand anthropocentrism as the source of all ecological evil in the world are therefore wrong. We ought to orient our conduct toward nature based on the good of those beings, animal and human, who have a subjective good, who now life, and who will in the future live on Earth.
Krebs is in philosophy at the University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. This work expands her 1993 dissertation at the University of Frankfurt, also work at Oxford University and the University of California, Berkeley.

--Kube, Hanno, "Private Property in Natural Resources and The Public Weal In German Law--Latent Similarities to the Public Trust Doctrine," Natural Resources Journal 37(No.4 1997):857-.

--Kuhn, Scott, "Regulation of Pollutants: Federal, State, and Local," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):647-. Expanding public participation is essential to environmental justice and the democratic decisionmaking process.
--Light, Andrew, "On the Irreplaceability of Place," Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 2(1998):179-184. Analysis of a puzzle concerning Christoph Rehmann-Sutter and the irreplaceability of place. If places are designated as valuable in part because they are irreplaceable, and if any human can appreciate any place, then how can humans ever be part of a place if they are ultimately substitutable as agents who appreciate places? Two possible answers: Two kinds of bioregionalism, liberal bioregionalism and communitarian bioregionalism are identified. Liberal bioregionalism, recommended for the present, avoids the irreplaceability problem by jettisoning the need to focus on the special qualities of a particular place. Communitarian bioregionalism might be a goal down the road. Light is in philosophy and environmental studies, Binghamton University, SUNY.

--Light, Andrew, ed., Social Ecology after Bookchin. New York: The Guilford Press, 1998. 401 pages. $ 20.00 paper. For close to four decades, Murray Bookchin's ecoanarchist theory of social ecology, one of the most controversial in the field, has challenged philosophers and activists working to link environmental concerns with the desire for a free and egalitarian society. Eleven contributors believe that Bookchin needs his critics and contemplate what next. Reassessing ecological ethics, combining social ecology and feminism, building decentralized communities, evaluating new technology, relating theory to activism, and improving social ecology through interactions with other left traditions. Light is in philosophy at State University of New York, Binghamton.

--Lindzey, Andrew, Animal Gospel: Christian Faith as If Animals Mattered, London: UK: Hodder and Stoughton and US: Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1998.

--Lindzey, Andrew, and Yamamoto, Dorothy, Animals on the Agenda: Questions about Animals for Theology and Ethics. London: UK: SCM Press and Champaign, IL: US: University of Illinois Press, 1998.

--Lindzey, Andrew and Cohn-Sherbok, Dan, After Noah: Animals and the Liberation of Theology, London: UK: Cassells and in US distributed by Continuum, 1997.

--Lindzey, Andrew, Animal Rites: Liturgies of Animal Care. London, UK: SCM Press and in US distributed by Trinity Press International, 1999.

--Lindzey, Andrew, Animal Theology. London, UK: SCM Press and Champaign, IL, US: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

--Little, Jane Braxton, "Quiet! The Sounds of Nature are Harder to Hear," Wilderness, The Wilderness Society, 1999, pages 20-25. Increasing noise pollution in national parks and wilderness areas: commercial and military airplanes, tourist flights, ATV's, helicopters, snowmobiles, jet skis, and much more. Little is a freelance writer based in Plumas Country, CA.

--Mace, Georgina M., and Hudson, Elodie J. "Attitudes Toward Sustainability and Extinction," Conservation Biology 13(No.2, 1999):242-.

--Macguire, Daniel C., and Rasmussen, Larry L., Ethics for a Small Planet: New Horizons on Population, Consumption, and Ecology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998. 151 pages. $ 19.00 paper.
--Masson, Jeffrey Moussiaeff, and McCarthy, Susan, When Elephants Weep. New York: Delacorte Press, 1995. A comprehensive argument for animal sensibility.

--May, Elizabeth, At the Cutting Edge: The Crisis in Canada's Forests. Toronto: Key Porter Books, Ltd. Canadian $ 25.00. An analysis of what modern industrial forestry is all about, according to May, the wholesale destruction of Canada's natural heritage. Myths and half-truth perpetuated by the Forest Industry and the Canada government.

--McClosky, Michael, "Local Communities and the Management of Public Forests," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):624-.

--McElroy, Michael B., Nielsen, Chris P., and Lydon, Peter, eds., Energizing China: Reconciling Environmental Protection and Economic Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Committee on Environment, distributed by Harvard University Press, 1998. Studies of Phase I of the Harvard University Committee on Environment China Project (1995-1998). $ 25, paper. 719 pages.
Nineteen contributors. Examples:
--Alford, William P., and Shen, Yuanyuan, "Limits of the Law in Addressing China's Environmental Dilemma"
--Panayotou, Theodore, "The Effectiveness and Efficiency of Environmental Policy in China"
--Weller, Robert P., and Bol, Peter K., "From Heaven-and-Earth: Chinese Concepts of the Environment and Their Influence on Policy Implementation"
--Wu, Baozhong, He, Kebin, Fan Yuansheng, and Shao, Weijun, "The Status and Trend of China's Policies on Climate Change"

--Morito, Bruce, "Aboriginal Right: A Conciliatory Concept," Journal of Applied Philosophy 13(No.2, 1996):123-.

--Murphy, Patrick D., ed., Literature of Nature: An International Sourcebook. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-57958-010-6. Essays, selections, analysis from U.S. and Canada, England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, France, Germany, Malta, Romania, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Africa, the Arab world, Brazil, the Caribbean, Latin America, the Arctic, Antarctica.

--NaughtonTreves (Naughton-Treves), Lisa, and Sanderson, Steven, "Property, Politics and Wildlife Conservation," World Development 23 (no. 8, 1995):1265-1275. Wildlife conservation and property rights. A summary of the historical development of wildlife property rights. The political determination of property regimes is critical to conservation, especially in regard to wild fauna. Property rights concerning wild fauna differ from other property rights claims, including landed property, intellectual property, and rights governing the use of wild flora. No single property form is adequate for wildlife conservation. Property as an institution is incomplete; the exceptional character of wild fauna and the property rights that govern it are organic. The authors are at the University of Florida, Gainesville.

--Noel, Erin, "Foreword: Symposium: Power, Politics, and Place: Who Holds the Reins of Environmental Regulation," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):559-.

--Norman, Richard, "Interfering with Nature," Journal of Applied Philosophy 13(No.2, 1996):1-.
--Norton Bryan, Costanza, Robert, and Bishop, R., "The Evolution of Preferences: Why `Sovereign' Preferences May Not Lead to Sustainable Policies and What To Do about It," Ecological Economics 24(1998):193-211.

--Nunez, Theodore W., "Rolston, Lonergan, and the Intrinsic Value of Nature," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):105-128. In recent metaethical debate over ways to justify the notion of intrinsic natural value, some neopragmatists have challenged realist conceptions of scientific and moral truth. Holmes Rolston defends a critical-realist epistemology as the basis for a metaphysics of "projective nature" and a cosmological narrative--both of which set up a historical ontology of objective natural value. Pure ecological science informs the wilderness experience of Rolston's ideal epistemic subject, the "sensitive naturalist." Nunez argues that Rolston's account of the relation between knowing and valuing can be clarified and strengthened by appropriating Bernard Lonergan's transcendental method. Conversely, Lonergan's view of moral self-transcendence can be developed further in light of Rolston's virtue epistemology, which is embodied in the figure of the sensitive naturalist. Key words: critical realism, environmental ethics, epistemology, intrinsic value, value theory.
The commentaries are:
--Frankenberry, Nancy, "On Empty Compliments and Deceptive Detours: A Neopragmatist Response to Theodore W. Nunez," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):129-136. Neopragmatist reasons for repudiating metaphysical realism's notions of intrinsicality and subject-independent reality. Following the holism of Donald Davidson and Richard Rorty rather than the epistemological premises of Holmes Rolston and Bernard Lonergan, coping with the ecological crisis does not require conjuring up an epistemic crisis. Environmental ethics in neopragmatist hands would seek procedures for bringing about agreement in improving our practices, not our epistemology. Frankenberry is in religion at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.
--Jackson, Timothy P., "Ambivalences about Nature and Naturalism," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):137-144. A "die-hard supernaturalist," someone "at two with nature" who would be "at one with God" has mixed feelings about Theodore Nunez's defense of naturalism. Unlike neopragmatists, Jackson is not troubled by Nunez general realism about value; he takes exception not to Nunez theoretical account of truth, but to his specific axiology. Jackson does not share Nunez's confidence that Rolston's "projective nature" can provide reliable moral inspiration. Instead such inspiration can arise only from the holiness of God. Jackson teaches ethics at Candler School of Theology, Emory University, Atlanta.
--Nunez, Theodore W., "The Author Replies," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):145-148.

--Nunez, Theodore W., Holmes Rolston, Bernard Lonergan and the Foundations of Environmental Ethics, Ph.D. thesis, Catholic University of America, Washington, spring 1999. Nunez is in ethics at Villanova University, Villanova, PA. A summary argument, with commentaries, appears as "Rolston, Lonergan, and the Intrinsic Value of Nature," Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (no. 1, Spring, 1999):105-128. See that entry.

--Ohara (O'Hara), Sabine U., "Sustainability: Social and Ecological Dimensions," Review of Social Economy 53(no. 4, 1995):529-551). Sustainability has generated many and often conflicting definitions. An overlooked dimension is the importance of the "informal" or household sector. To move toward sustainability it is imperative to regain a broader understanding of economics. Three principles are needed for this expansion of understanding: concreteness rather than abstraction; connectedness rather than isolation; and diversity rather than homogeneity. All three are informed by feminist theory. O'Hara is at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

--Orians, F. Barbara, "Animal Well-Being." Chapter 12 in Emily Baker and Michael Richardson, eds., Ethics Applied, edition 2 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999), pages 439-471. ISBN 0-536-01867-7. Five positions regarding nonhuman animals: animal exploitation, animal use, animal welfare, animal rights, animal liberation. Moral standing of animals: the utilitarian case, the natural rights argument. The case against moral consideration of animals. Use of animals in education. Biomedical research. Animals as food. Animal testing. Blood sports. Greyhound racing. Zoos, Marine Mammal Exhibits. Orians is a Senior Research Fellow, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University.

--Orts, Eric W., "Reflexive Environmental Law," Northwestern University Law Review 89(1995):1227-1340. Most environmental law is regulation, command and control of business by outside law, imposed by political authorities. A better approach is reflexive environmental law, where businesses from within adopt systematic ways of thinking and operating in an environmentally responsible manner. This creates a climate in which businesses voluntarily adopt procedures to encourage environmentally sound decision making and to monitor environmental progress. Long article with much detail and nearly 500 legal-style footnotes. Orts is in law, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

--Page, II, Charles R., Jesus and the Land. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995. The life of Jesus reconstructed on insights from the land, and Jesus' attitudes to the land. Page is at the Jerusalem Center for Biblical Studies, Jerusalem.

--Peet, Richard, and Watts, Michael, eds. Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movements. London; Routledge, 1996. 273 pp. Contents include the following:
--Peet, Richard and Michael Watts, "Liberation Ecology." Development, sustainability, and environment in an age of market triumphalism. pp. 1-45.
--Escobar, Arturo, "Constructing Nature." Elements for a post-structural political ecology. pp.46-68.
--Yapa, Lakshman, "Improved Seeds and Constructed Scarcity." pp.69-85.
--Bebbington, Anthony, "Movements, Modernizations, and Markets." Indigenous organizations and agrarian strategies in Ecuador. pp.89-109.
--Zimmerer, Karl S., "Discourses on Soil Loss in Bolivia." Sustainability and the search for socioenvironmental "middle ground". pp.110-124.
--Moore, Donald S., "Marxism, Culture, and Political Ecology." Environmental struggles in Zimbabwe's Eastern Highlands. pp.125-147.
--Jarosz, Lucy. "Defining Deforestation in Madagascar." pp.148-164.
--Carney, Judith A., "Converting the Wetlands, Engendering the Environment." The intersection of gender with agrarian change in Gambia. pp.165-187.
--Schroeder, Richard and Suryanata, Krisnawati, "Gender and Class Power in Agroforestry Systems." Case studies from Indonesia and West Africa. pp.188-204.
--Rangan, Haripriya, "From Chipko to Uttaranchal." Development, environment, and social protest in the Garhwal Himalayas, India. pp.205-226.
--Muldavin, Joshua S.S., "The Political Ecology of Agrarian Reform in China." The case of Heilongjiang Province. pp.227-259.
--Watts, Michael and Peet, Richard, "Conclusion." Towards a theory of liberation ecology. pp. 260-269. Peet is professor of geography, Clark University, Massachusetts. Watts is professor of geography and Director of the Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

--Pounds, J. Alan, Fogden, Michael P., and Campbell, John H., "Biological Response to Climate Change on a Tropical Mountain," Nature 398(15 April 1999):611-615. Recent warming has caused changes in species distribution and abundance on a tropical mountain in Costa Rica; the extent of these effects is unclear. Twenty of fifty species of frogs and toads have disappeared. Some data suggests this is from lifting cloud levels due to climate warming. One species is the locally endemic golden toad (Bufo periglenes), which could be the first extinction due to global warming. See related article, Still, Christopher J., et al., "Simulating the Effects of Climate Change on Tropical Montane Cloud Forests," Nature 398(15 April 1999):608-610.

--Reigota, Marcos, "Tempo e Ecologia. Time and Ecology," Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana: Revista Internacional de Filosofia Iberoamericana y Teoría Social, Año 3, No. 5, Julio-Diciembre 1998. As we analyze the notion of time in ecology, we must consider the history of life, its relation, to culture, values and representations that reflect the complex daily relationships between human beings throughout evolution of the Earth. The human presence is important on the evolutionary time scale, no matter how small it is. In ecological time there are elements that are inseparable and complementary. They are the improvised (unusual) instant, the limitless historical, geological and biological time and the question about the possibilities to come. Reigota is at the Universidade de Sorocaba, Brazil.

--Reigota, Marcos, "Brazilian Art and Literature: Oswald de Andrade's Contribution to Global Ecology." Pages 359-365 in Murphy, Patrick D., ed., Literature of Nature: An International Sourcebook. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-57958-010-6. Oswald de Andrade (1890-1954) was a Brazilian intellectual and poet, a critic of the modern transformation of Brazilian society, with significant ecological insights. Reigota is at the Universidade de Sorocaba, Brazil.

--Ricketts, Taylor H., Dinerstein, Eric, and Loucks, Colby, "Who's Where in North America?" Bioscience 49(No.5, 1999):369-. Patterns of species richness and the utility of indicator taxa for conservation.

--Rodd, Rosemary, "Evolutionary Ethics and the Status of Non-Human Animals,"
Journal of Applied Philosophy 13(No.2, 1996):63-.

--Roebuck, Paul, and Phifer, Paul, "The Persistence of Positivism in Conservation Biology," Conservation Biology 13(No.2, 1999):444-.

--Rollins, Kimberly, Lyke, Audrey, "The Case for Diminishing Marginal Existence Values," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36(No.3, 1998):324-.

--Rolston, Holmes, III, "Ethics and the Environment." Chapter 11 in Emily Baker and Michael Richardson, eds., Ethics Applied, edition 2 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999), pages 407-437. ISBN 0-536-01867-7. Introductory summary of environmental ethics in a text designed for junior college use. Twelve types of environmental ethics: 1. Humanistic and Naturalistic Ethics. 2. Humans, Animals, and a Land Ethic. 3. Biocentrism and Respect for Life. 4. Deep Ecology. 5. Theology and the Environment. 6. Expanding Communities. 7. Axiological Environmental Ethics. 8. Political Ecology. 9. Sustainable Development and Sustainable Biosphere. 10. Bioregionalism. 11. Ecofeminism. 12. Pluralism, Postmodernism, and a Sense of Place. Rolston is in philosophy at Colorado State University.

--Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo, Quesada-Mateo, Carlos, and Bawa, Kamaljit S., "Protected Areas and Conservation of Biodiversity in the Tropics," Conservation Biology 13(No.2, 1999):407-.

--Sandvik, Hanno, "On Human Population Growth, Natural Selection, and the Tragedy of the Commons," Conservation Biology 13(No.2, 1999):447-.

--Saner, Marc A., Environmental Ethics and Biotechnology: A Test of Norton's Convergence Hypothesis, M. A. thesis in philosophy, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ont. May, 1999. Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis asserts that environmentalists "of all stripes" can achieve consensus over environmental policy if only minimal constraints are applied to the dialogue. Norton challenges that his proposition has not been falsified as yet (as of 1997). I test the hypothesis against the dialogue over the environmental use of biotechnology (genetic engineering). I discuss the environmental ethical issues raised by biotechnology and show that the convergence hypothesis is either unreasonable--applying its constraints to a environmental policy dialogue is too restrictive for environmental radicals, or can be falsified --applying its constraints does not lessen the divergence between positions in the dialogue over biotech policy. The convergence hypothesis is an over-generalization: the global claim of "unity among environmentalists of all stripes" cannot be upheld. I discuss practical consequences of this observation--how it affects risk management (and the risk/ethics boundary), biotech risk communication, the comprehensiveness of the ecosystem health concept, and the application to international agreements. The advisor was Jay Drydyk. Marc Saner, Department of Philosophy, DT 2127, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ont. K1S 5B6. Tel: (613) 520-3824, Fax: (613) 520-3962, Tel: (613) 725-5156 [home office]. E-mail: saner@magma.ca

--Sarkar, Sahotra, "Wilderness Preservation and Biodiversity Conservation--Keeping Divergent Goals Distinct," BioScience 49(no. 5, May 1999):405-412. "In some instances, the tasks of biodiversity conservation and wilderness preservation converge, but at least as often they do not." Wilderness excludes or minimizes people on the landscape; biodiversity conservation need not. Biodiversity conservation can bring local benefits to third world peoples; wilderness seldom does. Biodiversity conservation is politically easier than is wilderness preservation. Wilderness preservation can make biodiversity conservation more difficult on non-wilderness lands. "Wilderness preservation cannot be used as a surrogate for biodiversity conservation. Indeed, wilderness preservation and biodiversity conservation may be in conflict. Biodiversity conservation can avoid contentious political issues while simultaneously promoting long-term conservation by maintaining independence and distance from wilderness preservation." With a reply letter by Philip Cafaro and Warren Platts, forthcoming in BioScience.
Sarkar is in philosophy, University of Texas, Austin.

--Simon, Anne E., "Valuing Public Participation," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):757-.

--Simplicity; the simple life. A selection of recent books, often arguing that keeping it simple incorporates religious values. A website is:
www.slnet.com (The Simple Living Network).
--Andrews, Cecile, The Circle of Simplicity: Return to the Good Life. New York: Harper Collins, 1998. 256 pages.
--Clapp, Rodney, ed., The Consuming Passion: Christianity and the Consumer Culture. Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1998. 223 pages.
--Schor, Juliet B., The Overspent American: Upscaling, Downshifting and the New Consumer. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998. 253 pages.
--Shi, David E., The Simple Life: Plain Living and High Thinking in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. 322 pages.
--Luhrs, Janet, The Simple Living Guide. New York: Broadway Books, 1997. 444 pages.
--Saint James (St. James), Elaine, Simplify Your Life: 100 Ways to Slow Down and Enjoy the Things that Really Matter. New York: Hyperion, 1994. 256 pages.
--Schut, Michael, Simpler Living, Compassionate Life: A Christian Perspective. Ridgefield, CT: Morehouse Publishing, 1999. 256 pages. Includes Frederick Buechner, Henri Nowen, John Cobb, Wendell Berry, and Richard Foster.
--Marty, Martin, and Marty, Micah, When True Simplicity is Gained: Finding Spiritual Clarity in a Complex World. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1998. 110 pages.
--Dominguez, Joseph R. and Robin, Vicki, Your Money or Your Life. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. 350 pages.

--Smith, Raymond C., Ainley, David, and Domack, Eugene, "Marine Ecosystem Sensitivity to Climate Change," Bioscience 49(No.5, 1999):393-. Historical observations and paleoecological records reveal ecological transitions in the Antarctic Peninsula region.

--Soros, George, The Crisis of Global Capitalism [Open Society Endangered]. New York: Public Affairs, 1998, and London: Little, Brown and Co., UK, 1998. The endangered open society, following Karl Popper. The conflict of global capitalism with democracy, since the 1970's, especially pp. 109-112, "Capitalism Versus Democracy." "Truth be told, the connection between capitalism and democracy is tenuous at best" (p. 111). Natural sciences are amenable to Popper's philosophy of science, but social sciences are not. Despite Popper's conviction that open, pluralist societies are closest to any possible ideal, in contrast to totalitarian societies, in the new global capitalism the open society can be threatened by the lack of social cohesion and absence of government. Soros is an internationally known money manager and philanthropist, reared in Hungary.

--Still, Christopher J., Foster, Prudence N., and Schneider, Stephen H., "Simulating the Effects of Climate Change on Tropical Montane Cloud Forests," Nature 398(15 April 1999):608-610. Tropical montane cloud forests are unique among terrestrial ecosystem in that they are strongly linked to regular cycles of cloud formation. They are also high in biodiversity. Modeling suggest that climate change could alter cloud formation, which could have serious conservation implications, given that these ecosystems harbour a high proportion of endemic species. See related article, Pounds, J. Alan, et al, "Biological Response to Climate Change on a Tropical Mountain," Nature 398(15 April 1999):611-615.

--Tarlock, A. Dan, "The Nonequilibrium Paradigm in Ecology and the Partial Unraveling of Environmental Law," Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 27 (no. 3, 1994):1121- . To a large extent, science undergirds, shapes, and legitimizes environmental law; it enables us to identify problems and craft solutions. For the past twenty-five years, lawmakers have looked to the equilibrium paradigm--popularly called the balance of nature--as the foundation for a superstructure of environmental rules. But ecologists have rejected this paradigm and replaced it with a nonequilibrium paradigm. The basis for environmental law is unraveling. Analysis of the ideas behind each paradigm and the implications for environmental law. Environmental law should respond to this paradigm shift by creating a framework for continuous dialogue between scientists and public policy makers.

--Taylor, Angus, Magpies, Monkeys, and Morals: What Philosophers Say about Animal Liberation. Peterborough, Ont, Canada: Broadview Press, 1999. 167 pages. $ 15. 1. Animals and the moral community. 2. From Aristotle to Darwin. 3. Do animals have moral rights? 4. Is it wrong to eat or hunt animals? 5. Is it wrong to use animals for scientific research? 6. Can liberationists be environmentalists? Taylor teaches philosophy at the University of Victoria in British Columbia.

--Thorndike, Elizabeth, "New York's Adirondack Park: Where U.S. Wilderness Preservation Began," International Journal of Wilderness 5(no. 1, 1999):9-14. Protected since 1894 as "forever wild" under the New York State Constitution, a summary history of Adirondack conservation, and present issues.

--Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Grimm, John, eds., Evolving Values for an Earth Community, theme issue of Earth Ethics, vol. 10, no. 1, Fall 1998. Washington, DC: Center for Respect of Life and Environment. A series of ten conferences was held at the Center for the Study of World Religions at Harvard University from May 1996 until July 1998 sponsored by CSWR in collaboration with the Center for Respect of Life and Environment and Bucknell University. This issue includes short articles written by area specialists to summarize key resources of the religious traditions featured in the conference series.
--Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Grim, John, "Religions of the World and Ecology: Discovering the Common Ground."
--Fink, Daniel B., "Judaism and Ecology: A Theology of Creation."
--Hessel, Dieter T., "Christianity and Ecology: Wholeness, Respect, Justice, Sustainability."
--Denny, Frederick M., "Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust Inviting Balanced Stewardship."
--Grim, John, "Indigenous Traditions and Ecology."
--Chapple, Christopher Key, "Hinduism, Jainism, and Ecology."
--Swearer, Donald K., "Buddhism and Ecology: Challenge and Promise."
--Tucker, Mary Evelyn, "Confucianism and Ecology: Potential and Limits."
--Miller, James, "Daoism and Ecology."
--Bernard, Rosemarie, "Shinto and Ecology: Practice and Orientations to Nature."

--Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Grimm, John, "Religions of the World and Ecology: Discovering Common Ground," Religious Studies News (American Academy of Religion), May 1999, page 11. A report of ten conferences held at the Center for the Study of World Religions at Harvard University, between May 1996 and July 1998. Several published volumes are resulting from the conferences, and there is an ongoing Forum on Religion and Ecology. Tucker and Grimm are at Bucknell University and coordinated the series of conferences.

--vonWeizsäcker (von Weizsäcker), Ernst Ulrich, Lovins, Amory B., and Lovins, L. Hunter, Factor Four: Doubling Wealth--Halving Resource Use: The New Report to the Club of Rome. London: Earthscan, 1997. Originally in German. Resource productivity can and should grow fourfold. We can live twice as well yet use half as much. A problematic work that lures readers with the promise of doubling their affluence while cutting resource use in half. No need to feel guilty about consumption, if you are clever about it. von Weizsäcker is at the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy in the North Rhine/Westphalian Science Centre, Germany. The Lovins are at the Rocky Mountain Institute in Aspen, Colorado.

--Walker, Laurence C., "Bermuda: Island Paradise, Ecological Disaster," Journal of Forestry 96(No.11, 1999):36-. Bermuda was one covered with handsome forests of Juniperus but now has only remnant stands. Excessive harvesting, exotic escapes, and insect depredations have contributed to the decline of the species.

--Watts, May Theilgaard, Reading the Landscape of America. Rochester, NY: Nature Study Guild Publishers (P. O. Box 10489, Rochester NY 14610-0489; 800-954-2984), 1999. 368 pages. $ 19.95 paper. Reprint of a 1975 classic in landscape interpretation, remarkably timely. Hunched down to protect herself before a tundra summer snowstorm, she sees a tiny alpine cushion plant and figures out why the plant is tiny and hunched down. And similarly across the U.S. continent. Unexcelled in the blending of landscape ecology and lived experience on landscapes.

--Weitzman, Martin L., "Why the Far-Distant Future Should Be Discounted at Its Lowest Possible Rate," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 36(No.3, 1998):201-.

--Welker, Michael, Creation and Reality. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999. 102 pages. $ 13.00 paper. Six essays in major reconsideration of creation as a theological theme, in the light of both biological science and environmental issues, emphasizing creation as not so much unilateral act of God (the classical view) as interactive creation with creatures engaged in making themselves. "The mandate of dominion aims at nothing less than preserving creation while recognizing and giving pride of place to the interests of human beings. In all the recognizing and privileging of the interests of human beings, the central issue is the preservation of creation in its complex structures of interdependence. The expansion of the human race upon the earth is inseparable from the preservation of the community of solidarity with animals in particular, and inseparable from the caretaking preservation of the community of solidarity with all creatures in general. God judges human beings worth of this preservation of creation. They are to exercise dominion over creatures by protecting them. Human beings acquire their power and their worth precisely in the process of caretaking. The mandate of dominion according to Genesis 1 means nothing more and nothing less" (p. 73). Welker is a Reformed theologian at Heidelberg University, with considerable residency in the United States.

--With, Kimberly A., and King, Anthony W., "Extinction Thresholds for Species in Fractal Landscapes," Conservation Biology 13(No.2, 1999):314-.

--Yandell, Molly McDonald, Conflict and Consensus in Environmental Ethics and Policy. Colorado State University, M. A. thesis, summer 1999. Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis states that a consensus among environmentalists is emerging at the most basic level of policy formation, regardless of the diversity of value concerns. This consensus, Norton believes, is capable of healing the fragmented environmental movement and producing environmental policy that will better protect the natural world. The aim of this thesis is to give evidence for the accuracy of Norton's convergence hypothesis. I begin by contrasting John Muir and Gifford Pinchot in order to illustrate the traditional divide that has separated environmentalists into two camps. In the second chapter, I compare the view points of Warwick Fox and E.O. Wilson in order to demonstrate that even with starkly different values, it is possible for environmentalists to agree on basic policy goals. Finally, I argue that Holmes Rolston, III and Bryan Norton also have similar policy goals, regardless of the fact that they do not share the same values. The advisor was Holmes Rolston.

--Yazzie-Durglo, Victoria, "The Right to Change Tribal Forest Management,"
Journal of Forestry 96(No.11, 1999):33-. Now that Native Americans can manage their land as sovereign nations, tribal councils face the challenge of achieving long-term quality and quantity of timber production while embracing cultural values.

--Yost, Nicholas, "Who Regulates Environmental Impacts and Why It Matters," Ecology Law Quarterly 25(No.4, 1999):564-.

 

Issues

Endangered flycatcher, exotic beetle, and invasive tamarisk. Tamarisk, or saltcedar, was introduced years ago as a windbreak and to control erosion in the U.S. West and has proved an disastrous invasive, displacing riverine native plants in fifteen states. Tamarisk flourishes in the highly modified rivers that agriculture, damming, irrigation, and overgrazing in the West has created. Plans to import an exotic beetle that feeds on the tamarisk, however, have been limited because, meanwhile, the endangered willow flycatcher, deprived of its original nesting habitat, has learned to nest in the tamarisk. But the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, charged with both uprooting the tamarisk and preserving the flycatcher, is making limited trials of beetle introductions. See Malakoff, David, "Plan to Import Exotic Beetle Drives Some Scientists Wild," Science 284(1999):1255.

Bt-engineered crops threaten monarch butterflies and organic farmers. Bt is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium that is toxic to some insects. It has been successfully used as a "natural" pesticide for almost 40 years by organic and small farmers who monitor their fields carefully enough to properly time its application. Recently, crops have been
genetically-engineered to express the Bt toxin, allowing conventional large-scale farmers access to Bt in the crops they plant. This year about 20 million acres of Bt corn has been planted. This threatens the effectiveness of the traditional spray application of Bt by small farmers. Unlike the Bt spray--which breaks down quickly--Bt in crops will be continually present and over a vastly larger scale, thus encouraging the evolution of insects resistant to Bt. (To try to negate this effect, Canadians require that Bt corn and non-Bt corn be interplanted.) A recent laboratory study has show that the pollen from Bt corn kills nearly half of the larvae of monarch butterflies who eat it. The Corn Belt is important habitat for the monarchs, which live on the milkweed plant found throughout the Midwest. See editorial, "A Warning From the Butterflies," New York Times, 5/21/99: A26. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger.)

Noise in National Parks. The National Park Service is writing a "sound scape preservation" policy to identify and reduce bothersome noises. From sightseeing flights over the Grand Canyon to snowmobiles in Yellowstone and jet skis in national seashores, the whine of engines and other human noises are increasingly present even in natural areas. One researcher described the sounds he heard on a hike up the John Muir Trail in Yosemite thus: "I heard power generators operated under a special use permit at a backcountry camp. I heard gas-powered water pumps for fire hoses in case of a forest fire. There was dynamite blasting going on and jackhammers were being used to construct a stairway out of stone." A lawsuit seeks to ban snowmobiles from Yellowstone, greatly upsetting some businesses who are thriving on snowmobile-driven winter tourism. A proposed new tightening of air tours over the Grand Canyon would cap the level at 88,000 sightseeing flights per year, in order to leave "41 percent of the park free from aircraft noise 75 percent of the time." One critic retorts: "You don't have a natural experience from a helicopter, period. Individuals in the sky are violating everybody's right to quiet. They have no right to be there. It just absolutely infuriates me. I would just as soon have them flying model aircraft inside our theaters and concert halls." See AP stories, "Amid holiday hubbub, a call for peace in the parks," Bozeman (Montana) Chronicle, 7/3/99: A1 and "Feds propose new flight restrictions over the Grand Canyon,"
Bozeman Chronicle, 7/11/99): A2. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger.)

Native American warfare's unnatural ecological effects. The number and distribution of bison and other big animals was likely determined by the presence of buffer zones between warring Native tribes, according to a recent study published in Conservation Biology. In an individual tribe's homeland, populations of bison and elk were often in serious decline. But in the war zones between tribes, where hunters seldom went, these animals flourished. The conclusion, say these most recent advocates of this "war zone theory," is that the scarcity or abundance of large animals seen by the Lewis and Clark expedition was not "truly natural, that is, falling outside human influence or control. ... The West in the time of Lewis and Clark was long past any purely `natural condition' that might serve as an absolute benchmark for planners." One of the study's authors--an advocate of the "blitzkrieg" theory that newly arrived human hunters drove North America's megafauna such as mammoths and mastodons extinct some 13,000 years ago--suggests conservationists might want to restore pre-Native American nature preserves by importing elephants who would mimic the extinct
megafauna. See W. K. Stevens, "Unlikely Tool for Species Preservation: Warfare," New York Times, 3/30/99, reporting on Paul S. Martin and Christine R. Szuter, "War Zones and Game Sinks in Lewis and Clark's West," Conservation Biology, February 1999. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger.)

Scientists study natural regulation of Yellowstone Park. The National Academy of Sciences is carrying out a congressionally mandated study of the scientific claims surrounding the controversy over the National Park Service's management philosophy of "natural regulation." The philosophical questions are just as much in need of study. The policy of letting nature take its course, says Yellowstone's chief scientist John Varley, involves a laizzez-faire, hand's-off approach, except when intervention is required to fix a human-caused problem. Says Varley, "If nature is making all the right decisions, then you let nature make the decisions, but if there is something dysfunctional caused by humankind, then we need to go in and fix it." For example, the size of the Yellowstone elk herd, once managed by park officials, is now allowed to fluctuate in response to changes in climate, food supply, and pressure from predators. The recent restoration of wolves to the park can be seen as correcting an earlier human-caused dysfunction in the system.
This policy is pregnant with questions for environmental philosophers: What if the "dysfunction" in the system is not caused by humans? Does the policy acknowledge the possibility of such dysfunction? And how is dysfunction to be defined, given the instability typical of many natural systems? Critics of the policy claim that the elk herd has severely overgrazed and degraded the northern range in the park, with devastating affects on cottonwood, willow and aspen trees, beaver populations, and stream sides. Others dispute these claims, suggesting that the critics see overgrazing because they believe the ecosystem should look like one managed to produce maximum grass for cattle, an inappropriate standard for a wild landscape. Other critics deny that it even makes sense to speak of natural regulation of a bioregion that--despite being "the only scrap of land in the lower 48 states that has all the major species known to live there in pre-Columbian times"--continues to be significantly influenced by humans. They point out that each year the elk herd migrates outside the park "where they leave natural regulation behind and human predation becomes a major player." Montana wildlife officials encourage hunters to kill lots of elk (typically anywhere from 10 to 20% of the herd) to keep them from degrading habitat. Another critic calls Yellowstone's northern range an "ecological slum" and argues that Native Americans should be allowed to "camp there all summer and shoot all the elk they want" thus controlling the elk population as he believes they did for 12,000 years before the park was formed.
A further question concerns the rationale for natural regulation. The park superintendent Michael Finley claims the reason for "hands lightly on the tiller" in Yellowstone is that too little is known about the ecosystem's functioning to be confident of the impact of human action. He cites John Muir's famous dictum about interconnectedness "when you try to pick one thing out of the universe you find it hitched to everything else." This suggests that should we come to have sufficient knowledge of how ecosystems like Yellowstone work, we should abandon natural regulation and take control of nature's tiller. See Scott McMillion, "Scientists Examine Park Policy," Bozeman Chronicle, 7/12/99: A1 and W. K. Stevens, "Debating Nature of Nature in Yellowstone," New York Times, 7/23/98. (Thanks to Ned Hettinger).
Yellowstone research scientists plan a symposium on "The Natural and the Artificial in Yellowstone," October 10-13, and two philosophers, Holmes Rolston, Colorado State University, and Gordon G. Brittan, Jr., Montana State University, are among the speakers.

Events

September 23-26, 1999. Australasian Association for Process Thought Conference: Ecology and Process Thought. Brisbane, Australia. Contact: Peter Farleigh, Australasian Association for Process Thought, P. O. Box 23, Wentworth Building, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
E-mail: gimoses@peg.apc.org
Website: http://www.ozemail.com.au/~farleigh/aapthome.html

October 4-7, 1999. Building on Leopold's Legacy: Conservation for a New Century. Madison, WI. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. Speakers include: Leopold family members, Susan Flader, Curt Meine, Richard Knight, Theodore Roosevelt IV. A host of papers. Field trips to Leopold's shack, and other sites. Website: www.wisc.edu/wisacad/landethic/


ISEE Elections

Aborted election of treasurer. Unfortunately, there were several irregularities discovered in the current election of a treasurer, such as a mistaken fax number to which ballots could be sent and irregularities in the ballot envelopes. Accordingly, the governing board of ISEE has decided to invalidate this election and to redo the election properly. The first set of ballots received have been discarded unopened. Members of ISEE are requested to vote again, using the ballot and envelopes received with this newsletter. Sorry.

Nominating committee election. Although the ISEE Constitution specifies that the ISEE president appoints members of the nominating committee, which must be approved by a majority of the governing board [Constitution and By Laws, Article III 2 (5)], the President and a majority of the governing board, wishing to insure enlarged participation, plan to continue the recent practice of conducting an election of members to the nominating committee, whereupon the President, consulting with the governing board, intends to select persons so chosen as members of the nominating committee. If one wishes an analogy, the U. S. Electoral College now but ratifies the popular election of the U.S. president. Victoria Davion, Philosophy, University of Georgia, is the current chair of the nominating committee. E-mail: vdavion@arches.uga.edu

 

ISEE Treasurer's Report

We now have 369 members in our database. Of these, 251 are in the US, 17 in Canada, and 101 international. Our Australian, UK, Western European and Eastern European representatives have reported the names and addresses of members in their respective areas, and these names are all included in the database, along with US and Canadian members.
We now have $383.00 in the California ISEE bank account. Appearances to the contrary, this is a remarkably large amount, since I have written checks for $1600 in the past four months (two newsletters and an annual renewal of the bulk mailing permit). I will shortly be sending out an invitation to dozens of lapsed members which, along with the routine renewal notices, should generously renew the Treasury. In addition, William Grey reports about AU$ 250.00 in his Australian account.
-- Ernest Partridge, Treasurer ISEE

Note that, following a recent change in the Governing Board's policy statement (see last Newsletter), all dues are to be sent to Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, address below, and not (as formerly) to regional representatives.

 

 

ISEE Secretary's Change of Address

Laura Westra, Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Meadway, Bates 100, Broxville, NY 10708-5999. Phone: (941) 395-2487. Fax (914) 395-2666. Home phone:
(905) 303-8181. Home fax (905) 303-8211. E-mail: lwestra@interlog.com

 

Regional Representatives

Africa

Prof. Johan P. Hattingh, Department of Philosophy, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa. Hattingh heads the Unit for Environmental Ethics at Stellenbosch. Tel. 27 (country code) 21 (city code) 808-2058 (office), 808-2418 (secretary); 887-9025 (home); Fax: 886-4343. Email: jph2@maties.sun.ac.za

Australia and New Zealand

Prof. William Grey, Department of Philosophy, University of Queensland, 4067, Queensland AUSTRALIA. Email: wgrey@cltr.uq.edu.au

China: Mainland China

Professor Yu Mouchang, Institute of Philosophy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100732, P. R. China.

China: Taiwan

Professor Edgar Lin, Biology Department, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan 40704. Email: edgarlin@ms5.hinet.net
Phones: 886-4-3595622 office; 886-4-3590991 home
Fax: 886-4-3595953

Europe: Eastern Europe

Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak. Department of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Poland. University address: Prof. Jan Wawrzyniak, Institut Filozofii, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-569 Poznan, Szamarzewskiego 91c POLAND. Tel: +48 / 61 / 841-72-75; Fax: +48 / 61 / 8471-555 (24h), +48 / 61 / 8477-079 (8 a.m. - 3. p.m. MET).. Home address: 60-592 Poznan, Szafirowa 7, POLAND. Email: jawa@main.amu.edu.pl

Europe: Western Europe and the Mediterranean

Martin Drenthen, Center for Ethics University of Nijmegen (CEKUN), Postbox 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, THE NETHERLANDS. Tel: 31 (country code) 24 (city code) 3612751 (Office). Fax: 31-24-3615564. E-mail: mdrenthe@xs4all.nl (Note new email address, starting July 1, 1999).
Webpage: http://www.kun.nl/phil/english/members/drenthen.html

Mexico and Central America

Teresa Kwiatkowska, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Filosofia, Av. Michoacan y Purissima s/n, 09340 Mexico D.F., MEXICO. Tel: (5) 637 14 24 (home), (5) 724 47 77 (office). Fax: (5) 724 47 78. Email: kwiat@xanum.uam.mx

Pakistan and South Asia

Nasir Azam Sahibzada, Senior Education Officer, WWF-Pakistan (NWFP), UPO Box 1439, Peshawar PAKISTAN. Tel: (92) (521) (841593). Fax: (92) (521) (841594). Email: wwf!nasir@wwf.psh.imran.pk

South America

Ricardo Rozzi, Institute of Ecological Research Chiloe, Chile, and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile.

United Kingdom

KeeKok Lee, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK. Tel & Fax: +44 (0)161 275 3196. Email: keekok.lee@man.ac.uk.

United States of America

Ned Hettinger, Philosophy Dept, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424 USA. Tel: 843-953-5786 office, 843-883-9201-home. Fax: 843-953-6388. Email: hettingern@cofc.edu (NOTE: NEW AREA CODE)

Holmes Rolston, III, Dept of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA. Tel: 970-491-6315 (Office). Fax: 970-491-4900. Email: rolston@lamar.colostate.edu

New ISEE Newsletter Editor

With the fall 1999 issue, the new editor of the Newsletter is:
Professor Philip Cafaro
Department of Philosophy
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
E-mail: cafaro@lamar.colostate.edu
Phone: 970/491-2061
Fax: 970/490-4900
Please send any announcements, call for papers, news items, to him via e-mail or fax. Bibliographic items should be sent to Holmes Rolston, address above. Correspondents, especially international ones, should realize that diacritical marks do not come through on U.S. e-mail, and, indeed, are often illegiblly re-translated into something else. So take some care to spell this out in some other way, if you wish these included.

 

Membership/Renewal Form

Please enroll me as a member of the International Society for Environmental Ethics.
Enclosed are dues: ______________________.

Annual regular dues are: Inside U.S., $15 Regular, $10 Students; Outside U.S., $20 Regular, $15 Students. (Due to additional postage). Members outside the United States should send the equivalent of U.S. dollars, based on current exchange rates, to the ISEE Treasurer (address below). Sorry, we cannot accept credit card payments.

Name: ____________________________________________ Tel: (______)______

Position or Affiliation:________________________________________________________

Address (Include Postal Code):__________________________________________________

Fax:

E-mail:

SEND with Payment to: Ernest Partridge, ISEE Treasurer, P.O. Box 9045, Cedar Pines Park, CA 92322 USA. Tel: 909-338-6173. Fax: 909-338-7072. Email: gadfly@igc.org